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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989049/individual-variability-of-the-human-cerebral-cortex-identified-using-intraoperative-mapping
#1
Johan Pallud, Marc Zanello, Grégory Kuchcinski, Alexandre Roux, Jun Muto, Charles Mellerio, Edouard Dezamis, Catherine Oppenheim
BACKGROUND: The intraoperative functional cortical mapping using direct electrical stimulation may show a wider individual variability than those suggested by non-invasive imaging data on healthy subjects. METHODS: We assessed the intraoperative variability of the frontal eye fields and of the speech arrest sites in adult patients having undergone a wide-awake craniotomy with direct electrostimulation for diffuse gliomas located within eloquent regions and we compared with the human cortical parcellation of the Human Connectome Project (Glasser, Nature, 2016)...
October 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988829/age-related-prefrontal-compensatory-mechanisms-for-inhibitory-control-in-the-antisaccade-task
#2
Juan Fernandez-Ruiz, Alicia Peltsch, Nadia Alahyane, Donald C Brien, Brian C Coe, Angeles Garcia, Douglas P Munoz
Cognitive decline during aging includes impairments in frontal executive functions like reduced inhibitory control. However, decline is not uniform across the population, suggesting individual brain response variability to the aging process. Here we tested the hypothesis, within the oculomotor system, that older adults compensate for age-related neural alterations by changing neural activation levels of the oculomotor areas, or even by recruiting additional areas to assist with cognitive performance. We established that the observed changes had to be related to better cognitive performance to be considered as compensatory...
October 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983233/the-behavioral-effects-of-tdcs-on-visual-search-performance-are-not-influenced-by-the-location-of-the-reference-electrode
#3
Amanda Ellison, Keira L Ball, Alison R Lane
We investigated the role of reference electrode placement (ipsilateral v contralateral frontal pole) on conjunction visual search task performance when the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) cathode is placed over right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) and over right frontal eye fields (rFEF), both of which have been shown to be causally involved in the processing of this task using TMS. This resulted in four experimental manipulations in which sham tDCS was applied in week one followed by active tDCS the following week...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931609/movement-related-activity-in-the-periarcuate-cortex-of-monkeys-during-coordinated-eye-and-hand-movements
#4
Kiyoshi Kurata
To determine the role of the periarcuate cortex during coordinated eye and hand movements in monkeys, the present study examined neuronal activity in this region during movement with the hand, eyes, or both as effectors toward a visuospatial target. Similar to the primary motor cortex (M1), the dorsal premotor cortex contained a higher proportion of neurons that were closely related to hand movements, whereas saccade-related neurons were frequently recorded from the frontal eye field (FEF). Interestingly, neurons that exhibited activity related to both eye and hand movements were recorded most frequently in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), located between the FEF and M1...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913609/modulation-of-the-emotional-response-to-viewing-strabismic-children-in-mothers-measured-by-fmri
#5
J Berberat, M Montali, P Gruber, A Pircher, M Hlavica, F Wang, H P Killer, L Remonda
PURPOSE: Strabismus influences not only the individual with nonparallel eyes but also the observer. It has previously been demonstrated by fMRI that adults viewing images of strabismic adults have a negative reaction to the images as demonstrated by limbic activation, especially activation of the left amygdala. The aim of this study was to see if mothers would have a similar reaction to viewing strabismic children and whether or not that reaction would be different in mothers of strabismic children...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912158/visual-responses-in-fef-unlike-v1-primarily-reflect-when-the-visual-context-renders-a-receptive-field-salient
#6
Wilsaan M Joiner, James Cavanaugh, Robert H Wurtz, Bruce G Cumming
When light falls within a neuronal visual receptive field (RF) the resulting activity is referred to as the visual response. Recent work suggests this activity is in response to both the visual stimulation and the abrupt appearance, or salience, of the presentation. Here we present a novel method for distinguishing the two, based on the timing of random and non-random presentations. We examined these contributions in frontal eye field (FEF, N = 51) and as a comparison, an early stage in the primary visual cortex (V1, N = 15) of male monkeys (Macaca mulatta)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855858/processing-of-unattended-emotional-facial-expressions-correlates-of-visual-field-bias-in-women
#7
Dina Wittfoth, Christine Preibisch, Heinrich Lanfermann
Lateralization in emotional processing is a matter of ongoing debate. Various factors can influence lateralized emotional processing, including stimulus location, emotional valence, and gender. In the present study, we aim to elucidate how unattended emotional facial expressions shown at different locations in the visual field influence behavioral responses, eye movement, and neural responses in a sample of healthy women. Our female participants viewed fearful, happy and neutral faces presented at central and peripheral (left or right) locations while keeping their gaze locked on a central fixation crosshairs and indicating stimulus location via button presses...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836282/white-matter-fiber-integrity-of-the-saccadic-eye-movement-network-differs-between-schizophrenia-and-healthy-groups
#8
David J Schaeffer, Amanda L Rodrigue, Courtney R Burton, Jordan E Pierce, Megan N Murphy, Brett A Clementz, Jennifer E McDowell
Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest that altered white matter fiber integrity is a pathophysiological feature of schizophrenia. Lower white matter integrity is associated with poor cognitive control, a characteristic of schizophrenia that can be measured using antisaccade tasks. Although the functional neural correlates of poor antisaccade performance have been well documented, fewer studies have investigated the extent to which white matter fibers connecting the functional nodes of this network contribute to antisaccade performance...
August 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815321/fixational-eye-movements-in-tourette-syndrome
#9
Aasef G Shaikh, Shlomit Ritz Finkelstein, Ronald Schuchard, Glen Ross, Jorge L Juncos
Studies of saccadic eye movements in subjects with Tourette syndrome (TS) have provided additional evidence that there is a link between TS symptoms and deficits in fronto-striato-thalamic networks. These studies revealed impaired timing and inhibition of saccades. We compared fixational eye movements, such as microsaccades and ocular drifts, in subjects with TS and healthy controls.We measured horizontal and vertical eye positions with video-oculography in 14 subjects with Tourette syndrome. We found reduced microsaccade amplitude but increased time between adjacent microsaccades (intersaccadic interval)...
November 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789857/transcranial-ultrasonic-stimulation-modulates-single-neuron-discharge-in-macaques-performing-an-antisaccade-task
#10
Nicolas Wattiez, Charlotte Constans, Thomas Deffieux, Pierre M Daye, Mickael Tanter, Jean-François Aubry, Pierre Pouget
BACKGROUND: Low intensity transcranial ultrasonic stimulation (TUS) has been demonstrated to non-invasively and transiently stimulate the nervous system. Although US neuromodulation has appeared robust in rodent studies, the effects of US in large mammals and humans have been modest at best. In addition, there is a lack of direct recordings from the stimulated neurons in response to US. Our study investigates the magnitude of the US effects on neuronal discharge in awake behaving monkeys and thus fills the void on both fronts...
July 26, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724782/dissecting-patterns-of-preparatory-activity-in-the-frontal-eye-fields-during-pursuit-target-selection
#11
Ramanujan T Raghavan, Mati Joshua
We investigated the composition of preparatory activity of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons in monkeys performing a pursuit target selection task. In response to the orthogonal motion of a large and a small reward target, monkeys initiated pursuit biased toward the direction of large reward target motion. FEF neurons exhibited robust preparatory activity preceding movement initiation in this task. Preparatory activity consisted of two components, ramping activity that was constant across target selection conditions, and a flat offset in firing rates that signaled the target selection condition...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693846/renewed-attention-on-the-pupil-light-reflex
#12
Paola Binda, Paul D Gamlin
In a recent study, Ebitz and Moore described how subthreshold electrical microstimulation of the macaque frontal eye fields (FEF) modulates the pupillary light reflex. This elegant study suggests that the influence of the FEF and prefrontal cortex on attentional modulation of cortical visual processing extends to the subcortical circuit that mediates a very basic reflex, the pupillary light reflex.
August 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678316/resting-state-functional-thalamic-connectivity-abnormalities-in-patients-with-post-stroke-sleep-apnoea-a-pilot-case-control-study
#13
M L Sacchetti, M T Di Mascio, E Tinelli, C Mainero, G Russo, M Fiorelli, V Calistri, C de Lena, A Minni, F Caramia
OBJECTIVE: Sleep apnoea is common after stroke, and has adverse effects on the clinical outcome of affected cases. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are only partially known. Increases in brain connectivity after stroke might influence networks involved in arousal modulation and breathing control. The aim of this study was to investigate the resting state functional MRI thalamic hyper-connectivity of stroke patients affected by sleep apnoea (SA) with respect to cases not affected, and to healthy controls (HC)...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665058/decoding-saccadic-directions-using-epidural-ecog-in-non-human-primates
#14
Jeyeon Lee, Hoseok Choi, Seho Lee, Baek Hwan Cho, Kyoung Ha Ahn, In Young Kim, Kyoung Min Lee, Dong Pyo Jang
A brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used to restore some communication as an alternative interface for patients suffering from locked-in syndrome. However, most BCI systems are based on SSVEP, P300, or motor imagery, and a diversity of BCI protocols would be needed for various types of patients. In this paper, we trained the choice saccade (CS) task in 2 non-human primate monkeys and recorded the brain signal using an epidural electrocorticogram (eECoG) to predict eye movement direction. We successfully predicted the direction of the upcoming eye movement using a support vector machine (SVM) with the brain signals after the directional cue onset and before the saccade execution...
August 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655645/optic-flow-based-collision-free-strategies-from-insects-to-robots
#15
REVIEW
Julien R Serres, Franck Ruffier
Flying insects are able to fly smartly in an unpredictable environment. It has been found that flying insects have smart neurons inside their tiny brains that are sensitive to visual motion also called optic flow. Consequently, flying insects rely mainly on visual motion during their flight maneuvers such as: takeoff or landing, terrain following, tunnel crossing, lateral and frontal obstacle avoidance, and adjusting flight speed in a cluttered environment. Optic flow can be defined as the vector field of the apparent motion of objects, surfaces, and edges in a visual scene generated by the relative motion between an observer (an eye or a camera) and the scene...
July 11, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634888/saccades-evoked-in-response-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-posterior-bank-of-the-arcuate-sulcus
#16
E Neromyliotis, A K Moschovakis
To test the hypothesis that the premotor cortex in and behind the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus can generate saccades, we stimulated electrically the periarcuate region of alert rhesus monkeys. We were able to produce saccades from sites of the premotor cortex that were contiguous with the frontal eye fields and extended up to 2 mm behind the smooth pursuit area. However, premotor sites often elicited saccades with ipsiversive characteristic vectors, lower peak velocities, and flatter velocity profiles when compared to saccades evoked from the frontal eye field...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600742/does-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-help-in-searching-for-the-lost-key-evidence-from-an-fnirs-study
#17
Marika Carrieri, Stefania Lancia, Alessia Bocchi, Marco Ferrari, Laura Piccardi, Valentina Quaresima
The Key Search Task (KST) is a neuropsychological test that requires strategies for searching a lost key in an imaginary field. This request may involve different cognitive processes as mental imagery and navigation planning. This study was aimed at investigating, by a twenty-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system, the hemodynamic response (i.e., oxygenated-hemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HHb) changes) of the prefrontal cortex in navigation planning. A right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) activation during the KST was hypothesized...
June 10, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592689/control-of-the-strength-of-visual-motor-transmission-as-the-mechanism-of-rapid-adaptation-of-priors-for-bayesian-inference-in-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements
#18
Timothy R Darlington, Stefanie Tokiyama, Stephen G Lisberger
Bayesian inference provides a cogent account of how the brain combines sensory information with "priors" based on past experience to guide many behaviors, including smooth pursuit eye movements. We now demonstrate very rapid adaptation of the pursuit system's priors for target direction and speed. We go on to leverage that adaptation to outline possible neural mechanisms that could cause pursuit to show features consistent with Bayesian inference. Adaptation of the prior causes changes in the eye speed and direction at the initiation of pursuit...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572407/simultaneous-analysis-of-the-lfp-and-spiking-activity-reveals-essential-components-of-a-visuomotor-transformation-in-the-frontal-eye-field
#19
Naveen Sendhilnathan, Debaleena Basu, Aditya Murthy
The frontal eye field (FEF) is a key brain region to study visuomotor transformations because the primary input to FEF is visual in nature, whereas its output reflects the planning of behaviorally relevant saccadic eye movements. In this study, we used a memory-guided saccade task to temporally dissociate the visual epoch from the saccadic epoch through a delay epoch, and used the local field potential (LFP) along with simultaneously recorded spike data to study the visuomotor transformation process. We showed that visual latency of the LFP preceded spiking activity in the visual epoch, whereas spiking activity preceded LFP activity in the saccade epoch...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539952/executive-dysfunction-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-anterior-cingulate-based-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#20
Je-Yeon Yun, Joon Hwan Jang, Wi Hoon Jung, Na Young Shin, Sung Nyun Kim, Jae Yeon Hwang, Jun Soo Kwon
OBJECTIVE: Executive dysfunction might be an important determinant for response to pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and could be sustained independently of symptom relief. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been indicated as a potential neural correlate of executive functioning in OCD. The present study examined the brain-executive function relationships in OCD from the ACC-based resting state functional connectivity networks (rs-FCNs), which reflect information processing mechanisms during task performance...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
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