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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202571/temporal-dynamics-of-retinal-and-extraretinal-signals-in-the-fefsem-during-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements
#1
Leah Bakst, Jerome Fleuriet, Michael J Mustari
Neurons in the smooth eye movement subregion of the Frontal Eye Field (FEFsem) are known to play an important role in voluntary smooth pursuit eye movements. Underlying this function are projections to parietal and prefrontal visual association areas and subcortical structures, all known to play vital, but differing roles in the execution of smooth pursuit. Additionally, the FEFsem has been shown to carry a diverse array of signals (e.g. eye velocity, acceleration, gain control). We hypothesized that distinct subpopulations of FEFsem neurons subserve these diverse functions and projections, and that the relative weights of retinal and extraretinal signals could form the basis for categorization of units...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192281/design-of-a-head-phantom-produced-on-a-3d-rapid-prototyping-printer-and-comparison-with-a-rando-and-3m-lucite-head-phantom-in-eye-dosimetry-applications
#2
Peter Homolka, Michael Figl, Andreas Wartak, Mathias Glanzer, Martina Duenkelmeyer, Azadeh Hojreh, Johann Hummel
An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using photo-cured-acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus Hp(3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface...
February 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185007/the-rostromedial-zona-incerta-is-involved-in-attentional-processes-while-adjacent-lha-responds-to-arousal-c-fos-and-anatomical-evidence
#3
S Chometton, K Charrière, L Bayer, C Houdayer, G Franchi, F Poncet, D Fellmann, P Y Risold
Neurons producing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) are located in the tuberal lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and in the rostromedial part of the zona incerta (ZI). This distribution suggests that rostromedial ZI shares some common features with the LHA. However, its functions with regard to arousal or feeding, which are often associated with the LHA, have not been thoroughly investigated. This study analyses the responses in the tuberal LHA and adjacent rostromedial ZI after experiments related to arousal, exploration, food teasing and ingestive behavior...
February 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179165/selective-tms-induced-modulation-of-functional-connectivity-correlates-with-changes-in-behavior
#4
Puiu F Balan, Annelies Gerits, Dante Mantini, Wim Vanduffel
Despite the increasing use of functional connectivity (FC) studies in fundamental and clinical research, the link between FC and behavior is still poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that artificial modulation of FC correlates with changes in behavior in a quantitative manner, we performed behavioral and resting state fMRI experiments in monkeys while perturbing, offline, the frontal eye fields (FEF) using unilateral continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (FEF-cTBS). Stimulation of left and right FEF caused remarkably specific decreases in FC, which were symmetric for intra-hemispheric and asymmetric for inter-hemispheric FC...
February 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169987/theta-and-beta-synchrony-coordinate-frontal-eye-fields-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-during-sensorimotor-mapping
#5
Sahand Babapoor-Farrokhran, Martin Vinck, Thilo Womelsdorf, Stefan Everling
The frontal eye fields (FEFs) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated for cognitive saccade tasks, but whether this joined activation indexes coordinated activity underlying successful guidance of sensorimotor mapping is unknown. Here we test whether ACC and FEF circuits coordinate through phase synchronization of local field potential and neural spiking activity in macaque monkeys performing memory-guided and pro- and anti-saccades. We find that FEF and ACC showed prominent synchronization at a 3-9 Hz theta and a 12-30 Hz beta frequency band during the delay and preparation periods with a strong Granger-causal influence from ACC to FEF...
February 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139828/retinal-ganglion-cell-topography-and-spatial-resolving-power-in-the-river-hippopotamus-hippopotamus-amphibius
#6
João Paulo Coimbra, Mads F Bertelsen, Paul R Manger
The river hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), one of the closest extant relatives to cetaceans, is a large African even-toed ungulate (Artiodactyla) that grazes and has a semiaquatic lifestyle. Given its unusual phenotype, ecology and evolutionary history, we sought to measure the topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cell density using stereology and retinal wholemounts. We estimated a total of 243,000 ganglion cells of which 3.4% (8,300) comprise alpha cells. The topographic distribution of both total and alpha cells reveal a dual topographic organization of a temporal and nasal area embedded within a well-defined horizontal streak...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130466/antisaccades-in-parkinson-disease-a-new-marker-of-postural-control
#7
Claire Ewenczyk, Salma Mesmoudi, Cécile Gallea, Marie-Laure Welter, Bertrand Gaymard, Adèle Demain, Lydia Yahia Cherif, Bertrand Degos, Habib Benali, Pierre Pouget, Cyril Poupon, Stéphane Lehericy, Sophie Rivaud-Péchoux, Marie Vidailhet
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relation between gaze and posture/gait control in Parkinson disease (PD) and to determine the role of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and cortex-MLR connection in saccadic behavior because this structure is a major area involved in both gait/postural control and gaze control networks. METHODS: We recruited 30 patients with PD with or without altered postural control and 25 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). We assessed gait, balance, and neuropsychological status and separately recorded gait initiation and eye movements (visually guided saccades and volitional antisaccades)...
January 27, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098561/decoding-of-intended-saccade-direction-in-an-oculomotor-brain-computer-interface
#8
Nan Jia, Scott Brincat, Andrés Salazar-Gómez, Mikhail Panko, Frank Guenther, Earl Miller
OBJECTIVE: To date, invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) research has largely focused on replacing lost limb functions using signals from of hand/arm areas of motor cortex. However, the oculomotor system may be better suited to BCI applications involving rapid serial selection from spatial targets, such as choosing from a set of possible words displayed on a computer screen in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) application. Here we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a BCI utilizing the oculomotor system...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056652/asymmetry-in-gaze-direction-discrimination-between-the-upper-and-lower-visual-fields
#9
Adam Palanica, Roxane J Itier
Previous research has shown that gaze direction can only be accurately discriminated within parafoveal limits (∼5° eccentricity) along the horizontal visual field. Beyond this eccentricity, head orientation seems to influence gaze discrimination more than iris cues. The present study examined gaze discrimination performance in the upper visual field (UVF) and lower visual field (LVF), and whether head orientation affects gaze judgments beyond parafoveal vision. Direct and averted gaze faces, in frontal and deviated head orientations, were presented for 150 ms along the vertical meridian while participants maintained central fixation during gaze discrimination judgments...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054126/longitudinal-multi-modal-neuroimaging-in-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome
#10
Sun-Young Oh, Rainer Boegle, Peter Zu Eulenburg, Matthias Ertl, Ji-Soo Kim, Marianne Dieterich
To investigate structural, metabolic, and functional connectivity changes in visual and oculomotor structures in a patient with paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, serial resting-state functional and structural MRI, and FDG-PET data were collected during the acute stage and later on when the opsoclonus had resolved. In the acute stage, an FDG-PET scan demonstrated a substantially increased metabolism in structures around the deep cerebellar nuclei [e.g., fastigial nucleus (FN)] and a relatively reduced metabolism in the bilateral occipital lobes which normalized over 12 months...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052456/frontoparietal-activation-during-visual-conjunction-search-effects-of-bottom-up-guidance-and-adult-age
#11
David J Madden, Emily L Parks, Catherine W Tallman, Maria A Boylan, David A Hoagey, Sally B Cocjin, Micah A Johnson, Ying-Hui Chou, Guy G Potter, Nan-Kuei Chen, Lauren E Packard, Rachel E Siciliano, Zachary A Monge, Michele T Diaz
We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a visual search paradigm to test the hypothesis that aging is associated with increased frontoparietal involvement in both target detection and bottom-up attentional guidance (featural salience). Participants were 68 healthy adults, distributed continuously across 19 to 78 years of age. Frontoparietal regions of interest (ROIs) were defined from resting-state scans obtained prior to task-related fMRI. The search target was defined by a conjunction of color and orientation...
January 4, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003408/intrinsic-functional-architecture-of-the-macaque-dorsal-and-ventral-lateral-frontal-cortex
#12
Alexandros Goulas, Peter Stiers, R Matthew Hutchison, Stefan Everling, Michael Petrides, Daniel S Margulies
Investigations of the cellular and connectional organization of the lateral frontal cortex (LFC) of the macaque monkey provide indispensable knowledge for generating hypotheses about the human LFC. However, despite numerous investigations, there are still debates on the organization of this brain region. In vivo neuroimaging techniques such as resting-state fMRI can be used to define the functional circuitry of brain areas producing results largely consistent with gold-standard invasive tract-tracing techniques and offering the opportunity for cross-species comparison within the same modality...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975011/-well-digging-subcraniotomy-strategy-with-navigation-for-optic-nerve-decompression-in-frontoorbital-fibrous-dysplasia-preliminary-experience
#13
Yunhe Lu, Junyi Yang, Yingzhi Wu, Sida Pan, Jiawen Lu, Xiongzheng Mu
BACKGROUND: During the past decades, surgical intervention has been the primary treatment modality for frontoorbital fibrous dysplasia involving optic nerve. However, controversy has surrounded the role of optic nerve decompression in a number of ways. Herein, we describe 3 patients with frontoorbital fibrous dysplasia involving optic nerve, who underwent a "well digging" subcraniotomy strategy with navigation for intraorbital unit optic nerve decompression. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, 3 patients with frontoorbital fibrous dysplasia were investigated in a retrospective manner...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913216/spatiotopic-updating-across-saccades-revealed-by-spatially-specific-fmri-adaptation
#14
Scott L Fairhall, Jens Schwarzbach, Angelika Lingnau, Martijn Gerbrand Van Koningsbruggen, David Melcher
Brain representations of visual space are predominantly eye-centred (retinotopic) yet our experience of the world is largely world-centred (spatiotopic). A long-standing question is how the brain creates continuity between these reference frames across successive eye movements (saccades). Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to address whether spatially specific repetition suppression (RS) is evident during trans-saccadic perception. We presented two successive Gabor patches (S1 and S2) in either the upper or lower visual field, left or right of fixation...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896064/executive-attention-networks-show-altered-relationship-with-default-mode-network-in-pd
#15
Peter Boord, Tara M Madhyastha, Mary K Askren, Thomas J Grabowski
Attention dysfunction is a common but often undiagnosed cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease that significantly reduces quality of life. We sought to increase understanding of the mechanisms underlying attention dysfunction using functional neuroimaging. Functional MRI was acquired at two repeated sessions in the resting state and during the Attention Network Test, for 25 non-demented subjects with Parkinson's disease and 21 healthy controls. Behavioral and MRI contrasts were calculated for alerting, orienting, and executive control components of attention...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881778/attentive-motion-discrimination-recruits-an-area-in-inferotemporal-cortex
#16
Heiko Stemmann, Winrich A Freiwald
: Attentional selection requires the interplay of multiple brain areas. Theoretical accounts of selective attention predict different areas with different functional properties to support endogenous covert attention. To test these predictions, we devised a demanding attention task requiring motion discrimination and spatial selection and performed whole-brain imaging in macaque monkeys. Attention modulated the early visual cortex, motion-selective dorsal stream areas, the lateral intraparietal area, and the frontal eye fields...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859996/microphthalmia-associated-transcription-factor-ensures-the-elongation-of-axons-and-dendrites-in-the-mouse-frontal-cortex
#17
Koji Ohba, Kazuhisa Takeda, Tamio Furuse, Tomohiro Suzuki, Shigeharu Wakana, Takashi Suzuki, Hiroaki Yamamoto, Shigeki Shibahara
Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) is a mammalian transposable element, and its genomic insertion could cause neurological disorders in humans. Incidentally, LINE-1 is present in intron 3 of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) gene of the black-eyed white mouse (Mitf(mi-bw) allele). Mice homozygous for the Mitf(mi-bw) allele show the white coat color with black eye and deafness. Here, we explored the functional consequences of the LINE-1 insertion in the Mitf gene using homozygous Mitf(mi-bw) mice on the C3H background (C3H-bw mice) or on the C57BL/6 background (bw mice)...
December 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852021/-neuroanatomy-of-the-parietal-association-areas
#18
REVIEW
Yasushi Kobayashi
The parietal association cortex comprises the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the precuneus and the cortices in the intraparietal, parietooccipital and lunate sulci. By processing somatic, visual, acoustic and vestibular sensory information, the parietal association cortex plays a pivotal role in spatial cognition and motor control of the eyes and the extremities. Sensory information from the primary and secondary somatosensory areas enters the superior parietal lobule and is transferred to the inferior parietal lobule...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852018/-functional-parcellation-of-frontal-higher-order-motor-cortex
#19
REVIEW
Hajime Mushiake, Keisetsu Shima
Motor areas in the frontal cortex are classified into medial and lateral functional groups. The dorsal premotor areas in the lateral groups are involved in motor guidance based on behavioral rules. The ventral premotor cortex contributes to motor guidance relying on spatial aspects of sensory information. The supplementary motor complex in the medial groups is related to the bimanual and temporal organization of multiple motor acts. The cingulate motor area is involved in motor control based on reward-prediction errors...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834117/reward-salience-and-attentional-networks-are-activated-by-religious-experience-in-devout-mormons
#20
Michael A Ferguson, Jared A Nielsen, Jace B King, Li Dai, Danielle M Giangrasso, Rachel Holman, Julie R Korenberg, Jeffrey S Anderson
High-level cognitive and emotional experience arises from brain activity, but the specific brain substrates for religious and spiritual euphoria remain unclear. We demonstrate using functional magnetic resonance imaging scans in 19 devout Mormons that a recognizable feeling central to their devotional practice was reproducibly associated with activation in nucleus accumbens, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and frontal attentional regions. Nucleus accumbens activation preceded peak spiritual feelings by 1-3 s and was replicated in four separate tasks...
November 29, 2016: Social Neuroscience
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