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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427654/motor-sequence-learning-in-the-brain-the-long-and-short-of-it
#1
C C Gonzalez, M R Burke
Motor sequence learning involves predictive processing that results in the anticipation of each component of a sequence of actions. In smooth pursuit, this predictive processing is required to decrease tracking errors between the eye and the stimulus. Current models for motor sequence learning suggest parallel mechanisms in the brain for acquiring sequences of differing complexity. We examined this model by comparing shorter versus longer sequences of pursuit eye movements during fMRI. In this way we were able to identify overlapping and distinct brain areas involved in simple versus more complex oculomotor learning...
February 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425803/exogenous-vs-endogenous-attention-shifting-the-balance-of-fronto-parietal-activity
#2
Kristin N Meyer, Feng Du, Emily Parks, Joseph B Hopfinger
Despite behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for dissociations between endogenous (voluntary) and exogenous (reflexive) attention, fMRI results have yet to consistently and clearly differentiate neural activation patterns between these two types of attention. This study specifically aimed to determine whether activity in the dorsal fronto-parietal network differed between endogenous and exogenous conditions. Participants performed a visual discrimination task in endogenous and exogenous attention conditions while undergoing fMRI scanning...
February 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357464/beyond-the-labeled-line-variation-in-visual-reference-frames-from-intraparietal-cortex-to-frontal-eye-fields-and-the-superior-colliculus
#3
Valeria C Caruso, Daniel S Pages, Marc A Sommer, Jennifer M Groh
We accurately perceive the visual scene despite moving our eyes ~3 times per second, an ability that requires incorporation of eye position and retinal information. In this study, we assessed how this neural computation unfolds across three interconnected structures: frontal eye fields (FEF), intraparietal cortex (LIP/MIP), and the superior colliculus (SC). Single unit activity was assessed in head-restrained monkeys performing visually-guided saccades from different initial fixations. As previously shown, the receptive fields of most LIP/MIP neurons shifted to novel positions on the retina for each eye position, and these locations were not clearly related to each other in either eye- or head-centered coordinates (defined as hybrid coordinates)...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356003/principles-of-cross-network-communication-in-human-resting-state-fmri
#4
Anish Mitra, Marcus E Raichle
Directed signaling among and within the large-scale networks of the human brain is functionally critical. Recent advances in our understanding of spontaneous fluctuations of the fMRI BOLD signal have provided strategies to study the spatial-temporal properties of directed signaling at infra-slow frequencies. Herein we explore the relationship between two canonical systems of the human brain, the default mode network (DMN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) whose anti-correlated relationship is well known but poorly understood...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335882/clinical-response-to-vim-s-thalamic-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-essential-tremor-is-associated-with-distinctive-functional-connectivity-patterns
#5
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard surgical stereotactic procedures (deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy) or minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T). Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a non-invasive imaging method acquired in absence of a task. We examined whether rs-fMRI correlates with tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH) improvement 1 year after SRS-T...
January 15, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317758/speech-prosodies-of-different-emotional-categories-activate-different-brain-regions-in-adult-cortex-an-fnirs-study
#6
Dandan Zhang, Yu Zhou, Jiajin Yuan
Emotional expressions of others embedded in speech prosodies are important for social interactions. This study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate how speech prosodies of different emotional categories are processed in the cortex. The results demonstrated several cerebral areas critical for emotional prosody processing. We confirmed that the superior temporal cortex, especially the right middle and posterior parts of superior temporal gyrus (BA 22/42), primarily works to discriminate between emotional and neutral prosodies...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311323/suppression-of-frontal-eye-field-neuronal-responses-with-maintained-fixation
#7
Koorosh Mirpour, Zeinab Bolandnazar, James W Bisley
The decision of where to make an eye movement is thought to be driven primarily by responses to stimuli in neurons' receptive fields (RFs) in oculomotor areas, including the frontal eye field (FEF) of prefrontal cortex. It is also thought that a saccade may be generated when the accumulation of this activity in favor of one location or another reaches a threshold. However, in the reading and scene perception fields, it is well known that the properties of the stimulus at the fovea often affect when the eyes leave that stimulus...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260112/persistent-pseudomyopia-following-a-whiplash-injury-in-a-previously-emmetropic-woman
#8
Fintan E Hughes, Maxwell P Treacy, Emma S Duignan, Paul B Mullaney
Purpose: Accommodative spasm, which manifests as ciliary muscle spasm, convergent strabismus or miosis, is a recognised consequence of head trauma. In whiplash cases, cervical spine hyperextension poses a risk of contra-coup injury and brainstem trauma, and is known to affect the visual system. However, to date, no cases of accommodative spasm due to whiplash injury have been reported. Observations: We present the case of a 34-year-old female who developed sudden onset blurred distance vision after a rear impact car crash, having previously been emmetropic...
December 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246747/tms-over-posterior-parietal-cortex-disrupts-trans-saccadic-visual-stability
#9
Thérèse Collins, Pierre O Jacquet
BACKGROUND: Saccadic eye movements change the retinal location of visual objects, but we do not experience the visual world as constantly moving, we perceive it as seamless and stable. This visual stability may be achieved by an internal or efference copy of each saccade that, combined with the retinal information, allows the visual system to cancel out or ignore the self-caused retinal motion. OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the underlying brain mechanisms responsible for visual stability in humans with online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
November 29, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239527/removal-of-epileptically-compromised-tissue-in-the-frontal-cortex-restores-oculomotor-selection-in-the-antisaccade-task
#10
Stefan Van der Stigchel, Frans S S Leijten, Mariska J Vansteensel, Hendrik Chris Dijkerman, Nick F Ramsey, Zachary V Freudenburg
The frontal cortex is heavily involved in oculomotor selection. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of eye movement selection during an antisaccade task in a young epileptic patient in whom the seizure focus included the frontal cortex and affected its function. Before resection surgery, the patient had difficulty in performing correct antisaccades towards the visual field contralateral to the seizure focus. Because the FEF is the only area in the human frontal cortex that is known to have a lateralized oculomotor function in the antisaccade task, this behavioural imbalance between the two visual fields suggests a disruption of FEF functioning by the nearby seizure focus...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224723/neural-basis-of-cognitive-control-over-movement-inhibition-human-fmri-and-primate-electrophysiology-evidence
#11
Kitty Z Xu, Brian A Anderson, Erik E Emeric, Anthony W Sali, Veit Stuphorn, Steven Yantis, Susan M Courtney
Executive control involves the ability to flexibly inhibit or change an action when it is contextually inappropriate. Using the complimentary techniques of human fMRI and monkey electrophysiology in a context-dependent stop signal task, we found a functional double dissociation between the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) and the bi-lateral frontal eye field (FEF). Different regions of rVLPFC were associated with context-based signal meaning versus intention to inhibit a response, while FEF activity corresponded to success or failure of the response inhibition regardless of the stimulus response mapping or the context...
December 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206882/morphological-study-of-the-eye-and-adnexa-in-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-sp
#12
Danielle Nascimento Silva, Arianne Pontes Oriá, Nayone Lantyer Araujo, Emanoel Martins-Filho, Caterina Muramoto, Fernanda de Azevedo Libório, Alessandra Estrela-Lima
The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic and histologic features of the Sapajus sp. eye, comparing similarities and differences of humans and other species of non-human primates for biomedical research purposes. Computed tomography (CT) of adnexa, eye and orbit live animal, as well as formolized pieces of the same structures of Sapajus sp. for anatomical and histological study were also performed. The anatomical description of the eye and adnexa was performed using the techniques of topographic dissection and exenteration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199507/asymmetric-oculomotor-apraxia-optic-ataxia-and-simultanagnosia-with-right-hemispatial-neglect-from-a-predominantly-left-sided-lesion-of-the-parieto-occipital-area
#13
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Masanori Fujimoto, Kensuke Hamada, Izumi Sugimoto
INTRODUCTION: Bálint's syndrome involves bilateral damage to the parieto-occipital area. The extent of the effect of unilateral damage on the Bálint's triad (oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia) remains unknown. METHODS: We examined a 63-year-old, right-handed woman who developed right hemianopia, oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, and hemispatial neglect (HSN) for the right after a cerebral infarction, with detailed neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
December 2, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184197/mixed-selectivity-morphs-population-codes-in-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Aishwarya Parthasarathy, Roger Herikstad, Jit Hon Bong, Felipe Salvador Medina, Camilo Libedinsky, Shih-Cheng Yen
The prefrontal cortex maintains working memory information in the presence of distracting stimuli. It has long been thought that sustained activity in individual neurons or groups of neurons was responsible for maintaining information in the form of a persistent, stable code. Here we show that, upon the presentation of a distractor, information in the lateral prefrontal cortex was reorganized into a different pattern of activity to create a morphed stable code without losing information. In contrast, the code in the frontal eye fields persisted across different delay periods but exhibited substantial instability and information loss after the presentation of a distractor...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165689/oculomotor-disturbances-in-patients-with-chronic-nonspecific-spinal-pain
#15
Ruth Ruscheweyh, Antonia Fritz, Thomas Eggert, Shahnaz-Christina Azad, Andreas Straube
Objective: There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum has a role in pain processing. The present study investigates whether chronic pain patients, who are likely to have altered pain processing, exhibit signs of subtle cerebellar dysfunction. We used oculomotor tasks to assess dysfunction of the associated neuronal networks, including the cerebellum. Methods: Thirty patients with chronic nonspecific spinal pain and 30 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled...
November 18, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163079/neural-correlates-of-rewarded-response-inhibition-in-youth-at-risk-for-problematic-alcohol-use
#16
Brenden Tervo-Clemmens, Alina Quach, Beatriz Luna, William Foran, Tammy Chung, Michael D De Bellis, Duncan B Clark
Risk for substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with poor response inhibition and heightened reward sensitivity. During adolescence, incentives improve performance on response inhibition tasks and increase recruitment of cortical control areas (Geier et al., 2010) associated with SUD (Chung et al., 2011). However, it is unknown whether incentives moderate the relationship between response inhibition and trait-level psychopathology and personality features of substance use risk. We examined these associations in the current project using a rewarded antisaccade (AS) task (Geier et al...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159665/functional-rostro-caudal-gradient-in-the-human-posterior-lateral-frontal-cortex
#17
Céline Amiez, Michael Petrides
The present study examined the hypothesis that the posterior motor/premotor region of the lateral frontal cortex is functionally organized along a rostro-caudal axis. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, the subjects performed various tasks assessing basic saccadic eye or hand actions and also tasks requiring the cognitive selection between competing hand or eye movements based on previously learned conditional relations (if A, select movement X, but if B select movement Y). Subject-by-subject analysis demonstrated precise relationships between the foci of functional activity and specific sulci...
November 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134944/distinct-spatial-coordinate-of-visual-and-vestibular-heading-signals-in-macaque-fefsem-and-mstd
#18
Lihua Yang, Yong Gu
Precise heading estimate requires integration of visual optic flow and vestibular inertial motion originating from distinct spatial coordinates (eye- and head-centered, respectively). To explore whether the two heading signals may share a common reference frame along the hierarchy of cortical stages, we explored two multisensory areas in macaques: the smooth pursuit area of the frontal eye field (FEFsem) closer to the motor side, and the dorsal portion of medial superior temporal area (MSTd) closer to the sensory side...
November 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134168/anatomical-region-segmentation-for-objective-surgical-skill-assessment-with-operating-room-motion-data
#19
Yangming Li, Randall A Bly, R Alex Harbison, Ian M Humphreys, Mark E Whipple, Blake Hannaford, Kris S Moe
Background  Most existing objective surgical motion analysis schemes are limited to structured surgical tasks or recognition of motion patterns for certain categories of surgeries. Analyzing instrument motion data with respect to anatomical structures can break the limit, and an anatomical region segmentation algorithm is required for the analysis. Methods  An atlas was generated by manually segmenting the skull base into nine regions, including left/right anterior/posterior ethmoid sinuses, frontal sinus, left and right maxillary sinuses, nasal airway, and sphenoid sinus...
December 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127718/-frontal-eye-field-in-prosimian-galagos-intracortical-microstimulation-and-tracing-studies
#20
Iwona Stepniewska, Pierre Pouget, Jon H Kaas
The frontal eye field (FEF) in prosimian primates was identified as a small cortical region, above and anterior to the anterior frontal sulcus, from which saccadic eye movements were evoked with electrical stimulation. Tracer injections revealed FEF connections with cortical and subcortical structures participating in higher order visual processing. Ipsilateral cortical connections were the densest with adjoining parts of the dorsal premotor and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Label in a region corresponding to supplementary eye field (SEF) of other primates, suggests the existence of SEF in galagos...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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