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liver detoxification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539746/protective-effect-of-sorrel-extract-on-adult-rats-treated-by-carbon-tetrachloride
#1
Abdullah Glil Alkushi
CONTEXT: Heart, kidneys, and liver are the vital organs present in vertebrates and some other animals. They have a wide range of functions, such as maintaining homeostasis, detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemical, that are necessary for digestion and maintaining circulation. These organs are necessary for the survival, and currently, there are no means to compensate for the absence of their functionalities in a long term. The damage of liver can affect other vital organs, including kidneys and heart...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539714/evaluation-of-herb-drug-interactions-of-hovenia-dulcis-fruit-extracts
#2
Jong Suk Park, Shaheed Ur Rehman, In Sook Kim, Min Sun Choi, Chun-Soo Na, Hye Hyun Yoo
BACKGROUND: Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae) fruits are popularly used as herbal medicines or dietary supplements in Asian countries due to functions such as liver protection and detoxification from alcohol poisoning. Accordingly, it is very likely for dietary supplemental products, including H. dulcis fruit extracts, to be taken with prescription drugs. OBJECTIVE: In this study, possible food-drug interactions involving H. dulcis fruit extracts were evaluated based on the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535517/coupled-plasma-filtration-adsorption-application-for-liver-and-thyroid-toxins
#3
Gabriele Donati, Irene Capelli, Anna Laura Croci Chiocchini, Nicolò Natali, Anna Scrivo, Gaetano La Manna
Coupled plasma filtration and adsorption (CPFA) is a detoxification system that combines a plasma adsorption circuit and a continuous renal replacement therapy circuit. Its main application is for sepsis and septic shock with or without acute renal failure. Several recent studies have suggested that CPFA can reduce the mortality when the volume of plasma absorbed on the styrenic resin is at least >0.18 L/kg/day. At present, new applications for CPFA are under investigation, also in patients without significant kidney failure...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534176/functions-of-pregnane-x-receptor-in-self-detoxification
#4
REVIEW
Liuqin He, Xihong Zhou, Niu Huang, Huan Li, Tiejun Li, Kang Yao, Yanan Tian, Chien-An Andy Hu, Yulong Yin
Pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a crucial regulator of nutrient metabolism and metabolic detoxification such as metabolic syndrome, xenobiotic metabolism, inflammatory responses, glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, and endocrine homeostasis. Notably, much experimental and clinical evidence show that PXR senses xenobiotics and triggers the detoxification response to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, intestinal inflammatory diseases and liver fibrosis...
May 22, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507720/in-vivo-imaging-of-leucine-aminopeptidase-activity-in-drug-induced-liver-injury-and-liver-cancer-via-a-near-infrared-fluorescent-probe
#5
Xinyuan He, Lihong Li, Yu Fang, Wen Shi, Xiaohua Li, Huimin Ma
The liver, a main detoxification organ, has evolved a complex enzymatic system to respond to multiple pathological conditions, in which leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) has been reported to participate in detoxifying cisplatin in hepatoma cells and contribute to the intrinsic drug resistance. In vivo imaging of LAP activity in liver disease models is thus helpful to further understand the function of LAP in detoxification and medicine, but such an imaging approach is still lacking. Herein, we develop a selective and sensitive near-infrared fluorescent probe (HCAL) for this purpose...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507067/the-global-transcriptional-response-to-organic-hydroperoxide-and-the-role-of-ohrr-in-the-control-of-virulence-traits-in-chromobacterium-violaceum
#6
Maristela Previato Mello, Diogo de Abreu Meireles, Luis Eduardo Soares Netto, José Freire da Silva Neto
A major pathway for detoxification of organic hydroperoxides, such as cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), involves the MarR family transcriptional regulator OhrR and the peroxidase OhrA. However, the effect of these peroxides on the global transcriptome and the contribution of the OhrA/OhrR system on bacterial virulence remain poorly explored. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome profiles of Chromobacterium violaceum exposed to CHP and after deletion of ohrR, and we showed that OhrR controls virulence of this human opportunistic pathogen...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503116/melatonin-pharmacology-functions-and-therapeutic-benefits
#7
REVIEW
Sylvie Tordjman, Sylvie Chokron, Richard Delorme, Annaëlle Charrier, Eric Bellissant, Nemat Jaafari, Claire Fougerou
BACKGROUND: Melatonin synchronizes central but also peripheral oscillators (fetal adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, kidney, heart, lung, fat, gut, etc.), allowing temporal organization of biological functions through circadian rhythms (24-hour cycles) in relation to periodic environmental changes and therefore adaptation of the individual to his/her internal and external environment. Measures of melatonin are considered the best peripheral indices of human circadian timing based on an internal 24-hour clock...
April 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500970/histopathological-changes-and-lipid-metabolism-in-the-liver-of-bufo-gargarizans-tadpoles-exposed-to-triclosan
#8
Lihong Chai, Aixia Chen, Pingping Luo, Hongfeng Zhao, Hongyuan Wang
In the current study, the adverse effects of TCS on liver health of B. gargarizans tadpoles were assessed. B. gargarizans larvae were exposed to TCS at 0, 10, 30, 60, and 150 μg L(-1) from Gosner stage 3 until metamorphic climax. The hepatosomatic index (HSI), hepatic histological and ultrastructural features, and transcript levels of genes associated with detoxification and oxidative stress as well as lipid metabolism in the livers were determined. Exposure to 150 μg L(-1) TCS resulted in increased HSI of tadpoles at metamorphic climax...
May 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500425/hepatic-glucuronidation-of-4-tert-octylphenol-in-humans-inter-individual-variability-and-responsible-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-isoforms
#9
Takashi Isobe, Susumu Ohkawara, Toshiko Tanaka-Kagawa, Hideto Jinno, Nobumitsu Hanioka
4-tert-Octylphenol (4-tOP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical. It is mainly metabolized into glucuronide by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in humans. The purpose of this study was to assess inter-individual variability in and the possible roles of UGT isoforms in hepatic 4-tOP glucuronidation in the humans. 4-tOP glucuronidation activities in the liver microsomes and recombinant UGTs of humans were assessed at broad substrate concentrations, and kinetics were analyzed. Correlation analyses between 4-tOP and diclofenac or 4-hydroxybiphenyl activities in pooled and individual human liver microsomes were also performed...
May 12, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494399/comparative-toxic-responses-of-male-and-female-lizards-eremias-argus-exposed-to-s-metolachlor-contaminated-soil
#10
Li Chen, Dezhen Wang, Zhongnan Tian, Shanshan Di, Wenjun Zhang, Fang Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Jinling Diao
Soil contamination caused by the widespread use of pesticides is one of the main environmental problems facing conservation organizations. (S)-metolachlor (SM) is a selective pre-emergent herbicide that poses potential risks to soil-related organisms such as reptiles. The present study elucidated the toxic effects of SM (3 and 30 mg/kg soil weight) in Eremias argus. The results showed that growth pattern was similar between the sexes in breeding season. For males, both kidney coefficient (KC) and testis coefficient in the exposure group were significantly different from those in the control group, while only KC in the high-dose group was significantly higher for females...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486229/tattoo-pigments-are-observed-in-the-kupffer-cells-of-the-liver-indicating-blood-borne-distribution-of-tattoo-ink
#11
Mitra Sepehri, Tobias Sejersen, Klaus Qvortrup, Catharina M Lerche, Jørgen Serup
AIM: Tattoo pigments are deposited in the skin and known to distribute to regional lymph nodes. Tattoo pigments are small particles and may be hypothesized to reach the blood stream and become distributed to peripheral organs. This has not been studied in the past. The aim of the study was to trace tattoo pigments in internal organs in mice extensively tattooed with 2 different tattoo ink products. MATERIAL/METHODS: Three groups of mice were studied, i.e., 10 tattooed black, 10 tattooed red, and 5 untreated controls...
May 10, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483492/dexamethasone-induces-human-glutathione-s-transferase-alpha-1-hgsta1-expression-through-the-activation-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-hgr
#12
Carmen Martínez-Guzmán, Pedro Cortés-Reynosa, Eduardo Pérez-Salazar, Guillermo Elizondo
The glutathione S transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of isoenzymes that play an important role in xenobiotic and endobiotic detoxification, cellular protection from oxidative stress and modulation of signalling pathways. Human GSTA1 (hGSTA1), a cytosolic isoform, is the most abundant GST in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of carcinogenic compounds, chemotherapeutic agents and lipid peroxidation products. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of hGSTA1 expression is not well understood...
May 5, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482255/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-metallothionein-in-the-liver-of-the-teleost-acrossocheilus-fasciatus-exposed-to-cadmium-chloride
#13
Guo-Di Liu, Zhang Sheng, Cong-Cong Hou, Jie Ni, Ying-Li Han, You-Fa Wang, Yang Zhou, Su-Yan Fu, Jun-Quan Zhu
Metallothionein (MT) has a characteristic molecular structure with a cysteine-rich content. This unique structure provides metal-binding and redox capabilities and promoting metal homeostasis and detoxification in living animals. In order to evaluate the effects of cadmium (Cd) on hepatic MT expression in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus, we obtained the complete cDNA of the A. fasciatus liver MT for the first time. The MT cDNA contains a 605-bp sequence, which codes for 60 amino acids. Protein alignment showed that the similarity between MT protein sequences of A...
March 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476006/evidence-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-metabolic-interaction-effects-of-a-chlorfenvinphos-ethion-and-linuron-mixture-on-human-hepatic-detoxification-rates
#14
Ali Kadar, Georges de Sousa, Ludovic Peyre, Henri Wortham, Pierre Doumenq, Roger Rahmani
General population exposure to pesticides mainly occurs via food and water consumption. However, their risk assessment for regulatory purposes does not currently consider the actual co-exposure to multiple substances. To address this concern, relevant experimental studies are needed to fill the lack of data concerning effects of mixture on human health. For the first time, the present work evaluated on human microsomes and liver cells the combined metabolic effects of, chlorfenvinphos, ethion and linuron, three pesticides usually found in vegetables of the European Union...
April 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475894/diurnal-oscillations-in-liver-mass-and-cell-size-accompany-ribosome-assembly-cycles
#15
Flore Sinturel, Alan Gerber, Daniel Mauvoisin, Jingkui Wang, David Gatfield, Jeremy J Stubblefield, Carla B Green, Frédéric Gachon, Ueli Schibler
The liver plays a pivotal role in metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification, processes that must be particularly efficient when animals are active and feed. A major question is how the liver adapts to these diurnal changes in physiology. Here, we show that, in mice, liver mass, hepatocyte size, and protein levels follow a daily rhythm, whose amplitude depends on both feeding-fasting and light-dark cycles. Correlative evidence suggests that the daily oscillation in global protein accumulation depends on a similar fluctuation in ribosome number...
May 4, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473775/the-role-of-the-cephalopod-digestive-gland-in-the-storage-and-detoxification-of-marine-pollutants
#16
REVIEW
Ana P Rodrigo, Pedro M Costa
The relevance of cephalopods for fisheries and even aquaculture, is raising concerns on the relationship between these molluscs and environmental stressors, from climate change to pollution. However, how these organisms cope with environmental toxicants is far less understood than for other molluscs, especially bivalves, which are frontline models in aquatic toxicology. Although, sharing the same basic body plan, cephalopods hold distinct adaptations, often unique, as they are active predators with high growth and metabolic rates...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467491/the-gene-expression-profile-of-a-drug-metabolism-system-and-signal-transduction-pathways-in-the-liver-of-mice-treated-with-tert-butylhydroquinone-or-3-3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl-propylthiosulfonate-of-sodium
#17
Alexandra B Shintyapina, Valentin A Vavilin, Olga G Safronova, Vyacheslav V Lyakhovich
Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is a highly effective phenolic antioxidant used in edible oils and fats in foods as well as in medicines and cosmetics. TBHQ has been shown to have both chemoprotective and carcinogenic effects. Furthermore, it has potential anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, and neuroprotective activities. TBHQ induces phase II detoxification enzymes via the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE mechanism, which contributes to its chemopreventive functions. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that biological effects of tBHQ may be mediated by Nrf2-independent mechanisms related to various signaling cascades...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467181/pre-clinical-and-clinical-investigations-of-metabolic-zonation-in-liver-diseases-the-potential-of-microphysiology-systems
#18
Alejandro Soto-Gutierrez, Albert Gough, Lawrence A Vernetti, D L Taylor, Satdarshan P Monga
The establishment of metabolic zonation within a hepatic lobule ascribes specific functions to hepatocytes based on unique, location-dependent gene expression patterns. Recently, there have been significant developments in the field of metabolic liver zonation. A little over a decade ago, the role of β-catenin signaling was identified as a key regulator of gene expression and function in pericentral hepatocytes. Since then, additional molecules have been identified that regulate the pattern of Wnt/β-catenin signaling within a lobule and determine gene expression and function in other hepatic zones...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453831/sortilin-1-loss-of-function-protects-against-cholestatic-liver-injury-by-attenuating-hepatic-bile-acid-accumulation-in-bile-duct-ligated-mice
#19
Jibiao Li, Benjamin L Woolbright, Wen Zhao, Yifeng Wang, David Matye, Bruno Hagenbuch, Hartmut Jaeschke, Tiangang Li
Sortilin 1 (Sort1) is an intracellular trafficking receptor that mediates protein sorting in the endocytic or secretory pathways. Recent studies revealed a role of Sort1 in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. This study further investigated the role of Sort1 in modulating bile acid detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in bile duct ligated mice. We found that Sort1 KO mice had attenuated liver injury 24 h after BDL, which was mainly attributed to less bile infarct formation. Sham-operated Sort1 KO mice had about 20% larger bile acid pool size than sham-operated WT mice, but 24 h after BDL Sort1 KO mice had significantly attenuated hepatic bile acid accumulation and smaller bile acid pool size...
April 26, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448964/antioxidant-and-hepatoprotective-effect-of-swertiamarin-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatotoxicity-via-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#20
Tao Wu, Jingjing Li, Yong Li, Hongping Song
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Swertiamarin (STM), the main bioactive component in Swertia mussotii Franch (Gentianaceae), has been shown to exert hepatoprotective effects on experimental liver injury. However, the effects and exact mechanisms of STM on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) causing hepatotoxicity are still unknown. This study investigated the potential protective effects and mechanisms of STM on CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to CCl4 with or without STM co-administration for consecutive eight weeks...
April 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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