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liver detoxification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156655/the-role-of-glyoxalase-i-glo-i-advanced-glycation-endproducts-ages-and-their-receptor-rage-in-chronic-liver-disease-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc
#1
REVIEW
Marcus Hollenbach
Glyoxalase-I (Glo-I) and glyoxalase-II (Glo-II) comprise the glyoxalase system and are responsible for the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO is formed non-enzymatically as a by-product, mainly in glycolysis, and leads to the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). AGEs bind to their receptor, RAGE, and activate intracellular transcription factors, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This review will focus on the implication of the Glo-I/AGE/RAGE system in liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140290/ameliorative-effects-of-grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract-on-growth-performance-immune-function-antioxidant-capacity-biochemical-constituents-liver-histopathology-and-aflatoxin-residues-in-broilers-exposed-to-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2
#2
Shahid Ali Rajput, Lvhui Sun, Niya Zhang, Mahmoud Mohamed Khalil, Xin Gao, Zhao Ling, Luoyi Zhu, Farhan Anwar Khan, Jiacai Zhang, Desheng Qi
Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1...
November 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136249/natural-polyphenol-chlorogenic-acid-protects-against-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-activating-erk-nrf2-antioxidative-pathway
#3
Mengjuan Wei, Zhiyong Zheng, Liang Shi, Yao Jin, Lili Ji
Hepatotoxicity due to acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in clinic. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a dietary polyphenol, was reported to prevent APAP-induced liver injury in our previous studies. This study aims to investigate the protection provided by CGA against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity via focusing on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2. CGA prevented APAP-induced oxidative liver injury and enhanced Nrf2 activation in mice and in hepatocytes in vitro...
November 10, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129047/hepaprotective-effect-of-standardized-ecklonia-stolonifera-formulation-on-ccl%C3%A2-induced-liver-injury-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#4
Jae-Hyuk Byun, Jun Kim, Se-Young Choung
The liver is an essential organ for the detoxification of exogenous xenobiotics, drugs and toxic substances. The incidence rate of non-alcoholic liver injury increases due to dietary habit change and drug use increase. Our previous study demonstrated that Ecklonia stolonifera (ES) formulation has hepatoprotective effect against alcohol-induced liver injury in rat and tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells. This present study was designated to elucidate hepatoprotective effects of ES formulation against carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver injury in Sprague Dawley rat...
November 13, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119141/case-report-ursodeoxycholic-acid-treatment-in-niemann-pick-disease-type-c-clinical-experience-in-four-cases
#5
William R H Evans, Elena-Raluca Nicoli, Raymond Y Wang, Nina Movsesyan, Frances M Platt
In this case series, we demonstrate that Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) improves liver dysfunction in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) and may restore a suppressed cytochrome p450 system. NPC disease is a progressive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. Liver disease is a common feature presenting either acutely as cholestatic jaundice in the neonatal period, or in later life as elevated liver enzymes indicative of liver dysfunction. Recently, an imbalance in bile acid synthesis in a mouse model of NPC disease was linked to suppression of the P450 detoxification system and was corrected by UDCA treatment...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108910/effects-of-nrf2-deficiency-on-arsenic-metabolism-in-mice
#6
Huihui Wang, Jiayu Zhu, Lu Li, Yongfang Li, Hang Lv, Yuanyuan Xu, Guifan Sun, Jingbo Pi
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a known toxicant and carcinogen. Worldwide arsenic exposure has become a threat to human health. The severity of arsenic toxicity is strongly correlated with the speed of arsenic metabolism (methylation) and clearance. Furthermore, oxidative stress is recognized as a major mechanism for arsenic-induced toxicity. Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key regulator in cellular adaptive antioxidant response, is clearly involved in alleviation of arsenic-induced oxidative damage...
December 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108185/-immune-status-of-liver-failure-patients-and-related-immune-regulation-therapy
#7
Z H Lu, J H Gan
Liver failure refers to a series of clinical syndromes manifesting as coagulation disorders, jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, and other decompensated abnormalities due to serious hepatic dysfunction or decompensation in terms of synthesis, detoxification, excretion, and biological transformation caused by a variety of factors. In recent years, with the development of the research on immunological pathogenesis of liver failure, the "three-hit" theory clarifies the pathogenesis of liver failure. Major therapeutic strategies for liver failure are to prevent hepatocyte necrosis, promote hepatocyte regeneration, create a good internal environment for hepatocyte regeneration, and actively prevent and treat complications...
September 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108062/detoxification-metabolism-and-glutathione-pathway-activity-of-aflatoxin-b1-by-dietary-lactic-acid-bacteria-in-broiler-chickens
#8
N Liu, K Ding, J Q Wang, S C Jia, J P Wang, T S Xu
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the glutathione (GSH) pathway are protective against aflatoxin, but information on the effect of LAB on aflatoxin metabolism and GSH activity in farm animals is scarce. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LAB and aflatoxin B (AFB) on growth performance, aflatoxin metabolism, and GSH pathway activity using 480 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens from d 1 to 35 of age. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, including AFB at 0 or 40 µg/kg of feed and LAB at 0 or 3 × 10 cfu/kg of feed, and the LAB was a mixture of equal amounts of , , and ...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107372/hepatotoxicity-of-paraquat-on-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#9
Junguo Ma, Yuanyuan Li, Weiguo Li, Xiaoyu Li
Paraquat (PQ) is a nonselective herbicide that is used worldwide and has been demonstrated to be a high risk to aquatic organisms. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms on detoxification and hepatotoxicity of PQ in fish. In the present study, a sub-acute toxicity test of PQ exposure on common carp at 1.596 and 3.192mgL(-1) for 7d was conducted under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the transcriptional levels of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), such as CYP1A, CYP2K, and CYP3A138, GSTα and GSTpi, and export pump gene MDR1, as well as the erythromycin-N-demethylase (ERND) activity were generally up-regulated by PQ exposure for 7d, indicating that these genes or enzymes are potentially involved in the detoxification of PQ in the fish liver...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099071/%C3%A2-h-nmr-based-metabonomics-of-the-protective-effect-of-coptis-chinensis-and-berberine-on-cinnabar-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#10
Guangyue Su, Haifeng Wang, Yuxian Gao, Gang Chen, Yuehu Pei, Jiao Bai
Coptis chinensis Franch has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases for over two thousand years. Berberine (BN), an isoquinoline alkaloid, is the main component of Coptis chinensis. The pharmacological basis for its therapeutic effects, which include hepatoprotective effects on liver injuries, has been studied intensively, yet the therapy of liver injuries and underlying mechanism remain unclear. We investigated the detoxification mechanism of Coptis chinensis and berberine using metabolomics of urine and serum in the present study...
November 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082704/-absorption-enhancing-effects-and-safety-of-pamam-dendrimers-on-liquiritin
#11
Wen-Jun Qu, Hui-Fang Li, Yuan-Yuan Su, Zheng-Qi Dong, Yan-Ru Ge
PAMAM dendrimer is one of the most widely studied dendrimers in recent years, which has a large number of functional groups on the surface and cavities inside, specific three-dimensional structure and good biocompatibility, permeability and stability. It has been widely applied in drug and gene carrier fields and may become a new absorption enhancer. In order to study the absorption enhancing effects of PAMAM dendrimers, liquiritin was selected as the model drug, with the protection of spleen and liver, detoxification and other functions, but it had not been widely used in clinical application because of its difficult absorption, first pass effect, and low bioavailability...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073523/molecular-oxidative-stress-markers-in-olive-ridley-turtles-lepidochelys-olivacea-and-their-relation-to-metal-concentrations-in-wild-populations
#12
Adriana A Cortés-Gómez, Patricia Morcillo, Francisco A Guardiola, Cristobal Espinosa, María A Esteban, Alberto Cuesta, Marc Girondot, Diego Romero
Due to their longevity and extensive migration areas, marine turtles are able to accumulate diverse contaminants over many years and as a consequence they represent an interesting bioindicator species for marine ecosystem pollution. Metals provoke toxicological effects in many aquatic animal species, but marine turtles have been under-investigated in this area. Thus, we have determined the presence of certain inorganic elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) and related them to metallothionein (MT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) transcription and/or enzymatic activities...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072258/a-metabolic-mechanism-analysis-of-fuzheng-huayu-formula-for-improving-liver-cirrhosis-with-traditional-chinese-medicine-syndromes
#13
Ya-Nan Song, Jian Chen, Fei-Fei Cai, Yi-Yu Lu, Qi-Long Chen, Yong-Yu Zhang, Ping Liu, Shi-Bing Su
Fuzheng-Huayu formula (FZHY), a Chinese herbal mixture pre¬scription, has been proven effective in treating liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in both clinical trials and animal experiments. In this study we assessed the metabolic mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome-based FZHY treatment in liver cirrhosis (LC). A total of 113 participants, including 50 healthy controls and 63 LC patients, were recruited. According to the diagnosis and differentiation of the TCM syndromes, the LC patients were classified into 5 TCM syndrome groups including the liver stagnation syndrome (LSS), spleen deficiency and damp overabun¬dance syndrome (SDDOS), damp-heat accumulation syndrome (DHAS), liver-kidney Yin deficiency syndrome (LKYDS), and blood stagnation syndrome (BSS), and administered FZHY for 6 months...
October 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071511/folding-defects-leading-to-primary-hyperoxaluria
#14
Elisa Oppici, Mirco Dindo, Carolina Conter, Carla Borri Voltattorni, Barbara Cellini
Protein misfolding is becoming one of the main mechanisms underlying inherited enzymatic deficits. This review is focused on primary hyperoxalurias, a group of disorders of glyoxylate detoxification associated with massive calcium oxalate deposition mainly in the kidneys. The most common and severe form, primary hyperoxaluria Type I, is due to the deficit of liver peroxisomal alanine/glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). Various studies performed in the last decade clearly evidence that many pathogenic missense mutations prevent the AGT correct folding, leading to various downstream effects including aggregation, increased degradation or mistargeting to mitochondria...
October 26, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066969/improved-progression-free-survival-in-irinotecan-treated-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients-carrying-the-hnf1a-coding-variant-p-i27l
#15
Adrien Labriet, Elena De Mattia, Erika Cecchin, Éric Lévesque, Derek Jonker, Félix Couture, Angela Buonadonna, Mario D'Andrea, Lyne Villeneuve, Giuseppe Toffoli, Chantal Guillemette
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1A) is a liver-enriched transcription factor that plays a key role in many aspects of hepatic functions including detoxification processes. We examined whether HNF1A polymorphisms are associated with clinical outcomes in two independent cohorts combining 417 European ancestry patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with irinotecan-based chemotherapy. The intronic rs2244608A>G marker was predictive of an improved progression-free survival with a trend in the Canadian cohort and reaching significance in the Italian cohort, with hazard ratios (HR) of 0...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062912/differential-response-of-the-liver-to-bile-acid-treatment-in-a-mouse-model-of-niemann-pick-disease-type-c
#16
Elena-Raluca Nicoli, David Smith, Lauren Morris, Frances M Platt
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. Liver disease is also a common feature of NPC that can present as cholestatic jaundice in the neonatal period. Liver enzymes can remain elevated above the normal range in some patients as they age. We recently reported suppression of the P450 detoxification system in a mouse model of NPC disease and in post-mortem liver from NPC patients. As bile acids regulate the P450 system, we tested bile acid treatment using ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; 3α, 7β-dihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid), a hydrophilic bile acid, which is used to treat several cholestatic disorders...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058732/selenium-mediated-arsenic-excretion-in-mammals-a-synchrotron-based-study-of-whole-body-distribution-and-tissue-specific-chemistry
#17
Olena Ponomarenko, Paul F La Porte, Satya P Singh, George Langan, David E B Fleming, Julian E Spallholz, Mohammad Alauddin, Habibul Ahsan, Selim Ahmed, Jürgen Gailer, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering
Arsenicosis, a syndrome caused by ingestion of arsenic contaminated drinking water, currently affects millions of people in South-East Asia and elsewhere. Previous animal studies revealed that the toxicity of arsenite essentially can be abolished if selenium is co-administered as selenite. Although subsequent studies have provided some insight into the biomolecular basis of this striking antagonism, many details of the biochemical pathways that ultimately result in the detoxification and excretion of arsenic using selenium supplements have yet to be thoroughly studied...
November 15, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032388/ethanol-metabolism-varies-with-hypoxia-tolerance-in-ten-cyprinid-species
#18
Rashpal S Dhillon, Milica Mandic, Lili Yao, Zhen-Dong Cao, Shi-Jian Fu, Colin J Brauner, Yuxiang S Wang, Jeffrey G Richards
During periods of severe hypoxia or anoxia, Carassius spp. are known for their ability to produce ethanol as their anaerobic end product, which diffuses into the environment thereby reducing the osmotic and acidotic load associated with "anaerobic" glycolysis. However, the relationship between alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities, key ethanol metabolizing enzymes, and hypoxia tolerance among Carassius spp. and their closely related non-ethanol-producing cyprinids remains unclear...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030272/impact-of-fasting-followed-by-short-term-exposure-to-interleukin-6-on-cytochrome-p450-mrna-in-mice
#19
Martin Krøyer Rasmussen, Lærke Bertholdt, Anders Gudiksen, Henriette Pilegaard, Jakob G Knudsen
The gene expression of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme family is regulated by numerous factors. Fasting has been shown to induce increased hepatic CYP mRNA in both humans and animals. However, the coordinated regulation of CYP, CYP-regulating transcription factors, and transcriptional co-factors in the liver linking energy metabolism to detoxification has never been investigated. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been suggested to be released during fasting and has been shown to regulate CYP expression. The present study investigated the hepatic mRNA content of selected CYP, AhR, CAR, PXR and PPARα in mice fasted for 18h and subsequently exposed to IL-6...
October 10, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988043/metabolic-signatures-of-bisphenol-a-and-genistein-in-atlantic-salmon-liver-cells
#20
Pål A Olsvik, Kaja H Skjærven, Liv Søfteland
Screening has revealed that aquafeeds with high inclusion of plant material may contain small amounts of endocrine disrupting agricultural pesticides. In this work, bisphenol A (BPA) and genistein (GEN) were selected as model endocrine disrupting toxicants with impact on DNA methylation in fish. Atlantic salmon hepatocytes were exposed in vitro to four concentrations of BPA and GEN (0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 μM) for 48 h. Toxicity endpoints included cytotoxicity, global DNA methylation, targeted transcriptomics and metabolomic screening (100 μM)...
December 2017: Chemosphere
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