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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218221/gene-expressions-underlying-mishandled-calcium-clearance-and-elevated-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-coronary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-of-chronic-heart-failure-rats
#1
Liang Ding, Xian-Xiu Su, Wen-Hui Zhang, Yu-Xiang Xu, Xue-Feng Pan
BACKGROUND: The calcium clearance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations in the coronary artery smooth muscle cells in chronic heart failure (HF) have not been fully investigated. Therefore, we attempted to understand the gene expressions underlying the mishandling of calcium clearance and the accumulations of ROS. METHODS: We initially established an animal model of chronic HF by making the left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (CAL) in rats, and then isolated the coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells from the ischemic and the nonischemic parts of the coronary artery vessels in 12 weeks after CAL operation...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217084/nad-attenuates-bilirubin-induced-hyperexcitation-in-the-ventral-cochlear-nucleus-by-inhibiting-excitatory-neurotransmission-and-neuronal-excitability
#2
Min Liang, Xin-Lu Yin, Lu-Yang Wang, Wei-Hai Yin, Ning-Ying Song, Hai-Bo Shi, Chun-Yan Li, Shan-Kai Yin
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an important molecule with extensive biological functions in various cellular processes, including protection against cell injuries. However, little is known regarding the roles of NAD+ in neuronal excitation and excitotoxicity associated with many neurodegenerative disorders and diseases. Using patch-clamp recordings, we studied its potential effects on principal neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), which is particularly vulnerable to bilirubin excitotoxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215636/sirtuin-6-prevents-matrix-degradation-through-inhibition-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#3
Liang Kang, Jia Hu, Yuxiong Weng, Jie Jia, Yukun Zhang
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is marked by imbalanced metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs. This study aimed to determine whether sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, protects the NP from ECM degradation in IDD. Our study showed that expression of SIRT6 markedly decreased during IDD progression. Overexpression of wild-type SIRT6, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, prevented IL-1β-induced NP ECM degradation...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213332/shear-stress-enhances-ca-2-sparks-through-nox2-dependent-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes
#4
Joon-Chul Kim, Jun Wang, Min-Jeong Son, Sun-Hee Woo
Shear stress enhances diastolic and systolic Ca(2+) concentration in ventricular myocytes. Here, using confocal Ca(2+) imaging in rat ventricular myocytes, we assessed the effects of shear stress (~16dyn/cm(2)) on the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks and explored the mechanism underlying shear-mediated Ca(2+) spark regulation. The frequency of Ca(2+) sparks was immediately increased by shear stress (by ~80%), and increased further (by ~150%) during prolonged exposure (20s). The 2-D size and duration of individual sparks were increased by shear stimulation...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211922/applying-phasor-approach-analysis-of-multiphoton-flim-measurements-to-probe-the-metabolic-activity-of-three-dimensional-in-vitro-cell-culture-models
#5
Pirmin H Lakner, Michael G Monaghan, Yvonne Möller, Monilola A Olayioye, Katja Schenke-Layland
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can measure and discriminate endogenous fluorophores present in biological samples. This study seeks to identify FLIM as a suitable method to non-invasively detect a shift in cellular metabolic activity towards glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation in 3D Caco-2 models of colorectal carcinoma. These models were treated with potassium cyanide or hydrogen peroxide as controls, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a physiologically-relevant influencer of cell metabolic behaviour...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211114/magnesium-lithospermate-b-from-salvia-miltiorrhiza-bunge-ameliorates-aging-induced-renal-inflammation-and-senescence-via-nadph-oxidase-mediated-reactive-oxygen-generation
#6
Chan Hum Park, Sung Ho Shin, Eun Kyeong Lee, Dae Hyun Kim, Min-Jo Kim, Seong-Soo Roh, Takako Yokozawa, Hae Young Chung
The present study was conducted to examine whether magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae radix was renoprotective in pathways related to age-related oxidative stress in aged rats. Magnesium lithospermate B was orally administered at a dose of 2- or 8-mg/kg body weight for 16 consecutive days, and the effects were compared with those of vehicle in old and young rats. Magnesium lithospermate B administration to old rats ameliorated renal oxidative stress through reduction of reactive oxygen species...
February 16, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210753/puerarin-7-o-glucuronide-a-water-soluble-puerarin-metabolite-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-by-reducing-oxidative-stress
#7
Ning Hou, Bin Cai, Cai-Wen Ou, Zhen-Hui Zhang, Xia-Wen Liu, Mu Yuan, Gan-Jian Zhao, Shi-Ming Liu, Long-Gen Xiong, Jian-Dong Luo, Cheng-Feng Luo, Min-Sheng Chen
This study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-hypertrophic effects of puerarin-7-O-glucuronide, a water-soluble puerarin metabolite. The anti-oxidant effects of puerarin-7-O-glucuronide were assessed by measurement of intracellular superoxide levels, total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total anti-oxidant capacity, and glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) stimulated with the xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine (X) system or angiotensin II...
February 16, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209901/vitamin-b3-modulates-mitochondrial-vulnerability-and-prevents-glaucoma-in-aged-mice
#8
Pete A Williams, Jeffrey M Harder, Nicole E Foxworth, Kelly E Cochran, Vivek M Philip, Vittorio Porciatti, Oliver Smithies, Simon W M John
Glaucomas are neurodegenerative diseases that cause vision loss, especially in the elderly. The mechanisms initiating glaucoma and driving neuronal vulnerability during normal aging are unknown. Studying glaucoma-prone mice, we show that mitochondrial abnormalities are an early driver of neuronal dysfunction, occurring before detectable degeneration. Retinal levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+), a key molecule in energy and redox metabolism) decrease with age and render aging neurons vulnerable to disease-related insults...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209797/roles-of-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-nitric-oxide-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Ulrich Förstermann, Ning Xia, Huige Li
Major reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing systems in vascular wall include NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase, xanthine oxidase, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase. ROS at moderate concentrations have important signaling roles under physiological conditions. Excessive or sustained ROS production, however, when exceeding the available antioxidant defense systems, leads to oxidative stress. Animal studies have provided compelling evidence demonstrating the roles of vascular oxidative stress and NO in atherosclerosis...
February 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206858/genetic-polymorphism-of-aedes-albopictus-population-inferred-from-nd5-gene-variabilities-in-subang-jaya-malaysia
#10
Nurul Adilah-Amrannudin, Mayamin Hamsidi, Nurul-Ain Ismail, Rodziah Ismail, Nazri Che Dom, Abu Hassan Ahmad, Mohd Fahmi Mastuki, Tengku Shahrul Anuar Tengku Ahmad Basri, Adira Khalid, Mohammad Muslim, Nurul Amalina Ahmad Daud, Siti Nazrina Camalxaman
This study was performed to establish the genetic variability of Aedes albopictus within Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia, by using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 5 subunit (ND5) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. A total of 90 samples were collected from 9 localities within an area of the Subang Jaya Municipality. Genetic variability was determined through the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the ND5 gene. Eight distinct mtDNA haplotypes were identified. The evolutionary relationship of the local haplotypes alongside 28 reference strains was used to construct a phylogram, the analysis of which revealed low genetic differentiation in terms of both nucleotide and haplotype diversity...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202838/role-of-ad4-binding-protein-steroidogenic-factor-1-in-regulating-nadph-production-in-adrenocortical-y-1-cells
#11
Bing Li, Takashi Baba, Kanako Miyabayashi, Tetsuya Sato, Yuichi Shima, Tomomi Ichinose, Daisuke Miura, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Mikita Suyama, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi
Ad4-binding protein/steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is expressed in steroidogenic cells and regulates all steroidogenic gene expression. We recently employed mRNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequence (ChIP-seq) to demonstrate that Ad4BP/SF-1 directly regulates the expression of nearly all glycolytic genes. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) contributes to the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Although the expression of PPP genes and intracellular NADPH were decreased by Ad4BP/SF-1 knockdown, these genes were not the direct targets of Ad4BP/SF-1...
February 14, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198851/interrogation-of-metabolic-and-oxygen-states-of-tumors-with-fiber-based-luminescence-lifetime-spectroscopy
#12
Maria Lukina, Anna Orlova, Marina Shirmanova, Daniil Shirokov, Anton Pavlikov, Antje Neubauer, Hauke Studier, Wolfgang Becker, Elena Zagaynova, Toshitada Yoshihara, Seiji Tobita, Vladislav Shcheslavskiy
The study of metabolic and oxygen states of cells in a tumor in vivo is crucial for understanding of the mechanisms responsible for tumor development and provides background for the relevant tumor's treatment. Here, we show that a specially designed implantable fiber-optic probe provides a promising tool for optical interrogation of metabolic and oxygen states of a tumor in vivo. In our experiments, the excitation light from a ps diode laser source is delivered to the sample through an exchangeable tip via a multimode fiber, and the emission light is transferred to the detector by another multimode fiber...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197299/sirtuins-expression-and-their-role-in-retinal-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Sankarathi Balaiya, Khaled K Abu-Amero, Altaf A Kondkar, Kakarla V Chalam
Sirtuins have received considerable attention since the discovery that silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) extends the lifespan of yeast. Sir2, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- (NAD-) dependent histone deacetylase, serves as both a transcriptional effector and energy sensor. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative eye diseases. Sirtuins confer protection against oxidative stress and retinal degeneration. In mammals, the sirtuin (SIRT) family consists of seven proteins (SIRT1-SIRT7)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194438/a-role-for-muscarinic-receptors-in-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-and-levamisole-induced-autoimmunity
#14
Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Monica M Purmalek, Erica Moore, Meryl Waldman, Peter J Walter, H Martin Garraffo, Karran A Phillips, Kenzie L Preston, Jonathan Graf, Mariana J Kaplan, Peter C Grayson
Levamisole, an anthelmintic drug with cholinergic properties, has been implicated in cases of drug-induced vasculitis when added to cocaine for profit purposes. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a cell death mechanism characterized by extrusion of chromatin decorated with granule proteins. Aberrant NET formation and degradation have been implicated in idiopathic autoimmune diseases that share features with levamisole-induced autoimmunity as well as in drug-induced autoimmunity. This study's objective was to determine how levamisole modulates neutrophil biology and its putative effects on the vasculature...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192231/hypotensive-and-vasorelaxant-effect-of-diapocynin-in-normotensive-rats
#15
Simone R Potje, Jéssica A Troiano, Murilo E Graton, Valdecir F Ximenes, Ana Claúdia M S Nakamune, Cristina Antoniali
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NAD(P)H-oxidase) is a multicomponent enzyme system that generates superoxide anion by one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen and represents the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular cells. Apocynin has been extensively used as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in phagocytic cells and as an antioxidant in non-phagocytic cells. In phagocytes cells, due to the presence of myeloperoxidase, apocynin can be the converted to diapocynin, which is supposed to be the active form of this phytochemical...
February 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188926/redox-modification-of-caveolar-proteins-in-the-cardiovascular-system-role-in-cellular-signalling-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Kristen J Bubb, Asa Birna Birgisdottir, Owen Tang, Thomas Hansen, Gemma A Figtree
Rapid and coordinated release of a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2(.-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxynitrite, in specific microdomains, play a crucial role in cell signalling in the cardiovascular system. These reactions are mediated by reversible and functional modifications of a wide variety of key proteins. Dysregulation of this oxidative signalling occurs in almost all forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including at the very early phases. Despite the heavily publicized failure of "antioxidants" to improve CVD progression, pharmacotherapies such as those targeting the renin-angiotensin system, or statins, exert at least part of their large clinical benefit via modulating cellular redox signalling...
February 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167526/vibrio-phage-kvp40-encodes-a-functional-nad-salvage-pathway
#17
Jae Yun Lee, Zhiqun Li, Eric S Miller
: The genome of T4-type Vibrio bacteriophage KVP40 has five genes predicted to encode proteins of pyridine nucleotide metabolism, of which two, nadV and natV, would suffice for an NAD(+) salvage pathway. NadV is an apparent nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase) and NatV is an apparent bifunctional nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNATase) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide pyrophosphatase (Nudix hydrolase). Genes encoding the predicted salvage pathway were cloned, expressed in E...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164517/prognostic-and-predictive-role-of-sirtuin1-expression-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#18
Jun Wang, Changli Wang
BACKGROUND: SIRT1 is the homologue of sir2 in mammals, which is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) dependent histone deacetylase. Several studies have reported that the overexpression of Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) was associated with poor prognosis in various human cancers. However, little is known regarding the prognostic value of SIRT1 in lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: SIRT 1 expression in tissues of 60 lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) patients was evaluated using immunohistochemistry...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163307/role-of-nad-and-mitochondrial-sirtuins-in-cardiac-and-renal-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Kathleen A Hershberger, Angelical S Martin, Matthew D Hirschey
The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) has key roles in the regulation of redox status and energy metabolism. NAD(+) depletion is emerging as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiac and renal diseases and NAD(+) repletion strategies have shown therapeutic potential as a means to restore healthy metabolism and physiological function. The pleotropic roles of NAD(+) enable several possible avenues by which repletion of this coenzyme could have therapeutic efficacy. In particular, NAD(+) functions as a co-substrate in deacylation reactions carried out by the sirtuin family of enzymes...
February 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160636/daily-sesame-oil-supplementation-attenuates-local-renin-angiotensin-system-via-inhibiting-mapk-activation-and-oxidative-stress-in-cardiac-hypertrophy
#20
Chuan-Teng Liu, Ming-Yie Liu
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by which increases cardiac morbidity and mortality. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and oxidative stress are important in RAS-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Sesame oil, a potent antioxidant, attenuates hypertension-dependent LVH. We examined the protective role of sesame oil on RAS-mediated MAPK activation and oxidative stress in rats. We induced LVH using a hypertensive model by subcutaneously injecting deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 15 mg/ml/kg in mineral oil; twice weekly for 5 weeks) and supplementing with 1% sodium chloride drinking water (DOCA/salt) to uninephrectomized rats...
May 28, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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