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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545206/the-performance-of-an-efficient-dairy-system-using-a-combination-of-nitrogen-leaching-mitigation-strategies-in-a-variable-climate
#1
P C Beukes, A J Romera, P Gregorini, K A Macdonald, C B Glassey, M A Shepherd
An efficient dairy system, that implemented a combination of nitrogen (N) leaching mitigation strategies including lower N fertilizer input, standing cows off pasture for part of the day in autumn and winter (stand-off), and importing limited amounts of low protein supplements was evaluated over four consecutive years of a farmlet study. This efficient system consistently demonstrated a lower measured annual N leaching of 40 to 50% compared with a baseline system representing current practice with no mitigations...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544939/risk-trading-in-flood-management-an-economic-model
#2
Chiung Ting Chang
Although flood management is no longer exclusively a topic of engineering, flood mitigation continues to be associated with hard engineering options. Flood adaptation or the capacity to adapt to flood risk, as well as a demand for internalizing externalities caused by flood risk between regions, complicate flood management activities. Even though integrated river basin management has long been recommended to resolve the above issues, it has proven difficult to apply widely, and sometimes even to bring into existence...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544337/growth-curves-of-normal-serum-total-ige-levels-throughout-childhood-a-quantile-analysis-in-a-birth-cohort
#3
Chiara Sacco, Serena Perna, Donatella Vicari, Marco Alfò, Carl-Peter Bauer, Ute Hoffman, Johannes Forster, Fred Zepp, Antje Schuster, Ulrich Wahn, Thomas Keil, Susanne Lau, Paolo Maria Matricardi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of serum total IgE (t-IgE) were not able to discriminate well enough atopic from non-atopic subjects, i.e. with or without serum-specific IgE antibodies to allergens. OBJECTIVES: To model growth curves of the total IgE levels in children without atopic sensitization (hereafter defined as "normal" t-IgE levels) and to test their usefulness in predicting atopic sensitization. METHODS: The German Multicentre Allergy Study (MAS), a birth cohort with 1314 recruited newborns, began in 1990 and examined the participants until age 20y...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544090/functional-tuning-of-the-catalytic-residue-pka-in-a-de-novo-designed-esterase
#4
Katharina Hiebler, Zsófia Lengyel, Carlos A Castañeda, Olga V Makhlynets
AlleyCatE is a de novo designed esterase that can be allosterically regulated by calcium ions. This artificial enzyme has been shown to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) and 4-nitrophenyl-(2-phenyl)-propanoate (pNPP) with high catalytic efficiency. AlleyCatE was created by introducing a single histidine residue (His(144) ) into a hydrophobic pocket of calmodulin. In this work, we explore the determinants of catalytic properties of AlleyCatE. We obtained the pKa value of the catalytic histidine using experimental measurements by NMR and pH rate profile and compared these values to those predicted from electrostatics pKa calculations (from both empirical and continuum electrostatics calculations)...
May 24, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543702/microencapsulation-of-rifampicin-a-technique-to-preserve-the-mechanical-properties-of-bone-cement
#5
P Sanz-Ruiz, E Carbó-Laso, J C Del Real-Romero, F Arán-Ais, Y Ballesteros-Iglesias, E Paz-Jiménez, M Sánchez-Navarro, M A Pérez-Limiñana, J Vaquero-Martín
Two-stage exchange with antibiotic-loaded bone cement spacers remains the gold standard for chronic periprosthetic joint infection(PJI). Rifampicin is highly efficient on stationary-phase staphylococci in biofilm; however, its addition to PMMA to manufacture spacers prevents polymerization and reduces mechanical properties. Isolation of rifampicin during polymerization by microencapsulation could allow manufacturing rifampicin-loaded bone cement maintaining elution and mechanical properties. Microcapsules of rifampicin with alginate, polyhydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate (PHBV), ethylcellulose and stearic acid (SA) were synthesized...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543585/a-score-test-for-genetic-class-level-association-with-nonlinear-biomarker-trajectories
#6
Jing Qian, Sara Nunez, Soohyun Kim, Muredach P Reilly, Andrea S Foulkes
Emerging data suggest that the genetic regulation of the biological response to inflammatory stress may be fundamentally different to the genetic underpinning of the homeostatic control (resting state) of the same biological measures. In this paper, we interrogate this hypothesis using a single-SNP score test and a novel class-level testing strategy to characterize protein-coding gene and regulatory element-level associations with longitudinal biomarker trajectories in response to stimulus. Using the proposed class-level association score statistic for longitudinal data, which accounts for correlations induced by linkage disequilibrium, the genetic underpinnings of evoked dynamic changes in repeatedly measured biomarkers are investigated...
May 23, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542558/improvement-of-non-key-traits-in-radiata-pine-breeding-programme-when-long-term-economic-importance-is-uncertain
#7
Yongjun Li, Heidi Dungey, Alvin Yanchuk, Luis A Apiolaza
Diameter at breast height (DBH), wood density (DEN) and predicted modulus of elasticity (PME) are considered as 'key traits' (KT) in the improvement in radiata pine breeding programmes in New Zealand. Any other traits which are also of interest to radiata pine breeders and forest growers are called 'non-key traits' (NKTs). External resin bleeding (ERB), internal checking (IC), number of heartwood rings (NHR) are three such non-key traits which affect wood quality of radiata pine timber. Economic importance of the KTs and NKTs is hard to define in radiata pine breeding programmes due to long rotation period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542537/mbr-sift-a-mirror-reflected-invariant-feature-descriptor-using-a-binary-representation-for-image-matching
#8
Mingzhe Su, Yan Ma, Xiangfen Zhang, Yan Wang, Yuping Zhang
The traditional scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method can extract distinctive features for image matching. However, it is extremely time-consuming in SIFT matching because of the use of the Euclidean distance measure. Recently, many binary SIFT (BSIFT) methods have been developed to improve matching efficiency; however, none of them is invariant to mirror reflection. To address these problems, in this paper, we present a horizontal or vertical mirror reflection invariant binary descriptor named MBR-SIFT, in addition to a novel image matching approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542473/stably-engineered-nanobubbles-and-ultrasound-an-effective-platform-for-enhanced-macromolecular-delivery-to-representative-cells-of-the-retina
#9
Sachin S Thakur, Micheal S Ward, Amirali Popat, Nicole B Flemming, Marie-Odile Parat, Nigel L Barnett, Harendra S Parekh
Herein we showcase the potential of ultrasound-responsive nanobubbles in enhancing macromolecular permeation through layers of the retina, ultimately leading to significant and direct intracellular delivery; this being effectively demonstrated across three relevant and distinct retinal cell lines. Stably engineered nanobubbles of a highly homogenous and echogenic nature were fully characterised using dynamic light scattering, B-scan ultrasound and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanobubbles appeared as spherical liposome-like structures under TEM, accompanied by an opaque luminal core and darkened corona around their periphery, with both features indicative of efficient gas entrapment and adsorption, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542362/a-window-dea-based-efficiency-evaluation-of-the-public-hospital-sector-in-greece-during-the-5-year-economic-crisis
#10
Angeliki Flokou, Vassilis Aletras, Dimitris Niakas
The main objective of this study was to apply the non-parametric method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the efficiency of Greek NHS hospitals between 2009-2013. Hospitals were divided into four separate groups with common characteristics which allowed comparisons to be carried out in the context of increased homogeneity. The window-DEA method was chosen since it leads to increased discrimination on the results especially when applied to small samples and it enables year-by-year comparisons of the results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542211/f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer-role-of-diffusion-of-fluorophore-orientation-and-separation-in-observed-shifts-of-fret-efficiency
#11
Bram Wallace, Paul J Atzberger
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a widely used single-molecule technique for measuring nanoscale distances from changes in the non-radiative transfer of energy between donor and acceptor fluorophores. For macromolecules and complexes this observed transfer efficiency is used to infer changes in molecular conformation under differing experimental conditions. However, sometimes shifts are observed in the FRET efficiency even when there is strong experimental evidence that the molecular conformational state is unchanged...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542006/an-efficient-affordable-optically-stimulated-luminescent-osl-annealer
#12
Sara A Abraham, Samuel J Frank, Kimberlee J Kearfott
Optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters are devices used for measuring doses of ionizing radiation. Signal is stored within an OSL material so that when stimulated with light, light of a specific wavelength is emitted in proportion to the integrated ionizing radiation dose. Each interrogation of the material results in the loss of a small fraction of signal, thus allowing multiple interrogations leading to more accurate measurements of dose. In order to reuse a dosimeter, the residual signals from prior doses must be taken into account and subtracted from current readings, adding uncertainty to any future measurements...
July 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541943/application-of-powdered-activated-carbon-pac-for-membrane-fouling-control-in-a-pilot-scale-mbr-system
#13
A I Zouboulis, P K Gkotsis, D X Zamboulis, M G Mitrakas
Membrane fouling is considered to be the most serious drawback in wastewater treatment when using membrane bioreactors (MBRs), leading to membrane permeability decrease and efficiency deterioration. This work aims to develop an integrated methodology for membrane fouling control, using powdered activated carbon (PAC), which will enhance the adsorption of soluble microbial products (SMP) and improve membrane filterability, by altering the mixed liquor's characteristics. Reversible fouling was assessed in terms of sludge filterability measurements, according to the standard time-to-filter (TTF) method, while irreversible fouling was assessed in terms of SMP removal...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541942/raw-water-clarification-by-flotation-with-microbubbles-and-nanobubbles-generated-with-a-multiphase-pump
#14
A Azevedo, R Etchepare, J Rubio
Raw water clarification by flotation was studied by injecting air into a centrifugal multiphase pump to generate microbubbles (MBs) and nanobubbles (NBs). Measurements of gas dispersion parameters were performed and optimal conditions were obtained using a pump pressure of 4 bar. Values showed a bubble Sauter diameter of 75 μm, an air holdup of 1.2%, a bubble surface area flux of 34 s(-1) and an NB concentration of 1 × 10(8) NBs mL(-1) (measuring 220 nm). Then, a study compared flotation with bubbles formed with the multiphase pump (F-MP) to lamellar settling at the clarification stage of a water treatment plant (WTP), in Brazil...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541910/an-investigation-on-ground-electrodes-of-capacitive-coupling-human-body-communication
#15
Jingna Mao, Huazhong Yang, Bo Zhao
Utilizing the body surface as the signal transmission medium, capacitive coupling human body communication (CC-HBC) can achieve a much higher energy efficiency than conventional wireless communications in future wireless body area network (WBAN) applications. Under the CC-HBC scheme, the body surface serves as the forward signal path, whereas the backward path is formed by the capacitive coupling between the ground electrodes (GEs) of transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX). So the type of communication benefits from a low forward loss, while the backward loss depending on the GE coupling strength dominates the total transmission loss...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541909/dual-band-dual-mode-button-antenna-for-on-body-and-off-body-communications
#16
Xiu Yin Zhang, Hang Wong, Te Mo, Yun Fei Cao
A dual-band dual-mode button antenna for body centric communications is presented. At the lower band, a spiral inverted-F antenna is designed with omnidirectional radiation pattern for on-body communication. At the upper band, the high-order mode of the inverted-F antenna is utilized together with a metal reflector to realize broadside radiation for off-body communication. For demonstration, a prototype is implemented. The measured peak gains on the phantom at the lower and upper bands are -0.6 and 4.3 dBi, respectively...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541715/biodegradation-and-kinetics-of-organic-compounds-and-heavy-metals-in-an-artificial-wetland-system-aws-by-using-water-hyacinths-as-a-biological-filter
#17
P F Rodríguez-Espinosa, J A Mendoza-Pérez, J Tabla-Hernandez, E Martínez-Tavera, M M Monroy-Mendieta
The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to absorb organic compounds (potassium hydrogen phthalate, sodium tartrate, malathion, 2,4-D and piroxicam). For the aforementioned purpose, an artificial wetland system (AWS) was constructed and filled with water hyacinth collected from Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Mexico. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium tartrate were measured in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541662/in-operando-quantification-of-three-dimensional-water-distribution-in-nanoporous-carbon-based-layers-in-polymer-electrolyte-membrane-fuel-cells
#18
Saad Alrwashdeh, Ingo Manke, Henning Markötter, Merle Klages, Martin Göbel, Jan Haußmann, Joachim Scholta, John Banhart
Understanding the function of nanoporous materials employed in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is crucial to improve their performance, durability and cost efficiency. Up to now, the water distribution in the nm-sized pore structures was hardly accessible during operation of the cells. Here we demonstrate that phase contrast synchrotron X-ray tomography allows for an in-operando quantification of the three-dimensional water distribution within the nm-sized pores of carbon-based micro porous layers (MPLs)...
May 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541413/the-influence-of-the-apolipoprotein-e-apoe-gene-on-subacute-post-concussion-neurocognitive-performance-in-college-athletes
#19
Victoria C Merritt, Amanda R Rabinowitz, Peter A Arnett
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ε4 allele of the APOE gene influences neurocognitive outcome following sports-related concussion. It was hypothesized that participants with an ε4 allele would show poorer neurocognitive performance and greater neurocognitive variability than those without an ε4 allele. Method: Participants included 57 concussed collegiate athletes (77.2% male) who participated in a concussion management program at a large university...
May 24, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541274/cerebrospinal-fluid-procalcitonin-as-a-biomarker-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-neonates
#20
Z Reshi, M Nazir, W Wani, M Malik, J Iqbal, S Wajid
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to study the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) procalcitonin as a marker for bacterial meningitis in neonates, and to determine its optimal 'cutoff' in CSF that can be called significant for the diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Neonates qualifying for lumbar puncture were prospectively studied. Procalcitonin and established CSF parameters were recorded. RESULTS: At a cut-off value of 0.33 ng ml(-1), CSF procalcitonin had a sensitivity of 0...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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