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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194448/leishmaniasis-conflict-and-political-terror-a-spatio-temporal-analysis
#1
Isha Berry, Lea Berrang-Ford
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis has been estimated to cause the ninth largest burden amongst global infectious diseases. Occurrence of the disease has been anecdotally associated with periods of conflict, leading to its referral as a disease of 'guerrilla warfare.' Despite this, there have been few studies that quantitatively investigate the extent to which leishmaniasis coincides with conflict or political terror. METHODOLOGY: This study employed a longitudinal approach to empirically test for an association between cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis incidence with occurrence of conflict and political terror at the national level, annually for 15 years (1995-2010)...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049746/-random-notes-on-the-hygienic-works-in-the-guerrilla-of-eastern-zhejiang-province-of-new-fourth-army
#2
D M Zhu
Being reorganized on the basis of the 3rd and 5th branches of Songhu Guerrilla and its 3rd column, the Eastern Zhejiang Guerrilla got remarkable achievements in the health works from nothing. It is especially so and deserved written description for the Rear Hospitals of Sanbei when its medical staffs were surrounded by the Japanese and Kuomintang troops under very difficult conditions, which were overcome by the support of local people.
January 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26006050/proteolytic-enzymes-involved-in-mhc-class-i-antigen-processing-a-guerrilla-army-that-partners-with-the-proteasome
#3
REVIEW
Silvia Lázaro, David Gamarra, Margarita Del Val
Major histocompatibility complex class I proteins (MHC-I) load short peptides derived from proteolytic cleavage of endogenous proteins in any cell of the body, in a process termed antigen processing and presentation. When the source proteins are altered self or encoded by a pathogen, recognition of peptide/MHC-I complexes at the plasma membrane leads to CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses that clear infections and probably underlie tumor immune surveillance. On the other hand, presentation of self peptides may cause some types of autoimmunity...
December 2015: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25822734/changed-clonal-growth-form-induced-by-sand-burial-facilitates-the-acclimation-of-carex-brevicuspis-to-competition
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Feng Li, Yonghong Xie, Lianlian Zhu, Li Jiang, Xinsheng Chen, Baihan Pan, Zhengmiao Deng
Both competition and burial are important factors that influence plant growth and structuring plant communities. Competition intensity may decline with increased burial stress. However, experimental evidence is scarce. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of burial stress in influencing plant competition by investigating biomass accumulation, biomass allocation, and clonal growth performance of Carex brevicuspis, one of the dominant species in the Dongting Lake wetland in China. The experiment was conducted with two typical wetland species, C...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25069657/guerrillas-in-the-mist-how-i-met-a-colombian-rebel-leader
#5
Jeph Mathias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25045182/healthcare-and-warfare-medical-space-mission-and-apartheid-in-twentieth-century-northern-namibia
#6
Catharina Nord
In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents' ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988...
July 2014: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24204819/who-can-afford-health-care-evaluating-the-socio-economic-conditions-and-the-ability-to-contribute-to-health-care-in-a-post-conflict-area-in-dr-congo
#7
Sibylle Gerstl, Justin Sauter, Joseph Kasanda, Alfred Kinzelbach
INTRODUCTION: The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23811712/psychiatry-authoritarianism-and-revolution-the-politics-of-mental-illness-during-military-dictatorships-in-argentina-1966-1983
#8
Marco A Ramos
From 1966 to 1983, Argentina underwent a period of political radicalization as fascist regimes used terror to control its citizens and leftist guerrillas resorted to violence to spark revolution. During this politically volatile period, psychiatry transformed from an apolitical clinical specialty into an ideological tool used for both leftist resistance and military oppression. The largest psychiatric organization at the time, the Federación Argentina de Psiquiatras (FAP), became the center for a new politically committed brand of psychiatry in Argentina that united psychoanalysis and community psychiatry with Marxist theory...
2013: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23748938/-colombia-out-of-the-eye-of-the-hurricane-but-still-close
#9
EDITORIAL
Augusto Pérez Gómez
Colombia is not the same country of the 80s and 90s of last century. The big drug cartels disappeared, but their heirs diversified their activities, created alliances with guerrillas and paramilitaries, and increased the number of minors associated with criminal behaviours. The country has not been systematic in its drug abuse data collection, and there is a remarkable imbalance in the investments made on drug supply and drug demand: 98% and 2%, respectively. However, the official reports assert that there are at least 300,000 people in need of treatment...
2013: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23575192/relations-among-appetitive-aggression-post-traumatic-stress-and-motives-for-demobilization-a-study-in-former-colombian-combatants
#10
Roland Weierstall, Claudia Patricia Bueno Castellanos, Frank Neuner, Thomas Elbert
BACKGROUND: Former combatants have frequently reported that aggressive behaviour can be appetitive and appealing. This appetitive aggression (AA) may be adaptive for survival in a violent environment, as it is associated with a reduced risk of combat-related psychological traumatization. At the same time, AA might impair motivation for re-integration to civil life after ending active duty. Whereas in Colombia those combatants who volunteered for demobilization were mostly tired of fighting, those who demobilized collectively did so mainly by force of the government...
2013: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23270531/healing-war-wounds-and-perfuming-exile-the-use-of-vegetal-animal-and-mineral-products-for-perfumes-cosmetics-and-skin-healing-among-sahrawi-refugees-of-western-sahara
#11
Gabriele Volpato, Pavlína Kourková, Václav Zelený
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees' ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees' wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps...
2012: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22556078/an-epidemic-outbreak-of-canine-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-colombia-caused-by-leishmania-braziliensis-and-leishmania-panamensis
#12
Iván D Vélez, Lina M Carrillo, Liliana López, Erwin Rodríguez, Sara M Robledo
The largest recorded outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia's history occurred during 2005-2009 in soldiers of the Colombian Army, with ~40,000 cases. This outbreak was caused by the influx of military personnel into the jungle with the mission of combat illicit crops and the guerrilla. The soldiers remain for long periods within the rainforest and are exposed to the bite of infected sand flies. During the military activities, soldiers work with dogs specially trained to detect landmines, and therefore, dogs are also exposed to the infected sand flies and show high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)...
May 2012: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22486979/experiences-with-smallpox-eradication-in-ethiopia
#13
Ciro A de Quadros
The smallpox eradication campaign operated in Ethiopia from 1970 until 1977. During this time Ethiopia had only 84 hospitals, 64 health centres and fewer than 400 physicians in a country of 25 million people. In 1970 smallpox vaccination was relatively unknown in the country, and the government actually contested the fact that smallpox was present in the country. Most of the resources of the Ministry of Health were used for malaria eradication. Initial pessimism from the Ministry of Health and others was eventually overcome as the smallpox eradication campaign continued to pick up steam but many remained unenthusiastic...
December 30, 2011: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22460108/analysis-of-the-causes-of-medical-evacuation-of-injured-and-sick-soldiers-of-the-polish-military-contingent-in-the-islamic-state-of-afghanistan-taking-part-in-international-security-assistance-force-operations
#14
REVIEW
Radosław Ziemba
BACKGROUND: Military casualties in Afghanistan arise in part from climatic and natural conditions that are difficult for European soldiers to endure, as well as from intense guerrilla combat with mass use of IEDs (improvised explosive devices), thus posing numerous and diverse medical problems requiring evacuation to the home country. A search of the literature revealed no comprehensive studies of the causes of medical evacuation from this theater of operations. MATERIAL/METHODS: This article is a review of medical reports of the Polish Military Contingent taking part in Operation Enduring Freedom during the period from 01 January 2010 to 31 December 2011, including an analysis of causes of all ROLE 4 medical evacuations (to the military base in Germany or to the home country)...
April 2012: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22173597/a-new-plan-for-the-800-pound-gorilla-guerrilla-perinatal-mortality-in-afghanistan-a-21st-century-counterinsurgency-model-for-afghanistan
#15
Thomas C Johnson
Afghanistan has the highest perinatal mortality rate in the entire world. One Afghani woman dies every 30 minutes from perinatal- related event. One of eight Afghani women will die from perinatal events. Maternal mortality is (use percentage, not fractions) 1600/100,000 vs 13 /100,000 in the United States. Afghanistan is one of the only countries in the world in which the average woman?s life expectancy is shorter than a males- despite the active, nationwide combat fought primarily by Afghani males. Meaning, women in Afghanistan are not routinely involved in combat, yet are more likely to die than a man of the same age...
July 2011: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22154441/-cricothyrotomy-for-airways-management-current-data-and-interest-for-combat-casualty-care
#16
REVIEW
A Donat, F Petitjeans, P Précloux, M Puidupin, J Escarment
OBJECTIVES: To detail current data in cricothyrotomy and imperatives of airway management in combat casualty care. METHODS: Review of the literature in Medline database over the past 40 years. RESULTS: Modern armed conflicts, including guerrilla and terrorism, have changed the approach of tactical combat casualty care. The first medical support must be as close as possible to the battlefield, reducing casualties thanks to a quick intervention...
February 2012: Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22099834/potential-of-a-hand-transplantation-program-in-colombia
#17
C Moreno, J Bermúdez, L F Latorre, R DeBedout
The protocols and published results on hand transplantation show acceptable results of this technology. None of the registered groups, however has a sufficient number of patients to allow continuity of the process. In Colombia the main problems are violence, drug traffic, and guerrillas. Thanks to the profitability of drug traffic, guerrillas, who initially were created based on ideologic differences, have become terrorist groups whose main source of income is drug traffic. From that interest comes the use of landmines to protect illicit crops...
November 2011: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22000915/mercury-contamination-from-artisanal-gold-mining-in-antioquia-colombia-the-world-s-highest-per-capita-mercury-pollution
#18
Paul Cordy, Marcello M Veiga, Ibrahim Salih, Sari Al-Saadi, Stephanie Console, Oseas Garcia, Luis Alberto Mesa, Patricio C Velásquez-López, Monika Roeser
The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system...
December 1, 2011: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21857771/lumpen-abuse-the-human-cost-of-righteous-neoliberalism
#19
Philippe Bourgois
I thank the Society for Urban Anthropology for the Anthony Leeds Book Prize. The award gives me special pleasure because I think of myself primarily as an urban anthropologist. I was trained in "peasant studies" as a student of Eric Wolf's in the late 1970s and early 1980s eager to conduct participant-observation fieldwork on the revolutionary movements taking place in Central America in those decades. It was a hopeful - even inspiring - moment in history at my doctoral fieldwork theme/sites: the agrarian reform in the Amerindian Moskitia territory of Sandinista Nicaragua (1979-80, 1984), guerrilla warfare in an FMLN-controlled territory in El Salvador (1981), and farmworker organizing on a United Fruit Company plantation enclave spanning the Costa Rica/Panama Caribbean border (1982-1984)...
June 2011: City & Society: Journal of the Society for Urban Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21085710/optimizing-topological-cascade-resilience-based-on-the-structure-of-terrorist-networks
#20
Alexander Gutfraind
Complex socioeconomic networks such as information, finance and even terrorist networks need resilience to cascades--to prevent the failure of a single node from causing a far-reaching domino effect. We show that terrorist and guerrilla networks are uniquely cascade-resilient while maintaining high efficiency, but they become more vulnerable beyond a certain threshold. We also introduce an optimization method for constructing networks with high passive cascade resilience. The optimal networks are found to be based on cells, where each cell has a star topology...
2010: PloS One
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