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gut dysbiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921469/microbial-factors-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancers
#1
Hong Sheng Ong, Howard Chi Ho Yim
The intestinal microbes form a symbiotic relationship with their human host to harvest energy for themselves and their host and to shape the immune system of their host. However, alteration of this relationship, which is named as a dysbiosis, has been associated with the development of different inflammatory diseases and cancers. It is found that metabolites, cellular components, and virulence factors derived from the gut microbiota interact with the host locally or systemically to modulate the dysbiosis and the development of these diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918634/an-engineered-probiotic-for-the-inhibition-of-salmonella-via-tetrathionate-induced-production-of-microcin-h47
#2
Jacob D Palmer, Emma Piattelli, Beth McCormick, Mark Silby, Christopher Brigham, Vanni Bucci
Complications arising from antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming one of the key issues in modern medicine. Members of drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae spp. include opportunistic pathogens (e.g. Salmonella spp.) that are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Overgrowth of these bacteria is considered a hallmark of intestinal dysbiosis. Microcins (small antimicrobial peptides) produced by some gut commensals can potentially cure these conditions by inhibiting these pathogens, and have been proposed as a viable alternative to antibiotic treatment...
September 17, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915953/syntrophic-imbalance-and-the-etiology-of-bacterial-endoparasitism-diseases
#3
James F White
This article outlines the proposed 'syntrophic imbalance hypothesis' for etiology of bacterial endoparasitism diseases. This hypothesis involves microbes (archaea and bacteria) that exist in human body biofilms in syntrophic associations, where bacteria ferment nutrients to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are used by methanogenic archaeons to produce methane. Overgrowth of archaea on human tissues (e.g., in association with intestines, teeth or lungs) results in excessive removal of SCFAs from the biofilms and this triggers bacteria in the free-living biofilm state to convert to the endoparasitic state and become intracellular in host cells where they incite inflammation and disease...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914591/mucosa-associated-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-colitis-associated-cancer
#4
Mathias L Richard, Giuseppina Liguori, Bruno Lamas, Giovanni Brandi, Gregory da Costa, Thomas W Hoffmann, Massimo Pierluigi Di Simone, Carlo Calabrese, Gilberto Poggioli, Philippe Langella, Massimo Campieri, Harry Sokol
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota has also been recognized as potentially involved in aggravating or favoring the tumor development. However, very little is known on the structure and role of the microbiota in colitis associated cancer (CAC), an important complication of IBD in human. Here we analyzed the bacterial and fungal composition of the mucosa associated microbiota of patients suffering CAC, sporadic cancer (SC) and of healthy subjects (HS) by barcode sequences analysis on the following cohort: 7 CAC patients, 10 SC patients and 10 HS using 16S (MiSeq) and ITS2 (pyrosequencing) sequencing, for bacteria and fungi respectively...
September 15, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914372/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatic-diseases
#5
Danli Zhong, Chanyuan Wu, Xiaofeng Zeng, Qian Wang
Rheumatic diseases refer to many diseases with a loss of immune self-tolerance, leading to a chronic inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement in multiple organs or tissues. The cause of rheumatic diseases remains to be elucidated, though both environmental and genetic factors are required for the development of rheumatic diseases. Over the past decades, emerging studies suggested that alteration of intestinal microbiota, known as gut dysbiosis, contributed to the occurrence or development of a range of rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic sclerosis, and Sjogren's syndrome, through profoundly affecting the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905671/microbiota-derived-uremic-retention-solutes-perpetrators-of-altered-nonrenal-drug-clearance-in-kidney-disease
#6
Alexander J Prokopienko, Thomas D Nolin
Scientific interest in the gut microbiota is increasing due to improved understanding of its implications in human health and disease. In patients with kidney disease, gut microbiota-derived uremic toxins directly contribute to altered nonrenal drug clearance. Microbial imbalances, known as dysbiosis, potentially increase formation of microbiota-derived toxins, and diminished renal clearance leads to toxin accumulation. High concentrations of microbiota-derived toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate perpetrate interactions with drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters, which provides a mechanistic link between increases in drug-related adverse events and dysbiosis in kidney disease...
September 14, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903182/molecular-estimation-of-alteration-in-intestinal-microbial-composition-in-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-patients
#7
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq, Imran Shair Mohammad, Hui Guo, Muhammad Shahzad, Yin Jian Hou, Chaofeng Ma, Zahid Naseem, Xiaokang Wu, Peijie Shi, Jiru Xu
The gut microbiota has a crucial effect on human health and physiology. Hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disorder manifested with environmental and genetic factors. However, it is hypothesized that intestinal microbes might play a vital role in the pathogenesis of HT. The aim of current was to investigate and characterize the gut microbial composition of HT patients both quantitatively and qualitatively. The fecal samples from 29 HT patients and 12 healthy individuals were collected...
September 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895587/a-new-animal-diet-based-on-human-western-diet-is-a-robust-diet-induced-obesity-model-comparison-to-high-fat-and-cafeteria-diets-in-term-of-metabolic-and-gut-microbiota-disruption
#8
R C Bortolin, A R Vargas, J Gasparotto, P R Chaves, C E Schnorr, K da Boit Martinello, A K Silveira, T K Rabelo, D P Gelain, J C F Moreira
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a metabolic disorder that predisposes patients to numerous diseases and has become a major global public-health concern. Animal models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) are frequently used to study obesity, but which DIO model most accurately reflects the pathology of human obesity remains unclear. In this study, we designed a diet based on the human Western diet (WD) and compared it with the cafeteria diet (CAF) and high-fat diet (HFD) in order to evaluate which diet most closely mirrors human obesity...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894218/lactate-utilizing-community-is-associated-with-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-colicky-infants
#9
Van T Pham, Christophe Lacroix, Christian P Braegger, Christophe Chassard
The aetiology of colic, a functional gastrointestinal disorder in infants, is not yet resolved. Different mechanisms have been suggested involving the gut microbiota and intermediate metabolites such as lactate. Lactate can be metabolized by lactate-utilizing bacteria (LUB) to form different end-products. Using a functional approach, we hypothesized that H2 production and accumulation by LUB is associated with the development of colic. The LUB communities in the feces of forty infants, including eight colicky infants, were characterized using a combination of culture- and molecular-based methods, and metabolite concentrations were measured by HPLC...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893288/potential-contribution-of-gut-microbiota-and-systemic-inflammation-on-hiv-vaccine-effectiveness-and-vaccine-design
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj
The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Such findings support the assessment and reduction of pre-vaccine immune activation in order to optimize vaccine response...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890714/gut-microbiota-analysis-in-rats-with-methamphetamine-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#11
Tingting Ning, Xiaokang Gong, Lingling Xie, Baomiao Ma
Methamphetamine abuse is a major public health crisis. Because accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that the gut microbiota plays an important role in central nervous system (CNS) function, and research on the roles of the microbiome in CNS disorders holds conceivable promise for developing novel therapeutic avenues for treating CNS disorders, we sought to determine whether administration of methamphetamine leads to alterations in the intestinal microbiota. In this study, the gut microbiota profiles of rats with methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were analyzed through 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890155/antibiotic-induced-microbiota-perturbation-causes-gut-endocannabinoidome-changes-hippocampal-neuroglial-reorganization-and-depression-in-mice
#12
F Guida, F Turco, M Iannotta, D De Gregorio, I Palumbo, G Sarnelli, A Furiano, F Napolitano, S Boccella, L Luongo, M Mazzitelli, A Usiello, F De Filippis, F A Iannotti, F Piscitelli, D Ercolini, V de Novellis, V Di Marzo, R Cuomo, S Maione
The microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA) regulates the reciprocal interaction between chronic inflammatory bowel and psychiatric disorders. This interaction involves multiple pathways that are highly debated. We examined the behavioural, biochemical and electrophysiological alterations, as well as gut microbiota composition in a model of antibiotic-induced experimental dysbiosis. Inflammation of the small intestine was also assessed. Mice were exposed to a mixture of antimicrobials for 2weeks. Afterwards, they received Lactobacillus casei DG (LCDG) or a vehicle for up to 7days via oral gavage...
September 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888875/imazalil-exposure-induces-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-hepatic-metabolism-disorder-in-zebrafish
#13
Cuiyuan Jin, Ting Luo, Zhihong Zhu, Zihong Pan, Jiajing Yang, Wenchao Wang, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
The fungicide imazalil (IMZ) is used extensively to preserve freshness, prevent decay and control fungal infections in fruits, vegetables or other plants. Recently, some studies have reported that the real in aquatic systems have reached very high levels. Here, male adult zebrafish were exposed to 100 and 1000μg/L IMZ for 1, 7, 21days, and the gut microbiota and hepatic metabolism were evaluated. Exposure to a high concentration of IMZ for 21days decreased mucin secretion in the gut. Sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed a significant increase in the diversity of gut microbiota in male zebrafish...
September 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887729/intestinal-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Gabriele Moser, Camille Fournier, Johannes Peter
Psychological comorbidity is highly present in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recent research points to a role of intestinal microbiota in visceral hypersensitivity, anxiety, and depression. Increased disease reactivity to psychological stress has been described too. A few clinical studies have attempted to identify features of dysbiosis in IBS. While animal studies revealed strong associations between stress and gut microbiota, studies in humans are rare. This review covers the most important studies on intestinal microbial correlates of psychological and clinical features in IBS, including stress, anxiety, and depression...
September 8, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887570/the-salivary-microbiome-is-consistent-between-subjects-and-resistant-to-impacts-of-short-term-hospitalization
#15
Damien J Cabral, Jenna I Wurster, Myrto E Flokas, Michail Alevizakos, Michelle Zabat, Benjamin J Korry, Aislinn D Rowan, William H Sano, Nikolaos Andreatos, R Bobby Ducharme, Philip A Chan, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Peter Belenky
In recent years, a growing amount of research has begun to focus on the oral microbiome due to its links with health and systemic disease. The oral microbiome has numerous advantages that make it particularly useful for clinical studies, including non-invasive collection, temporal stability, and lower complexity relative to other niches, such as the gut. Despite recent discoveries made in this area, it is unknown how the oral microbiome responds to short-term hospitalization. Previous studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiome is extremely sensitive to short-term hospitalization and that these changes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884590/galacto-oligosaccharides-ameliorate-dysbiotic-bifidobacteriaceae-decline-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
M Gonai, A Shigehisa, I Kigawa, K Kurasaki, O Chonan, T Matsuki, Y Yoshida, M Aida, K Hamano, Y Terauchi
Gut microbiota affects the host's metabolism, and it is suggested that there are differences in gut microbiota composition between patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy individuals. Additionally, dysbiosis may increase the concentration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), causing metabolic endotoxemia, which induces impaired glucose tolerance. Several studies have reported relationships between metabolic diseases and the gut microbiota; and prebiotics, such as oligosaccharides, are commonly consumed to regulate gut microbiotas in healthy individuals...
September 8, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884091/alterations-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-hypertension
#17
Qiulong Yan, Yifang Gu, Xiangchun Li, Wei Yang, Liqiu Jia, Changming Chen, Xiuyan Han, Yukun Huang, Lizhe Zhao, Peng Li, Zhiwei Fang, Junpeng Zhou, Xiuru Guan, Yanchun Ding, Shaopeng Wang, Muhammad Khan, Yi Xin, Shenghui Li, Yufang Ma
Introduction: Human gut microbiota is believed to be directly or indirectly involved in cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. However, the identification and functional status of the hypertension-related gut microbe(s) have not yet been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. Methods: Here we characterized the gut microbiome in hypertension status by comparing fecal samples of 60 patients with primary hypertension and 60 gender-, age-, and body weight-matched healthy controls based on whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880224/parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota
#18
REVIEW
Monika Cahova, Miriam Bratova, Petr Wohl
Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides life-saving nutritional support in situations where caloric supply via the enteral route cannot cover the necessary needs of the organism. However, it does have serious adverse effects, including parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The development of liver injury associated with PN is multifactorial, including non-specific intestine inflammation, compromised intestinal permeability, and barrier function associated with increased bacterial translocation, primary and secondary cholangitis, cholelithiasis, short bowel syndrome, disturbance of hepatobiliary circulation, lack of enteral nutrition, shortage of some nutrients (proteins, essential fatty acids, choline, glycine, taurine, carnitine, etc...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878025/gallbladder-derived-surfactant-protein-d-regulates-gut-commensal-bacteria-for-maintaining-intestinal-homeostasis
#19
Hana Sarashina-Kida, Hideo Negishi, Junko Nishio, Wataru Suda, Yuki Nakajima, Mika Yasui-Kato, Keiko Iwaisako, Sujin Kang, Nobuyasu Endo, Hideyuki Yanai, Masataka Asagiri, Hiroshi Kida, Masahira Hattori, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Tadatsugu Taniguchi
The commensal microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract is essential in maintaining homeostasis. Indeed, dysregulation in the repertoire of microbiota can result in the development of intestinal immune-inflammatory diseases. Further, this immune regulation by gut microbiota is important systemically, impacting health and disease of organ systems beyond the local environment of the gut. What has not been explored is how distant organs might in turn shape the microbiota via microbe-targeted molecules. Here, we provide evidence that surfactant protein D (SP-D) synthesized in the gallbladder and delivered into intestinal lumen binds selectively to species of gut commensal bacteria...
September 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870713/dietary-pomegranate-extract-and-inulin-affect-gut-microbiome-differentially-in-mice-fed-an-obesogenic-diet
#20
Song Zhang, Jieping Yang, Susanne M Henning, Rupo Lee, Mark Hsu, Emma Grojean, Rita Pisegna, Austin Ly, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Growing evidence suggests that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Using dietary intervention to shape the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota is increasingly recognized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of polysaccharide inulin and polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) alone or in combination on the cecal microbiota composition and function in a diet induced obesity mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups and consumed either high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose, 17% energy from protein)] diet, HF/HS diet supplemented with PomX (0...
September 13, 2017: Anaerobe
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