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Evaluation and "body composition"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633874/proportional-bias-between-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-varies-based-on-sex-in-active-adults-consuming-high-and-low-carbohydrate-diets
#1
Grant M Tinsley
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) are common methods of body composition assessment, but the agreement between these methods varies. Bias between DXA and single-frequency BIA was evaluated at 6 different time points in 48 active male and female adults consuming standardized high- and low-carbohydrate diets. It was hypothesized that fixed and proportional biases exist between DXA and BIA but that the extent of bias does not differ based on sex. Substantial fixed bias was present for estimates obtained by DXA and BIA, and both men and women exhibited proportional bias for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631813/high-fat-diet-attenuates-hyperglycemia-body-composition-changes-and-bone-loss-in-male-streptozotocin-induced-type-1-diabetic-mice
#2
Adriana Lelis Carvalho, Victoria E DeMambro, Anyonya R Guntur, Phuong Le, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Francisco José Albuquerque de Paula, Katherine J Motyl
There is a growing and alarming prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in type I diabetic patients (T1DM), particularly in adolescence. In general, low bone mass, higher fracture risk and increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) are features of diabetic osteopathy in insulin deficient subjects. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with normal or high bone mass, a greater risk of peripheral fractures and no change in MAT. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of weight gain on bone turnover in insulin deficient mice...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630697/the-effect-of-position-on-the-precision-of-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-correlation-with-body-condition-score-in-dogs-and-cats
#3
Charlotte R Bjørnvad, Mie E Nielsen, Susanna E M Hansen, Dorte H Nielsen
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been used to assess body composition in dogs and cats in several studies, but studies are difficult to compare for several reasons. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether positioning of dogs or cats in either dorsal or ventral recumbency during DEXA scanning influences results. Dogs and cats that were brought to the University Hospital for Companion Animals for euthanasia during the period 15 September-6 November 2015 were consecutively recruited if owners signed a written consent...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629222/associations-of-parental-self-efficacy-with-diet-physical-activity-body-composition-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-swedish-preschoolers-results-from-the-ministop-trial
#4
Niyati Parekh, Pontus Henriksson, Christine Delisle Nyström, Kristin Silfvernagel, Jonatan R Ruiz, Francisco B Ortega, Jeremy Pomeroy, Marie Löf
BACKGROUND: High parental self-efficacy (PSE) has been associated with healthy diets and higher levels of physical activity (PA) in children; however, data on PSE in relation to body weight and body composition are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of PSE with measures of diet, PA, body composition, and physical fitness in early childhood. METHOD: We used baseline data from the MINISTOP trial in healthy Swedish children ( n = 301; 4...
June 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627053/recovery-of-insulin-sensitivity-and-optimal-body-composition-after-rapid-weight-loss-in-obese-dogs-fed-a-high-protein-medium-carbohydrate-diet
#5
A André, I Leriche, G Chaix, C Thorin, M Burger, P Nguyen
This study investigated the effects of an experimental high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet (protein level, 46% metabolizable energy, ME). First, postprandial plasma glucose and insulin kinetics were determined in steady-state overweight/obese Beagle dogs (28%-41% excess body weight) for an experimental high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet (protein level, 46% ME) and a commercial high-carbohydrate medium-protein diet (protein level, 24%ME) in obese dogs. Secondly, all the dogs were included in a weight loss programme...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624865/bone-marrow-fat-contributes-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-adiponectin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#6
Federica Ermetici, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Paola Cannaò, Giovanni Di Leo, Stefano Benedini, Ileana Terruzzi, Francesco Sardanelli, Livio Luzi
PURPOSE: Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
June 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622482/antidiabetic-properties-of-an-apple-kale-extract-in-vitro-in-situ-and-in-mice-fed-a-western-type-diet
#7
Anke Schloesser, Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Gerhard Schultheiß, Henning Vollert, Kai Lüersen, Alexandra Fischer, Gerald Rimbach
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common and increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder, and effective preventive strategies against this disease are needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential antidiabetic properties of a dietary apple/kale extract (AKE), which was rich in phlorizin and flavonoids, in laboratory mice. Mice were fed a control diet, a Western-type high-sugar, high-fat diet (WTD), or a WTD plus AKE for 10 weeks. Body weight, food and energy intake, body composition, and blood glucose level were recorded in addition to the postprandial rise in blood glucose concentration after a single administration of glucose (oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620483/utilisation-of-supplemented-l-carnitine-for-fuel-efficiency-as-an-antioxidant-and-for-muscle-recovery-in-labrador-retrievers
#8
Jessica L Varney, J W Fowler, W C Gilbert, C N Coon
The primary goal was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine on fuel efficiency, as an antioxidant, and for muscle recovery in Labrador retrievers. Dogs were split into two groups, with one group being supplemented with 250 mg/d of Carniking™ l-carnitine powder. Two experiments (Expt 1 and Expt 2) were performed over a 2-year period which included running programmes, activity monitoring, body composition scans and evaluation of recovery using biomarkers. Each experiment differed slightly in dog number and design: fifty-six v...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619307/pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mindfulness-based-group-intervention-in-adolescent-girls-at-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-with-depressive-symptoms
#9
Lauren B Shomaker, Stephanie Bruggink, Bernadette Pivarunas, Amanda Skoranski, Jillian Foss, Ella Chaffin, Stephanie Dalager, Shelly Annameier, Jordan Quaglia, Kirk Warren Brown, Patricia Broderick, Christopher Bell
OBJECTIVE: (1) Evaluate feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based group in adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with depressive symptoms, and (2) compare efficacy of a mindfulness-based versus cognitive-behavioral group for decreasing depressive symptoms and improving insulin resistance. DESIGN AND SETTING: Parallel-group, randomized controlled pilot trial conducted at a university. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three girls 12-17y with overweight/obesity, family history of diabetes, and elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a six-week mindfulness-based (n=17) or cognitive-behavioral program (n=16)...
June 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611859/ipragliflozin-improves-glycemic-control-and-decreases-body-fat-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Takehiro Kawata, Takashi Iizuka, Kotaro Iemitsu, Masahiro Takihata, Masahiko Takai, Shigeru Nakajima, Nobuaki Minami, Shinichi Umezawa, Akira Kanamori, Hiroshi Takeda, Shogo Ito, Taisuke Kikuchi, Hikaru Amemiya, Mizuki Kaneshiro, Atsuko Mokubo, Tetsuo Takuma, Hideo Machimura, Keiji Tanaka, Taro Asakura, Akira Kubota, Sachio Aoyanagi, Kazuhiko Hoshino, Masashi Ishikawa, Yoko Matsuzawa, Mitsuo Obana, Nobuo Sasai, Hideaki Kaneshige, Fuyuki Minagawa, Tatsuya Saito, Kazuaki Shinoda, Masaaki Miyakawa, Yasushi Tanaka, Yasuo Terauchi, Ikuro Matsuba
BACKGROUND: Ipragliflozin, a sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor, was administered to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for 24 weeks to evaluate its effect on glycemic control and body composition. METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated multicenter prospective intervention study in which ipragliflozin (50 mg) was administered once daily and glycemic control, blood pressure, body weight (BW), body composition (measured by a biological impedance method), the lipid profile, and adverse events were evaluated after 4, 12, and 24 weeks of treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609447/blood-biomarkers-in-male-and-female-participants-after-an-ironman-distance-triathlon
#11
Tom Danielsson, Jörg Carlsson, Hendrik Schreyer, Jonas Ahnesjö, Lasse Ten Siethoff, Thony Ragnarsson, Åsa Tugetam, Patrick Bergman
BACKGROUND: While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606568/energy-expenditure-in-the-immediate-postpartum-period-indirect-calorimetry-versus-predictive-equations
#12
Taciana Maia de Sousa, Tatiani Uceli Maioli, Ana Luiza Soares Dos Santos, Luana Caroline Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of postpartum women by indirect calorimetry and to provide the most appropriate predictive equations to estimate it. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 79 women in the maternity unit of a Brazilian city hospital. Information regarding age, income, gestational age, and breastfeeding was collected. Height, weight, and body composition were measured. We measured REE by indirect calorimetry and predicted REE using eight equations...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606553/differences-in-dietary-glycemic-load-and-hormones-in-new-york-city-adults-with-no-and-moderate-severe-acne
#13
Jennifer Burris, William Rietkerk, James M Shikany, Kathleen Woolf
BACKGROUND: Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may be implicated in acne pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study examined differences between GI/GL and biological factors associated with acne among adults with and without moderate/severe acne. Secondary objectives included examining differences between food-aggravated acne beliefs and acne-specific quality of life among adults with and without moderate/severe acne. DESIGN: As part of a cross-sectional study, participants completed a 5-day food record; blood draw to measure biological factors associated with acne (ie, glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations); body composition assessment; and questionnaire to evaluate food-aggravated acne beliefs and acne-specific quality of life...
June 9, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603361/validity-of-using-multi-frequency-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-to-measure-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-preschool-children
#14
Kanako Fujii, Akiko Ishizaki, Ayano Ogawa, Takuya Asami, Hyosong Kwon, Akinobu Tanaka, Noboru Sekiya, Shouji Hironaka
[Purposes] Although it is recommended to develop a habit of physical activities, there is no easy way to measure skeletal muscle mass in preschool children, which cause the difficulty of evaluation. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of body composition including the skeletal muscle mass assessment using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis by comparing body fat mass obtained by using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method and body mass index formulas. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-four children were surveyed for age, height, weight, grip strength, maximum occlusal force, thickness of muscle and fat mass (masseter and lower limb), body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and calf circumference...
May 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601084/can-psychobiotics-intake-modulate-psychological-profile-and-body-composition-of-women-affected-by-normal-weight-obese-syndrome-and-obesity-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Antonino De Lorenzo, Micaela Costacurta, Giuseppe Merra, Paola Gualtieri, Giorgia Cioccoloni, Massimiliano Marchetti, Dimitrios Varvaras, Raffaella Docimo, Laura Di Renzo
BACKGROUND: Evidence of probiotics effects on gut function, brain activity and emotional behaviour were provided. Probiotics can have dramatic effects on behaviour through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, through vagus nerve. We investigated whether chronic probiotic intake could modulate psychological state, eating behaviour and body composition of normal weight obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (PreOB/OB) compared to normal weight lean women (NWL). METHODS: 60 women were enrolled...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597613/the-use-of-steroids-by-gym-athletes-an-attempt-to-diagnose-the-problem-scale-and-possible-causes
#16
Katarzyna Gwizdek, Anna Brzęk, Monika Bąk-Sosnowska, Anna Dittfeld, Andrzej Knapik, Damian Ziaja
BACKGROUND: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are said to be frequently used by both professional and amateur athletes. In addition to having a negative impact on health, steroids defy the concept of fair play. DESIGN: observational study. SETTING: other - Gyms. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the scale of the problem related to using anabolic- androgenic steroids (AAS) by gym athletes and to analyze possible causes...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597412/association-of-a-604g-ghrelin-gene-polymorphism-and-serum-ghrelin-levels-with-the-risk-of-obesity-in-a-mexican-population
#17
Iris Monserrat Llamas-Covarrubias, Mara Anaís Llamas-Covarrubias, Erika Martinez-López, Eloy Alfonso Zepeda-Carrillo, Edgar Alfonso Rivera-León, Beatriz Palmeros-Sánchez, Juan Luis Alcalá-Zermeño, Sergio Sánchez-Enríquez
Obesity is a metabolic disorder that has a multifactorial etiology and affects millions of people worldwide. Ghrelin, a hormone coded by the GHRL gene, plays a role in human body composition and appetite. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the GHRL gene have been associated with obesity and metabolic disorders. To evaluate the association of A-604G SNP of GHRL promoter region with serum ghrelin levels and the risk of obesity in a Mexican population. Two hundred and fifty individuals were enrolled and classified as obese or control subjects (CS) according to BMI...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591338/muscle-strength-and-body-composition-in-severe-obesity
#18
Alexandre Vieira Gadducci, Roberto de Cleva, Gabriela Correia de Faria Santarém, Paulo Roberto Santos Silva, Julia Maria D'Andréa Greve, Marco Aurélio Santo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs and body composition for subjects with severe obesity. METHODS: Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled (100 females and 32 males). Eighty-seven patients had a body mass index between 40 and 49...
May 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588304/plasma-fgf21-levels-in-obese-patients-undergoing-energy-restricted-diets-or-bariatric-surgery-a-marker-of-metabolic-stress
#19
A B Crujeiras, D Gomez-Arbelaez, M A Zulet, M C Carreira, I Sajoux, D de Luis, A I Castro, J Baltar, I Baamonde, A Sueiro, M Macias-Gonzalez, D Bellido, F J Tinahones, J A Martinez, F F Casanueva
CONTEXT: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been suggested to be an endocrine signal of nutritional status and an active regulator of metabolism. However, there is no agreement on the effect of weight loss therapies on circulating levels of FGF21 in humans. OBJECTIVE: To assess FGF21 circulating levels in adiposity excess and after different weight loss strategies prescribed in five different groups from 4 independent centers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body composition, ketosis, insulin sensitivity and FGF21 were evaluated in 181 excess body weight and 14 normal-weight subjects...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585459/standardisation-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-for-the-estimation-of-body-composition-in-healthy-paediatric-populations-a-systematic-review
#20
Steven Brantlov, Lars Jødal, Aksel Lange, Søren Rittig, Leigh C Ward
BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) requires a high degree of standardisation in order to ensure valid and reproducible impedance measurements. The overall aim of this review was to study the degree to which BIA papers conducted in healthy paediatric populations (aged 0-17 years) were standardised. METHODS: Literature was identified on the basis of a systematic search of internationally-recognised electronic databases and hand searching of the reference lists of the included papers in order to identify additional relevant papers...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
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