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Efficiency measure

Jae B Park
p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) is a protein kinase critically involved in the progress of inflammation/stress-associated diseases. Our data suggested that javamide analogues may contain strong anti-inflammation activities, but there is little information about their effects on p38 MAPK. Therefore, in this paper, the effects of thirty javamide analogues on p38 MAPK were investigated using in silico screening and in vitro p38 MAPK assay methods. The javamide analogues were synthesized and their chemical structures were confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ju-Heon Kim, Jong-Suep Baek, Jin-Kyu Park, Bong-Joo Lee, Min-Soo Kim, Sung-Joo Hwang, Jae-Young Lee, Cheong-Weon Cho
Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata) has been used for diuresis and detoxification in folk medicine as well as a herbal medicine with antiviral and antibacterial activities. H. cordata extract-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (H-SLNs) were prepared with various concentration of poloxamer 188 or poloxamer 407 by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. H-SLNs dispersion was freeze-dried with or without trehalose as a cryoprotectant. The physicochemical characteristics of H-SLNs were evaluated by dynamic laser scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
December 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
M Kaless, L Palmowski, J Pinnekamp
The energy content of screenings from six municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was examined. Hourly samples of separated screenings were taken over 24 hours at three of the plants to illustrate diurnal variations. To recover the chemical energy, which usually leaves the WWTP with the screenings, a screenings wash press was used to transfer organic matter from the solid into the liquid phase. The chemical energy of raw and compacted washed screenings as well as the chemical energy of washing water were determined by measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD) for the six WWTPs...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Guangbo Wang, Karen Leus, Shuna Zhao, Pascal Van Der Voort
In this article, a set of novel covalent triazine frameworks were prepared by trimerization of 4,4',4'',4'''-(1,4-phenylenebis(pyridine-4,2,6-triyl))tetrabenzonitrile in molten ZnCl2 under ionothermal conditions. The influence of several parameters such as the ZnCl2/monomer ratio and reaction temperature on the structure and porosity of the resulting frameworks was systematically examined. After a thorough characterization, their performance in H2 and CO2 adsorption as well as their selectivity of CO2 over N2 was assessed...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christophe Chendo, Trang N T Phan, Marion Rollet, Didier Gigmes, Laurence Charles
RATIONALE: The goal of this work was to modify dissociation pathways of polylactide (PLA) holding benzyl and hydroxyl terminations, in order to circumvent coincidence of product ions generated during collisional activation of sodiated chains, which prevented their reliable characterization. METHODS: Benzyl-, hydroxyl-terminated PLAs were ionized as ammonium adducts in positive ion mode electrospray and subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID). MS/MS experiments were conducted in a Q-TOF instrument for safe assignment of product ions based on their elemental composition derived from accurate mass measurements...
December 13, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Yong Meng Sua, Heng Fan, Amin Shahverdi, Jia-Yang Chen, Yu-Ping Huang
Quantum correlated, highly non-degenerate photons can be used to synthesize disparate quantum nodes and link quantum processing over incompatible wavelengths, thereby constructing heterogeneous quantum systems for otherwise unattainable superior performance. Existing techniques for correlated photons have been concentrated in the visible and near-IR domains, with the photon pairs residing within one micron. Here, we demonstrate direct generation and detection of high-purity photon pairs at room temperature with 3...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Viet-Ha Thi Tran, Byeong-Kyu Lee
We report a novel superhydrophobic material based on commercially available polyurethane (PU) sponge with high porosity, low density and good elasticity. The fabrication of a superhydrophobic sponge capable of efficiently separating oil from water was achieved by imitating or mimicking nature's designs. The original PU sponge was coated with zinc oxide (ZnO), stearic acid (SA) and iron oxide particles (Fe3O4) via a facile and environmentally friendly method. After each treatment, the properties of the modified sponge were characterized, and the changes in wettability were examined...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anna Ugalde, Susan Mathers, Nicole Hennessy Anderson, Peter Hudson, Liliana Orellana, Cathy Gluyas
BACKGROUND: Informal caregivers of people with motor neurone disease (MND) take on an extensive role. Caregivers are at increased risk of experiencing psychological distress and burden, yet, there is a lack of intervention programmes to support them. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a therapeutic group intervention promoting self-care, problem-solving and mindfulness to informal caregivers of people with MND. DESIGN: Pilot study that utilised a one-arm pre- and post-design...
November 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
Zhen Jiang, Yimeng Liu, Abdus S Wahed, Geert Molenberghs
Adherence to medication is critical in achieving effectiveness of many treatments. Factors that influence adherence behavior have been the subject of many clinical studies. Analyzing adherence is complicated because it is often measured on multiple drugs over a period, resulting in a multivariate longitudinal outcome. This paper is motivated by the Viral Resistance to Antiviral Therapy of Chronic Hepatitis C study, where adherence is measured on two drugs as a bivariate ordinal longitudinal outcome. To analyze such outcome, we propose a joint model assuming the multivariate ordinal outcome arose from a partitioned latent multivariate normal process...
December 13, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
Takahiro Tsuchiya, Takeshi Naitoh, Munenori Nagao, Naoki Tanaka, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Hirofumi Imoto, Tomohiro Miyachi, Fuyuhiko Motoi, Michiaki Unno
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has resulted in it becoming a common cause of liver-related mortality; however, no efficient treatment has been established. It has been reported that bariatric surgery improves metabolic comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus and NASH. Although the mechanism is unclear, it is thought that the changes in bile acid (BA) signaling via its nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), produce various metabolic effects...
December 12, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Xinyu Li, Hong Chen, Shenyin Zhu, Yu Liu, Jiadan Yang, Zhe Yuan, Gaoqun Yao, Feng Qiu
Background Despite national and international guidelines and recommendations, inappropriate prophylactic antibiotic use for clean wound surgery remains a common phenomenon in many Chinese hospitals, causing higher medical costs and bacterial resistance. Objective To improve the prescribing behavior for antibiotic prophylaxis and decrease antibiotic abuse and/or misuse in clean wound surgery. Setting The teaching hospital of a medical university in Southwest China. Methods A collaborative multidisciplinary program involving educational, technical, and administrative strategies was undertaken...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Moslem Bahmankar, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Mortazavian, Masoud Tohidfar, Seyed Ahmad Sadat Noori, Ali Izadi Darbandi, Giandomenico Corrado, Rosa Rao
This is the first report evaluating the relationship between the chemical compositions of cumin seeds (based on the analysis of the content of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, proline, protein, terpenic compounds, alcohol/phenols, aldehydes, and epoxides) and the induction efficiency of somatic embryogenesis in two Iranian superior cumin landraces (Golestan and North Khorasan). Cotyledons isolated from Golestan landrace seeds cultivated on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L kinetin proved to be the best primary explant for the induction of somatic embryogenesis as well as the regeneration of the whole plantlet...
2017: BioMed Research International
Julie A Spencer, Michael Barclay, Miranda J Gallagher, Robert Winkler, Ilyas Unlu, Yung-Chien Wu, Harald Plank, Lisa McElwee-White, D Howard Fairbrother
The ability of electrons and atomic hydrogen (AH) to remove residual chlorine from PtCl2 deposits created from cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2 by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is evaluated. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements as well as thermodynamics calculations support the idea that electrons can remove chlorine from PtCl2 structures via an electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) process. It was found that the effectiveness of electrons to purify deposits greater than a few nanometers in height is compromised by the limited escape depth of the chloride ions generated in the purification step...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Jaimie Dufresne, Angelique Florentinus-Mefailoski, Juliet Ajambo, Ammara Ferwa, Peter Bowden, John Marshall
Background: Normal human EDTA plasma samples were collected on ice, processed ice cold, and stored in a freezer at - 80 °C prior to experiments. Plasma test samples from the - 80 °C freezer were thawed on ice or intentionally warmed to room temperature. Methods: Protein content was measured by CBBR binding and the release of alcohol soluble amines by the Cd ninhydrin assay. Plasma peptides released over time were collected over C18 for random and independent sampling by liquid chromatography micro electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and correlated with X!TANDEM...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
Rui Xi, Haixia Liu, Long Li
This paper presents an effective method for high-gain orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex wave generation based on the integration of a circular antenna array (CAA) with a parasitic electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure, which is referred to as the EP-CAA. The resonant height of the EBG structure at different oblique incidences is analyzed parametrically based on the defect mode transmission mechanism to achieve reasonable predictions of a consistent 3-dB gain bandwidth with optimal gain enhancement for different OAM modes...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Changsoon Cho, Jung Hoon Song, Changjo Kim, Sohee Jeong, Jung-Yong Lee
Bandgap tunability and broadband absorption make quantum-dot (QD) photovoltaic cells (PVs) a promising candidate for future solar energy conversion systems. Approaches to improving the electrical properties of the active layer increase efficiency in part. The present study focuses on optical room for enhancement in QD PVs over wide spectrum in the near-infrared (NIR) region. We find that ray-optical light trapping schemes rather than the nanophotonics approach may be the best solution for enhancing broadband QD PVs by suppressing the escape probability of internal photons without spectral dependency...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hirotaka Katsukura, Tomohiro Miyata, Manabu Shirai, Hiroaki Matsumoto, Teruyasu Mizoguchi
Reactions in gaseous phases and at gas/solid interfaces are widely used in industry. Understanding of the reaction mechanism, namely where, when, and how these gaseous reactions proceed, is crucial for the development of further efficient reaction systems. To achieve such an understanding, it is indispensable to grasp the dynamic behavior of the gaseous molecules at the active site of the chemical reaction. However, estimation of the dynamic behavior of gaseous molecules in specific nanometer-scale regions is always accompanied by great difficulties...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sheng Wang, Yongkang Gai, Shasha Zhang, Lei Ke, Xiang Ma, Guangya Xiang
Iron depletion has been confirmed as an efficient strategy for cancer treatment. In the current study, a series of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane derivatives HE-NO2A, HP-NO2A and NE2P2A, as well as the bifunctional chelators p-NO2-PhPr-NE3TA and p-NH2-PhPr-NE3TA were synthesized and evaluated as iron-depleting agents for the potential anti-cancer therapy against human hepatocellular carcinoma. The cytotoxicity of these chelators was measured using hepatocellular cancer cells and compared with the clinically available iron depletion agent DFO and the universal metal chelator DTPA...
November 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Anneli Peolsson, Maria Landén Ludvigsson, Gunnel Peterson
BACKGROUND: Globally, neck pain is the fourth most common condition associated with longer periods of living with disability. Annually, approximately 0.3% of the population of Western countries undergo whiplash trauma, and half of those individuals will develop chronic problems with high costs for the individual and society. Evidence for chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) treatment is scarce, though neck-specific training at a physiotherapy clinic twice a week for 12 weeks has demonstrated good results...
December 12, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Isaac Agyekum, Lauren Pepi, Yanlei Yu, Junhui Li, Lufeng Yan, Robert J Linhardt, Shiguo Chen, I Jonathan Amster
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates are complex polysaccharides extracted from sea cucumber. They have been extensively studied for their anticoagulant properties and have been implicated in other biological activities. While nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to extensively characterize fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligomers, we herein report the first detailed mass characterization of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate using high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
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