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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543018/multiple-ice-binding-proteins-of-probable-prokaryotic-origin-in-an-antarctic-lake-alga-chlamydomonas-sp-ice-mdv-chlorophyceae
#1
James A Raymond
Ice-associated algae produce ice-binding proteins (IBPs) to prevent freezing damage. The IBPs of the three chlorophytes that have been examined so far share little similarity across species, making it likely that they were acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). To clarify the importance and source of IBPs in chlorophytes, we sequenced the IBP genes of another Antarctic chlorophyte, Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-MDV (Chlamy-ICE). Genomic DNA and total RNA were sequenced and screened for known ice-associated genes...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542252/metabolic-flux-analysis-of-heterotrophic-growth-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#2
Nanette R Boyle, Neelanjan Sengupta, John A Morgan
Despite the wealth of knowledge available for C. reinhardtii, the central metabolic fluxes of growth on acetate have not yet been determined. In this study, 13C-metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) was used to determine and quantify the metabolic pathways of primary metabolism in C. reinhardtii cells grown under heterotrophic conditions with acetate as the sole carbon source. Isotopic labeling patterns of compartment specific biomass derived metabolites were used to calculate the fluxes. It was found that acetate is ligated with coenzyme A in the three subcellular compartments (cytosol, mitochondria and plastid) included in the model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541935/enhancing-growth-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-nutrient-removal-in-diluted-primary-piggery-wastewater-by-elevated-co2-supply
#3
Fan Qi, Yan Xu, Yi Yu, Xiaosheng Liang, Li Zhang, Hui Zhao, Haiying Wang
The coupling of primary piggery wastewater as a culture medium with elevated CO2 aeration is thought to be an economically feasible option for the cultivation of microalgae. However, little information is available regarding the photosynthetic characteristics of microalgae and nutrient removal from wastewater at different CO2 concentrations. It was found that elevated CO2 aeration provided sustained growth at CO2 concentrations ranging from 5% to 15% and performed best with 5% CO2 aeration in primary piggery wastewater for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii growth...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535256/epigenetic-and-genetic-contributions-to-adaptation-in-chlamydomonas
#4
Ilkka Kronholm, Andrew Bassett, David Baulcombe, Sinéad Collins
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation or histone modifications, can be transmitted between cellular or organismal generations. However, there are no experiments measuring their role in adaptation, so here we use experimental evolution to investigate how epigenetic variation can contribute to adaptation. We manipulated DNA methylation and histone acetylation in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii both genetically and chemically to change the amount of epigenetic variation generated or transmitted in adapting populations in three different environments (salt stress, phosphate starvation, and high CO2) for two hundred asexual generations...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534617/comparative-proteomics-reveals-timely-transport-into-cilia-of-regulators-or-effectors-as-a-mechanism-underlying-ciliary-disassembly
#5
Limei Wang, Lixiao Gu, Dan Meng, Qiong Wu, Haiteng Deng, Junmin Pan
Primary cilia are assembled and disassembled during cell cycle progression. During ciliary disassembly, ciliary axonemal microtubules (MTs) are depolymerized accompanied with extensive posttranslational protein modifications of ciliary proteins including protein phosphorylation, methylation and ubiquitination. These events are hypothesized to involve transport of effectors or regulators into cilia at the time of ciliary disassembly from the cell body. To prove this hypothesis and identify new proteins involved in ciliary disassembly, we analyzed disassembling flagella in Chlamydomonas using comparative proteomics with TMT labeling...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526981/rubisco-mutants-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-display-divergent-photosynthetic-parameters-and-lipid-allocation
#6
M G Esquível, A R Matos, J Marques Silva
Photosynthesis and lipid allocation were investigated in Rubisco small subunit mutants of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Comparative analyses were undertaken with cells grown photoheterotrophically under sulphur-replete or sulphur-depleted conditions. The Y67A Rubisco mutant, which has previously demonstrated a pronounced reduction in Rubisco levels and higher hydrogen production rates than the wild type, also shows the following divergences in photosynthetic phenotype and lipid allocation: (i) low Fv/Fm (maximum photochemical efficiency), (ii) low effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), (iii) low effectiveness at protection against high light intensities, (iv) a higher level of total lipids per pigment and (v) changes in the relative proportions of different fatty acids, with a marked decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (FAs)...
May 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526731/validated-bayesian-differentiation-of-causative-and-passenger-mutations
#7
Frederick R Cross, Michal Breker, Kristi Lieberman
In many contexts, the problem arises of determining which of many candidate mutations is the most likely to be causative for some phenotype. It is desirable to have a way to evaluate this probability that relies as little as possible on previous knowledge, to avoid bias against discovering new genes or functions. We are isolating mutants with blocked cell cycle progression in Chlamydomonas, and determining mutant genome sequences. Due to the intensity of UV mutagenesis required for efficient mutant collection, the mutants contain multiple mutations altering coding sequence...
May 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523645/enhancement-of-total-lipid-yield-by-nitrogen-carbon-and-iron-supplementation-in-isolated-microalgae
#8
Ramachandran Sivaramakrishnan, Aran Incharoensakdi
The biochemical contents and biodiesel production ability of three microalgal strains grown under different sodium nitrate, sodium carbonate, and ferric ammonium citrate (iron) levels were investigated. The highest biomass and lipid contents were found in Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella sp., and Chlamydomonas sp. when grown in normal BG-11 containing sodium carbonate concentration at 0.03 g · L(-1) , and in normal BG-11 containing iron concentration at 0.009 or 0.012 g · L(-1) . Increasing the sodium nitrate level increased the biomass content, but decreased the lipid content in all three microalgae...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522201/adsorption-of-p-nitrophenols-pnp-on-microalgal-biochar-analysis-of-high-adsorption-capacity-and-mechanism
#9
Heshan Zheng, Wanqian Guo, Shuo Li, Yidi Chen, Qinglian Wu, Xiaochi Feng, Renli Yin, Shih-Hsin Ho, Nanqi Ren, Jo-Shu Chang
Biochars derived from three microalgal strains (namely, Chlorella sp. Cha-01, Chlamydomonas sp. Tai-03 and Coelastrum sp. Pte-15) were evaluated for their capacity to adsorb p-nitrophenols (PNP) using raw microalgal biomass and powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the control. The results show that BC-Cha-01 (biochar from Chlorella sp. Cha-01) exhibited a high PNP adsorption capacity of 204.8mgg(-1), which is 250% and 140% higher than that of its raw biomass and PAC, respectively. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium are well described with pseudo-second-order equation and Freundlich model, respectively...
May 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521238/transcriptomic-approach-for-assessment-of-the-impact-on-microalga-and-macrophyte-of-in-situ-exposure-in-river-sites-contaminated-by-chlor-alkali-plant-effluents
#10
Perrine Dranguet, Claudia Cosio, Séverine Le Faucheur, Rebecca Beauvais-Flück, Aline Freiburghaus, Isabelle A M Worms, Brice Petit, Natacha Civic, Mylène Docquier, Vera I Slaveykova
Water quality degradation is a worldwide problem, but risk evaluation of chronic pollution in-situ is still a challenge. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of transcriptomic analyses in representative aquatic primary producers to assess the impact of environmental pollution in-situ: the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii were exposed 2 h in the Babeni Reservoir of the Olt River impacted by chlor-alkali plant effluent release resulting in increased concentrations of Hg and NaCl in receiving water...
May 11, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521168/ecotoxicity-testing-and-environmental-risk-assessment-of-iron-nanomaterials-for-sub-surface-remediation-recommendations-from-the-fp7-project-nanorem
#11
Rune Hjorth, Claire Coutris, Nhung H A Nguyen, Alena Sevcu, Juliàn Alberto Gallego-Urrea, Anders Baun, Erik J Joner
Nanoremediation with iron (Fe) nanomaterials opens new doors for treating contaminated soil and groundwater, but is also accompanied by new potential risks as large quantities of engineered nanomaterials are introduced into the environment. In this study, we have assessed the ecotoxicity of four engineered Fe nanomaterials, specifically, Nano-Goethite, Trap-Ox Fe-zeolites, Carbo-Iron(®) and FerMEG12, developed within the European FP7 project NanoRem for sub-surface remediation towards a test battery consisting of eight ecotoxicity tests on bacteria (V...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520898/pyrenoid-loss-impairs-carbon-concentrating-mechanism-induction-and-alters-primary-metabolism-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#12
Madeline C Mitchell, Gergana Metodieva, Metodi V Metodiev, Howard Griffiths, Moritz T Meyer
Carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) enable efficient photosynthesis and growth in CO2-limiting environments, and in eukaryotic microalgae localisation of Rubisco to a microcompartment called the pyrenoid is key. In the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rubisco preferentially relocalises to the pyrenoid during CCM induction and pyrenoid-less mutants lack a functioning CCM and grow very poorly at low CO2. The aim of this study was to investigate the CO2 response of pyrenoid-positive (pyr+) and pyrenoid-negative (pyr-) mutant strains to determine the effect of pyrenoid absence on CCM induction and gene expression...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516199/cloning-and-stress-induced-expression-analysis-of-calmodulin-in-the-antarctic-alga-chlamydomonas-sp-ice-l
#13
Ying-Ying He, Yi-Bin Wang, Zhou Zheng, Fang-Ming Liu, Mei-Ling An, Xiao-Dong He, Chang-Feng Qu, Lu-Lu Li, Jin-Lai Miao
Calmodulin (CaM) is a Ca(2+)-binding protein that plays a role in several Ca(2+) signaling pathways, which dynamically regulates the activities of hundreds of proteins. The ice alga Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L, which has the ability to adapt to extreme polar conditions, is a crucial primary producer in Antarctic ecosystem. This study hypothesized that Cam helps the ICE-L to adapt to the fluctuating conditions in the polar environment. It first verified the overall length of Cam, through RT-PCR and RACE-PCR, based on partial Cam transcriptome library of ICE-L...
May 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515773/building-a-multipurpose-insertional-mutant-library-for-forward-and-reverse-genetics-in-chlamydomonas
#14
Xi Cheng, Gai Liu, Wenting Ke, Lijuan Zhao, Bo Lv, Xiaocui Ma, Nannan Xu, Xiaoling Xia, Xuan Deng, Chunlei Zheng, Kaiyao Huang
BACKGROUND: The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a classic model for studying flagella and biofuel. However, precise gene editing, such as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas9) system, is not widely used in this organism. Screening of random insertional mutant libraries by polymerase chain reaction provides an alternate strategy to obtain null mutants of individual gene. But building, screening, and maintaining such a library was time-consuming and expensive...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513721/programmable-micrometer-sized-motor-array-based-on-live-cells
#15
Shuangxi Xie, Xiaodong Wang, Niandong Jiao, Steve Tung, Lianqing Liu
Trapping and transporting microorganisms with intrinsic motility are important tasks for biological, physical, and biomedical applications. However, fast swimming speed makes the manipulation of these organisms an inherently challenging task. In this study, we demonstrated that an optoelectrical technique, namely, optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP), could effectively trap and manipulate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) cells swimming at velocities faster than 100 μm s(-1). Furthermore, live C...
May 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513435/a-bioactive-peptide-amidating-enzyme-is-required-for-ciliogenesis
#16
Dhivya Kumar, Daniela Strenkert, Ramila S Patel-King, Michael T Leonard, Sabeeha S Merchant, Richard E Mains, Stephen M King, Betty A Eipper
The pathways controlling cilium biogenesis in different cell types have not been fully elucidated. We recently identified peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an enzyme required for generating amidated bioactive signaling peptides, in Chlamydomonas and mammalian cilia. Here, we show that PAM is required for the normal assembly of motile and primary cilia in Chlamydomonas, planaria and mice. Chlamydomonas PAM knockdown lines failed to assemble cilia beyond the transition zone, had abnormal Golgi architecture and altered levels of cilia assembly components...
May 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511672/crmapk3-regulates-the-expression-of-iron-deficiency-responsive-genes-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#17
Xiaowen Fei, Junmei Yu, Yajun Li, Xiaodong Deng
BACKGROUND: Under iron-deficient conditions, Chlamydomonas exhibits high affinity for iron absorption. Nevertheless, the response, transmission, and regulation of downstream gene expression in algae cells have not to be investigated. Considering that the MAPK pathway is essential for abiotic stress responses, we determined whether this pathway is involved in iron deficiency signal transduction in Chlamydomonas. RESULTS: Arabidopsis MAPK gene sequences were used as entry data to search for homologous genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome database to investigate the functions of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene family in C...
May 16, 2017: BMC Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501380/crispri-mediated-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-regulation-to-enhance-the-production-of-lipid-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#18
Pei-Hsun Kao, I-Son Ng
In this study, CRISPRi (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference) was used for the first time to regulate expression of exogenously supplied rfp gene as a proof-of-concept, and endogenous PEPC1 gene as a proof-of-function in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The efficiency of 94% and stability of 7 generations via CRISPRi mediated gene regulation in C. reinhardtii have been demonstrated by RFP. Gene PEPC1 encoding proteins are essential for controlling the carbon flux that enters the TCA cycle and plays a crucial role in carbon partitioning of substrates in competition with lipid synthesis...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500755/enhanced-fib-sem-systems-for-large-volume-3d-imaging
#19
C Shan Xu, Kenneth J Hayworth, Zhiyuan Lu, Patricia Grob, Ahmed M Hassan, José G García-Cerdán, Krishna K Niyogi, Eva Nogales, Richard J Weinberg, Harald F Hess
Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) can automatically generate 3D images with superior z-axis resolution, yielding data that needs minimal image registration and related post-processing. Obstacles blocking wider adoption of FIB-SEM include slow imaging speed and lack of long-term system stability, which caps the maximum possible acquisition volume. Here we present techniques that accelerate image acquisition while greatly improving FIB-SEM reliability, allowing the system to operate for months and generating continuously imaged volumes > 10(6) µm(3)...
May 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500697/light-induced-conformational-changes-in-the-plant-cryptochrome-photolyase-homology-region-resolved-by-selective-isotope-labeling-and-infrared-spectroscopy
#20
Constanze Sommer, Marina S Dietz, Thomas Patschkowski, Tilo Mathes, Tilman Kottke
Plant cryptochromes are photoreceptors that regulate flowering, circadian rhythm and photomorphogenesis in response to blue and UV-A light. It has been demonstrated that the oxidized flavin cofactor is photoreduced to the neutral radical state via separate electron and proton transfer. Conformational changes have been found in the C-terminal extension, but few studies have addressed the changes in secondary structure in the sensory photolyase homology region (PHR). Here, we investigated the PHR of the plant cryptochrome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by light-induced infrared difference spectroscopy in combination with global (13) C and (15) N isotope labeling...
May 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
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