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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149699/tetrahymena-cilia-cap-is-built-in-a-multi-step-process-a-study-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#1
Cecília Seixas, João Gonçalves, Luís Viseu Melo, Helena Soares
Cilia are complex and dynamic organelles that have motility and sensory functions. Defects in cilia biogenesis and function are at the origin of human ciliopathies. In motile cilia, a basal body organizes the axoneme composed of nine microtubule doublets surrounding a central pair of singlet microtubules. The distal ends of axonemal microtubules are attached to the membrane by microtubule-capping structures. Little is known about the early steps of cilium assembly. Although cilia grow and resorb from their distal tips, it remains poorly understood where and when the components of the caps are first assembled...
October 20, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143967/thirteen-week-toxicity-study-of-dietary-l-tryptophan-in-rats-with-a-recovery-period-of-5%C3%A2-weeks
#2
Yusuke Shibui, Hideki Matsumoto, Yoko Masuzawa, Takumi Ohishi, Tsutomu Fukuwatari, Katsumi Shibata, Ryosei Sakai
Although l-tryptophan is nutritionally important and widely used in medical applications, toxicity data for its oral administration are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of an experimental diet containing added l-tryptophan at doses of 0 (basal diet), 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0% when administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 13 weeks. There were no toxicological changes in clinical signs, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology between control rats and those fed additional l-tryptophan...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143938/short-hairpin-rna-interference-targeting-interleukin-1-receptor-type-i-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-attenuates-hypertension-in-rats
#3
Peng Lu, Shu-Jun Jiang, Hong Pan, Ai-Li Xu, Gui-Hua Wang, Chun-Lei Ma, Zhen Shi
Blood pressure is controlled by tonic sympathetic activities, excessive activation of which contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of hypertension. Interleukin (IL)-1β in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is involved in sympathetic overdrive and hypertension. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1R1) gene silencing in the PVN on hypertension. Recombinant lentivirus vectors expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting IL-1R1 (Lv-shR-IL-1R1) or a control shRNA were microinjected into PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive WKY rats...
November 16, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142310/sodium-channel-nav1-3-is-important-for-enterochromaffin-cell-excitability-and-serotonin-release
#4
Peter R Strege, Kaitlyn Knutson, Samuel J Eggers, Joyce H Li, Fan Wang, David Linden, Joseph H Szurszewski, Lorin Milescu, Andrew B Leiter, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder
In the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium, enterochromaffin (EC) cells are enteroendocrine cells responsible for producing >90% of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). However, the molecular mechanisms of EC cell function are poorly understood. Here, we found that EC cells in mouse primary cultures fired spontaneous bursts of action potentials. We examined the repertoire of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) in fluorescence-sorted mouse EC cells and found that Scn3a was highly expressed. Scn3a-encoded NaV1...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142243/genetic-risk-scores-for-body-fat-distribution-attenuate-weight-loss-in-women-during-dietary-intervention
#5
M Svendstrup, K H Allin, T I A Sørensen, T H Hansen, N Grarup, T Hansen, H Vestergaard
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138106/the-subthalamic-neurons-are-activated-by-both-orexin-a-and-orexin-b
#6
Qing Sheng, Yan Xue, Ying Wang, An-Qi Chen, Cui Liu, Yun-Hai Liu, Hong-Yan Chu, Lei Chen
The subthalamic nucleus is an important nucleus in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuit and therefore is involved in motor control under both normal and pathological conditions. Morphological studies reveal that the subthalamic nucleus receives relatively dense orexinergic projections originating from the hypothalamus. Both orexin-1 (OX1) and orexin-2 (OX2) receptors are expressed in the subthalamic nucleus. To explore the functions of orexinergic system in the subthalamic nucleus, extracellular electrophysiological recordings and behavioral tests were performed in the present study...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137911/effect-of-supplementing-a-diet-with-monensin-sodium-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-on-reproductive-performance-of-ghezel-ewes
#7
Leila Ahmadzadeh, Ali Hosseinkhani, Hossein Daghighkia
Effect of supplementing a diet, in an attempt to enhance reproduction, with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on reproductive performance was investigated during the breeding season using 44 Ghezel ewes (body weight 56.97±7.47kg, age 2-5 years and body condition score (BCS) 2.5) which were allocated randomly in equal numbers to the four dietary treatments as follows: 1) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) plus monensin sodium (30mg/ewe/d) (MS); 2) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450 g/ewe/d) plusSaccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (4×10(9)CFU/ewe/d) (SC); 3) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) (FG); 4) Basal diet (only grazing on pasture, Control; G)...
November 11, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136647/katanin-like-2-katnal2-functions-in-multiple-aspects-of-haploid-male-germ-cell-development-in-the-mouse
#8
Jessica E M Dunleavy, Hidenobu Okuda, Anne E O'Connor, D Jo Merriner, Liza O'Donnell, Duangporn Jamsai, Martin Bergmann, Moira K O'Bryan
The katanin microtubule-severing proteins are essential regulators of microtubule dynamics in a diverse range of species. Here we have defined critical roles for the poorly characterised katanin protein KATNAL2 in multiple aspects of spermatogenesis: the initiation of sperm tail growth from the basal body, sperm head shaping via the manchette, acrosome attachment, and ultimately sperm release. We present data suggesting that depending on context, KATNAL2 can partner with the regulatory protein KATNB1 or act autonomously...
November 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135114/expression-and-role-of-p53-in-oral-lichen-planus-patients
#9
Milos Hadzi-Mihailovic, Renata Petrovic, Helene Raybaud, Dragan Stanimirovic, Meltem Ozar Koray
PURPOSE: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune skin and mucosal disorder. The range of malignant transformation in OLP varies between 0.1-3%. p53 is a tumor suppressor protein. Defective p53 could allow abnormal cells to proliferate, resulting in cancer. p53 plays an important role in cell cycle control and apoptosis and loss of p53 function has been demonstrated in about half of all human cancers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the malignant potential of OLP on the basis of p53 expression and to correlate p53 expression with clinical and histopathological features of OLP...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134542/influence-of-the-menstrual-cycle-on-compression-induced-pain-during-mammography-correlation-with-the-thickness-and-volume-of-the-mammary-gland
#10
Hitomi Kitaoka, Hiroko Kawashima
In mammography, breast compression is necessary and an important factor influencing image quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the menstrual cycle on compression-induced pain during mammography and to evaluate the association between the thickness and volume of the mammary gland and pain. We examined basal body temperature and categorized the menstrual cycle into five phases. We executed breast compression in the craniocaudal view using a customized compression plate, to which we introduced an opening...
November 13, 2017: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133203/expression-and-functional-characterization-of-tachykinin-related-peptides-in-the-blood-feeding-bug-rhodnius-prolixus
#11
A N S Haddad, M S Defferrari, S Hana, S G Szeto, A B Lange
Tachykinins (tachykinin-related peptides, TRPs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that have widespread distribution in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the gastrointestinal tract of many insects, and most have been shown to stimulate contractions of visceral muscles. Invertebrate TRPs carry a characteristic conserved C-terminal pentapeptide (FXGXR-amide) and most of them share some amino acid sequence similarities (approx. 45%) with the vertebrate and mammalian tachykinin family. We have functionally characterized the tachykinins in R...
November 10, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132433/impaired-ciliogenesis-in-differentiating-human-bronchial-epithelia-exposed-to-non-cytotoxic-doses-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#12
Ryan J Snyder, Salik Hussain, Charles J Tucker, Scott H Randell, Stavros Garantziotis
BACKGROUND: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are engineered nanomaterials used for a variety of industrial and consumer products. Their high tensile strength, hydrophobicity, and semi-conductive properties have enabled many novel applications, increasing the possibility of accidental nanotube inhalation by either consumers or factory workers. While MWCNT inhalation has been previously shown to cause inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis at high doses, the susceptibility of differentiating bronchial epithelia to MWCNT exposure remains unexplored...
November 13, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131838/expanded-repertoire-of-kinetoplast-associated-proteins-and-unique-mitochondrial-dna-arrangement-of-symbiont-bearing-trypanosomatids
#13
Silvana Sant Anna de Souza, Carolina Moura Catta-Preta, João Marcelo P Alves, Danielle P Cavalcanti, Marta M G Teixeira, Erney P Camargo, Wanderley De Souza, Rosane Silva, Maria Cristina M Motta
In trypanosomatids, the kinetoplast is the portion of the single mitochondrion that is connected to the basal body and contains the kDNA, a network composed by circular and interlocked DNA. The kDNA packing is conducted by Kinetoplast Associated Proteins (KAPs), which are similar to eukaryotic histone H1. In symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids (SHTs) such as Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis, a ß-proteobacterium co-evolves with the host in a mutualistic relationship. The prokaryote confers nutritional benefits to the host and affects its cell structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131456/performance-and-hemtochemical-parameters-of-buck-kids-fed-concentrate-partially-replaced-with-tropical-piliostigma-thonningii-foliage
#14
Olurotimi A Olafadehan, Ahmed A Njidda, Sunday A Okunade, Sarah O Salihu, David O Balogun, Abdelfattah Z M Salem
Fifteen 5-month-old Red Sokoto buck-kids, (6.6 ± 0.71 kg body weight (BW)) randomly distributed into three groups of five animals per group, were used to study the effects of supplementary concentrate partially replaced with Piliostigma thonningii (PT) foliage on the growth performance, economic benefit and blood profile in a completely randomized design using analysis of variance. The goats in group 1 received 100% supplementary concentrates (PT0), groups 2 and 3 received 25% (PT25) and 50% (PT50), respectively, of concentrate replaced with an equal amount (dry matter basis) of Piliostigma foliage...
November 12, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128217/altering-the-ratio-of-dietary-palmitic-stearic-and-oleic-acids-in-diets-with-or-without-whole-cottonseed-affects-nutrient-digestibility-energy-partitioning-and-production-responses-of-dairy-cows
#15
J de Souza, C L Preseault, A L Lock
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of varying the ratio of dietary palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and oleic (cis-9 C18:1) acids in basal diets containing soyhulls or whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, and production response of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Holstein cows were used in a split-plot Latin square design. Cows were allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, n = 12) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, n = 12) that was fed throughout the experiment...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125223/perinatal-nutrition-interacts-with-genetic-background-to-alter-behavior-in-a-parent-of-origin-dependent-manner-in-adult-collaborative-cross-mice
#16
S A Schoenrock, D Oreper, J Farrington, R C McMullan, R Ervin, D R Miller, F Pardo-Manuel de Villena, W Valdar, L M Tarantino
Previous studies in animal models and humans have shown that exposure to nutritional deficiencies in the perinatal period increases the risk of psychiatric disease. Less well understood is how such effects are modulated by the combination of genetic background and parent-of-origin. To explore this, we exposed female mice from 20 Collaborative Cross (CC) strains to either protein deficient, vitamin D deficient, methyl donor enriched or standard diet during the perinatal period. These CC females were then crossed to a male from a different CC strain to produce reciprocal F1 hybrid females comprising 10 distinct genetic backgrounds...
November 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121338/efficacy-of-%C3%AE-mannanase-on-broiler-growth-performance-and-energy-utilization-in-the-presence-of-increasing-dietary-galactomannan
#17
R E Latham, M P Williams, H G Walters, B Carter, J T Lee
An experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of β-mannanase inclusion on growth performance, viscosity, and energy utilization in broilers fed diets varying in galactomannan (GM) concentrations. Treatments were arranged as a 3 (GM concentration) × 3 (β-mannanase inclusion) factorial randomized complete block design with 12 replicates of 29 male broilers per replicate for a 42-d experiment. Efforts were made to reduce the amount of soybean meal, and thus GM, in the basal diet with guar gum included at 0, 0...
November 7, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121203/functional-characterization-of-tektin-1-in-motile-cilia-and-evidence-for-tekt1-as-a-new-candidate-gene-for-motile-ciliopathies
#18
Rebecca Ryan, Marion Failler, Madeline Louise Reilly, Meriem Garfa-Traore, Marion Delous, Emilie Filhol, Thérèse Reboul, Christine Bole-Feysot, Patrick Nitschké, Véronique Baudouin, Serge Amselem, Estelle Escudier, Marie Legendre, Alexandre Benmerah, Sophie Saunier
A child presenting with Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS), characterized by renal, retinal and skeletal involvements, was also diagnosed with lung infections and airway ciliary dyskinesia. These manifestations suggested dysfunction of both primary and motile cilia, respectively. Targeted exome sequencing identified biallelic mutations in WDR19, encoding an IFT-A subunit previously associated with MZSDS-related chondrodysplasia, Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia and cranioectodermal dysplasia, linked to primary cilia dysfunction, and in TEKT1 which encodes tektin-1 an uncharacterized member of the tektin family, mutations of which may cause ciliary dyskinesia...
November 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119327/pattern-of-protein-expression-in-the-epididymis-of-oligoryzomys-nigripes-cricetidae-sigmodontinae
#19
Tatiana Prata Menezes, Eric Hill, Arlindo de Alencar Moura, Marina D P Lobo, Ana Cristina O Monteiro-Moreira, Sylvie Breton, Mariana Machado-Neves
In the epididymis, epithelial cells work in a concerted manner to create a luminal environment for sperm maturation, transport, and storage. However, the cell functions may be affected by anthropogenic factors, causing negative impacts on male fertility. In our study, we describe the pattern of protein expression in the epithelium and luminal fluid from epididymis of Oligoryzomys nigripes, a South American sigmodontine rodent whose reproductive biology has been little studied. Nine animals were captured from a preserved area of Atlantic Forest, where the exposure to anthropogenic influences is minimal...
November 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119278/development-of-endothermy-in-birds-patterns-and-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Edwin R Price, Edward M Dzialowski
Endothermy is a conspicuous and important adaptation in birds. Even though juvenile and adult birds are endothermic and maintain a constant, high body temperature by means of internal heat production, they begin life expressing an ectothermic phenotype. Depending on where a species falls along a continuum of maturity at hatching, from precocial to altricial, they begin to express endothermic traits either close to the time of hatching or as nestlings over a period of 1-3 weeks. Developing endothermy requires attaining a high basal metabolic rate and associated aerobic scope to produce sufficient internal heat, insulation to retain the internally produced heat, and a thermostat that "turns on" heat production in response to cooling ambient temperatures...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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