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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712299/evaluation-of-efficacy-and-toxicity-of-exfoliated-silicate-nanoclays-as-a-feed-additive-for-fumonisin-detoxification
#1
Chiao-Wei Yuan, Jie-Ting Huang, Ching-Chin Chen, Pin-Chi Tang, Jenn-Wen Huang, Jiang-Jen Lin, San-Yuan Huang, Shuen-Ei Chen
The efficacy of nano-silicate clay platelets (NSCP), exfoliated silicates from natural montmorillonites, as a feed additive for ameliorating fumonisin B1 (FB1) toxicosis was evaluated. Toxicological mechanisms by NSCP were examined through proteomic and biochemical analyses. Dietary supplementation with NSCP at a low level of 40 mg/kg feed improved growth performances in chickens with respect to FB1 toxicosis. Other issues of ameliorated symptoms including serum and/or hepatic AST activity, oxidative stress indicators, and sphinganine/sphingosine ratio, a hallmark of FB1 toxicosis were considered...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702654/direct-and-indirect-measurements-of-enhanced-phenolic-bioavailability-from-litchi-pericarp-procyanidins-by-lactobacillus-casei-01
#2
Shuyi Li, Xiaopeng Li, Avi Shpigelman, Jose M Lorenzo, Domenico Montesano, Francisco J Barba
Litchi pericarp procyanidins (LPP) are dietary supplements with high antioxidant activity, but poor oral bioavailability and efficacy. Lactobacillus casei (L. casei-01) can transform flavan-3-ols from litchi pericarp and increase their antioxidant ability; thus, L. casei-01 with LPP was administered to rats for four and eight weeks to study the effect of such a combination on metabolic parameters and on phase II metabolism and detoxification pathways in the liver as an indirect measure for phenolic bioavailability...
July 12, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689713/antioxidant-defense-system-and-oxidative-status-in-antarctic-fishes-the-sluggish-rockcod-notothenia-coriiceps-versus-the-active-marbled-notothen-notothenia-rossii
#3
Roberta Daniele Klein, Carlos Eduardo Rosa, Elton Pinto Colares, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo, Pablo Elias Martinez, Adalto Bianchini
Adaptive responses of antioxidant defense systems (ADS) to changes in increased levels of activity are critical, especially in Antarctic fishes. The benthopelagic marbled notothen (Notothenia rossii) shows higher spontaneous activity than the benthonic and sluggish rockcod (N. coriiceps). Therefore, we hypothesize that species-related responses of ADS would occur to counteract different rates of reactive oxygen species formation in these two Antarctic fish. Here we evaluated ADS and oxidative damage in tissues (brain, gills, liver and white muscle) of the two Antarctic fish...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687488/rescuing-fluoride-induced-damages-in-liver-with-gamma-aminobutyric-acid
#4
Haoyue Yang, Ronge Xing, Song Liu, Huahua Yu, Pengcheng Li
Fluorine poisoning affects human health all over the world and an urgent task is to develop alleviative medicine to recover or ameliorate the damages to the body. Here we studied the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a liver protector reported previously, on fluoride-induced damage in the mouse liver. Through microscope imaging of the liver tissue, TUNEL immunostaining, real-time RT-PCR, enzyme immunoassay and colorimetric method, we found that GABA supplementation prevented the metabolic toxicity caused by fluoride treatment in mice...
July 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683350/the-metabolic-effects-of-diuron-in-the-rat-liver
#5
Mellina da Silva Simões, Lívia Bracht, Angela Valderrama Parizotto, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
A systematic study on the effects of diuron on the hepatic metabolism was conducted with emphasis on parameters linked to energy metabolism. The experimental system was the isolated perfused rat liver. The results demonstrate that diuron inhibited biosynthesis (gluconeogenesis) and ammonia detoxification, which are dependent of ATP generated within the mitochondria. Conversely, it stimulated glycolysis and fructolysis, which are compensatory phenomena for an inhibited mitochondrial ATP generation. Furthermore, diuron diminished the cellular ATP content under conditions where the mitochondrial respiratory chain was the only source of this compound...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683186/enzyme-induced-matrix-softening-regulates-hepatocarcinoma-cancer-cell-phenotypes
#6
Youyun Liang, Nicholas Edwin Clay, Kathryn M Sullivan, Jiayu Leong, Altug Ozcelikkale, Max H Rich, Min Kyung Lee, Mei-Hsiu Lai, Hojeong Jeon, Bumsoo Han, Yen Wah Tong, Hyunjoon Kong
The progression of cancer is often accompanied by changes in the mechanical properties of an extracellular matrix. However, limited efforts have been made to reproduce these biological events in vitro. To this end, this study demonstrates that matrix remodeling caused by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 regulates phenotypic activities and modulates radiosensitivity of cancer cells exclusively in a 3D matrix. In this study, hepatocarcinoma cells are cultured in a collagen-based gel tailored to present an elastic modulus of ≈4...
July 6, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665275/immune-disorders-induced-by-exposure-to-pyrethroid-insecticides
#7
Justyna Skolarczyk, Joanna Pekar, Barbara Nieradko-Iwanicka
Pyrethroids are biocides, which belong to the third generation of insecticides. They are used as biocides, insecticides and medicines. These agents react selectively, because they are less harmful to birds and mammals (due to poor intestinal absorption and rapid detoxification in the body of homeothermic organisms) and they are poisonous for fish and insects. The aim of the article is to present the current state of knowledge on the effects of pyrethroids on the immune system based on the latest scientific research...
June 8, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655161/dysfunction-of-pla2g6-and-cyp2c44-associated-network-signals-imminent-carcinogenesis-from-chronic-inflammation-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Meiyi Li, Chen Li, Wei-Xin Liu, Conghui Liu, Jingru Cui, Qingrun Li, Hong Ni, Yingcheng Yang, Chaochao Wu, Chunlei Chen, Xing Zhen, Tao Zeng, Mujun Zhao, Lei Chen, Jiarui Wu, Rong Zeng, Luonan Chen
Little is known about how chronic inflammation contributes to the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially the initiation of cancer. To uncover the critical transition from chronic inflammation to HCC and the molecular mechanisms at a network level, we analyzed the time-series proteomic data of woodchuck hepatitis virus/c-myc mice and age-matched wt-C57BL/6 mice using our dynamical network biomarker (DNB) model. DNB analysis indicated that the 5th month after birth of transgenic mice was the critical period of cancer initiation, just before the critical transition, which is consistent with clinical symptoms...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636371/iron-oxidation-and-core-formation-in-recombinant-heteropolymeric-human-ferritins
#9
Matthew Mehlenbacher, Maura Poli, Paolo Arosio, Paolo Santambrogio, Sonia Levi, N Dennis Chasteen, Fadi Bou-Abdallah
In animals, the iron storage and detoxification protein, ferritin, is composed of two functionally and genetically distinct subunit types, H (heavy) and L (light), which co-assemble in various ratios with tissue specific distributions to form shell-like protein structures of 24 subunits within which a mineralized iron core is stored. The H-subunit possesses a ferroxidase center (FC) that catalyzes Fe(II) oxidation, whereas the L-subunit does not. To assess the role of the L-subunit in iron oxidation and core formation, two human recombinant heteropolymeric ferritins, designated H-rich and L-rich with ratios of ∼20H:4L and ∼22L:2H, respectively, were employed and compared to the human homopolymeric H-subunit ferritin (HuHF)...
July 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628909/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-impairs-the-cytochrome-p-450-dependent-metabolism-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-vitamin-e
#10
Desirée Bartolini, Pierangelo Torquato, Carolina Barola, Angelo Russo, Chiara Rychlicki, Danilo Giusepponi, Guido Bellezza, Angelo Sidoni, Roberta Galarini, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni, Francesco Galli
This study aims to investigate in in vivo and in vitro models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) the enzymatic metabolism of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and its relationship to vitamin E-responsive genes with key role in the lipid metabolism and detoxification of the liver. The experimental models included mice fed a high-fat diet combined or not with fructose (HFD+F) and HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells treated with the lipogenic agents palmitate, oleate or fructose. CYP4F2 protein, a cytochrome P-450 isoform with proposed α-tocopherol ω-hydroxylase activity, decreased in HFD and even more in HFD+F mice liver; this finding was associated with increased hepatic levels of α-tocopherol and decreased formation of the corresponding long-chain metabolites α-13-hydroxy and α-13-carboxy chromanols...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627706/the-wnt-inhibitor-lgk-974-enhances-radiosensitivity-of-hepg2-cells-by-modulating-nrf2-signaling
#11
Dan Tian, Ying Shi, Dexi Chen, Qiang Liu, Feiyue Fan
Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) is a master regulator of antioxidant and detoxification activities that can eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced via irradiation. However, Nrf2 overexpression in liver cancer cells may cause both radioresistance and chemoresistance. Reducing Nrf2 levels can enhance the radiosensitivity of HepG2 cells. Wingless/int-3A (Wnt3A) is a Wnt family protein that mainly activates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Recent studies showed that the Axin1-GSK-3β protein complex, a component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, can capture Nrf2 and facilitate its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation in the cytoplasm...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623132/generation-and-characterization-of-mouse-knockout-for-glyoxalase-1
#12
Sumi Jang, David Min Kwon, Kyu Kwon, Chankyu Park
Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) is the first enzyme involved in glutathione-dependent detoxification of methylglyoxal, eventually generating d-lactate by the second enzyme glyoxalase 2 (Glo2). An accumulation of intracellular glyoxal and methylglyoxal leads to protein malfunction and mutation via formation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Studies on mouse behavior suggest that methylglyoxal has anxiolytic properties. In this report, we generated and characterized a mouse knockout for Glo1. The knockout mice were viable without a pronounced phenotypic defect...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620618/histopathological-and-reproductive-evaluation-in-male-rats-fed-jatropha-curcas-seed-cake-with-or-without-alkaline-hydrolysis-and-subjected-to-heat-treatment
#13
Laiane Teixeira Sousa Moura, Domenica Palomaris Mariano Souza, Simone Mendonça, José Antônio de Aquino Ribeiro, Luciano Fernandes Sousa, Adriano Tony Ramos, Paulo César Maiorka, Vera Lúcia de Araújo, Viviane Mayumi Maruo
Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10) and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed, while experimental groups received a diet containing 5% J...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617195/light-and-clock-control-of-genes-involved-in-detoxification
#14
G Carmona-Antoñanzas, M Santi, H Migaud, L M Vera
Circadian regulation of hepatic detoxification seems to be amongst the key roles of the biological clock. The liver is the major site for biotransformation, and in mammals, it contains several clock-controlled transcription factors such as proline and acidic amino acid-rich basic leucine zipper proteins (PAR bZIP) and basic-helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family that act as circadian regulators of detoxification genes. This investigation explored the existence of daily and circadian expression of transcription factors involved in detoxification, as well as the temporal profile of a set of their target genes in zebrafish liver...
June 15, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603032/%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-mediated-in-vitro-regulation-of-human-hepatic-drug-transporter-expression-by-epinephrine
#15
Abdullah Mayati, Amélie Moreau, Claire Denizot, Bruno Stieger, Yannick Parmentier, Olivier Fardel
The catecholamine epinephrine is known to repress expression of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochromes P-450. The present study was designed to determine whether epinephrine may also target expression of main hepatic drug transporters, that play a major role in liver detoxification and are commonly coordinately regulated with drug detoxifying enzymes. Treatment of primary human hepatocytes with 10μM epinephrine for 24h repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, such as the sinusoidal influx transporters NTCP, OATP1B1, OATP2B1, OAT2, OAT7 and OCT1 and the efflux transporters MRP2, MRP3 and BSEP, whereas it induced that of MDR1, but failed to alter that of BCRP...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596277/the-liver-in-regulation-of-iron-homeostasis
#16
Gautam Rishi, V Nathan Subramaniam
The liver is one of the largest and most functionally diverse organs in the human body. In addition to roles in detoxification of xenobiotics, digestion, synthesis of important plasma proteins, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and storage, the liver also plays a significant role in iron homeostasis. Apart from being the storage site for excess body iron, it also plays a vital role in regulating the amount of iron released into the blood by enterocytes and macrophages. Since iron is essential for many important physiological and molecular processes, it increases the importance of liver in the proper functioning of the body's metabolism...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585088/allyl-isothiocyanate-a-potent-chemopreventive-agent-targets-ahr-nrf2-signaling-pathway-in-chemically-induced-mammary-carcinogenesis
#17
Thangarasu Rajakumar, Pachaiappan Pugalendhi, Subbaiyan Thilagavathi, Dhanabalan Ananthakrishnan, Krishnaswamy Gunasekaran
In the present study, we investigated the effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on liver detoxification signaling pathway in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary tumor was induced by a single dose of DMBA (25 mg/rat) injected subcutaneously near the mammary gland in Sprague-Dawley rats. DMBA-alone-treated rats show an increased synthesis of phase I detoxification enzymes, lipid peroxidative markers, liver marker enzymes, and lipid profiles whereas, depletion of phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidants in rat liver tissues...
June 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578026/%C3%AE-pyrrolidinononanophenone-provokes-apoptosis-of-neuronal-cells-through-alterations-in-antioxidant-properties
#18
Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Yoshifumi Morikawa, Kyohei Kamata, Akinobu Shibata, Hidetoshi Miyazono, Yasuhide Sasajima, Koichi Suenami, Kiyohito Sato, Yuji Takekoshi, Satoshi Endo, Ossama El-Kabbani, Akira Ikari
In this study, we found that exposure to α-pyrrolidinononanophenone (α-PNP), a highly lipophilic synthetic cathinone, provokes apoptosis of human neuronal SK-N-SH cells. The drug sensitivity of the cells (50% lethal concentration of 12μM) was similar to those of aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and was higher than those of cells derived from colon, liver, lung and kidney, suggesting that α-PNP overdose and abuse cause serious damage in central nervous and vascular systems. SK-N-SH cell treatment with lethal concentrations (20 and 50μM) of α-PNP facilitated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
May 31, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572827/protective-effect-of-18%C3%AE-glycyrrhetinic-acid-against-triptolide-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#19
Guanghua Yang, Lan Wang, Xiuting Yu, Yanfeng Huang, Chang Qu, Zhenbiao Zhang, Dandan Luo, Ji Lin, Lian Zhou, Ziren Su, Xiaojun Zhang, Haiming Chen
Triptolide (TP) is the major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF) and possesses multiple pharmacological effects. However, hepatotoxicity of TP which is one of the toxic properties slows its progression in clinical application. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is the main bioactive ingredient of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.), a herbal medicine famous for its detoxification. This study aims to investigate whether GA possesses protective effect against TP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. TP interference markedly elevated serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP, caused evident liver histopathological changes, and elevated hepatic TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ as well as nuclear translocation of NF-κB...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564722/update-on-the-mechanisms-of-liver-regeneration
#20
Morgan E Preziosi, Satdarshan P Monga
Liver possesses many critical functions such as synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism. It continually receives nutrient-rich blood from gut, which incidentally is also toxin-rich. That may be why liver is uniquely bestowed with a capacity to regenerate. A commonly studied procedure to understand the cellular and molecular basis of liver regeneration is that of surgical resection. Removal of two-thirds of the liver in rodents or patients instigates alterations in hepatic homeostasis, which are sensed by the deficient organ to drive the restoration process...
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
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