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estrogen HPA

Ainitze Labaka, Eneritz Gómez-Lázaro, Oscar Vegas, Joana Pérez-Tejada, Amaia Arregi, Larraitz Garmendia
Evidence indicates that release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by social stress contributes to affective disorders. Additionally, there are known sex differences in both the stress response and the stressors that can elicit this response. In this regard, the chronic social instability (CSI) rodent model of stress appears to be the best fit for the social nature of females. This study analyzed the effects of CSI on female mouse behavior, hippocampal cytokine expression, tryptophan metabolism and monoaminergic activity...
August 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Mario G Oyola, Maranda K Thompson, Aaron Z Handa, Robert J Handa
Activation of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ)-expressing neurons regulates the mammalian stress response via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These neurons densely populate the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Recent research has revealed striking differences between rat and mouse PVN cytochemistry, but careful exploration of PVN ERβ neurons in mice has been hindered by a lack of specific ERβ antisera. Therefore, we used male and female transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the mouse ERβ promoter (ERβ-EGFP) to examine the chemical architecture of PVN ERβ cells...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Dinah L Ramos-Ortolaza, Raura J Doreste-Mendez, John K Alvarado-Torres, Annelyn Torres-Reveron
Chronic social isolation could lead to a disruption in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in anxiety and depressive-like behaviors but cycling estrogens could modify these behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in ovarian hormones during the normal cycle could interact with social isolation to alter anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. In parallel, we examined the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of Sprague Dawley normal cycling female rats...
April 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Tien-Jui Lee, Kimberly P Kinzig
Anorexia nervosa (AN) typically presents in adolescence and is highly comorbid with anxiety and depression, which often persist after elimination of AN symptomology. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm allows for evaluation of behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of AN-like behaviors, including voluntary anorexia, hyperactivity, and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Because ABA in adolescent females results in increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood and the estrogen signaling system has been shown to play a role in anxiety and food intake, we investigated the role of ovarian hormones in adolescent ABA-treated rats, and long-term effects of mid- and late adolescent ABA exposure on behavior and estrogen signaling...
March 21, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Luana Maria Silva-Alves, Procópio Cleber Gama de Barcelos Filho, Celso Rodrigues Franci
The sympato-adrenal-system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are anatomically and functionally connected with participation of several brain areas that express estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). We assessed the neuronal activity of these areas for FOS expression and the action of PPT (ERα agonist) or DPN (ERβ agonist) in HPA axis activity during hemorrhagic stress. Ovariectomized Wistar rats treated with vehicle (DMSO) or ER agonists were catheterized for blood collection. Animals received (control) or not (hemorrhagic) immediate reposition with the same volume of saline...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
C Quintaneiro, D Patrício, S C Novais, A M V M Soares, M S Monteiro
Evaluation of the effects of linuron and S-metolachlor on apical, biochemical and transcriptional endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio) early life stages was the main purpose of this work. Embryos were exposed for 96h to a range of concentrations of each herbicide to determine lethal and sub-lethal effects on apical (e.g. malformations, hatching) and biochemical parameters (cholinesterase, ChE; catalase, CAT; glutathione S-transferase, GST; lipid peroxidation, LPO and lactate dehydrogenase, LDH). To evaluate endocrine disruption effects, embryos were exposed during 96h to 0...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno, Hiroshi Wachi
Emerging evidence suggests that sex steroids are important for human skin health. In particular, estrogen improves skin thickness, elasticity and moisture of older women. The major source of circulating estrogen is the ovary; however, local estrogen synthesis and secretion have important roles in, for example, bone metabolism and breast cancer development. We hypothesized that infiltrated peripheral monocytes are one of the sources of estrogen in skin tissues. We also hypothesized that, during atopic dermatitis under stress, a decline in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and facilitation of the (hypothalamus)-sympathetic-adrenomedullary system (SAM) attenuates estrogen secretion from monocytes...
February 2017: Endocrine Connections
Juan-Li Wu, Yang He, Radovan Hrubý, Rawien Balesar, Yang-Jian Qi, Lei Guo, Zhong Ren, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Man-Li Huang, Dick F Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
A hyperactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a prominent feature in depression. It has been shown that androgens inhibit HPA activity and that estrogens stimulate it. We have therefore investigated, in human postmortem hypothalamus, whether depression features an increase in aromatase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the conversion of androgens to estrogens. In addition, we have tested the effect of an aromatase inhibitor on depression-like symptoms in a frequently used animal model for depression...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Patrizia Porcu, Valeria Lallai, Andrea Locci, Sandro Catzeddu, Valeria Serra, Maria Giuseppina Pisu, Mariangela Serra, Laura Dazzi, Alessandra Concas
BACKGROUND: Allopregnanolone plays a role in the stress response and homeostasis. Alterations in the estrogen milieu during the perinatal period influence brain development in a manner that persists into adulthood. Accordingly, we showed that a single administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the day of birth decreases brain allopregnanolone concentrations in adult female rats. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the persistent decrease in allopregnanolone concentrations, induced by neonatal EB treatment, might affect sensitivity to stress during adulthood...
March 2017: Psychopharmacology
Jurate Aleknaviciute, Joke H M Tulen, Mirjam Timmermans, Yolanda B de Rijke, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Frank H de Jong, Steven A Kushner
STUDY QUESTION: Does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induce gonadotropin release in premenopausal women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Administration of ACTH stimulates gonadotropin release, most likely by stimulation of the production of cortisol, in premenopausal women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In animal models, acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been shown to induce gonadotropin release in the presence of sufficiently high estrogen levels...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
Timothy K O'Rourke, Matthew S Wosnitzer
Opioid-induced androgen deficiency (OPIAD) was initially recognized as a possible consequence of opioid use roughly four decades ago. Long-acting opioid use carries risks of addiction, tolerance, and systemic side effects including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with consequent testosterone depletion leading to multiple central and peripheral effects. Hypogonadism is induced through direct inhibitory action of opioids on receptors within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as well as testosterone production within the testes...
October 2016: Current Urology Reports
Pu Hu, Ji Liu, Ali Yasrebi, Juliet D Gotthardt, Nicholas T Bello, Zhiping P Pang, Troy A Roepke
CRH neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) play a central role in regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and are directly influenced by 17β-estradiol (E2). Although compelling evidence has suggested the existence of membrane-associated estrogen receptors (mERs) in hypothalamic and other central nervous system neurons, it remains unknown whether E2 impacts CRH neuronal excitability through this mechanism. The purpose of the current study is to examine the existence and function of mER signaling in PVN CRH neurons...
September 2016: Endocrinology
Al Caraffa, E Spinas, S K Kritas, G Lessiani, G Ronconi, A Saggini, P Antinolfi, J Pizzicannella, E Toniato, T C Theoharides, P Conti
Endocrinology systems exert an important effect on vascular function and have direct actions on blood vessels. Estrogens provoke an increase in skin elasticity, epidermal hydration, skin thickness, reduce skin wrinkles and augment the content of collagen and the level of vascularisation. Therefore, there is an intricate cross-talk between skin conditions and stress. In stress, β2--adrenoreceptor (β2AR) pathway, cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine increase DNA damage and interfere with the regulation of the cell cycle, contributing to aging and skin diseases...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Zhisheng Wei, Mengxia Wang, Mingfan Hong, Shengpeng Diao, Aiqun Liu, Yeqing Huang, Qingyun Yu, Zhongxing Peng
BACKGROUND: Estrogen exerts neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in EAE and multiple sclerosis (MS), but its clinical application is hindered due to side effects and risk of tumor. Phytoestrogen structurally or functionally mimics estrogen with fewer side effects than endogenous estrogen. Icariin (ICA), an active component of Epimedium extracts, demonstrates estrogen-like neuroprotective effects. However, it is unclear whether ICA is effective in EAE and what are the underlying mechanisms...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Amir H Hamrahian, Kevin C J Yuen, Murray B Gordon, Karen J Pulaski-Liebert, James Bena, Beverly M K Biller
CONTEXT: Recent studies suggest using lower GH cut-points for the glucagon stimulation test (GST) in diagnosing adult GH deficiency (GHD), especially in obese patients. There are limited data on evaluating GH and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes using weight-based dosing for the GST. OBJECTIVE: To define GH and cortisol cut-points to diagnose adult GHD and secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) using the GST, and to compare fixed-dose (FD: 1 or 1.5 mg in patients >90 kg) with weight-based dosing (WB: 0...
June 2016: Pituitary
Theoharis C Theoharides, Julia M Stewart
Mast cells (MCs) are ubiquitous in the body, but they have historically been associated with allergies, and most recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation. However, it remains a puzzle why so many MCs are located in the diencephalon, which regulates emotions and in the genitourinary tract, including the bladder, prostate, penis, vagina and uterus that hardly ever get allergic reactions. A number of papers have reported that MCs have estrogen, gonadotropin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors...
October 2015: Translational Andrology and Urology
C Lemini, E García-Albor, B Cruz-López, G Matamoros-Trejo, L Martínez-Mota
Estrogens of clinical use produce consistent antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects in animal models of menopause. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) or stress axis, has been proposed as a pathway through which estrogens improve affective-like behaviors. Anticoagulant 17β-aminoestrogens (17β-AEs) butolame and pentolame mimic some effects of estradiol (E2), i.e., on female rodent sexual behavior, with opposite actions on coagulation. However, their psychoactive actions have not been explored...
January 4, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Mario G Oyola, Damian G Zuloaga, David Carbone, Anna M Malysz, Alexandra Acevedo-Rodriguez, Robert J Handa, Shaila K Mani
In addition to androgenic properties mediated via androgen receptors, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) also regulates estrogenic functions via an alternate pathway. These estrogenic functions of DHT are mediated by its metabolite 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3β-diol) binding to estrogen receptor β (ERβ). CYP7B1 enzyme converts 3β-diol to inactive 6α- or 7α-triols and plays an important role as a regulator of estrogenic functions mediated by 3β-diol. Using a mutant mouse carrying a null mutation for the CYP7B1 gene (CYP7B1KO), we examined the contribution of CYP7B1 on physiology and behavior...
June 2015: Endocrinology
Rong Zhou, Fang Chen, Xuejiao Feng, Libin Zhou, Yingchun Li, Ling Chen
AIMS: The present study focuses on detecting anxiety-like behavior and associated neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats exposed perinatally to bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimicking endocrine disrupter and investigating the possible involvement of metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptors (mGlu2/3 receptors) in BPA-induced anxiogenic effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: When female breeders were administered orally with BPA (40 μg/kg/d) during pregnancy and lactation, their pups (here named 'BPA-exposed offspring') developed an anxiety-like phenotype, characterized by the hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated negative feedback regulation of the HPA axis, altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity and increased anxiety-like behaviors...
May 2015: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Daphna Fenchel, Yechiel Levkovitz, Ella Vainer, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar, Hagit Cohen
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a major role in the response to stress, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis are closely linked with the ability to inhibit the other. Testosterone, a product of the HPG, has many beneficial effects beyond its functions as a sex hormone including anti-anxiety properties. In this study we examined the effect of stress exposure on gonadal hormones, and their efficacy in modulating anxiety-like response in an animal model of PTSD. Male rats were exposed to predator scent stress, followed by analysis of brain expression of androgen receptor (AR) receptor and estrogen receptor α (ERα)...
June 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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