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Basal body

Naomi Weintrob, Anita Schachter Davidov, Anat Segev Becker, Galit Israeli, Asaf Oren, Ori Eyal
OBJECTIVE: The total cortisol (TC) response may be measured during the glucagon stimulation test (GST) for growth hormone (GH) reserve in order to assess the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Measurements of TC are unreliable in conditions of albumin and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) alterations (e.g., hypoproteinemia or CBG deficiency). We aimed to measure the serum free cortisol (sFC) response to the GST in children and adolescents and determine whether it could predict the GH response to glucagon stimulation...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Yan Hu, Zhen Hou, Yibo Zong, Nagmeldin A Omer, Halima Abobaker, Ruqian Zhao
Background: We have shown previously that in ovo betaine injection can prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by glucocorticoid exposure in chickens; yet it remains unknown whether feeding betaine to laying hens may exert similar effects in their progeny. Objective: In this study, we fed laying hens a betaine-supplemented diet, and the progeny were later exposed chronically to corticosterone (CORT) to test hepatoprotective effects and further elucidate underlying mechanisms...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Robyn K Pollom, Timothy Costigan, Lyndon B Lacaya, Liza L Ilag, Priscilla A Hollander
INTRODUCTION: To compare efficacy and safety of Basaglar® [insulin glargine 100 units/mL; LY insulin glargine (LY IGlar)] to Lantus® [insulin glargine 100 units/mL; SA insulin glargine (SA IGlar)] in older (≥ 65 years) or younger (< 65 years) patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This subgroup analysis of a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, multinational, 24-week study compared LY IGlar and SA IGlar on several clinical efficacy (change in glycated hemoglobin (A1c), basal insulin dose, weight) and safety outcomes (incidence of adverse events, insulin antibodies, hypoglycemia incidence and rates) in patients either ≥ 65 or < 65 years...
March 14, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Mary Courtney Moore, David E Kelley, Raul C Camacho, Peter Zafian, Tian Ye, Songnian Lin, Niels C Kaarsholm, Ravi Nargund, Terri M Kelly, Margaret Van Heek, Stephen F Previs, Christopher Moyes, Marta S Smith, Ben Farmer, Phil Williams, Alan D Cherrington
We evaluated the hepatic and nonhepatic responses to glucose-responsive insulin (GRI). Eight dogs received GRI or regular human insulin (HI) in random order. A primed, continuous intravenous infusion of [3-3 H]glucose began at -120 min. Basal sampling (-30 to 0 min) was followed by 2 study periods (150 min each), P1 and P2. At 0 min, somatostatin and GRI (36±3 pmol/kg/min) or HI (1.8 pmol/kg/min) were infused IV; basal glucagon was replaced intraportally. Glucose was infused intravenously to clamp plasma glucose at 80 mg/dL (P1) and 240 mg/dL (P2)...
March 14, 2018: Diabetes
Marcin Czarnoleski, Anna Maria Labecka, Dominika Dragosz-Kluska, Tomasz Pis, Katarzyna Pawlik, Filip Kapustka, Wincenty M Kilarski, Jan Kozłowski
Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes...
March 14, 2018: Biology Open
Antonio A F De Salles, Daniel A N Barbosa, Fernando Fernandes, Julio Abucham, Debora M Nazato, Juliana D Oliveira, Abrão Cury, Alexandre Biasi, Ronaldo Rossi, Camila Lasagno, Priscila T Bueno, Renato H N Santos, Lucas P Damiani, Alessandra A Gorgulho
BACKGROUND: Human morbid obesity is increasing worldwide in an alarming way. The hypothalamus is known to mediate its mechanisms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) may be an alternative to treat patients refractory to standard medical and surgical therapies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, identify possible side effects, and to optimize stimulation parameters of continuous VMH-DBS. Additionally, this study aims to determine if continuous VMH-DBS will lead to weight loss by causing changes in body composition, basal metabolism, or food intake control...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Y S Lee, S H Lee, U D Gadde, S T Oh, S J Lee, H S Lillehoj
Three hundred birds (1 day old) were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n = 50 birds/treatment) and fed a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Allium hookeri (AH) root (1 or 3%). At day 14, half of the birds in each group were orally challenged with E. maxima 41A (1 × 104 cells/chicken), followed by C. perfringens infection (1 × 109 cfu/chicken) on day 18. Necrotic enteritis (NE)-associated infections and intestinal immune response were assessed by average body weight gain, lesion score, and oocyst shedding...
March 12, 2018: Poultry Science
Jean-Claude Henquin
In vitro studies of human pancreatic islets are critical for understanding normal insulin secretion and its perturbations in diabetic β-cells, but the influence of islet preparation characteristics and organ donor attributes in such experiments is poorly documented. Preparations from normal donors were tested with a standardized protocol evaluating dynamic insulin secretion induced by glucose, tolbutamide, and cAMP (forskolin). Secretion rates, normalized to insulin content (fractional insulin secretion), were analyzed as a function of preparation and donor characteristics...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Karine C Flor, Elaine F Silva, Miguel F Menezes, Gustavo R Pedrino, Eduardo Colombari, Daniel B Zoccal
Exposure to chronic sustained hypoxia (SH), as experienced in high altitudes, elicits an increase in ventilation, named ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH). We previously showed that rats exposed to short-term (24 h) SH exhibit enhanced abdominal expiratory motor activity at rest, accompanied by augmented baseline sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. In the present study, we investigated whether the respiratory and sympathetic changes elicited by short-term SH are accompanied by carotid body chemoreceptor sensitization...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zhuan Li, Jie Zhao, Shujun Zhang, Steven A Weinman
Alcohol consumption is generally well tolerated by the liver but in some individuals it results in persistent inflammation and liver disease. The mechanisms that regulate alcohol-induced liver inflammation are poorly understood. The transcription factor FOXO3 has previously been shown to be involved in suppressing alcohol-induced liver injury. In this study we demonstrate that in response to alcohol, approximately 10% of mouse hepatic macrophages undergo FOXO3-dependent apoptosis. By 3 days of alcohol exposure total hepatic macrophage numbers declined by 30% but these were restored to normal after 10 days of continued exposure...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Levan Ninua, David Tarkhnishvili, Elguja Gvazava
Current taxonomy of western Eurasian trout leaves a number of questions open; it is not clear to what extent some species are distinct genetically and morphologically. The purpose of this paper was to explore phylogeography and species boundaries in freshwater and anadromous trout from the drainages of the Black and the Caspian Seas (Ponto-Caspian). We studied morphology and mitochondrial phylogeny, combining samples from the western Caucasus within the potential range of five nominal species of trout that are thought to inhabit this region, and using the sequences available from GenBank...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xiaopeng Guo, Lu Gao, Xiaodong Shi, Hailong Li, Qiang Wang, Zihao Wang, Wei Chen, Bing Xing
Objective: To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods: We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT), the visceral fat index (VFI), sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
A W Tebbe, W P Weiss
Nutrient balance studies require measuring urine volume, and urinary excretion can be used to assess Mg bioavailability. A less laborious method than total collection of urine could make balance studies more feasible and expand the utility of using urinary Mg as an index of bioavailability, but the method needs to be accurate and sensitive. Sampling interval can affect accuracy because excretion must be at steady state. Two experiments were conducted to (1) determine whether urinary creatinine could be used to accurately estimate urinary output of nutrients markedly excreted via urine (N, K, Na, S, and Mg; experiment 1) and (2) determine the appropriate sampling schedule to evaluate Mg excretion after abrupt diet changes (experiment 2)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Dakshika A Gunaratne, Michael J Veness
Radiation oncologists are increasingly tasked with the management of elderly patients with non-melanoma skin cancer, unsuitable for surgical intervention due to inoperable lesions and/or poor performance status. In this cohort, hypofractionated radiotherapy, delivered either daily, alternative daily or once weekly is highly effective. A systematic literature search was conducted of PUBMED, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using the algorithm ('radiotherapy' OR 'radiation therapy' OR 'brachytherapy') AND ('hypofraction' OR 'hypofractionated' OR 'hypofractionation') AND ('skin neoplasms' OR 'carcinoma' OR 'malignancy') AND ('skin' OR 'epidermis' OR 'epidermal' OR 'cutaneous')...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Tianwei Gu, Ting Hong, Pengzi Zhang, Sunyinyan Tang, Yan Bi, Hai Lu, Lichuang Men, Dongwei Ma, Dalong Zhu
INTRODUCTION: In Asia, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often have suboptimal glycemic control for many years prior to initiating basal insulin. Active titration of basal insulin is also required to improve glycemic outcomes. This pooled analysis was conducted to determine the impact of patient baseline covariates on the required dose of basal insulin and treatment response, for the improved management of Asian patients with T2DM. METHODS: Data on insulin-naïve Asian patients with T2DM who initiated and fully titrated insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100) for ≥ 20 weeks were pooled from seven randomized, controlled, treat-to-target trials...
March 9, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Jéssica Araújo Figueira, Fábio Roberto de Souza Batista, Karina Rosso, Vanessa Cristina Veltrini, Angelo José Pavan
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS), also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder with high penetrance and variable expressivity. The classic triad originally described by Gorlin and Goltz in 1960 is composed of multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas (NBCCs), odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) in the jaws and bifid ribs. in 1977, this triad was modified by Rayner et al, and to GGS diagnosis, the OKCs had to appear in combination with calcification of the cerebellar falx or palmar and plantar pits...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Landon Wood, Karen Roelofs, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Darleen A Sandoval
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is currently our most effective strategy at weight loss, yet the mechanisms for its success remain unknown. Low exercise capacity, in humans and rodents, predicts poor metabolic outcome. The objective of this manuscript was to determine if bariatric surgery could restore metabolic perturbations in rats with low intrinsic exercise capacity. METHODS: We performed vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) or sham surgery in high fat-fed rats selectively bred for low running capacity...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Giuseppe Vallar, Elena Calzolari
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling neurologic deficit, most frequent and severe after right-hemispheric lesions. In most patients neglect involves the left side of space, contralateral to a right-hemispheric lesion. About 50% of stroke patients exhibit neglect in the acute phase. Patients fail to orient, respond to, and report sensory events occurring in the contralateral sides of space and of the body, to explore these portions of space through movements by action effectors (eye, limbs), and to move the contralateral limbs...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Runjun Dowarah, Ashok Kumar Verma, Neeta Agarwal, Putan Singh, Bhoj Raj Singh
The present study was aimed to develop an effective probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from piglet feces and in vitro characterization of probiotic properties. To confirm host-species specificity of probiotics, the efficacy of isolated LAB on growth, nutrient utilization, health and antioxidant status was observed in early weaned piglets. A total of 30 LAB were isolated from feces of five healthy piglets (28d old). All isolates were Gram positive, cocco-bacilli and catalase negative. Out of thirty LAB isolates, twenty were shortlisted on the basis of their tolerance to pH (3...
2018: PloS One
C G Montaña, C M Schalk
The isotopic (δ13 C and δ15 N) and stoichiometric (C:N:P) compositions of four fish species (Family Centrarchidae: Lepomis auritus, Lepomis cyanellus; Family Cyprinidae: Nocomis leptocephalus, Semotilus atromaculatus) were examined across four North Carolina Piedmont streams arrayed along an urbanization gradient. Both isotopic and stoichiometric composition of fishes appeared to track changes occurring in basal resource availability. Values of δ13 C of basal resources and consumers were more enriched at the most urbanized streams...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
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