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liver detoxification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913847/patulin-transformation-products-and-last-intermediates-in-its-biosynthetic-pathway-e-and-z-ascladiol-are-not-toxic-to-human-cells
#1
Joanna Tannous, Selma P Snini, Rhoda El Khoury, Cécile Canlet, Philippe Pinton, Yannick Lippi, Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Thierry Gauthier, André El Khoury, Ali Atoui, Ting Zhou, Roger Lteif, Isabelle P Oswald, Olivier Puel
Patulin is the main mycotoxin contaminating apples. During the brewing of alcoholic beverages, this mycotoxin is degraded to ascladiol, which is also the last precursor of patulin. The present study aims (1) to characterize the last step of the patulin biosynthetic pathway and (2) to describe the toxicity of ascladiol. A patE deletion mutant was generated in Penicillium expansum. In contrast to the wild strain, this mutant does not produce patulin but accumulates high levels of E-ascladiol with few traces of Z-ascladiol...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910771/induction-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-in-mice-by-oral-administration-of-phellinus-baumii-agaricomycetes-extract
#2
Batbayar Sainkhuu, Beom Su Park, Ha Won Kim
Phellinus baumii is a yellow mushroom long used in alternative medicine in Korea and other central Asian countries. To identify genes affected by a single or 7-day oral administration of a water extract of Ph. Baumii, mouse liver tissue was analyzed using microarrays. The results showed that 8 and 23 genes were upregulated and 3 and 11 genes downregulated more than 3-fold by single and multiple oral administrations of 100 mg/kg PBE, respectively. Among the upregulated genes, the expression of 3 flavin-containing monooxygenase (Fmo) family genes, Fmo2-4, was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907862/alteration-of-%C3%AE-n-acetylgalactosaminidase-nagalase-concentration-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-without-liver-disease-during-the-detoxification-therapy
#3
Margarita Zoga, Thomas Nikou, Anastasios Ioannidis, Elias Tzavellas, Thomas Paparrigopoulos, Konstantinos Th Lambrokostopoulos, Vassilis G Vasdekis, Maria Magana, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate for the first time, the alteration of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) concentration in alcohol-dependent individuals without liver disease, before, during and at the end of the detoxification therapy. METHODS: Forty-eight alcohol-dependent individuals without liver disease who were admitted for alcohol detoxification, and eighty-four healthy controls participated in this study. Patients' blood was obtained upon admission, two weeks later and after the completion of the detoxification period (4-5 weeks)...
November 16, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905861/sodium-bisulfite-pyrosequencing-revealed-that-developmental-exposure-to-environmental-contaminant-mixtures-does-not-affect-dna-methylation-of-dna-repeats-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#4
Daniel Desaulniers, Cathy Cummings-Lorbetskie, Nanqin Li, Gong-Hua Xiao, Leonora Marro, Nasrin Khan, Karen Leingartner
Hypomethylation of DNA repeats has been linked to diseases and cancer predisposition. Human studies suggest that higher blood concentrations of environmental contaminants (EC) correlate with levels of hypomethylation of DNA repeats in blood. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of in utero and/or lactational exposure to EC on the methylation of DNA repeats (LINE-1 and identifier element) in Sprague-Dawley rat pups at birth, at postnatal day (PND) 21, and in adulthood (PND78-86). From gestation day 0 to PND20, dams were exposed to a mixture "M" of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg), at 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904813/glycyrrhetinic-acid-might-increase-the-nephrotoxicity-of-bakuchiol-by-inhibiting-cytochrome-p450-isoenzymes
#5
Aifang Li, Nana Ma, Zijing Zhao, Mei Yuan, Hua Li, Qi Wang
BACKGROUND: Licorice, a popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely used to moderate the effects (detoxification) of other herbs in TCM and often combined with Fructus Psoraleae. However, the classical TCM book states that Fructus Psoraleae is incompatible with licorice; the mechanism underlying this incompatibility has not been identified. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the active metabolite of licorice, may increase the toxicity of bakuchiol (BAK), the main chemical ingredient in Psoralea corylifolia, by inhibiting its detoxification enzymes CYP450s...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901316/small-subcompartmentalized-microreactors-as-support-for-hepatocytes
#6
Yan Zhang, Marie Baekgaard-Laursen, Brigitte Städler
Mimicking specific structural or functional aspects of cells is considered a promising approach to substitute for missing or lost cellular functions. However, the interaction of such artificial assemblies with their biological counterparts including the exploitation of the activity of the synthetic partner remains thus-far a rather unexplored avenue. Herein, the assembly of active microreactors with similar size to hepatocytes is reported. These microreactors are successfully cocultured with hepatocytes into bionic tissue for up to 10 d...
November 30, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894054/immunolocalization-of-metallothionein-in-hepatocytes-of-guppy-fish-poecilia-reticulata-exposed-to-tannery-effluent-a-biomarker-study
#7
Anulipi Aich, Buddhadeb Chattopadhyay, Subhra Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Composite tannery effluent (TE) contaminated with a load of metals, especially chromium, is used in East Calcutta Wetland Ecosystem (ECW; a Ramsar site of West Bengal; No 1208) after natural stabilization for pisciculture and agriculture. Quantity and synergistic and antagonistic activities of both essential and nonessential metals in the effluents can induce a variety of complex changes in animal physiology. High fish yield and no apparent adverse influence on the fish biosystems thriving under pollutant stress at ECW allowed the practice to thrive sustainably over the last nearly 100 years...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891735/hyperammonemia-in-ornithine-transcarbamylase-deficient-recipients-following-living-donor-liver-transplantation-from-heterozygous-carrier-donors
#8
Tri Hening Rahayatri, Hajime Uchida, Kengo Sasaki, Takanobu Shigeta, Yoshihiro Hirata, Hiroyuki Kanazawa, Vidyadhar Mali, Akinari Fukuda, Seisuke Sakamoto, Mureo Kasahara
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is a urea cycle disorder of X-linked inheritance, affecting the detoxification of excess nitrogen and leading to hyperammonemia (hyper-NH3 ). Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been applied for the treatment of OTCD. This case series retrospectively reviewed two OTCD patients who experienced hyper-NH3 following LDLT. The first case was a 5-year-old girl who had onset of OTCD at 2 years of age. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) enzyme activity was 62% for the donor and 15% for the recipient...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890540/association-of-plasma-calcium-concentrations-with-alcohol-craving-new-data-on-potential-pathways
#9
Rilana Schuster, Anne Koopmann, Martin Grosshans, Iris Reinhard, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer
Recently, calcium was suggested to be the active moiety of acamprosate. We examined plasma calcium concentrations in association with severity of alcohol dependence and its interaction with regulating pathways and alcohol craving in alcohol-dependent patients. 47 inpatient alcohol-dependent patients undergoing detoxification treatment underwent laboratory testing, including calcium, sodium, liver enzymes as well as serum concentrations of calcitonin, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D. The psychometric dimension of craving was analyzed with the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)...
November 24, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889848/changes-of-ammonia-urea-contents-and-transaminase-activity-in-the-body-during-aerial-exposure-and-ammonia-loading-in-chinese-loach-paramisgurnus-dabryanus
#10
Yun-Long Zhang, Hai-Long Zhang, Ling-Yu Wang, Bei-Yi Gu, Qi-Xue Fan
The Paramisgurnus dabryanus was exposed to 30 mmol L(-1) NH4Cl solution and air to assessing the change of body ammonia and urea contents and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). After 48 h of ammonia exposure, ammonia concentration in the plasma, brain, liver and muscle were 3.3-fold, 5.6-fold, 3.5-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively, those of the control values. Plasma, brain, liver and muscle ammonia concentrations increased to 2.2-fold, 3.3-fold, 2.5-fold and 2...
November 26, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889508/physiological-responses-and-changes-in-gene-expression-in-the-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea-following-exposure-to-hypoxia
#11
Qian-Feng Wang, Wei-Liang Shen, Cong-Cong Hou, Cheng Liu, Xiong-Fei Wu, Jun-Quan Zhu
Organisms at all levels of evolutionary complexity react to hypoxic stress. To clarify the effects of acute hypoxia on physiological and biochemical responses of Larimichthys crocea, we measured the activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, hemoglobin concentration, functional indices of the liver (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase), heart (phosphocreatine kinase), and immune system (alkaline phosphatase), as well as mRNA expression levels of the immunity-related genes Hsp70 and HIF-1α at different time points of hypoxic...
November 24, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885867/protein-corona-modulation-of-hepatocyte-uptake-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-gold-nanoparticle-toxicity
#12
Kyoungju Choi, Jim E Riviere, Nancy A Monteiro-Riviere
Protein corona formation over gold nanoparticles (AuNP) can modulate cellular responses by altering AuNP physicochemical properties. The liver plays an essential role in metabolism, detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and drugs as well as circulating NP clearance. We investigated human hepatic uptake of 40 and 80nm AuNP with branched polyethylenimine (BPEI), lipoic acid (LA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings as well as human plasma protein (HP) and human serum albumin (HSA) coronas. AuNP-mediated cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), and CYP activity in human hepatocytes as well as molecular mechanisms with 40nm bare and HP BPEI-AuNP were investigated...
November 25, 2016: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884351/in%C3%A2-vivo-imaging-of-antioxidant-response-element-activity-during-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy
#13
Patrick Hamid Alizai, Lea Bertram, Athanassios Fragoulis, Christoph J Wruck, Daniela C Kroy, Uwe Klinge, Ulf P Neumann, Maximilian Schmeding
BACKGROUND: The nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) -antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is important for the regulation of antioxidative stress response and detoxification. To activate the expression of its target genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone) 1 (NQO1), Nrf2 binds to the ARE within the promoter region of these genes. Partial hepatectomy and consecutive liver regeneration lead to oxidative stress with activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832587/the-liver-at-the-nexus-of-host-microbial-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Andrew J Macpherson, Mathias Heikenwalder, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
The liver receives blood from the intestine, from the spleen, and directly from the heart and holds a vital position in vertebrate physiology. It plays a role in intermediary metabolism, bile secretion, maintaining blood sterility, serum homeostasis, xenobiotic detoxification, and immunological activity. This article provides our perspective on the liver as a nexus in establishing and maintaining host microbial mutualism. We discuss the role of the liver not only in sanitizing the blood stream from penetrant live microbes, but also in metabolizing xenobiotics that are synthesized or modified by intestinal microbes, and how microbiota modify the signaling potential of bile acids...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825623/fully-automated-two-step-assay-for-detection-of-metallothionein-through-magnetic-isolation-using-functionalized-%C3%AE-fe2o3-particles
#15
Miguel Angel Merlos Rodrigo, Ludmila Krejcova, Jiri Kudr, Natalia Cernei, Pavel Kopel, Lukas Richtera, Amitava Moulick, David Hynek, Vojtech Adam, Marie Stiborova, Tomas Eckschlager, Zbynek Heger, Ondrej Zitka
Metallothioneins (MTs) are involved in heavy metal detoxification in a wide range of living organisms. Currently, it is well known that MTs play substantial role in many pathophysiological processes, including carcinogenesis, and they can serve as diagnostic biomarkers. In order to increase the applicability of MT in cancer diagnostics, an easy-to-use and rapid method for its detection is required. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a fully automated and high-throughput assay for the estimation of MT levels...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822323/inhibitory-effect-of-actinidia-arguta-on-mutagenesis-inflammation-and-two-stage-mouse-skin-tumorigenesis
#16
Mari Nishimura, Yuma Okimasu, Naoko Miyake, Misako Tada, Ryoko Hida, Tomoe Negishi, Sakae Arimoto-Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Actinidia arguta, known as sarunashi in Japan, is a vine tree native to east-Asia, including Japan, that produces small fruit rich in anthocyanins, catechins, vitamin C, chlorophyll, beta-carotene and other polyphenols. RESULTS: Our study revealed the inhibitory effect of the juice of A. arguta (arguta-juice) toward the mutagenicity of food-derived carcinogens and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using the Ames test, and antioxidant activity of arguta-juice as determined using a free radical scavenging assay...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816761/deletion-of-liver-specific-stat5-gene-alters-the-expression-of-bile-acid-metabolism-genes-and-reduces-liver-damage-in-lithogenic-diet-fed-mice
#17
Myunggi Baik, Jangseon Kim, Min Yu Piao, Hyeok Joong Kang, Seung Ju Park, Sang Weon Na, Sung-Hoon Ahn, Jae-Hyuk Lee
Signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) mediates growth hormone signals, which may control hepatic cholesterol uptake and bile acid metabolism. Deregulation of liver cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid metabolism may cause liver damage and cholesterol gallstone development. The purpose of this study was to understand the role of local STAT5 signaling in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism using liver-specific STAT5 knock-out (STAT5 LKO) mice on a normal diet and a cholesterol- and bile acid-containing lithogenic diet...
January 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810534/insecticides-induced-stress-response-and-recuperation-in-fish-biomarkers-in-blood-and-tissues-related-to-oxidative-damage
#18
Madhusudan Reddy Narra, Kodimyala Rajender, R Rudra Reddy, U Suryanarayana Murty, Ghousia Begum
The present research investigated the growth, blood, antioxidant response (liver), AChE (brain and muscle) and Na+/K + ATPase in gills of Clarias batrachus exposed to 0 (control), two insecticides, 1.65 mg L(-1) chlorpyrifos (CPF) and 2.14 mg L(-1) monocrotophos (MCP) for a fixed interval time of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days and follow up depuration process in fresh water for 30 days (at an interval of 7, 15 and 30 days). The toxicants exposed fish indicated significantly (P < 0.05) lower weight gain and HSI...
October 27, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803670/poria-attenuates-idiosyncratic-liver-injury-induced-by-polygoni-multiflori-radix-praeparata
#19
Dan Gao, Jing-Yao Pang, Cong-En Zhang, Chun-Yu Li, Can Tu, Hai-Zhu Zhang, Ming Niu, Yin Xiong, Xiao-He Xiao, Kui-Jun Zhao, Wei-Wei Gao, Jia-Bo Wang
The hepatotoxicity induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata (PM) has aroused great concern throughout the world. Hence, it is worthwhile to perform studies on the detoxification with the combined use of medicinal herbs based on the compatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicine. In this work, the rat model of PM/LPS-induced idiosyncratic liver injury was used. The effects of Poria, Licorice, and Panax notoginseng on rats of PM/LPS-induced liver injury were investigated respectively, hoping to find the most effective herbal medicine to reduce the hepatotoxicity...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799068/recurrent-purpura-due-to-alcohol-related-schamberg-s-disease-and-its-association-with-serum-immunoglobulins-a-longitudinal-observation-of-a-heavy-drinker
#20
Udo Bonnet, Claudia Selle, Katrin Isbruch, Katrin Isbruch
BACKGROUND: It is unusual for purpura to emerge as a result of drinking alcohol. Such a peculiarity was observed in a 55-year-old man with a 30-year history of heavy alcohol use. CASE PRESENTATION: The Caucasian patient was studied for 11 years during several detoxification treatments. During the last 2 years of that period, purpuric rashes were newly observed. The asymptomatic purpura was limited to both lower limbs, self-limiting with abstinence, and reoccurring swiftly with alcohol relapse...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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