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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668383/neural-mechanisms-of-speed-accuracy-tradeoff-saccade-vigor-the-origin-of-targeting-errors-and-comparison-of-superior-colliculus-and-frontal-eye-field
#1
Thomas R Reppert, Mathieu Servant, Richard P Heitz, Jeffrey D Schall
Balancing the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) is necessary for successful behavior. Using a visual search task with interleaved cues emphasizing speed or accuracy, we recently reported diverse contributions of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons instantiating salience evidence and response preparation. Here we report replication of visual search SAT performance in two macaque monkeys, new information about variation of saccade dynamics with SAT, extension of the neurophysiological investigation to describe processes in the superior colliculus, and description of the origin of search errors in this task...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652247/motor-selection-dynamics-in-fef-explain-the-reaction-time-variance-of-saccades-to-single-targets
#2
Christopher K Hauser, Dantong Zhu, Terrence R Stanford, Emilio Salinas
In studies of voluntary movement, a most elemental quantity is the reaction time (RT) between the onset of a visual stimulus and a saccade toward it. However, this RT demonstrates extremely high variability which, in spite of extensive research, remains unexplained. It is well established that, when a visual target appears, oculomotor activity gradually builds up until a critical level is reached, at which point a saccade is triggered. Here, based on computational work and single-neuron recordings from monkey frontal eye field (FEF), we show that this rise-to-threshold process starts from a dynamic initial state that already contains other incipient, internally-driven motor plans, which compete with the target-driven activity to varying degrees...
April 13, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626167/intracranial-electrophysiology-reveals-reproducible-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-within-human-brain-networks
#3
Aaron Kucyi, Jessica Schrouff, Stephan Bickel, Brett L Foster, James M Shine, Josef Parvizi
Evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) within the human brain is largely from neuroimaging studies of hemodynamic activity. Data are lacking from anatomically precise electrophysiological recordings in the most widely studied nodes of human brain networks. Here we used a combination of fMRI and electrocorticography (ECoG) in five human neurosurgical patients with electrodes in the canonical "default" (medial prefrontal and posteromedial cortex), "dorsal attention" (frontal eye fields and superior parietal lobule) and "frontoparietal control" (inferior parietal lobule and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) networks...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608671/working-memory-load-modulates-neuronal-coupling
#4
Dimitris A Pinotsis, Timothy J Buschman, Earl K Miller
There is a severe limitation in the number of items that can be held in working memory. However, the neurophysiological limits remain unknown. We asked whether the capacity limit might be explained by differences in neuronal coupling. We developed a theoretical model based on Predictive Coding and used it to analyze Cross Spectral Density data from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), frontal eye fields (FEF), and lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Monkeys performed a change detection task. The number of objects that had to be remembered (memory load) was varied (1-3 objects in the same visual hemifield)...
March 28, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599728/altered-resting-state-effective-connectivity-of-anterior-insula-in-depression
#5
Sevdalina Kandilarova, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Stefan Kostianev, Karsten Specht
Depression has been associated with changes in both functional and effective connectivity of large scale brain networks, including the default mode network, executive network, and salience network. However, studies of effective connectivity by means of spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) are still rare and the interaction between the different resting state networks has not been investigated in detail. Thus, we aimed at exploring differences in effective connectivity among eight right hemisphere brain areas-anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), frontal eye field, anterior cingulate cortex, superior parietal lobe, amygdala, and hippocampus, between a group of healthy controls ( N  = 20) and medicated depressed patients ( N  = 20)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576028/anomalous-brain-development-is-evident-in-preschoolers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
Lisa A Jacobson, Deana Crocetti, Benjamin Dirlikov, Keith Slifer, Martha Bridge Denckla, Stewart H Mostofsky, E Mark Mahone
OBJECTIVES: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurological disorder with symptom onset early in childhood. Growing evidence suggests anomalous brain development across multiple brain regions is evident in school-aged children; however, few studies have examined whether such differences are notable in the preschool years when symptom onset typically occurs. METHODS: High resolution anatomical (MPRAGE) images and cognitive and behavioral measures were analyzed in a total of 90 medication-naïve preschoolers, ages 4-5 years (52 with ADHD, 38 controls; 64...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563957/multicentric-glioblastoma-multiforme-mimicking-optic-neuritis
#7
Francesco Pellegrini, Andrew G Lee, Cristina Cercato
A 49-year-old previously healthy woman presented with acute painless visual loss in the right eye, a right relative afferent pupillary defect, and a normal fundus examination. She was diagnosed with retrobulbar "optic neuritis" and given a course of intravenous steroids. Despite treatment, however, she continued to lose vision and serial visual field testing confirmed a junctional scotoma in the fellow eye. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass at the junction between the right optic nerve and the anterior aspect of the chiasm and a right frontal lesion that proved to be multicentric glioblastoma multiforme...
April 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537912/response-properties-of-saccade-related-neurons-of-the-post-arcuate-premotor-cortex
#8
Eleftherios Neromyliotis, Adonis K Moschovakis
We studied the phasic saccade related discharges of single neurons (S neurons) of the premotor cortex of female rhesus monkeys, mostly in the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus. As described in previous work from our laboratory (Neromyliotis and Moschovakis, 2017b), some of these cells emitted phasic discharges for coordinated movements of the eyes and hand as well as for movements of either effector executed in isolation (motor equivalence -Meq). Other cells (S), did not emit phasic discharges for hand movements unaccompanied by saccades...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536324/comparison-between-multifocal-erg-and-c-scan-sd-oct-en-face-oct-in-patients-with-a-suspicion-of-antimalarial-retinal-toxicity-preliminary-results
#9
Carl Arndt, Mathieu Costantini, Christophe Chiquet, Mickael Afriat, Sylvie Berthemy, Vivien Vasseur, Alain Ducasse, Martine Mauget-Faÿsse
PURPOSE: Pericentral visual field changes and disruption of the ellipsoid layer on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) are the main features of antimalarial retinal toxicity. C-Scan OCT or "en face" enables a topographic frontal view of the changes observed within the different retinal layers in particular the ellipsoid layer. The aim of this prospective study was to compare multifocal ERG (mfERG) responses with the results of C-Scan OCT ("en face" OCT) in patients with abnormal visual field and to analyze relationships between the structural and functional abnormalities...
March 13, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535614/large-scale-brain-networks-supporting-divided-attention-across-spatial-locations-and-sensory-modalities
#10
Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529887/gray-matter-differences-in-the-anterior-cingulate-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-of-young-adults-with-internet-gaming-disorder-surface-based-morphometry
#11
Deokjong Lee, Jinsick Park, Kee Namkoong, In Young Kim, Young-Chul Jung
Background and aims Altered risk/reward decision-making is suggested to predispose individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) to pursue short-term pleasure, despite long-term negative consequences. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play important roles in risk/reward decision-making. This study investigated gray matter differences in the ACC and OFC of young adults with and without IGD using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Methods We examined 45 young male adults with IGD and 35 age-matched male controls...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513149/motor-action-of-the-frontal-eye-field-on-the-eyes-and-neck-in-the-monkey
#12
Yoshiko Izawa, Hisao Suzuki
Focal stimulation in the frontal eye field (FEF) evoked eye movements that were often accompanied by neck movements. Experiments were performed with concurrent recording of both movements in trained monkeys. We recorded neck forces under a head-restrained condition using a force-measuring system. With the system, we measured forces along the x, y, and z axes and torque about the z axis. Torque about the z axis that represented yaw rotation of the head was significantly affected by stimulation. We found that stimulation generated two types of motor actions of the eyes and neck...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507410/cortical-specialization-for-attended-versus-unattended-working-memory
#13
Thomas B Christophel, Polina Iamshchinina, Chang Yan, Carsten Allefeld, John-Dylan Haynes
Items held in working memory can be either attended or not, depending on their current behavioral relevance. It has been suggested that unattended contents might be solely retained in an activity-silent form. Instead, we demonstrate here that encoding unattended contents involves a division of labor. While visual cortex only maintains attended items, intraparietal areas and the frontal eye fields represent both attended and unattended items.
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502874/the-neural-correlates-of-visual-imagery-a-co-ordinate-based-meta-analysis
#14
Crawford I P Winlove, Fraser Milton, Jake Ranson, Jon Fulford, Matthew MacKisack, Fiona Macpherson, Adam Zeman
Visual imagery is a form of sensory imagination, involving subjective experiences typically described as similar to perception, but which occur in the absence of corresponding external stimuli. We used the Activation Likelihood Estimation algorithm (ALE) to identify regions consistently activated by visual imagery across 40 neuroimaging studies, the first such meta-analysis. We also employed a recently developed multi-modal parcellation of the human brain to attribute stereotactic co-ordinates to one of 180 anatomical regions, the first time this approach has been combined with the ALE algorithm...
January 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501792/neural-basis-of-the-crossmodal-correspondence-between-auditory-pitch-and-visuospatial-elevation
#15
Kelly McCormick, Simon Lacey, Randall Stilla, Lynne C Nygaard, K Sathian
Crossmodal correspondences refer to associations between otherwise unrelated stimulus features in different sensory modalities. For example, high and low auditory pitches are associated with high and low visuospatial elevation, respectively. The neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences are currently unknown. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of the pitch-elevation correspondence. Pitch-elevation congruency effects were observed bilaterally in the inferior frontal and insular cortex, the right frontal eye field and right inferior parietal cortex...
March 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483863/differential-expression-of-dopamine-d5-receptors-across-neuronal-subtypes-in-macaque-frontal-eye-field
#16
Adrienne Mueller, Steven B Shepard, Tirin Moore
Dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is important for cognitive functions, yet very little is known about the expression of the D5 class of dopamine receptors (D5Rs) in this region. To address this, we co-stained for D5Rs, pyramidal neurons (neurogranin+), putative long-range projection pyramidal neurons (SMI-32+), and several classes of inhibitory interneuron (parvalbumin+, calbindin+, calretinin+, somatostatin+) within the frontal eye field (FEF): an area within the PFC involved in the control of visual spatial attention...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475059/ventro-lateral-motor-thalamus-abnormal-connectivity-in-essential-tremor-before-and-after-thalamotomy-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#17
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) of the ventro-lateral thalamus, a common target for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), resting-state data were analyzed before and 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T), and compared against healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 17 consecutive patients and 10 HC were enrolled. Tremor network was investigated using ventro-lateral ventral (VLV) nucleus as region-of-interest (ROI), extracted using automated segmentation from pretherapeutic diffusion MRI...
February 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471385/functional-neural-correlates-of-slower-gait-among-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Chun Liang Hsu, John R Best, Michelle W Voss, Todd C Handy, Olivier Beauchet, Chris Lim, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Background: Subtle, but observable, changes in mobility often exist among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Notably, these changes are not inconsequential. Therefore, there is a strong interest to better understand the underlying neural correlates of gait slowing among older adults with MCI. In this study, we aimed to characterize patterns of functional connectivity associated with slower gait speed in older adults with MCI. Methods: 49 participants ≥ 60 years with MCI were included in the cross-sectional study...
February 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466732/dissonant-representations-of-visual-space-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-eye-movements
#19
Xiaomo Chen, Marc Zirnsak, Tirin Moore
We used local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes to investigate representations of visual space in prefrontal cortex and the dynamics of those representations during eye movements. Spatial information contained in LFPs of the frontal eye field (FEF) was differentially distributed across frequencies, with a majority of that information being carried in alpha and high-gamma bands and minimal signal in the low-gamma band. During fixation, spatial information from alpha and high-gamma bands and spiking activity was robust across cortical layers...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427654/motor-sequence-learning-in-the-brain-the-long-and-short-of-it
#20
C C Gonzalez, M R Burke
Motor sequence learning involves predictive processing that results in the anticipation of each component of a sequence of actions. In smooth pursuit, this predictive processing is required to decrease tracking errors between the eye and the stimulus. Current models for motor sequence learning suggest parallel mechanisms in the brain for acquiring sequences of differing complexity. We examined this model by comparing shorter versus longer sequences of pursuit eye movements during fMRI. In this way we were able to identify overlapping and distinct brain areas involved in simple versus more complex oculomotor learning...
February 8, 2018: Neuroscience
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