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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741787/gonadal-hormones-modulate-the-hpa-axis-and-the-sns-in-response-to-psychosocial-stress
#1
Efrat Barel, Randa Abu-Shkara, Raul Colodner, Refaat Masalha, Lila Mahagna, Or Chen Zemel, Ami Cohen
Exposure to stress activates both the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). A growing body of research points to the contribution of sex hormones (testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone), the end products of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, in modulating stress reactivity. The present study aimed at investigating the potential modulating role of sex hormones on HPA and SNS reactivity to psychosocial stress. The reactivity, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test, was analyzed by measuring the levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase (markers for SNS activity) in four saliva samples each of 21 men and 37 women (17 not using oral contraceptives and in their luteal phase, and 20 women using oral contraceptives)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704202/role-of-hpa-and-the-hpg-axis-interaction-in-testosterone-mediated-learned-helpless-behavior
#2
Birgit Ludwig, Bhaskar Roy, Yogesh Dwivedi
Affective disorders show sex-specific differences in prevalence, symptoms, and complications. One hypothesis for this discrepancy is the interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The present study investigates the influence of androgen on the behavioral phenotype and explores how it interacts with HPA axis genes. Gonadectomized (GDX) and GDX rats treated with testosterone propionate (T) were tested for learned helplessness (LH) behavior and compared with tested controls (TC)...
April 28, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414035/hair-cortisol-and-the-relationship-with-chronic-pain-and-quality-of-life-in-endometriosis-patients
#3
Mieke van Aken, Joukje Oosterman, Tineke van Rijn, Magdalena Ferdek, Gé Ruigt, Tamas Kozicz, Didi Braat, Ard Peeters, Annemiek Nap
Endometriosis is a chronic estrogen-dependent disease in which pelvic pain is the dominant symptom. The negative effects of endometriosis on the life of women with this disease can be a cause of stress. Stress levels can be measured in different ways, mostly reflecting acute stress responses. Hair cortisol measurements are a reflection of long-term systematic cortisol levels. In this study a first attempt is made to measure cortisol levels in hair of endometriosis patients in comparison with healthy controls...
March 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338944/histological-and-morphofunctional-parameters-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-system-are-sensitive-to-daidzein-treatment-in-the-adult-rat
#4
Svetlana Trifunović, Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Nestorović, Nataša Ristić, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Lazo Pendovski, Verica Milošević
The isoflavone, daidzein is a biologically active, plant-derived compound that interacts with estrogen receptors. Data from previous studies have suggested that daidzein exerts beneficial effects in many diseases; however, as an endocrine disrupter, it may also alter the functioning of the endocrine system. Data regarding the effect of daidzein on the morphofunctional and histological parameters of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is still lacking. Therefore, using the newCAST stereological software, we investigated the effects of chronic (21 days) daidzein treatment on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons within the hypothalamus and corticotropes (ACTH cells) in the pituitary, while image analysis was employed to-examine the intensity of fluorescence of CRH in the median eminence (ME) and adrenocorticotropin hormone in the pituitary in adult orchidectomized (Ovx) rats...
February 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789949/reduced-hippocampal-il-10-expression-altered-monoaminergic-activity-and-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behavior-in-female-mice-subjected-to-chronic-social-instability-stress
#5
Ainitze Labaka, Eneritz Gómez-Lázaro, Oscar Vegas, Joana Pérez-Tejada, Amaia Arregi, Larraitz Garmendia
Evidence indicates that release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by social stress contributes to affective disorders. Additionally, there are known sex differences in both the stress response and the stressors that can elicit this response. In this regard, the chronic social instability (CSI) rodent model of stress appears to be the best fit for the social nature of females. This study analyzed the effects of CSI on female mouse behavior, hippocampal cytokine expression, tryptophan metabolism and monoaminergic activity...
August 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758220/distribution-and-chemical-composition-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-female-and-male-mouse-hypothalamus
#6
Mario G Oyola, Maranda K Thompson, Aaron Z Handa, Robert J Handa
Activation of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ)-expressing neurons regulates the mammalian stress response via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These neurons densely populate the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Recent research has revealed striking differences between rat and mouse PVN cytochemistry, but careful exploration of PVN ERβ neurons in mice has been hindered by a lack of specific ERβ antisera. Therefore, we used male and female transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the mouse ERβ promoter (ERβ-EGFP) to examine the chemical architecture of PVN ERβ cells...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408299/ovarian-hormones-modify-anxiety-behavior-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-after-chronic-social-isolation-stress
#7
Dinah L Ramos-Ortolaza, Raura J Doreste-Mendez, John K Alvarado-Torres, Annelyn Torres-Reveron
Chronic social isolation could lead to a disruption in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in anxiety and depressive-like behaviors but cycling estrogens could modify these behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in ovarian hormones during the normal cycle could interact with social isolation to alter anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. In parallel, we examined the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of Sprague Dawley normal cycling female rats...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341321/reprint-of-repeated-adolescent-activity-based-anorexia-influences-central-estrogen-signaling-and-adulthood-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-rats
#8
Tien-Jui Lee, Kimberly P Kinzig
Anorexia nervosa (AN) typically presents in adolescence and is highly comorbid with anxiety and depression, which often persist after elimination of AN symptomology. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm allows for evaluation of behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of AN-like behaviors, including voluntary anorexia, hyperactivity, and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Because ABA in adolescent females results in increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood and the estrogen signaling system has been shown to play a role in anxiety and food intake, we investigated the role of ovarian hormones in adolescent ABA-treated rats, and long-term effects of mid- and late adolescent ABA exposure on behavior and estrogen signaling...
September 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279754/estrogen-receptors-er%C3%AE-and-er%C3%AE-participation-in-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation-by-hemorrhagic-stress
#9
Luana Maria Silva-Alves, Procópio Cleber Gama de Barcelos Filho, Celso Rodrigues Franci
The sympato-adrenal-system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are anatomically and functionally connected with participation of several brain areas that express estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). We assessed the neuronal activity of these areas for FOS expression and the action of PPT (ERα agonist) or DPN (ERβ agonist) in HPA axis activity during hemorrhagic stress. Ovariectomized Wistar rats treated with vehicle (DMSO) or ER agonists were catheterized for blood collection. Animals received (control) or not (hemorrhagic) immediate reposition with the same volume of saline...
May 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209406/endocrine-and-physiological-effects-of-linuron-and-s-metolachlor-in-zebrafish-developing-embryos
#10
C Quintaneiro, D Patrício, S C Novais, A M V M Soares, M S Monteiro
Evaluation of the effects of linuron and S-metolachlor on apical, biochemical and transcriptional endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio) early life stages was the main purpose of this work. Embryos were exposed for 96h to a range of concentrations of each herbicide to determine lethal and sub-lethal effects on apical (e.g. malformations, hatching) and biochemical parameters (cholinesterase, ChE; catalase, CAT; glutathione S-transferase, GST; lipid peroxidation, LPO and lactate dehydrogenase, LDH). To evaluate endocrine disruption effects, embryos were exposed during 96h to 0...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126832/effect-of-%C3%AE-agonist-on-the-dexamethasone-induced-expression-of-aromatase-by-the-human-monocyte-cells
#11
Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno, Hiroshi Wachi
Emerging evidence suggests that sex steroids are important for human skin health. In particular, estrogen improves skin thickness, elasticity and moisture of older women. The major source of circulating estrogen is the ovary; however, local estrogen synthesis and secretion have important roles in, for example, bone metabolism and breast cancer development. We hypothesized that infiltrated peripheral monocytes are one of the sources of estrogen in skin tissues. We also hypothesized that, during atopic dermatitis under stress, a decline in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and facilitation of the (hypothalamus)-sympathetic-adrenomedullary system (SAM) attenuates estrogen secretion from monocytes...
February 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024269/aromatase-changes-in-depression-a-postmortem-and-animal-experimental-study
#12
Juan-Li Wu, Yang He, Radovan Hrubý, Rawien Balesar, Yang-Jian Qi, Lei Guo, Zhong Ren, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Man-Li Huang, Dick F Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
A hyperactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a prominent feature in depression. It has been shown that androgens inhibit HPA activity and that estrogens stimulate it. We have therefore investigated, in human postmortem hypothalamus, whether depression features an increase in aromatase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the conversion of androgens to estrogens. In addition, we have tested the effect of an aromatase inhibitor on depression-like symptoms in a frequently used animal model for depression...
March 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013353/changes-in-stress-stimulated-allopregnanolone-levels-induced-by-neonatal-estradiol-treatment-are-associated-with-enhanced-dopamine-release-in-adult-female-rats-reversal-by-progesterone-administration
#13
Patrizia Porcu, Valeria Lallai, Andrea Locci, Sandro Catzeddu, Valeria Serra, Maria Giuseppina Pisu, Mariangela Serra, Laura Dazzi, Alessandra Concas
BACKGROUND: Allopregnanolone plays a role in the stress response and homeostasis. Alterations in the estrogen milieu during the perinatal period influence brain development in a manner that persists into adulthood. Accordingly, we showed that a single administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the day of birth decreases brain allopregnanolone concentrations in adult female rats. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the persistent decrease in allopregnanolone concentrations, induced by neonatal EB treatment, might affect sensitivity to stress during adulthood...
March 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591239/adrenocorticotropic-hormone-elicits-gonadotropin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#14
Jurate Aleknaviciute, Joke H M Tulen, Mirjam Timmermans, Yolanda B de Rijke, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Frank H de Jong, Steven A Kushner
STUDY QUESTION: Does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induce gonadotropin release in premenopausal women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Administration of ACTH stimulates gonadotropin release, most likely by stimulation of the production of cortisol, in premenopausal women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In animal models, acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been shown to induce gonadotropin release in the presence of sufficiently high estrogen levels...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586511/opioid-induced-androgen-deficiency-opiad-diagnosis-management-and-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Timothy K O'Rourke, Matthew S Wosnitzer
Opioid-induced androgen deficiency (OPIAD) was initially recognized as a possible consequence of opioid use roughly four decades ago. Long-acting opioid use carries risks of addiction, tolerance, and systemic side effects including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with consequent testosterone depletion leading to multiple central and peripheral effects. Hypogonadism is induced through direct inhibitory action of opioids on receptors within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as well as testosterone production within the testes...
October 2016: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387482/gq-protein-coupled-membrane-initiated-estrogen-signaling-rapidly-excites-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-female-mice
#16
Pu Hu, Ji Liu, Ali Yasrebi, Juliet D Gotthardt, Nicholas T Bello, Zhiping P Pang, Troy A Roepke
CRH neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) play a central role in regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and are directly influenced by 17β-estradiol (E2). Although compelling evidence has suggested the existence of membrane-associated estrogen receptors (mERs) in hypothalamic and other central nervous system neurons, it remains unknown whether E2 impacts CRH neuronal excitability through this mechanism. The purpose of the current study is to examine the existence and function of mER signaling in PVN CRH neurons...
September 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358119/endocrinology-of-the-skin-intradermal-neuroimmune-network-a-new-frontier
#17
Al Caraffa, E Spinas, S K Kritas, G Lessiani, G Ronconi, A Saggini, P Antinolfi, J Pizzicannella, E Toniato, T C Theoharides, P Conti
Endocrinology systems exert an important effect on vascular function and have direct actions on blood vessels. Estrogens provoke an increase in skin elasticity, epidermal hydration, skin thickness, reduce skin wrinkles and augment the content of collagen and the level of vascularisation. Therefore, there is an intricate cross-talk between skin conditions and stress. In stress, β2--adrenoreceptor (β2AR) pathway, cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine increase DNA damage and interfere with the regulation of the cell cycle, contributing to aging and skin diseases...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186315/icariin-exerts-estrogen-like-activity-in-ameliorating-eae-via-mediating-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-modulating-hpa-function-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-expression
#18
Zhisheng Wei, Mengxia Wang, Mingfan Hong, Shengpeng Diao, Aiqun Liu, Yeqing Huang, Qingyun Yu, Zhongxing Peng
BACKGROUND: Estrogen exerts neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in EAE and multiple sclerosis (MS), but its clinical application is hindered due to side effects and risk of tumor. Phytoestrogen structurally or functionally mimics estrogen with fewer side effects than endogenous estrogen. Icariin (ICA), an active component of Epimedium extracts, demonstrates estrogen-like neuroprotective effects. However, it is unclear whether ICA is effective in EAE and what are the underlying mechanisms...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897383/revised-gh-and-cortisol-cut-points-for-the-glucagon-stimulation-test-in-the-evaluation-of-gh-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axes-in-adults-results-from-a-prospective-randomized-multicenter-study
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Amir H Hamrahian, Kevin C J Yuen, Murray B Gordon, Karen J Pulaski-Liebert, James Bena, Beverly M K Biller
CONTEXT: Recent studies suggest using lower GH cut-points for the glucagon stimulation test (GST) in diagnosing adult GH deficiency (GHD), especially in obese patients. There are limited data on evaluating GH and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes using weight-based dosing for the GST. OBJECTIVE: To define GH and cortisol cut-points to diagnose adult GHD and secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) using the GST, and to compare fixed-dose (FD: 1 or 1.5 mg in patients >90 kg) with weight-based dosing (WB: 0...
June 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26813805/genitourinary-mast-cells-and-survival
#20
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides, Julia M Stewart
Mast cells (MCs) are ubiquitous in the body, but they have historically been associated with allergies, and most recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation. However, it remains a puzzle why so many MCs are located in the diencephalon, which regulates emotions and in the genitourinary tract, including the bladder, prostate, penis, vagina and uterus that hardly ever get allergic reactions. A number of papers have reported that MCs have estrogen, gonadotropin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors...
October 2015: Translational Andrology and Urology
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