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vagus HPA

Ayman Mukerji Househam, Christine Tara Peterson, Paul J Mills, Deepak Chopra
Context • Globally, more than 25% of individuals are affected by anxiety and depression disorders. Meditation is gaining popularity in clinical settings and its treatment efficacy is being studied for a wide array of psychological and physiological ailments. An exploration of stress physiology is an essential precursor to delineation of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of meditation practices. Objective • The review outlines a model of interconnected physiological processes that might support the continued inclusion and expansion of meditation in the treatment of diverse medical conditions and to investigate the role that gut microbiota may play in realizing well-being through meditation...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
Yogi A Patel, Tarun Saxena, Ravi V Bellamkonda, Robert J Butera
Efferent activation of the cervical vagus nerve (cVN) dampens systemic inflammatory processes, potentially modulating a wide-range of inflammatory pathological conditions. In contrast, afferent cVN activation amplifies systemic inflammatory processes, leading to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic nervous system through the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN), and elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ideally, to clinically implement anti-inflammatory therapy via cervical vagus nerve stimulation (cVNS) one should selectively activate the efferent pathway...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Urmila P Kodavanti
Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred to here as a systemic response produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis) has been implicated in a variety of psychological and physical stresses, which involves immune and metabolic homeostatic mechanisms affecting all organs in the body...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rosiane A Miranda, Rosana Torrezan, Júlio C de Oliveira, Luiz F Barella, Claudinéia C da Silva Franco, Patrícia C Lisboa, Egberto G Moura, Paulo C F Mathias
Neuroendocrine dysfunctions such as the hyperactivity of the vagus nerve and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis greatly contribute to obesity and hyperinsulinemia; however, little is known about these dysfunctions in the pancreatic β-cells of obese individuals. We used a hypothalamic-obesity model obtained by neonatal treatment with monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) to induce obesity. To assess the role of the HPA axis and vagal tonus in the genesis of hypercorticosteronemia and hyperinsulinemia in an adult MSG-obese rat model, bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) and subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VAG) alone or combined surgeries (ADX-VAG) were performed...
July 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Ricardo Fernandez, Gino Nardocci, Cristina Navarro, Edison P Reyes, Claudio Acuña-Castillo, Paula P Cortes
Sepsis progresses to multiple organ dysfunction due to the uncontrolled release of inflammatory mediators, and a growing body of evidence shows that neural signals play a significant role in modulating the immune response. Thus, similar toall other physiological systems, the immune system is both connected to and regulated by the central nervous system. The efferent arc consists of the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, sympathetic activation, the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, and the local release of physiological neuromodulators...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
Leo Galland
The human gut microbiome impacts human brain health in numerous ways: (1) Structural bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides provide low-grade tonic stimulation of the innate immune system. Excessive stimulation due to bacterial dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or increased intestinal permeability may produce systemic and/or central nervous system inflammation. (2) Bacterial proteins may cross-react with human antigens to stimulate dysfunctional responses of the adaptive immune system...
December 2014: Journal of Medicinal Food
Jia Luo, Tao Wang, Shan Liang, Xu Hu, Wei Li, Feng Jin
Human and animals studies support the idea that there is a gender-related co-morbidity of pain-related and inflammatory gastrointestinal (GI) diseases with psychological disorders. This co-morbidity is the evidence for the existence of GI-brain axis which consists of immune (cytokines), neural (vagus nerve) and neuroendocrine (HPA axis) pathways. Psychological stress causes disturbances in GI physiology, such as altered GI barrier function, changes in motility and secretion, development of visceral hypersensitivity, and dysfunction of inflammatory responses...
2013: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Juan Manuel Calleja-Castillo, Dora Luz De La Cruz-Aguilera, Joaquín Manjarrez, Marco Antonio Velasco-Velázquez, Gabriel Morales-Espinoza, Julia Moreno-Aguilar, Maria Eugenia Hernández, Lucinda Aguirre-Cruz, Lenin Pavón
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a therapeutic option for several diseases, but its effects on HPA axis activity and systemic inflammation are unknown. This study aimed to detect circulatory variations of corticosterone and cytokines levels in Wistar rats, after 21 days of DBS-at the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHvl), unilateral cervical vagotomy (UCVgX), or UCVgX plus DBS. We included the respective control (C) and sham (S) groups (n = 6 rats per group). DBS treated rats had higher levels of TNF-α (120%; P < 0...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Nicole Lichtblau, Frank M Schmidt, Robert Schumann, Kenneth C Kirkby, Hubertus Himmerich
The frequently observed co-occurrence of depressive disorders and inflammatory diseases suggests a close connection between the nervous and the immune systems. Increased pro-inflammatory and type 1 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ, appear to be an important link. Cytokines are synthesized by immune cells in the blood and peripheral tissues and by glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence suggests that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is permeable to cytokines and immune cells, and that afferent nerves, e...
October 2013: International Review of Psychiatry
B Bonaz
The gut has the capacity to function as an autonomous organ. However, in normal conditions, the gut and the central nervous system talk to each other through the autonomic nervous system (ANS), represented by the sympathetic (i.e. the splanchnic nerves) and the parasympathetic nervous system (i.e. the vagus nerve and the sacral parasympathetic pelvic nerves). The brain is able to integrate inputs coming from the digestive tract inside a central autonomic network organized around the hypothalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex and in return to modify the ANS and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA axis)...
September 2013: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Krzysztof Gil, Andrzej Bugajski, Magdalena Kurnik, Piotr Thor
OBJECTIVES: The brain and the gut communicate bi-directionally through the brain-gut axis. The key role in such interactions plays autonomic nervous system and its major component, the vagus nerve. There is growing evidence that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has a suppressive effect on both short- and long-term feeding in animal models. In the present study, we investigated the effect of VNS on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, feeding behavior and appetite in rats fed a high-fat diet...
2013: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Timothy G Dinan, Catherine Stanton, John F Cryan
Here, we define a psychobiotic as a live organism that, when ingested in adequate amounts, produces a health benefit in patients suffering from psychiatric illness. As a class of probiotic, these bacteria are capable of producing and delivering neuroactive substances such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin, which act on the brain-gut axis. Preclinical evaluation in rodents suggests that certain psychobiotics possess antidepressant or anxiolytic activity. Effects may be mediated via the vagus nerve, spinal cord, or neuroendocrine systems...
November 15, 2013: Biological Psychiatry
Rainer H Straub, Johannes W J Bijlsma, Alfonse Masi, Maurizio Cutolo
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine immunology in musculoskeletal diseases is an emerging scientific field. It deals with the aspects of efferent neuronal and neurohormonal bearing on the peripheral immune and musculoskeletal systems. This review aims to add new information that appeared since 2001. SEARCH STRATEGY: The following PubMed search sentence was used to find a total of 15,462 references between 2001 and March 2013: "(rheum* OR SLE OR vasculitis) AND (nerve OR hormone OR neurotransmitter OR neuropeptide OR steroid)...
December 2013: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Wei Lü, Zhenhong Wang, Ya Liu
The association between changes of trait affect and changes of vagal tone was investigated in the present study. Basal physiological data were collected from 70 college students of high (n=33) and low trait positive affect (n=37) (HPA vs. LPA) groups selected by Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Then the final LPA participants (n=34) were randomly assigned to either a four month Positive Psychotherapy (PPT) group (n=16) or a control group (n=18), and their basal physiological and PANAS data were collected immediately after the treatment...
May 2013: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ru-Peng Liu, Ji-Liang Fang, Pei-Jing Rong, Yufeng Zhao, Hong Meng, Hui Ben, Liang Li, Zhan-Xia Huang, Xia Li, Ying-Ge Ma, Bing Zhu
To explore new noninvasive treatment options for depression, this study investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the auricular concha region (ACR) of depression rat models. Depression in rats was induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) combined with isolation for 21 days. Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: normal, UCMS alone, UCMS with EA-ACR treatment, and UCMS with EA-ear-tip treatment. Rats under inhaled anesthesia were treated once daily for 14 days...
2013: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
B Bonaz, C Picq, V Sinniger, J F Mayol, D Clarençon
BACKGROUND: The brain and the gut communicate bidirectionally through the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The vagus nerve (VN), a major component of the ANS, plays a key role in the neuro-endocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasia through its afferents (through the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and the central ANS) and through its efferents (i.e. the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway; CAP). The CAP has an anti-TNF effect both through the release of acetylcholine at the distal VN acting on macrophages and through the connection of the VN with the spleen through the splenic sympathetic nerve...
March 2013: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
K V Thrivikraman, Faketa Zejnelovic, Robert W Bonsall, Michael J Owens
BACKGROUND: The vagus nerve is important in maintaining HPA axis and sympatho-adrenal system (SAS) homeostasis, however little is known about the effect of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), as used therapeutically, on these functions. Accordingly, the effect of VNS on plasma indices of HPA axis (ACTH, corticosterone), and SAS (norepinephrine, epinephrine) function were evaluated in rats. METHODS: Male rats, on day-0 (D0), underwent surgeries for implantation of catheters into the right jugular vein and programmable (VNP) or non-programmable (VND) neurocybernetic devices encircling the left cervical vagus...
July 2013: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Azucena Perez-Burgos, Bingxian Wang, Yu-Kang Mao, Bhavik Mistry, Karen-Anne McVey Neufeld, John Bienenstock, Wolfgang Kunze
Mounting evidence supports the influence of the gut microbiome on the local enteric nervous system and its effects on brain chemistry and relevant behavior. Vagal afferents are involved in some of these effects. We previously showed that ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) caused extensive neurochemical changes in the brain and behavior that were abrogated by prior vagotomy. Because information can be transmitted to the brain via primary afferents encoded as neuronal spike trains, our goal was to record those induced by JB-1 in vagal afferents in the mesenteric nerve bundle and thus determine the nature of the signals sent to the brain...
January 15, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Bruno L Bonaz, Charles N Bernstein
Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune modulation through the brain-gut axis likely has a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The brain-gut axis involves interactions among the neural components, including (1) the autonomic nervous system, (2) the central nervous system, (3) the stress system (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), (4) the (gastrointestinal) corticotropin-releasing factor system, and (5) the intestinal response (including the intestinal barrier, the luminal microbiota, and the intestinal immune response)...
January 2013: Gastroenterology
Andre R Brunoni, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Paulo S Boggio, Felipe Fregni, Eduardo Miranda Dantas, José G Mill, Paulo A Lotufo, Isabela M Benseñor
Recent evidence has supported the notion that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the sympatho-adreno-medullary (SAM) systems are modulated by cortical structures such as the prefrontal cortex. This top-down modulation may play a major role in the neuroendocrine changes associated with stressful events. We aimed to investigate further this hypothesis by modulating directly prefrontal cortex excitability using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) - a non-invasive, neuromodulatory tool that induces polarity-dependent changes in cortical excitability - and measuring effects on salivary cortisol and heart rate variability as proxies of the HPA and SAM systems...
January 2013: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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