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gut dysbiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920543/intestinal-permeability-in-a-patient-with-liver-cirrhosis
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan Manuel Aguirre Valadez, Liliana Rivera-Espinosa, Osvely Méndez-Guerrero, Juan Luis Chávez-Pacheco, Ignacio García Juárez, Aldo Torre
Liver cirrhosis is a worldwide public health problem, and patients with this disease are at high risk of developing complications, bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric nodes, and systemic circulation, resulting in the development of severe complications related to high mortality rate. The intestinal barrier is a structure with a physical and biochemical activity to maintain balance between the external environment, including bacteria and their products, and the internal environment...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910234/luminal-contents-from-the-gut-of-colicky-infants-induce-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-mice
#3
H Eutamène, C L Garcia-Rodenas, S Yvon, E d'Aldebert, F Foata, B Berger, J Sauser, V Theodorou, G Bergonzelli, E Mas
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of infantile colic is poorly understood, though various studies report gut microbiota dysbiosis in colicky infants. We aimed to test the hypothesis that colic-related dysbiosis is associated with visceral hypersensitivity triggered by an altered luminal milieu. METHODS: Fecal samples from seven colicky and seven non-colicky infants were studied. Fecal supernatants (FS) were infused into the colons of C57/Bl6 mice (n=10/specimen). Visceral sensitivity was subsequently assessed in the animals by recording their abdominal muscle response to colorectal distension (CRD) by electromyography (EMG)...
December 1, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909795/altered-gut-microbiota-in-ra-implications-for-treatment
#4
Y Kang, Y Cai, X Zhang, X Kong, J Su
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with progressive joint disorder. The complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences is important for the development of the disease. A growing body of evidence has shed light on the association of dysbiosis of gut microbiota with RA. Certain gut microbial strains have been shown to inhibit or attenuate immune responses in RA experimental models, suggesting that specific species among intestinal commensal bacteria may play either a pathogenic or a protective role in the development of RA...
December 1, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#5
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907005/intraluminal-flagellin-differentially-contributes-to-gut-dysbiosis-and-systemic-inflammation-following-burn-injury
#6
Logan Grimes, Allie Doyle, Aaron L Miller, Richard B Pyles, Gabor Olah, Csaba Szabo, Sarah Hoskins, Tonyia Eaves-Pyles
Burn injury is associated with a loss of gut barrier function, resulting in systemic dissemination of gut-derived bacteria and their products. The bacterial protein and TLR5 agonist, flagellin, induces non-specific innate immune responses. Because we detected flagellin in the serum of burn patients, we investigated whether gut-derived flagellin was a primary or secondary contributor to intestinal dysfunction and systemic inflammation following burn injury. The apical surface of polarized human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), Caco-2BBe, were exposed to 50 or 500 ng of purified flagellin and 1 x 105 of an intestinal E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904735/urinary-metabolomics-of-young-italian-autistic-children-supports-abnormal-tryptophan-and-purine-metabolism
#7
Federica Gevi, Lello Zolla, Stefano Gabriele, Antonio M Persico
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still diagnosed through behavioral observation, due to a lack of laboratory biomarkers, which could greatly aid clinicians in providing earlier and more reliable diagnoses. Metabolomics on human biofluids provides a sensitive tool to identify metabolite profiles potentially usable as biomarkers for ASD. Initial metabolomic studies, analyzing urines and plasma of ASD and control individuals, suggested that autistic patients may share some metabolic abnormalities, despite several inconsistencies stemming from differences in technology, ethnicity, age range, and definition of "control" status...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895859/dysbiosis-of-fecal-microbiota-and-high-frequency-of-citrobacter-klebsiella-spp-and-actinomycetes-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-gastroenteritis
#8
Leila Ganji, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Hassan Shirazi, Seyed Saeed Eshraghi, Abbas Mirshafiey, Naser Ebrahimi Daryani, Mohammad Reza Zali
AIM: This study was aimed to characterize putative differences of fecal microbiota between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and gastroenteritis patients and healthy controls. BACKGROUND: New evidence proposed that gut microbiota has a deep effect on the balance between health and disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The presence of Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter spp., Enterobacteriacea and Staphylococci were detected in the samples using selective and specific culture media...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#9
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895415/factoring-the-intestinal-microbiome-into-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#10
EDITORIAL
Albert J Czaja
The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895265/gut-homeostasis-microbial-dysbiosis-and-opioids
#11
Fuyuan Wang, Sabita Roy
Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining animal and human health. The disruption of gut homeostasis has been shown to be associated with multiple diseases. The mutually beneficial relationship between the gut microbiota and the host has been demonstrated to maintain homeostasis of the mucosal immunity and preserve the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. Currently, rapid progress in the understanding of the host-microbial interaction has redefined toxicological pathology of opioids and their pharmacokinetics...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894337/intestinal-dysbiosis-is-common-in-systemic-sclerosis-and-associated-with-gastrointestinal-and-extraintestinal-features-of-disease
#12
Kristofer Andréasson, Zaid Alrawi, Anita Persson, Göran Jönsson, Jan Marsal
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests a link between autoimmunity and the intestinal microbial composition in several rheumatic diseases including systemic sclerosis (SSc). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of intestinal dysbiosis in SSc and to characterise patients suffering from this potentially immunomodulatory deviation. METHODS: This study consisted of 98 consecutive patients subject to in-hospital care. Stool samples were analysed for intestinal microbiota composition using a validated genome-based microbiota test (GA-map™ Dysbiosis Test, Genetic Analysis, Oslo, Norway)...
November 29, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891184/effect-of-antibiotic-pre-treatment-and-pathogen-challenge-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-mice
#13
Tadasu Iizumi, Takako Taniguchi, Wataru Yamazaki, Geraldine Vilmen, Alexander V Alekseyenko, Zhan Gao, Guillermo I Perez Perez, Martin J Blaser
BACKGROUND: More than 50 years after the discovery of antibiotics, bacterial infections have decreased substantially; however, antibiotics also may have negative effects such as increasing susceptibility to pathogens. An intact microbiome is an important line of defense against pathogens. We sought to determine the effect of orally administered antibiotics both on susceptibility to pathogens and on impact to the microbiome. We studied Campylobacter jejuni, one of the most common causes of human diarrhea, and Acinetobacter baumannii, which causes wound infections...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890791/fecal-microbiota-manipulation-prevents-dysbiosis-and-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#14
Gladys Ferrere, Laura Wrzosek, Frédéric Cailleux, Williams Turpin, Virginie Puchois, Madeleine Spatz, Dragos Ciocan, Dominique Rainteau, Lydie Humbert, Cindy Hugot, Françoise Gaudin, Marie-Louise Noordine, Véronique Robert, Dominique Berrebi, Muriel Thomas, Sylvie Naveau, Gabriel Perlemuter, Anne-Marie Cassard
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of liver failure and mortality. In humans, severe alcoholic hepatitis is associated with key changes of intestinal microbiota (IM), which influences individual sensitivity to develop advanced ALD. We used the different susceptibility to ALD observed in two distinct animal facilities to test the efficiency of two complementary strategies (fecal microbiota transplantation and prebiotic treatment) to reverse dysbiosis and prevent ALD...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890642/protective-effect-of-quercetin-on-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice-is-mediated-by-modulating-intestinal-microbiota-imbalance-and-related-gut-liver-axis-activation
#15
David Porras, Esther Nistal, Susana Martínez-Flórez, Sandra Pisonero-Vaquero, José Luis Olcoz, Ramiro Jover, Javier González-Gallego, María Victoria García-Mediavilla, Sonia Sánchez-Campos
Gut microbiota is involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome and the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been recently suggested that the flavonoid quercetin may have the ability to modulate the intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting a prebiotic capacity which highlights a great therapeutic potential in NAFLD. The present study aims to investigate benefits of experimental treatment with quercetin on gut microbial balance and related gut-liver axis activation in a nutritional animal model of NAFLD associated to obesity...
November 25, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884149/sasa-quelpaertensis-leaf-extract-regulates-microbial-dysbiosis-by-modulating-the-composition-and-diversity-of-the-microbiota-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-mice
#16
Yiseul Yeom, Bong-Soo Kim, Se-Jae Kim, Yuri Kim
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are related to a dysfunction of the mucosal immune system and they result from complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors, including lifestyle, diet, and the gut microbiome. Therefore, the effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on gut microbiota in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was investigated with pyrosequencing of fecal samples. METHODS: Three groups of animals were examined: i) a control group, ii) a group that was received 2...
November 25, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884012/gut-microbiota-bacterial-translocation-and-interactions-with-diet-pathophysiological-links-between-major-depressive-disorder-and-non-communicable-medical-comorbidities
#17
Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Maes, Felice N Jacka, Cristiano A Köhler, Tatiana Barichello, Roger S McIntyre, Michael Berk, Iria Grande, Jane A Foster, Eduard Vieta, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Persistent low-grade immune-inflammatory processes, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation are integral to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The microbiome, intestinal compositional changes, and resultant bacterial translocation add a new element to the bidirectional interactions of the gut-brain axis; new evidence implicates these pathways in the patho-aetiology of MDD. In addition, abnormalities in the gut-brain axis are associated with several chronic non-communicable disorders, which frequently co-occur in individuals with MDD, including but not limited to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
November 25, 2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880935/evolutionary-biologic-changes-of-gut-microbiota-in-an-adenoma-carcinoma-sequence-mouse-colorectal-cancer-model-induced-by-1-2-dimethylhydrazine
#18
Teng Sun, Shanglong Liu, Yanbing Zhou, Zengwu Yao, Dongfeng Zhang, Shougen Cao, Zhiliang Wei, Bin Tan, Yi Li, Zheng Lian, Song Wang
The molecular biological mechanisms underlying the evolutionary biologic changes leading to carcinogenesis remain unclear. The main objective of our study was to explore the evolution of the microbiota community and molecules related with CRC in the dynamic transition from normal colon epithelium to premalignant adenoma with the aid of an 'adenoma-carcinoma sequence' mouse CRC model induced by DMH. We generated a modified mouse CRC model induced by DMH for DNA sequences, and characterized the molecular networks...
November 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876802/altered-intestinal-microbiota-host-mitochondria-crosstalk-in-new-onset-crohn-s-disease
#19
Walid Mottawea, Cheng-Kang Chiang, Marcus Mühlbauer, Amanda E Starr, James Butcher, Turki Abujamel, Shelley A Deeke, Annette Brandel, Hu Zhou, Shadi Shokralla, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Ruth Singleton, Eric I Benchimol, Christian Jobin, David R Mack, Daniel Figeys, Alain Stintzi
Intestinal microbial dysbiosis is associated with Crohn's disease (CD). However, the mechanisms leading to the chronic mucosal inflammation that characterizes this disease remain unclear. In this report, we use systems-level approaches to study the interactions between the gut microbiota and host in new-onset paediatric patients to evaluate causality and mechanisms of disease. We report an altered host proteome in CD patients indicative of impaired mitochondrial functions. In particular, mitochondrial proteins implicated in H2S detoxification are downregulated, while the relative abundance of H2S microbial producers is increased...
November 23, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876117/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#20
Denise Maguire, Maureen Gröer
Development of a healthy gut microbiome is essential in newborns to establish immunity and protection from pathogens. Recent studies suggest that infants who develop dysbiosis may be at risk for lifelong adverse health consequences. Exposure to opioid drugs during pregnancy is a factor of potential importance for microbiome health that has not yet been investigated. Since these infants are born after an entire gestation exposed to mu opioid receptor agonists and have severe gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, we hypothesize that these infants are at risk for dysbiosis...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
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