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Defecatory Dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926562/long-term-experience-of-magnetic-anal-sphincter-augmentation-in-patients-with-fecal-incontinence
#1
Jeremy Sugrue, Paul-Antoine Lehur, Robert D Madoff, Shane McNevin, Steen Buntzen, Søren Laurberg, Anders Mellgren
BACKGROUND: Magnetic anal sphincter augmentation is a novel technique for the treatment of patients with fecal incontinence. OBJECTIVE: The current study reports the long-term effectiveness and safety of this new treatment modality. DESIGN: This was a prospective multicenter pilot study. SETTINGS: The study was performed at 4 clinical sites in Europe and the United States. PATIENTS: The cohort included patients with severe fecal incontinence for ≥6 months who had previously failed conservative therapy and were implanted with a magnetic anal sphincter device between 2008 and 2011...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833469/a-novel-approach-to-mesh-revision-after-sacrocolpopexy
#2
Melissa L Dawson, Rinko Rebecca, Nima M Shah, Kristene E Whitmore
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is the herniation of pelvic organs to or beyond the vaginal walls. POP affects 50% of parous women; of those women, 11% will need surgery based on bothersome symptoms. Transvaginal mesh has been used for vaginal augmentation since the 1990s. Complications from mesh use are now more prominent, and include chronic pelvic pain, dyspareunia, vaginal mesh erosion, and urinary and defecatory dysfunction. Presently, there is no consensus regarding treatment of these complications. Reported herein are two cases of women with defecatory dysfunction and pain after sacrocolpopexy who underwent mesh revision procedures performed with both urogynecologic and colorectal surgery...
2016: Reviews in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647462/the-importance-of-a-high-rectal-pressure-on-strain-in-constipated-patients-implications-for-biofeedback-therapy
#3
Y Mazor, R Hansen, G Prott, J Kellow, A Malcolm
BACKGROUND: A subset of patients with chronic constipation display a relatively high manometric rectal pressure on strain. We hypothesized that these patients represent a unique phenotype of functional defecatory disorder (FDD) and would benefit from undergoing anorectal biofeedback (BF). METHODS: Of 138 consecutive patients with chronic constipation and symptoms of FDD, 19 were defined as having a high rectal pressure on strain, using a statistically derived cut-off of 78 mm Hg...
September 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644075/neuroprotective-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-raloxifene-in-the-myenteric-plexus-of-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Andrée-Anne Poirier, Mélissa Côté, Mélanie Bourque, Marc Morissette, Thérèse Di Paolo, Denis Soulet
Motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are often preceded by nonmotor symptoms related to dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system such as constipation, defecatory problems, and delayed gastric emptying. These gastrointestinal impairments are associated with the alteration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the myenteric plexus of the gut. Recently, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties of estrogens to treat intestinal neurodegeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD...
August 16, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547494/current-trends-in-management-of-defecatory-dysfunction-posterior-compartment-prolapse-and-fecal-incontinence
#5
Heidi Brown, Cara Grimes
While it would be our hope to report that there have been significant gains in the understanding of the correlation between the posterior vaginal compartment and defecatory dysfunction in the last year, this is not the case. Instead, we review the highlights of management of posterior vaginal compartment and defecatory dysfunction including 1) defining and understanding the patient's symptoms; 2) considering systemic disorders, motility dysfunction, and mechanical causes that may be contributing; 3) encouraging conservative management as first-line therapy; and 4) recognizing which surgical options are likely to improve specific symptoms...
June 2016: Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433087/gut-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Adreesh Mukherjee, Atanu Biswas, Shyamal Kumar Das
Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises the possibility of prion-like propagation in PD pathogenesis. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis has received attention and some phenotypic correlation has also been shown...
July 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295950/alteration-of-colonic-excitatory-tachykininergic-motility-and-enteric-inflammation-following-dopaminergic-nigrostriatal-neurodegeneration
#7
Carolina Pellegrini, Matteo Fornai, Rocchina Colucci, Erika Tirotta, Fabio Blandini, Giovanna Levandis, Silvia Cerri, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Nunzia Bernardini, Karolina Cseri, Corrado Blandizzi, György Haskó, Luca Antonioli
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is frequently associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including constipation and defecatory dysfunctions. The mechanisms underlying such disorders are still largely unknown, although the occurrence of a bowel inflammatory condition has been hypothesized. This study examined the impact of central dopaminergic degeneration, induced by intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), on distal colonic excitatory tachykininergic motility in rats...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154577/diagnostic-disagreement-between-tests-of-evacuatory-function-a-prospective-study-of-100-constipated-patients
#8
S Palit, N Thin, C H Knowles, P J Lunniss, A E Bharucha, S M Scott
BACKGROUND: Evacuatory dysfunction (ED) is a common cause of constipation and may be sub-classified on the basis of specialist tests. Such tests may guide treatment e.g., biofeedback therapy for 'functional' defecatory disorders (FDD). However, there is no gold standard, and prior studies have not prospectively and systematically compared all tests that are used to diagnose forms of ED. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients fulfilling Rome III criteria for functional constipation underwent four tests: expulsion of a rectal balloon distended to 50 mL (BE50 ) or until patients experienced the desire to defecate (BEDDV ), evacuation proctography (EP) and anorectal manometry...
October 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26894803/obesity-and-pelvic-floor-dysfunction-battling-the-bulge
#9
Shireen de Sam Lazaro, Rahel Nardos, Aaron B Caughey
IMPORTANCE: Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) comprise a broad spectrum of clinical conditions, including urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, fecal incontinence, and defecatory dysfunction. These disorders are common conditions that generate significant medical, emotional, social, and economic issues for many women. Obese women are disproportionately affected compared with their normal-weight peers, with more than half of women with a body mass index of greater than 35 kg/m(2) reporting a PFD, compared with only 32% in women with a normal body mass index...
February 2016: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859123/solitary-pouch-ulcer-a-new-clinical-entity
#10
Victor E Pricolo
Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a well-known clinical entity, likely secondary to a defecatory dysfunction. In patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy with ileoanal reservoir, it is conceivable that a similar pathophysiology may lead to "solitary pouch ulcer," but such a syndrome has not been reported to date. This article reports 2 such cases and clinical success with lasting symptomatic relief through local therapy and behavior modification rather than anti-inflammatory.
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26630260/advancing-treatment-options-for-chronic-idiopathic-constipation
#11
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley, Leila Neshatian
INTRODUCTION: Chronic constipation is a global problem affecting all ages and associated with considerable morbidity and significant financial burden for society. Though formerly defined on the basis of a single symptom, infrequent defecation; constipation is now viewed as a syndrome encompassing several complaints such as difficulty with defecation, a sense of incomplete evacuation, hard stools, abdominal discomfort and bloating. AREAS COVERED: The expanded concept of constipation has inevitably led to a significant change in outcomes in clinical trials, as well as in patient expectations from new therapeutic interventions...
2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26603727/pelvic-floor-dysfunction-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
A Bondurri, A Maffioli, P Danelli
Advances in tailored medical therapy and introduction of biologic agents for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment have ensured long-term disease remission. Some patients, however, still report defecatory symptoms. Patients present with a wide spectrum of conditions - anal incontinence, obstructed defecation and pelvic pain among the most frequent - that have a great impact on their quality of life. Due to IBD diagnosis, little relevance is attributed to this type of symptoms and their epidemiologic distribution is unknown...
December 2015: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26582732/enteric-dysfunctions-in-experimental-parkinson-s-disease-alterations-of-excitatory-cholinergic-neurotransmission-regulating-colonic-motility-in-rats
#13
Matteo Fornai, Carolina Pellegrini, Luca Antonioli, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Elisabetta Barocelli, Vigilio Ballabeni, Gaia Vegezzi, Zainab Al Harraq, Fabio Blandini, Giovanna Levandis, Silvia Cerri, Corrado Blandizzi, Nunzia Bernardini, Rocchina Colucci
Parkinson's disease is frequently associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, mostly represented by constipation and defecatory dysfunctions. This study examined the impact of central dopaminergic denervation, induced by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle, on distal colonic excitatory cholinergic neuromotor activity in rats. Animals were euthanized 4 and 8 weeks after 6-OHDA injection. In vivo colonic transit was evaluated by radiologic assay. Electrically induced and carbachol-induced cholinergic contractions were recorded in vitro from longitudinal and circular muscle colonic preparations, whereas acetylcholine levels were assayed in the incubation media...
February 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26343222/role-of-anorectal-manometry-in-clinical-practice
#14
Kyle Staller
Physiologic assessment of the anorectum and pelvic floor by anorectal manometry and balloon expulsion testing provides important insights into the pathologic processes underlying defecatory disorders and guides treatment, specifically the use of biofeedback for the treatment of dyssynergic defecation and the identification of possible structural abnormalities of the pelvic floor. While symptoms and digital rectal examination may suggest pelvic floor dysfunction to the clinician, only pelvic floor testing provides definitive diagnoses of these often treatable abnormalities...
December 2015: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25967716/association-of-compartment-defects-in-anorectal-and-pelvic-floor-dysfunction-with-female-outlet-obstruction-constipation-ooc-by-dynamic-mr-defecography
#15
M Li, T Jiang, P Peng, X-Q Yang, W-C Wang
OBJECTIVE: Chronic constipation affects more than 17% of the global population worldwide, and up to 50% of patients were outlet obstruction constipation (OOC). Women and the elderly are most likely to be affected, due to female-specific risk factors, such as menopause, parity and multiparity. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of compartment defects in anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction with female outlet obstruction constipation (OOC) by MR defecography. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-six consecutive women diagnosed with outlet obstruction constipation from October 2009 to July 2011 were included...
April 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25874639/clinical-application-of-iuga-ics-classification-system-for-mesh-erosion
#16
Rebecca Posthuma Batalden, Milena M Weinstein, Caroline Foust-Wright, Marianna Alperin, May M Wakamatsu, Samantha J Pulliam
AIMS: Our aim was to assess the usability of the IUGA/ICS classification system for mesh erosion in a tertiary clinical practice and to determine if assigned classification is associated with patient symptoms, treatment, and outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively identified women who had mesh erosion after prolapse or incontinence surgery. Each erosion was classified using the IUGA/ICS category time site (CTS) system. Associations between classification and presenting symptom (asymptomatic, pain, bleeding, voiding, or defecatory dysfunction, infection, prolapse), treatment type, and outcome were evaluated with chi-squared test, student's t-test, and univariate logistic regression...
June 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25800901/an-ultrasound-approach-to-the-posterior-compartment-and-anorectal-dysfunction
#17
A C Santiago, D E O'Leary, L H Quiroz, M A Nihira, S A Shobeiri
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Patients with anorectal dysfunction are common and can be quite challenging to diagnose. The common underlying causes for such conditions are usually anatomical in nature, which may be difficult to fully evaluate by clinical examination alone. The aim of this video was to demonstrate how multicompartmental ultrasound imaging can be utilized clinically in the evaluation of patients with anorectal dysfunction. METHODS: Pertinent ultrasound findings of the common anatomical causes of defecatory dysfunction were discussed in this video...
September 2015: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25730427/effective-treatment-of-dyssynergic-defecation-using-sacral-neuromodulation-in-a-patient-with-cerebral-palsy
#18
Daniel K Chan, Matthew A Barker
BACKGROUND: Dyssynergic defecation is a complex bowel problem that leads to chronic constipation and abdominal pain. Management is often challenging owing to the incoordination of multiple pelvic floor muscles involved in normal defecation. CASE: We report a case of dyssynergic defecatory dysfunction in a patient with cerebral palsy treated with sacral neuromodulation. At presentation, Sitz marker study and magnetic resonance defecography showed evidence of chronic functional constipation...
May 2015: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25539892/management-of-constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Malco Rossi, Marcelo Merello, Santiago Perez-Lloret
INTRODUCTION: Constipation is a frequent non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is the most common gastrointestinal symptom of the disease and it can precede motor symptoms by as much as 20 years. Constipation can produce discomfort and affect activities of daily living, productivity and quality of life, thus warranting early diagnosis and treatment. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the safety and efficacy of traditional and novel strategies for constipation management will be discussed...
March 2015: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25315168/sonographic-predictors-of-obstructive-defecatory-dysfunction
#20
D O'Leary, G Rostaminia, L H Quiroz, S A Shobeiri
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to evaluate the association between obstructive defecatory symptoms in women with levator ani deficiency (LAD), worsened minimum levator hiatus measurements, widened anorectal angle (ARA), and increased levator-plate descent angle (LPDA). METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, patients who had undergone 3D endovaginal ultrasound (3D EVUS) imaging of the pelvic floor were sampled and categorized into two groups: those with and those without obstructive defecatory symptoms (ODS) based on their Colorectal and Anal Distress Index (CRADI-8) questionnaire...
March 2015: International Urogynecology Journal
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