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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239527/removal-of-epileptically-compromised-tissue-in-the-frontal-cortex-restores-oculomotor-selection-in-the-antisaccade-task
#1
Stefan Van der Stigchel, Frans S S Leijten, Mariska J Vansteensel, Hendrik Chris Dijkerman, Nick F Ramsey, Zachary V Freudenburg
The frontal cortex is heavily involved in oculomotor selection. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of eye movement selection during an antisaccade task in a young epileptic patient in whom the seizure focus included the frontal cortex and affected its function. Before resection surgery, the patient had difficulty in performing correct antisaccades towards the visual field contralateral to the seizure focus. Because the FEF is the only area in the human frontal cortex that is known to have a lateralized oculomotor function in the antisaccade task, this behavioural imbalance between the two visual fields suggests a disruption of FEF functioning by the nearby seizure focus...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224723/neural-basis-of-cognitive-control-over-movement-inhibition-human-fmri-and-primate-electrophysiology-evidence
#2
Kitty Z Xu, Brian A Anderson, Erik E Emeric, Anthony W Sali, Veit Stuphorn, Steven Yantis, Susan M Courtney
Executive control involves the ability to flexibly inhibit or change an action when it is contextually inappropriate. Using the complimentary techniques of human fMRI and monkey electrophysiology in a context-dependent stop signal task, we found a functional double dissociation between the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) and the bi-lateral frontal eye field (FEF). Different regions of rVLPFC were associated with context-based signal meaning versus intention to inhibit a response, while FEF activity corresponded to success or failure of the response inhibition regardless of the stimulus response mapping or the context...
December 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206882/morphological-study-of-the-eye-and-adnexa-in-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-sp
#3
Danielle Nascimento Silva, Arianne Pontes Oriá, Nayone Lantyer Araujo, Emanoel Martins-Filho, Caterina Muramoto, Fernanda de Azevedo Libório, Alessandra Estrela-Lima
The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic and histologic features of the Sapajus sp. eye, comparing similarities and differences of humans and other species of non-human primates for biomedical research purposes. Computed tomography (CT) of adnexa, eye and orbit live animal, as well as formolized pieces of the same structures of Sapajus sp. for anatomical and histological study were also performed. The anatomical description of the eye and adnexa was performed using the techniques of topographic dissection and exenteration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199507/asymmetric-oculomotor-apraxia-optic-ataxia-and-simultanagnosia-with-right-hemispatial-neglect-from-a-predominantly-left-sided-lesion-of-the-parieto-occipital-area
#4
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Masanori Fujimoto, Kensuke Hamada, Izumi Sugimoto
INTRODUCTION: Bálint's syndrome involves bilateral damage to the parieto-occipital area. The extent of the effect of unilateral damage on the Bálint's triad (oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia) remains unknown. METHODS: We examined a 63-year-old, right-handed woman who developed right hemianopia, oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, and hemispatial neglect (HSN) for the right after a cerebral infarction, with detailed neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
December 2, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184197/mixed-selectivity-morphs-population-codes-in-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Aishwarya Parthasarathy, Roger Herikstad, Jit Hon Bong, Felipe Salvador Medina, Camilo Libedinsky, Shih-Cheng Yen
The prefrontal cortex maintains working memory information in the presence of distracting stimuli. It has long been thought that sustained activity in individual neurons or groups of neurons was responsible for maintaining information in the form of a persistent, stable code. Here we show that, upon the presentation of a distractor, information in the lateral prefrontal cortex was reorganized into a different pattern of activity to create a morphed stable code without losing information. In contrast, the code in the frontal eye fields persisted across different delay periods but exhibited substantial instability and information loss after the presentation of a distractor...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165689/oculomotor-disturbances-in-patients-with-chronic-nonspecific-spinal-pain
#6
Ruth Ruscheweyh, Antonia Fritz, Thomas Eggert, Shahnaz-Christina Azad, Andreas Straube
Objective: There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum has a role in pain processing. The present study investigates whether chronic pain patients, who are likely to have altered pain processing, exhibit signs of subtle cerebellar dysfunction. We used oculomotor tasks to assess dysfunction of the associated neuronal networks, including the cerebellum. Methods: Thirty patients with chronic nonspecific spinal pain and 30 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled...
November 18, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163079/neural-correlates-of-rewarded-response-inhibition-in-youth-at-risk-for-problematic-alcohol-use
#7
Brenden Tervo-Clemmens, Alina Quach, Beatriz Luna, William Foran, Tammy Chung, Michael D De Bellis, Duncan B Clark
Risk for substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with poor response inhibition and heightened reward sensitivity. During adolescence, incentives improve performance on response inhibition tasks and increase recruitment of cortical control areas (Geier et al., 2010) associated with SUD (Chung et al., 2011). However, it is unknown whether incentives moderate the relationship between response inhibition and trait-level psychopathology and personality features of substance use risk. We examined these associations in the current project using a rewarded antisaccade (AS) task (Geier et al...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159665/functional-rostro-caudal-gradient-in-the-human-posterior-lateral-frontal-cortex
#8
Céline Amiez, Michael Petrides
The present study examined the hypothesis that the posterior motor/premotor region of the lateral frontal cortex is functionally organized along a rostro-caudal axis. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, the subjects performed various tasks assessing basic saccadic eye or hand actions and also tasks requiring the cognitive selection between competing hand or eye movements based on previously learned conditional relations (if A, select movement X, but if B select movement Y). Subject-by-subject analysis demonstrated precise relationships between the foci of functional activity and specific sulci...
November 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134944/distinct-spatial-coordinate-of-visual-and-vestibular-heading-signals-in-macaque-fefsem-and-mstd
#9
Lihua Yang, Yong Gu
Precise heading estimate requires integration of visual optic flow and vestibular inertial motion originating from distinct spatial coordinates (eye- and head-centered, respectively). To explore whether the two heading signals may share a common reference frame along the hierarchy of cortical stages, we explored two multisensory areas in macaques: the smooth pursuit area of the frontal eye field (FEFsem) closer to the motor side, and the dorsal portion of medial superior temporal area (MSTd) closer to the sensory side...
November 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134168/anatomical-region-segmentation-for-objective-surgical-skill-assessment-with-operating-room-motion-data
#10
Yangming Li, Randall A Bly, R Alex Harbison, Ian M Humphreys, Mark E Whipple, Blake Hannaford, Kris S Moe
Background  Most existing objective surgical motion analysis schemes are limited to structured surgical tasks or recognition of motion patterns for certain categories of surgeries. Analyzing instrument motion data with respect to anatomical structures can break the limit, and an anatomical region segmentation algorithm is required for the analysis. Methods  An atlas was generated by manually segmenting the skull base into nine regions, including left/right anterior/posterior ethmoid sinuses, frontal sinus, left and right maxillary sinuses, nasal airway, and sphenoid sinus...
December 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127718/-frontal-eye-field-in-prosimian-galagos-intracortical-microstimulation-and-tracing-studies
#11
Iwona Stepniewska, Pierre Pouget, Jon H Kaas
The frontal eye field (FEF) in prosimian primates was identified as a small cortical region, above and anterior to the anterior frontal sulcus, from which saccadic eye movements were evoked with electrical stimulation. Tracer injections revealed FEF connections with cortical and subcortical structures participating in higher order visual processing. Ipsilateral cortical connections were the densest with adjoining parts of the dorsal premotor and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Label in a region corresponding to supplementary eye field (SEF) of other primates, suggests the existence of SEF in galagos...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114305/frontal-mucocele-mimicking-a-frontal-subcutaneous-tumor
#12
Ellath Valappil Bijith, Shaju Mathew, Krishnaswamy Mahadevan
Mucoceles are chronic, expanding, mucosa lined pathology of the paranasal sinuses. Frontal mucocele usually presents with the visual complaints such as diplopia, diminution of vision, visual field defect, ptosis, orbital swelling, retro-orbital pain, displacement of eye globe, and proptosis. Very rarely, it can be present as a subcutaneous swelling. This article presents a 58-year-old male patient presenting with an asymptomatic periorbital swelling and a painless forehead mass of 3 years duration. There was a partial ptosis, and an elongated, soft, subcutaneous mass over the forehead...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095748/central-control-of-eye-movements
#13
Jonathan J D Baird-Gunning, Christian J Lueck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eye-movement research continues to provide an excellent tool for understanding the central control of motor function, both in health and disease. This article reviews recent findings in relation to saccadic eye movements, particularly antisaccades and microsaccades, with particular emphasis on the control of inaction, something which has recently become topical. RECENT FINDINGS: Microsaccades are under the control of the cerebral cortex, particularly the frontal and parietal eye fields...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089439/frontal-eye-field-inactivation-diminishes-superior-colliculus-activity-but-delayed-saccadic-accumulation-governs-reaction-time-increases
#14
Tyler R Peel, Suryadeep Dash, Stephen G Lomber, Brian D Corneil
Stochastic accumulator models provide a comprehensive framework for how neural activity could produce behavior. Neural activity within the frontal eye fields (FEF) and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (iSC) support such models for saccade initiation, by relating variations in saccade reaction time (SRT) to variations in parameters such as baseline, rate of accumulation of activity, or threshold. Here, by recording iSC activity during reversible cryogenic inactivation of the FEF in four male non-human primates, we causally test which parameter(s) best explains concomitant increases in SRT...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053713/a-longitudinal-study-of-facial-growth-of-southern-chinese-in-hong-kong-comprehensive-photogrammetric-analyses
#15
Yi Feng Wen, Hai Ming Wong, Colman Patrick McGrath
INTRODUCTION: Existing studies on facial growth were mostly cross-sectional in nature and only a limited number of facial measurements were investigated. The purposes of this study were to longitudinally investigate facial growth of Chinese in Hong Kong from 12 through 15 to 18 years of age and to compare the magnitude of growth changes between genders. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Standardized frontal and lateral facial photographs were taken from 266 (149 females and 117 males) and 265 (145 females and 120 males) participants, respectively, at all three age levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989049/individual-variability-of-the-human-cerebral-cortex-identified-using-intraoperative-mapping
#16
Johan Pallud, Marc Zanello, Grégory Kuchcinski, Alexandre Roux, Jun Muto, Charles Mellerio, Edouard Dezamis, Catherine Oppenheim
BACKGROUND: The intraoperative functional cortical mapping using direct electrical stimulation may show a wider individual variability than those suggested by non-invasive imaging data on healthy subjects. METHODS: We assessed the intraoperative variability of the frontal eye fields and of the speech arrest sites in adult patients having undergone a wide-awake craniotomy with direct electrostimulation for diffuse gliomas located within eloquent regions and we compared with the human cortical parcellation of the Human Connectome Project (Glasser, Nature, 2016)...
October 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988829/age-related-prefrontal-compensatory-mechanisms-for-inhibitory-control-in-the-antisaccade-task
#17
Juan Fernandez-Ruiz, Alicia Peltsch, Nadia Alahyane, Donald C Brien, Brian C Coe, Angeles Garcia, Douglas P Munoz
Cognitive decline during aging includes impairments in frontal executive functions like reduced inhibitory control. However, decline is not uniform across the population, suggesting individual brain response variability to the aging process. Here we tested the hypothesis, within the oculomotor system, that older adults compensate for age-related neural alterations by changing neural activation levels of the oculomotor areas, or even by recruiting additional areas to assist with cognitive performance. We established that the observed changes had to be related to better cognitive performance to be considered as compensatory...
October 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983233/the-behavioral-effects-of-tdcs-on-visual-search-performance-are-not-influenced-by-the-location-of-the-reference-electrode
#18
Amanda Ellison, Keira L Ball, Alison R Lane
We investigated the role of reference electrode placement (ipsilateral v contralateral frontal pole) on conjunction visual search task performance when the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) cathode is placed over right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) and over right frontal eye fields (rFEF), both of which have been shown to be causally involved in the processing of this task using TMS. This resulted in four experimental manipulations in which sham tDCS was applied in week one followed by active tDCS the following week...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931609/movement-related-activity-in-the-periarcuate-cortex-of-monkeys-during-coordinated-eye-and-hand-movements
#19
Kiyoshi Kurata
To determine the role of the periarcuate cortex during coordinated eye and hand movements in monkeys, the present study examined neuronal activity in this region during movement with the hand, eyes, or both as effectors toward a visuospatial target. Similar to the primary motor cortex (M1), the dorsal premotor cortex contained a higher proportion of neurons that were closely related to hand movements, whereas saccade-related neurons were frequently recorded from the frontal eye field (FEF). Interestingly, neurons that exhibited activity related to both eye and hand movements were recorded most frequently in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), located between the FEF and M1...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913609/modulation-of-the-emotional-response-to-viewing-strabismic-children-in-mothers-measured-by-fmri
#20
J Berberat, M Montali, P Gruber, A Pircher, M Hlavica, F Wang, H P Killer, L Remonda
PURPOSE: Strabismus influences not only the individual with nonparallel eyes but also the observer. It has previously been demonstrated by fMRI that adults viewing images of strabismic adults have a negative reaction to the images as demonstrated by limbic activation, especially activation of the left amygdala. The aim of this study was to see if mothers would have a similar reaction to viewing strabismic children and whether or not that reaction would be different in mothers of strabismic children...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
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