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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913216/spatiotopic-updating-across-saccades-revealed-by-spatially-specific-fmri-adaptation
#1
Scott L Fairhall, Jens Schwarzbach, Angelika Lingnau, Martijn Gerbrand Van Koningsbruggen, David Melcher
Brain representations of visual space are predominantly eye-centred (retinotopic) yet our experience of the world is largely world-centred (spatiotopic). A long-standing question is how the brain creates continuity between these reference frames across successive eye movements (saccades). Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to address whether spatially specific repetition suppression (RS) is evident during trans-saccadic perception. We presented two successive Gabor patches (S1 and S2) in either the upper or lower visual field, left or right of fixation...
November 29, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896064/executive-attention-networks-show-altered-relationship-with-default-mode-network-in-pd
#2
Peter Boord, Tara M Madhyastha, Mary K Askren, Thomas J Grabowski
Attention dysfunction is a common but often undiagnosed cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease that significantly reduces quality of life. We sought to increase understanding of the mechanisms underlying attention dysfunction using functional neuroimaging. Functional MRI was acquired at two repeated sessions in the resting state and during the Attention Network Test, for 25 non-demented subjects with Parkinson's disease and 21 healthy controls. Behavioral and MRI contrasts were calculated for alerting, orienting, and executive control components of attention...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881778/attentive-motion-discrimination-recruits-an-area-in-inferotemporal-cortex
#3
Heiko Stemmann, Winrich A Freiwald
: Attentional selection requires the interplay of multiple brain areas. Theoretical accounts of selective attention predict different areas with different functional properties to support endogenous covert attention. To test these predictions, we devised a demanding attention task requiring motion discrimination and spatial selection and performed whole-brain imaging in macaque monkeys. Attention modulated the early visual cortex, motion-selective dorsal stream areas, the lateral intraparietal area, and the frontal eye fields...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859996/microphthalmia-associated-transcription-factor-ensures-the-elongation-of-axons-and-dendrites-in-the-mouse-frontal-cortex
#4
Koji Ohba, Kazuhisa Takeda, Tamio Furuse, Tomohiro Suzuki, Shigeharu Wakana, Takashi Suzuki, Hiroaki Yamamoto, Shigeki Shibahara
Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) is a mammalian transposable element, and its genomic insertion could cause neurological disorders in humans. Incidentally, LINE-1 is present in intron 3 of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) gene of the black-eyed white mouse (Mitf(mi-bw) allele). Mice homozygous for the Mitf(mi-bw) allele show the white coat color with black eye and deafness. Here, we explored the functional consequences of the LINE-1 insertion in the Mitf gene using homozygous Mitf(mi-bw) mice on the C3H background (C3H-bw mice) or on the C57BL/6 background (bw mice)...
November 11, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852021/-neuroanatomy-of-the-parietal-association-areas
#5
Yasushi Kobayashi
The parietal association cortex comprises the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the precuneus and the cortices in the intraparietal, parietooccipital and lunate sulci. By processing somatic, visual, acoustic and vestibular sensory information, the parietal association cortex plays a pivotal role in spatial cognition and motor control of the eyes and the extremities. Sensory information from the primary and secondary somatosensory areas enters the superior parietal lobule and is transferred to the inferior parietal lobule...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852018/-functional-parcellation-of-frontal-higher-order-motor-cortex
#6
Hajime Mushiake, Keisetsu Shima
Motor areas in the frontal cortex are classified into medial and lateral functional groups. The dorsal premotor areas in the lateral groups are involved in motor guidance based on behavioral rules. The ventral premotor cortex contributes to motor guidance relying on spatial aspects of sensory information. The supplementary motor complex in the medial groups is related to the bimanual and temporal organization of multiple motor acts. The cingulate motor area is involved in motor control based on reward-prediction errors...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834117/reward-salience-and-attentional-networks-are-activated-by-religious-experience-in-devout-mormons
#7
Michael A Ferguson, Jared A Nielsen, Jace B King, Li Dai, Danielle M Giangrasso, Rachel Holman, Julie R Korenberg, Jeffrey S Anderson
High-level cognitive and emotional experience arises from brain activity, but the specific brain substrates for religious and spiritual euphoria remain unclear. We demonstrate using fMRI scans in 19 devout Mormons that a recognizable feeling central to their devotional practice was reproducibly associated with activation in nucleus accumbens, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and frontal attentional regions. Nucleus accumbens activation preceded peak spiritual feelings by 1-3 seconds and was replicated in 4 separate tasks...
November 11, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833536/patterns-of-activity-in-the-human-frontal-and-parietal-cortex-differentiate-large-and-small-saccades
#8
Marie-Hélène Grosbras
A vast literature indicates that small and large saccades, respectively, subserve different perceptual and cognitive strategies and may rely on different programming modes. While it is well-established that in monkeys' main oculomotor brain regions small and large eye movements are controlled by segregated neuronal populations, the representation of saccade amplitude in the human brain remains unclear. To address this question we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan participants while they performed saccades toward targets at either short (4°) or large (30°) eccentricity...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824897/functional-plasticity-after-unilateral-vestibular-midbrain-infarction-in-human-positron-emission-tomography
#9
Sandra Becker-Bense, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Bernhard Baier, Mathias Schreckenberger, Peter Bartenstein, Andreas Zwergal, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
The aim of the study was to uncover mechanisms of central compensation of vestibular function at brainstem, cerebellar, and cortical levels in patients with acute unilateral midbrain infarctions presenting with an acute vestibular tone imbalance. Eight out of 17 patients with unilateral midbrain infarctions were selected on the basis of signs of a vestibular tone imbalance, e.g., graviceptive (tilts of perceived verticality) and oculomotor dysfunction (skew deviation, ocular torsion) in F18-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET at two time points: A) in the acute stage, and B) after recovery 6 months later...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807140/fef-inactivation-with-improved-optogenetic-methods
#10
Leah Acker, Erica N Pino, Edward S Boyden, Robert Desimone
Optogenetic methods have been highly effective for suppressing neural activity and modulating behavior in rodents, but effects have been much smaller in primates, which have much larger brains. Here, we present a suite of technologies to use optogenetics effectively in primates and apply these tools to a classic question in oculomotor control. First, we measured light absorption and heat propagation in vivo, optimized the conditions for using the red-light-shifted halorhodopsin Jaws in primates, and developed a large-volume illuminator to maximize light delivery with minimal heating and tissue displacement...
November 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739609/disassociation-between-brain-activation-and-executive-function-in-fragile-x-premutation-females
#11
Annie L Shelton, Kim Cornish, Meaghan Clough, Sanuji Gajamange, Scott Kolbe, Joanne Fielding
Executive dysfunction has been demonstrated among premutation (PM) carriers (55-199 CGG repeats) of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Further, alterations to neural activation patterns have been reported during memory and comparison based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks in these carriers. For the first time, the relationships between fMRI neural activation during an interleaved ocular motor prosaccade/antisaccade paradigm, and concurrent task performance (saccade measures of latency, accuracy and error rate) in PM females were examined...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725571/cerebral-functional-response-during-eyelid-opening-closing-with-bell-s-phenomenon-and-volitional-vertical-eye-movements-in-humans
#12
Yukihisa Suzuki, Motohiro Kiyosawa, Kiichi Ishiwata, Keiichi Oda, Kenji Ishii
Bell's phenomenon is a physiological phenomenon wherein the eye ball involuntarily rolls upward during eyelid closing. Although this phenomenon occurs in healthy individuals, the neural mechanism related to Bell's phenomenon has not yet been identified. We aimed to investigate the brain regions relevant to Bell's phenomenon and volitional eye movement using [(15)O] H2O and positron emission tomography (PET). We measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 8 normal subjects under 3 conditions: at rest with eyes closed, during opening and closing of the eyelids in response to sound stimuli (lid opening/closing), and during vertical movement of the eyes with lids closed in response to sound stimuli (volitional eye movement)...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688202/cerebral-neural-correlates-of-differential-melanopic-photic-stimulation-in-humans
#13
Shao-Min Hung, Dan Milea, Annadata Venkata Rukmini, Raymond P Najjar, Joo Huang Tan, Françoise Viénot, Marie Dubail, Sharon Lee Choon Tow, Tin Aung, Joshua J Gooley, Po-Jang Hsieh
Photic stimulation of rods, cones and intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediates non-visual light responses, including entrainment of circadian rhythms and pupillary light reflex. Unlike visual responses to photic stimulation, the cerebral correlates of non-visual light responses in humans remains elusive. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 14 healthy young participants, to localize cerebral regions which are differentially activated by metameric light that gave rise to different levels of melanopic excitation...
September 26, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683894/visual-sensitivity-of-frontal-eye-field-neurons-during-the-preparation-of-saccadic-eye-movements
#14
Rebecca Marie Krock, Tirin Moore
Primate vision is continuously disrupted by saccadic eye movements, and yet this disruption goes unperceived. One mechanism thought to reduce perception of this self-generated movement is saccadic suppression, a global loss of visual sensitivity just before, during, and after saccadic eye movements. The frontal eye field (FEF) is a candidate source of neural correlates of saccadic suppression previously observed in visual cortex because it contributes to the generation of visually guided saccades and modulates visual cortical responses...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681616/two-subdivisions-of-macaque-lip-process-visual-oculomotor-information-differently
#15
Mo Chen, Bing Li, Jing Guang, Linyu Wei, Si Wu, Yu Liu, Mingsha Zhang
Although the cerebral cortex is thought to be composed of functionally distinct areas, the actual parcellation of area and assignment of function are still highly controversial. An example is the much-studied lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP). Despite the general agreement that LIP plays an important role in visual-oculomotor transformation, it remains unclear whether the area is primary sensory- or motor-related (the attention-intention debate). Although LIP has been considered as a functionally unitary area, its dorsal (LIPd) and ventral (LIPv) parts differ in local morphology and long-distance connectivity...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627877/a-meta-analysis-on-the-neural-basis-of-planning-activation-likelihood-estimation-of-functional-brain-imaging-results-in-the-tower-of-london-task
#16
Kai Nitschke, Lena Köstering, Lisa Finkel, Cornelius Weiller, Christoph P Kaller
The ability to mentally design and evaluate series of future actions has often been studied in terms of planning abilities, commonly using well-structured laboratory tasks like the Tower of London (ToL). Despite a wealth of studies, findings on the specific localization of planning processes within prefrontal cortex (PFC) and on the hemispheric lateralization are equivocal. Here, we address this issue by integrating evidence from two different sources of data: First, we provide a systematic overview of the existing lesion data on planning in the ToL (10 studies, 211 patients) which does not indicate any evidence for a general lateralization of planning processes in (pre)frontal cortex...
September 15, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607229/the-development-of-inhibitory-saccadic-trajectory-deviations-correlates-with-measures-of-antisaccadic-inhibition
#17
Greg L West, Sarah Lippé
Chronological age is related positively to a participant's ability to inhibit distracting information. Inhibition can be measured using the trajectory deviation of a saccade. Saccadic curvature away from distracting visual information is controlled through top-down inhibition mediated by the frontal eye fields. In the present study, we aimed to further test the saccadic trajectory deviation paradigm's sensitivity to the development of frontal inhibitory procuresses by comparing its measure of saccadic inhibition with that of a widely used paradigm, namely, the antisaccade task...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596931/a-hierarchy-of-timescales-explains-distinct-effects-of-local-inhibition-of-primary-visual-cortex-and-frontal-eye-fields
#18
Luca Cocchi, Martin V Sale, Leonardo L Gollo, Peter T Bell, Vinh T Nguyen, Andrew Zalesky, Michael Breakspear, Jason B Mattingley
Within the primate visual system, areas at lower levels of the cortical hierarchy process basic visual features, whereas those at higher levels, such as the frontal eye fields (FEF), are thought to modulate sensory processes via feedback connections. Despite these functional exchanges during perception, there is little shared activity between early and late visual regions at rest. How interactions emerge between regions encompassing distinct levels of the visual hierarchy remains unknown. Here we combined neuroimaging, non-invasive cortical stimulation and computational modelling to characterize changes in functional interactions across widespread neural networks before and after local inhibition of primary visual cortex or FEF...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555378/interactions-between-phasic-alerting-and-consciousness-in-the-fronto-striatal-network
#19
Ana B Chica, Dimitri J Bayle, Fabiano Botta, Paolo Bartolomeo, Pedro M Paz-Alonso
Only a small fraction of all the information reaching our senses can be the object of conscious report or voluntary action. Although some models propose that different attentional states (top-down amplification and vigilance) are necessary for conscious perception, few studies have explored how the brain activations associated with different attentional systems (such as top-down orienting and phasic alerting) lead to conscious perception of subsequent visual stimulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural mechanisms associated with endogenous spatial attention and phasic alertness, and their interaction with the conscious perception of near-threshold stimuli...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548085/speed-discrimination-in-the-far-monocular-periphery-a-relative-advantage-for-interocular-comparisons-consistent-with-self-motion
#20
Devon A Greer, Kathryn Bonnen, Alexander C Huk, Lawrence K Cormack
Some animals with lateral eyes (such as bees) control their navigation through the 3D world using velocity differences between the two eyes. Other animals with frontal eyes (such as primates, including humans) can perceive 3D motion based on the different velocities that a moving object projects upon the two retinae. Although one type of 3D motion perception involves a comparison between velocities from vastly different (monocular) portions of the visual field, and the other involves a comparison within overlapping (binocular) portions of the visual field, both compare velocities across the two eyes...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
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