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gut dysbiosis

R Balfour Sartor, Gary D Wu
Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis, via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Shuai Wei, Deog H Oh, Byong H Lee
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract has co-developed with a large number of microbes in a symbiotic relationship over millions of years. Recent studies indicate that indigenous bacteria are intimate with the intestine and play essential roles in health and disease. In the quest to maintain a stable niche, these prokaryotes influence multiple host metabolic pathways, resulting from an interactive host-microbiota metabolic signaling and impacting strongly on the metabolic phenotypes of the host. Since dysbiosis of the gut bacteria result in alteration in the levels of certain microbial and host co-metabolites, identifying these markers could enhance early detection of diseases...
October 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Sanae Sekihara, Toshio Shibata, Mai Hyakkendani, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata
We recently reported that transglutaminase (TG) suppresses immune deficiency pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptides (IMD-AMPs), thereby conferring immune tolerance to gut microbes, and that RNAi of the TG gene in flies decreases the lifespan compared with non-TG-RNAi flies. Here, analysis of the bacterial composition of the Drosophila gut by next-generation sequencing revealed that gut microbiota comprising one dominant genus of Acetobacter in non-TG-RNAi flies was shifted to that comprising two dominant genera of Acetobacter and Providencia in TG-RNAi flies...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Raphael Jose Ferreira Felizardo, Angela Castoldi, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
Recent findings regarding the influence of the microbiota in many inflammatory processes have provided a new way to treat diseases. Now, one may hypothesize that the origin of a plethora of diseases is related to the health of the gut microbiota and its delicate, although complex, interface with the epithelial and immune systems. The 'westernization' of diets, for example, is associated with alterations in the gut microbiota. Such alterations have been found to correlate directly with the increased incidence of diabetes and hypertension, the main causes of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs), which, in turn, have a high estimated prevalence...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Seungbum Kim, Gary Wang, Gilberto Lobaton, Eric Li, Tao Yang, Mohan Raizada
OBJECTIVE: Our previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbial dysbiosis is linked to high blood pressure in patients. This was associated with decreases in butyrate- and acetate- producing microbial populations. Thus, our objective in this study was to investigate the hypothesis that infusion of butyrate would impact dysbiosis, gut immunity and attenuate hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: C57B6 mice were divided into 4 groups; Saline infused, Angiotensin II (750ng/kg/min) infused, Ang II infused and butyrate treated (0...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yanling Wei, Jun Yang, Jun Wang, Yang Yang, Juan Huang, Hao Gong, Hongli Cui, Dongfeng Chen
BACKGROUND: The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of gut-derived infections, making it a potential therapeutic target against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) after sepsis. However, the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating this disease has been rarely investigated. METHODS: Two male patients, a 65-year-old and an 84-year-old, were initially diagnosed with cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, respectively, after admission...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Rima Rachid, Talal A Chatila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rise in the prevalence of food allergy over the past decades has focused attention of factors that may impact disease development, most notably the gut microbiota. The gut microbial communities play a crucial role in promoting oral tolerance. Their alteration by such factors as Cesarean section delivery, diet and antibiotics may influence disease development. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in the development of food allergy...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Danielle Macedo, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, João Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello, Hélio Vitoriano Nobre Júnior, David Freitas de Lucena
OBJECTIVES: The first drug repurposed for the treatment of depression was the tuberculostatic iproniazid. At present, drugs belonging to new classes of antidepressants still have antimicrobial effects. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota was implicated in the development or exacerbation of mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). Based on the current interest in the gut-brain axis, the focus of this narrative review is to compile the available studies regarding the influences of gut microbiota in behavior and depression and to show the antimicrobial effect of antidepressant drugs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Hideki Kumagai, Koji Yokoyama, Tomoyuki Imagawa, Shun Inoue, Janyerkye Tulyeu, Mamoru Tanaka, Takanori Yamagata
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a treatment designed to correct gut dysbiosis by administration of feces from a healthy volunteer. It is still unclear whether FMT for children with ulcerative colitis (UC) is effective or hazardous. Here we describe a young patient to have received FMT for UC. A three-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with severe active UC, and treated with aminosalicylates and various immunosuppressive drugs. As remission was not achieved, we decided to try FMT before colectomy...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Regina Irwin, Sandi Raehtz, Narayanan Parameswaran, Laura R McCabe
Increasing evidence indicates a strong link between intestinal health and bone health. For example, inflammatory bowel disease can cause systemic inflammation, weight loss and extra-intestinal manifestations such as decreased bone growth and density.  However, the effects of moderate intestinal inflammation without weight loss on bone health have never been directly examined; yet this condition is relevant not only to IBD but to conditions of increased intestinal permeability and inflammation as seen with ingestion of high fat diets, intestinal dysbiosis, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic syndrome and food allergies...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Stefano Levi Mortera, Federica Del Chierico, Pamela Vernocchi, Maria M Rosado, Agnese Cavola, Marco Chierici, Luisa Pieroni, Andrea Urbani, Rita Carsetti, Isabella Lante, Bruno Dallapiccola, Lorenza Putignani
At birth, contact with external stimuli, such as nutrients derived from food, is necessary to modulate the symbiotic balance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, protect against bacterial dysbiosis, and initiate the development of the mucosal immune response. Among a variety of different feeding patterns, breastfeeding represents the best modality. In fact, the capacity of breast milk to modulate the composition of infants' gut microbiota leads to beneficial effects on their health. In this study, we used newborn mice as a model to evaluate the effect of parental genetic background (i...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
OBJECTIVES: Gut dysbiosis has been associated with several clinically relevant conditions, including alterations of central nervous system (CNS) structure and function development. This review discussed aspects of the relationship between gut microbiota and the CNS during development. METHODS: PubMed was used to search for all of the studies published over the last 15 years using the key word "microbiota" and "gut" or "intestinal" and "nervous system". More than 350 articles were found, and only those published in English and providing data on aspects related to neurologic diseases were included in the evaluation...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Infection
Ludovic Giloteaux, Maureen R Hanson, Betsy A Keller
BACKGROUND Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) present with profound fatigue, flu-like symptoms, pain, cognitive impairment, orthostatic intolerance, and post-exertional malaise (PEM), and exacerbation of some or all of the baseline symptoms. CASE REPORT We report on a pair of 34-year-old monozygotic twins discordant for ME/CFS, with WELL, the non-affected twin, and ILL, the affected twin. Both twins performed a two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), pre- and post-exercise blood samples were drawn, and both provided stool samples for biochemical and molecular analysis...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Patrick W Maes, Pedro A P Rodrigues, Randy Oliver, Brendon M Mott, Kirk E Anderson
Dysbiosis, defined as unhealthy shifts in bacterial community composition, can lower the colonization resistance of the gut to intrinsic pathogens. Here, we determined the effect of diet age and type on the health and bacterial community composition of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). We fed newly emerged bees fresh or aged diets, and then recorded host development and bacterial community composition from four distinct regions of the hosts' digestive tract. Feeding fresh pollen or fresh substitute, we found no difference in host mortality, diet consumption, development or microbial community composition...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Ecology
N Nikitakis, W Papaioannou, L I Sakkas, E Kousvelari
To date there is a major effort in deciphering the role of complex microbial communities, especially the oral and gut microbiomes, in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Increasing evidence indicates a key role for the oral microbiome in autoimmune diseases. In this review article, we discuss links of the oral microbiota to a group of autoimmune diseases, i.e., Sjögren's syndrome (SS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Crohn's disease (CD), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We particularly focus on factors that affect the balance between the immune system and the composition of microbiota leading to dysbiosis, loss of tolerance and subsequent autoimmune disease progression and maintenance...
October 7, 2016: Oral Diseases
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