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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347779/effective-viscosity-of-a-suspension-of-flagellar-beating-microswimmers-three-dimensional-modeling
#1
Levan Jibuti, Walter Zimmermann, Salima Rafaï, Philippe Peyla
Micro-organisms usually can swim in their liquid environment by flagellar or ciliary beating. In this numerical work, we analyze the influence of flagellar beating on the orbits of a swimming cell in a shear flow. We also calculate the effect of the flagellar beating on the rheology of a dilute suspension of microswimmers. A three-dimensional model is proposed for Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii swimming with a breaststroke-like beating of two anterior flagella modeled by two counter-rotating fore beads. The active swimmer model reveals unusual angular orbits in a linear shear flow...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345315/chlorophyll-fluorescence-induction-and-relaxation-system-for-the-continuous-monitoring-of-photosynthetic-capacity-in-photobioreactors
#2
Taras Antal, Ivan Konyukhov, Alena Volgusheva, Tatyana Plyusnina, Sergei Khruschev, Galina Kukarskikh, Sergey Goryachev, Andrey Rubin
The development of high performance photobioreactors equipped with automatic systems for non-invasive real-time monitoring of cultivation conditions and photosynthetic parameters is a challenge in algae biotechnology. Therefore, we developed a chlorophyll fluorescence measuring system for the online recording of the light-induced fluorescence rise (OJIP transients) and the dark relaxation of the flash-induced fluorescence yield (Qa- - re-oxidation kinetics) in photobioreactors. This system provides automatic measurements in a broad range of chlorophyll concentrations at high frequency of gastight sampling, and advanced data analysis...
January 18, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345308/positive-size-speed-relationships-in-gametes-and-vegetative-cells-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-implications-for-the-evolution-of-sperm
#3
Catherine E Seed, Joseph L Tomkins
It is commonly held that differences in gametes of the two sexes (anisogamy) evolved from ancestors whose gametes were similar in size and behaviour (isogamy). Underlying many hypotheses explaining anisogamy are assumed relationships between cell size and speed in the ancestral isogamous population. Using the isogamous alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we explored size-speed distributions in vegetative and gamete cells of ten cell lines, and clonal data from within two cell lines. We applied an independent speed selection approach to gamete populations of C...
January 18, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339469/the-bardet-biedl-syndrome-protein-complex-is-an-adapter-expanding-the-cargo-range-of-intraflagellar-transport-trains-for-ciliary-export
#4
Peiwei Liu, Karl F Lechtreck
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a ciliopathy resulting from defects in the BBSome, a conserved protein complex. BBSome mutations affect ciliary membrane composition, impairing cilia-based signaling. The mechanism by which the BBSome regulates ciliary membrane content remains unknown. Chlamydomonas bbs mutants lack phototaxis and accumulate phospholipase D (PLD) in the ciliary membrane. Single particle imaging revealed that PLD comigrates with BBS4 by intraflagellar transport (IFT) while IFT of PLD is abolished in bbs mutants...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337190/binding-of-ferredoxin-to-algal-photosystem-i-involves-a-single-binding-site-and-is-composed-of-two-thermodynamically-distinct-events
#5
Pini Marco, Marina Kozuleva, Haviva Eilenberg, Yuval Mazor, Peter Gimeson, Andrey Kanygin, Kevin Redding, Iftach Yacoby
Despite the impressive progress made in recent years in understanding the early steps in charge separation within the photosynthetic reaction centers, our knowledge of how ferredoxin (Fd) interacts with the acceptor side of photosystem I (PSI) is not as well developed. Fd accepts electrons after transiently docking to a binding site on the acceptor side of PSI. However, the exact location, as well as the stoichiometry, of this binding have been a matter of debate for more than two decades. Here, using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) and purified components from wild type and mutant strains of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii we show that PSI has a single binding site for Fd, and that the association consists of two distinct binding events, each with a specific association constant...
January 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335634/the-pii-signaling-protein-from-red-algae-represents-an-evolutionary-link-between-cyanobacterial-and-chloroplastida-pii-proteins
#6
Tatyana Lapina, Khaled A Selim, Karl Forchhammer, Elena Ermilova
PII superfamily consists of widespread signal transduction proteins found in all domains of life. Whereas they are well-studied in Archaea, Bacteria and Chloroplastida, no PII homolog has been analyzed in Rhodophyta (red algae), where PII is encoded by a chloroplast localized glnB gene. Here, we characterized relevant sensory properties of PII from the red alga Porphyra purpurea (PpPII) in comparison to PII proteins from different phyla of oxygenic phototrophs (cyanobacteria, Chlamydomonas and Physcomitrella) to assess evolutionary conservation versus adaptive properties...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334105/specific-labeling-of-mitochondria-of-chlamydomonas-with-cationic-helicene-fluorophores
#7
Christoph Bauer, Romain Duwald, Geraldine Maria Labrador, Simon Pascal, Pau Moneva Lorente, Johann Bosson, Jérôme Lacour, Jean-David Rochaix
Twelve cationic helicenes and one triangulene were tested for the specific labeling of mitochondria from algal cells. Octyl ester derivative 5 readily penetrates algal cells and gives rise to clear fluorescence patterns when it is used at concentrations in the μM range. Under these conditions, cell structures are well preserved and cell survival is not compromised. Cationic helicene compounds such as 5 provide new useful tools for examining the mitochondrial network and its dynamics including fission and fusion events...
January 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330556/evolution-of-the-phosphatidylcholine-biosynthesis-pathways-in-green-algae-combinatorial-diversity-of-methyltransferases
#8
Takashi Hirashima, Masakazu Toyoshima, Takashi Moriyama, Naoki Sato
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is one of the most common phospholipids in eukaryotes, although some green algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are known to lack PC. Recently, we detected PC in four species in the genus Chlamydomonas: C. applanata NIES-2202, C. asymmetrica NIES-2207, C. debaryana NIES-2212, and C. sphaeroides NIES-2242. To reveal the PC biosynthesis pathways in green algae and the evolutionary scenario involved in their diversity, we analyzed the PC biosynthesis genes in these four algae using draft genome sequences...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329271/transketolase-is-identified-as-a-target-of-herbicidal-substance-%C3%AE-terthienyl-by-proteomics
#9
Bin Zhao, Jingqian Huo, Ning Liu, Jinlin Zhang, Jingao Dong
α-terthienyl is a natural phytotoxin isolated originally from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The bioassay presented here shows the strong herbicidal activity of α-terthienyl on Digitaria sanguinalis, Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The α-terthienyl-induced response of A. thaliana at the protein level was analyzed at different times. Changes in the protein expression profiles were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) mass spectrometry...
January 12, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327221/whole-cell-solid-state-nmr-study-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-microalgae
#10
Alexandre A Arnold, Jean-Philippe Bourgouin, Bertrand Genard, Dror E Warschawski, Réjean Tremblay, Isabelle Marcotte
In vivo or whole-cell solid-state NMR is an emerging field which faces tremendous challenges. In most cases, cell biochemistry does not allow the labelling of specific molecules and an in vivo study is thus hindered by the inherent difficulty of identifying, among a formidable number of resonances, those arising from a given molecule. In this work we examined the possibility of studying, by solid-state NMR, the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii fully and non-specifically 13C labelled. The extension of NMR-based dynamic filtering from one-dimensional to two-dimensional experiments enabled an enhanced selectivity which facilitated the assignment of cell constituents...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327073/azospirillum-brasilense-increases-co2-fixation-on-microalgae-scenedesmus-obliquus-chlorella-vulgaris-and-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-cultured-on-high-co2-concentrations
#11
Francisco J Choix, Cecilia Guadalupe López-Cisneros, Hugo Oscar Méndez-Acosta
Mutualism interactions of microalgae with other microorganisms are widely used in several biotechnological processes since symbiotic interaction improves biotechnological capabilities of the microorganisms involved. The interaction of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense was assessed with three microalgae genus, Scenedesmus, Chlorella, and Chlamydomonas, during CO2 fixation under high CO2 concentrations. The results in this study have demonstrated that A. brasilense maintained a mutualistic interaction with the three microalgae assessed, supported by the metabolic exchange of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and tryptophan (Trp), respectively...
January 11, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321604/trophic-transfer-and-individual-impact-of-nano-sized-polystyrene-in-a-four-species-freshwater-food-chain
#12
Yooeun Chae, Dokyung Kim, Shin Woong Kim, Youn-Joo An
This study investigated the trophic transfer, individual impact, and embryonic uptake of fluorescent nano-sized polystyrene plastics (nanoplastics) through direct exposure in a freshwater ecosystem, with a food chain containing four species. The alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, water flea Daphnia magna, secondary-consumer fish Oryzias sinensis, and end-consumer fish Zacco temminckii were used as test species. In the trophic transfer test, algae were exposed to 50 mg/L nanoplastics, defined as plastic particles <100 nm in diameter; higher trophic level organisms were exposed through their diet...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321492/quantification-of-silver-nanoparticle-toxicity-to-algae-in-soil-via-photosynthetic-and-flow-cytometric-analyses
#13
Sun-Hwa Nam, Jin Il Kwak, Youn-Joo An
Soil algae, which have received attention for their use in a novel bioassay to evaluate soil toxicity, expand the range of terrestrial test species. However, there is no information regarding the toxicity of nanomaterials to soil algae. Thus, we evaluated the effects of silver nanoparticles (0-50 mg AgNPs/kg dry weight soil) on the soil alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after six days, and assessed changes in biomass, photosynthetic activity, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, esterase activity, and oxidative stress...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321297/gradual-plasticity-alters-population-dynamics-in-variable-environments-thermal-acclimation-in-the-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhartdii
#14
Colin T Kremer, Samuel B Fey, Aldo A Arellano, David A Vasseur
Environmental variability is ubiquitous, but its effects on populations are not fully understood or predictable. Recent attention has focused on how rapid evolution can impact ecological dynamics via adaptive trait change. However, the impact of trait change arising from plastic responses has received less attention, and is often assumed to optimize performance and unfold on a separate, faster timescale than ecological dynamics. Challenging these assumptions, we propose that gradual plasticity is important for ecological dynamics, and present a study of the plastic responses of the freshwater green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as it acclimates to temperature changes...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320457/evaluating-the-joint-toxicity-of-two-benzophenone-type-uv-filters-on-the-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-with-response-surface-methodology
#15
Feijian Mao, Yiliang He, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
The widespread occurrence of benzophenone-type ultraviolet (UV) filter has raised the public concerns over the ecotoxicological effects of these chemicals. The present study assessed the joint toxicity of two representative benzophenones, benzophenone-1 (BP-1) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3), on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using response surface methodologies (RSM). Specific growth rate and photosynthetic pigments were used as endpoints to evaluate the toxic effects. Generally, exposure to the combined BP-1 and BP-3 negatively affected cell growth and pigments production, with higher inhibitions at higher exposure concentrations...
January 10, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311430/flagellar-associated-protein-fap85-is-a-microtubule-inner-protein-that-stabilizes-microtubules
#16
Junya Kirima, Kazuhiro Oiwa
Genomics and proteomics studies in Chlamydomonas have revealed that an axoneme is composed of 200-600 types of proteins, including uncharacterized proteins collectively named flagellar-associated proteins (FAPs). Nine FAPs contain the EF-hand motif; however, they have not yet been well characterized. To find components responsible for Chlamydomonas-specific waveform changes coupled with intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, we focused on FAP85, an EF-hand motif-containing FAP specific to Chlamydomonas and its relatives...
December 28, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303960/lhcsr-expression-under-hsp70-rbcs2-promoter-as-a-strategy-to-increase-productivity-in-microalgae
#17
Federico Perozeni, Giulio Rocco Stella, Matteo Ballottari
Microalgae are unicellular photosynthetic organisms considered as potential alternative sources for biomass, biofuels or high value products. However, limited biomass productivity is commonly experienced in their cultivating system despite their high potential. One of the reasons for this limitation is the high thermal dissipation of the light absorbed by the outer layers of the cultures exposed to high light caused by the activation of a photoprotective mechanism called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In the model organism for green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, NPQ is triggered by pigment binding proteins called light-harvesting-complexes-stress-related (LHCSRs), which are over-accumulated in high light...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303016/a-toxicological-evaluation-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-a-green-algae
#18
Timothy S Murbach, Róbert Glávits, John R Endres, Gábor Hirka, Adél Vértesi, Erzsébet Béres, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
There is a current worldwide interest in developing novel sustainable nonanimal nutritional sources, and one such source is the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the only green algae that has been studied as a model organism for many biological processes ranging from photosynthesis to flagellar movement. However, its potential as a safe nutritional source for use in various foods has not been thoroughly investigated. To assess the safety of C reinhardtii for use as a nutritional human food ingredient, in accordance with internationally accepted standards, the genotoxic potential and repeated-dose oral toxicity of the dried C reinhardtii (THN 6) algal biomass was investigated...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300952/deletion-of-the-chloroplast-ltd-protein-impedes-lhci-import-and-psi-lhci-assembly-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#19
Jooyeon Jeong, Kwangryul Baek, Jihyeon Yu, Henning Kirst, Nico Betterle, Woongghi Shin, Sangsu Bae, Anastasios Melis, EonSeon Jin
Nuclear-encoded light-harvesting chlorophyll- and carotenoid-binding proteins (LHCPs) are imported into the chloroplast and transported across the stroma to thylakoid membrane assembly sites by the chloroplast signal recognition particle (CpSRP) pathway. The LHCP translocation defect (LTD) protein is essential for the delivery of imported LHCPs to the CpSRP pathway in Arabidopsis. However, the function of the LTD protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has not been investigated. Here, we generated a C. reinhardtii ltd (Crltd) knockout mutant by using CRISPR-Cas9, a new target-specific knockout technology...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299622/a-novel-galactolipase-from-a-green-microalga-chlorella-kessleri-purification-characterization-molecular-cloning-and-heterologous-expression
#20
Shuhei Hashiro, Koyu Fujiuchi, Daisuke Sugimori, Hisashi Yasueda
We have identified an enzyme, galactolipase (ckGL), which hydrolyzes the acyl ester bond of galactolipids such as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), in the microalga Chlorella kessleri. Following purification of the enzyme to electrophoretic homogeneity from cell-free extract, the maximum activity toward DGDG was observed at pH 6.5 and 37 °C. ckGL was Ca2+-dependent enzyme and displayed an apparent molecular mass of approx. 53 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The substrate specificity was in the order: DGDG (100%) > monogalactosyldiacylglycerol ≈ phosphatidylglycerol (~ 40%) > sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (~ 20%); the enzyme exhibited almost no activity toward glycerides and other phospholipids...
January 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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