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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718986/the-effect-of-selection-history-on-extinction-risk-during-severe-environmental-change
#1
Josianne Lachapelle, Nick Colegrave, Graham Bell
Environments rarely remain the same over time, and populations are therefore frequently at risk of going extinct when changes are significant enough to reduce fitness. While many studies have investigated what attributes of the new environments and of the populations experiencing these changes will affect their probability of going extinct, limited work has been directed toward determining the role of population history on the probability of going extinct during severe environmental change. Here we compare the extinction risk of populations with a history of selection in a benign environment, to populations with a history of selection in one or two stressful environments...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713202/toward-mosquito-control-with-a-green-alga-expression-of-cry-toxins-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-bti-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas
#2
Seongjoon Kang, Obed W Odom, Saravanan Thangamani, David L Herrin
We are developing Chlamydomonas strains that can be used for safe and sustainable control of mosquitoes, because they produce proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in the chloroplast. Chlamydomonas has a number of advantages for this approach, including genetic controls that are not generally available with industrial algae. The Bti toxin has been used for mosquito control for > 30 years and does not engender resistance; it contains three Cry proteins, Cry4Aa (135 kDa), Cry4Ba (128 kDa) and Cry11Aa (72 kDa), and Cyt1Aa (25 kDa)...
June 2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710366/mirnas-in-the-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-are-not-phylogenetically-conserved-and-play-a-limited-role-in-responses-to-nutrient-deprivation
#3
Adam Voshall, Eun-Jeong Kim, Xinrong Ma, Tomohito Yamasaki, Etsuko N Moriyama, Heriberto Cerutti
The unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains many types of small RNAs (sRNAs) but the biological role(s) of bona fide microRNAs (miRNAs) remains unclear. To address their possible function(s) in responses to nutrient availability, we examined miRNA expression in cells cultured under different trophic conditions (mixotrophic in the presence of acetate or photoautotrophic in the presence or absence of nitrogen). We also reanalyzed miRNA expression data in Chlamydomonas subject to sulfur or phosphate deprivation...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710131/gene-regulatory-networks-for-the-haploid-to-diploid-transition-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#4
Sunjoo Joo, Yoshiki Nishimura, Evan Cronmiller, Ran Ha Hong, Thamali Kariyawasam, Ming Hsiu Wang, Nai Chun Shao, Saif-El-Din El Akkad, Takamasa Suzuki, Tetsuya Higashiyama, EonSeon Jin, Jae-Hyeok Lee
The sexual cycle of the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii culminates in the formation of diploid zygotes which differentiate into dormant spores that eventually undergo meiosis. Mating between gametes induces rapid cell wall shedding via the enzyme g-lysin; cell fusion is followed by heterodimerization of sex-specific homeobox transcription factors, GSM1 and GSP1, and initiation of zygote-specific gene expression. To investigate the genetic underpinnings of the zygote developmental pathway, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of both pre- and post-fertilization samples...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708882/evolution-of-the-scattering-properties-of-phytoplankton-cells-from-flow-cytometry-measurements
#5
William Moutier, Lucile Duforêt-Gaurier, Mélilotus Thyssen, Hubert Loisel, Xavier Mériaux, Lucie Courcot, David Dessailly, Anne-Hélène Rêve, Gérald Grégori, Séverine Alvain, Aude Barani, Laurent Brutier, Mathilde Dugenne
After the exponential growth phase, variability in the scattering efficiency of phytoplankton cells over their complete life cycle is not well characterised. Bulk measurements are impacted by senescent cells and detritrus. Thus the analysis of the evolution of the optical properties thanks to their morphological and/or intra-cellular variations remains poorly studied. Using the Cytosense flow cytometer (CytoBuoy b.v., NL), the temporal course of the forward and sideward efficiencies of two phytoplankton species (Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chlamydomonas concordia) were analyzed during a complete life-cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708270/transcriptional-and-cellular-effects-of-benzotriazole-uv-stabilizers-uv-234-and-uv-328-in-the-freshwater-invertebrates-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-daphnia-magna
#6
Maeva Giraudo, Guillaume Cottin, Marta Esperanza, Pierre Gagnon, Amila O De Silva, Magali Houde
Benzotriazole UV-stabilizers (BZT-UVs) are compounds used in many applications and products to prevent photochemical degradation. Despite their widespread presence in aquatic ecosystems and persistence in the environment, there are very limited data on their effects and toxicity, and their modes of action remain largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the chronic effects of two BZT-UVs, 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol (UV-234) and 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-di-tert-pentylphenol (UV-328), on the freshwater green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704927/the-tor-signaling-network-in-the-model-unicellular-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#7
REVIEW
María Esther Pérez-Pérez, Inmaculada Couso, José L Crespo
Cell growth is tightly coupled to nutrient availability. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase transmits nutritional and environmental cues to the cellular growth machinery. TOR functions in two distinct multiprotein complexes, termed TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). While the structure and functions of TORC1 are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, including algae and plants, TORC2 core proteins seem to be missing in photosynthetic organisms. TORC1 controls cell growth by promoting anabolic processes, including protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis, and inhibiting catabolic processes such as autophagy...
July 12, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703942/low-temperature-and-phosphate-deficiency-responsive-elements-control-dgtt3-expression-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#8
Xiaowen Fei, Ping Li, Xinghan Li, Xiaodong Deng
acyl-CoA:Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) catalyse the final step of the triacylglycerol biosynthesis. Two major gene families have been shown to encode DGATs, DGAT1 and DGAT2. Abiotic factors such as low temperatures, nitrogen or phosphorus deficiency was reported to play important roles in the growth and development in green algae. Whether DGATs are induced by low temperatures or phosphorus deficiency, and the corresponding promoter elements are not reported yet. In this study, we found DGTT3 to have a significant response to low temperatures, phosphorus deficiency, and other stresses, such as high concentrations of NaCl, 20 μM GA, and 20 μM abscisic acid...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701346/the-n-terminus-of-ift46-mediates-intraflagellar-transport-of-outer-arm-dynein-and-its-cargo-adaptor-oda16
#9
Yuqing Hou, George B Witman
Cilia are assembled via intraflagellar transport (IFT). The IFT machinery is composed of motors and multi-subunit particles, termed IFT-A and IFT-B, that carry cargo into the cilium. Knowledge of how the IFT subunits interact with their cargo is of critical importance for understanding how the unique ciliary domain is established. We previously reported a Chlamydomonas mutant, ift46-1, that fails to express the IFT-B protein IFT46, has greatly reduced levels of other IFT-B proteins, and assembles only very short flagella...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693951/gene-silencing-of-stearoyl-acp-desaturase-enhances-the-stearic-acid-content-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#10
L de Jaeger, J Springer, E J H Wolbert, D E Martens, G Eggink, R H Wijffels
In this study, stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD), the enzyme that converts stearic acid into oleic acid, is silenced by artificial microRNA in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Two different constructs, which target different positions on the mRNA of stearoyl-ACP desaturase, were tested. The mRNA levels for SAD were reduced after the silencing construct was induced. In one of the strains, the reduction in SAD mRNA resulted in a doubling of the stearic acid content in triacylglycerol molecules, which shows that stearic acid production in microalgae is possible...
June 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692856/nutrient-scavenging-and-energy-management-acclimation-responses-in-nitrogen-and-sulfur-deprived-chlamydomonas
#11
REVIEW
Shai Saroussi, Emanuel Sanz-Luque, Rick G Kim, Arthur R Grossman
Photosynthetic organisms have evolved to modulate their metabolism to accommodate the highly dynamic light and nutrient conditions in nature. In this review we discuss ways in which the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acclimates to nitrogen and sulfur deprivation, conditions that would limit the anabolic use of excitation energy because of a markedly reduced capacity for cell growth and division. Major aspects of this acclimation process are stringently regulated and involve scavenging the limited nutrient from internal and external sources, and the redirection of fixed carbon toward energy storage (e...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688014/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-control-and-a-salinity-tolerant-strain-revealed-a-differential-protein-expression-pattern
#12
Sayamon Sithtisarn, Kittisak Yokthongwattana, Bancha Mahong, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Atchara Paemanee, Narumon Phaonakrop, Chotika Yokthongwattana
Proteins involved in membrane transport and trafficking, stress and defense, iron uptake and metabolism, as well as proteolytic enzymes, were remarkably up-regulated in the salinity-tolerant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Excessive concentration of NaCl in the environment can cause adverse effects on plants and microalgae. Successful adaptation of plants to long-term salinity stress requires complex cellular adjustments at different levels from molecular, biochemical and physiological processes. In this study, we developed a salinity-tolerant strain (ST) of the model unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, capable of growing in medium containing 300 mM NaCl...
July 7, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684795/ecosystem-activation-system-eas-technology-for-remediation-of-eutrophic-freshwater
#13
Xiaoli Chai, Boran Wu, Zhongshuo Xu, Ning Yang, Liyan Song, Jingjing Mai, Yang Chen, Xiaohu Dai
Ecosystem activation system (EAS) was developed to create beneficial conditions for microbiome recovery and then restore and maintain the ecological integrity (microbial community, phytoplankton, zooplankton) for eutrophic freshwater rehabilitation. A 30 day's filed test of EAS indicated that over 50% of contaminant was removed and the algae visibly disappeared. EAS treatment 2.5-fold increased the diversity of microbial community and changed the microbial community structure (e.g., two and three-fold decrease in the amount of Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas, typical abundant species of eutrophic freshwater, respectively)...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672168/regulating-cellular-trace-metal-economy-in-algae
#14
REVIEW
Crysten E Blaby-Haas, Sabeeha S Merchant
As indispensable protein cofactors, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn are at the center of multifaceted acclimation mechanisms that have evolved to ensure extracellular supply meets intracellular demand. Starting with selective transport at the plasma membrane and ending in protein metalation, metal homeostasis in algae involves regulated trafficking of metal ions across membranes, intracellular compartmentalization by proteins and organelles, and metal-sparing/recycling mechanisms to optimize metal-use efficiency. Overlaid on these processes are additional circuits that respond to the metabolic state as well as to the prior metal status of the cell...
June 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666381/the-evolution-of-hydrophobic-cell-wall-biopolymers-from-algae-to-angiosperms
#15
Karl J Niklas, Edward D Cobb, Antonio J Matas
The transition from an aquatic ancestral condition to a terrestrial environment exposed the first land plants to the desiccating effects of air and potentially large fluctuations in temperature and light intensity. To be successful, this transition necessitated metabolic, physiological, and morphological modifications, among which one of the most important was the capacity to synthesize hydrophobic extracellular biopolymers such as those found in the cuticular membrane, suberin, lignin, and sporopollenin, which collectively reduce the loss of water, provide barriers to pathogens, protect against harmful levels of UV radiation, and rigidify targeted cell walls...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665990/molecular-evolutionary-analysis-of-a-gender-limited-mid-ortholog-from-the-homothallic-species-volvox-africanus-with-male-and-monoecious-spheroids
#16
Kayoko Yamamoto, Hiroko Kawai-Toyooka, Takashi Hamaji, Yuki Tsuchikane, Toshiyuki Mori, Fumio Takahashi, Hiroyuki Sekimoto, Patrick J Ferris, Hisayoshi Nozaki
Volvox is a very interesting oogamous organism that exhibits various types of sexuality and/or sexual spheroids depending upon species or strains. However, molecular bases of such sexual reproduction characteristics have not been studied in this genus. In the model species V. carteri, an ortholog of the minus mating type-determining or minus dominance gene (MID) of isogamous Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is male-specific and determines the sperm formation. Male and female genders are genetically determined (heterothallism) in V...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652262/identification-and-metabolite-profiling-of-chemical-activators-of-lipid-accumulation-in-green-algae
#17
Nishikant Wase, Boqiang Tu, James W Allen, Paul N Black, Concetta C DiRusso
Microalgae are proposed as feedstock organisms useful for producing biofuels and co-products. However, several limitations must be overcome before algae-based production is economically feasible. Among these is the ability to induce lipid accumulation and storage without affecting biomass yield. To overcome this barrier, a chemical genetics approach was employed in which 43,783 compounds were screened against Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and 243 compounds were identified that increase triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation without terminating growth...
June 26, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651180/does-a-short-term-exposure-to-atrazine-provoke-cellular-senescence-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#18
Marta Esperanza, Magali Houde, Marta Seoane, Ángeles Cid, Carmen Rioboo
The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts and modes of action of a chemical and nutrient deprivation on the cellular senescence process of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Several molecular and cellular parameters related to senescence phenomena were monitored in C. reinhardtii cells exposed for 24h to a sublethal concentration (0.25μM) of the herbicide atrazine and in unexposed 96h cells in an early stationary phase of growth. All endpoints showed the same pattern of response between treatments, except for the intracellular level of calcium, where a significant increase was observed in 24h-exposed cultures compared to 24h-log controls...
June 19, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647256/bioavailability-of-wastewater-derived-dissolved-organic-nitrogen-to-green-microalgae-selenastrum-capricornutum-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-chlorella-vulgaris-with-without-presence-of-bacteria
#19
Jingyi Sun, Halis Simsek
Effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is problematic in nutrient sensitive surface waters and needs to be reduced to meet demanding total dissolved nitrogen discharge limits. Bioavailable DON (ABDON) is a portion of DON utilized by algae or algae+bacteria, while biodegradable DON (BDON) is a portion of DON decomposable by bacteria. ABDON and BDON in a two-stage trickling filter (TF) wastewater treatment plant was evaluated using three different microalgal species, Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris and mixed cultured bacteria...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646418/in-vivo-nmr-as-a-tool-for-probing-molecular-structure-and-dynamics-in-intact-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-cells
#20
Fatemeh Azadi-Chegeni, Christo Schiphorst, Anjali Pandit
We report the application of NMR dynamic spectral editing for probing the structure and dynamics of molecular constituents in fresh, intact cells and in freshly prepared thylakoid membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr.) green algae. For isotope labeling, wild-type Cr. cells were grown on (13)C acetate-enriched minimal medium. 1D (13)C J-coupling based and dipolar-based MAS NMR spectra were applied to distinguish (13)C resonances of different molecular components. 1D spectra were recorded over a physiological temperature range, and whole-cell spectra were compared to those taken from thylakoid membranes, evaluating their composition and dynamics...
June 23, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
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