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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Daniel S Gaul, Julien Weber, Lambertus J Van Tits, Susanna Sluka, Lisa Pasterk, Martin F Reiner, Natacha Calatayud, Christine Lohmann, Roland Klingenberg, Jürgen Pahla, Daria Vdovenko, Felix C Tanner, Giovanni G Camici, Urs Eriksson, Johan Auwerx, François Mach, Stephan Windecker, Nicolas Rodondi, Thomas F L Uuml Scher, Stephan Winnik, Christian M Matter
BACKGROUND: Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) is a mitochondrial, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase that reduces oxidative stress by activation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). Oxidative stress enhances arterial thrombosis. This study investigated the effects of genetic Sirt3 deletion on arterial thrombosis in mice in an inflammatory setting and assessed the clinical relevance of these findings in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and Results: Using a laser-induced carotid thrombosis model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, in vivo time to thrombotic occlusion in Sirt3-/- mice (n = 6) was reduced by half compared to Sirt3+/+ wildtype (WT, n = 8, p<0...
February 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Piotr Celichowski, Karol Jopek, Paulina Milecka, Marta Szyszka, Marianna Tyczewska, Ludwik K Malendowicz, Marcin Ruciński
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), also termed visfatin, catalyses the rate‑limiting step in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage pathway. In addition to its intracellular function (iNampt), extracellular Nampt (eNampt) also affects numerous intracellular signalling pathways. The current study investigated the role of Nampt in the regulation of the hypothalamic‑pituitary‑adrenal (HPA) axis in rats. At 1 h after intraperitoneal administration of eNampt (4 µg/100 g) in adult male rats, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) and aldosterone levels remained unchanged, while corticosterone levels were notably elevated compared with the control group, as determined by ELISA...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Qian Lu, Yue Zhao, Xintong Gao, Junqiu Wu, Haixuan Zhou, Pengfei Tang, Qingbin Wei, Zimin Wei
Composting is an environment friendly method to recycling organic waste. However, with the increasing concern about greenhouse gases generated in global atmosphere, it is significant to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2). This study analyzes tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle regulators on the effect of reducing CO2 emission, and the relationship among organic component (OC) degradation and transformation and microorganism during composting. The results showed that adding adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) could enhance the transformation of OC and increase the diversity of microorganism community...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Zhenyang Yu, Jing Zhang, Meifang Hou
The redox state of NADH/NADPH balance (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is crucial in cellular homeostasis. Recent studies reported that sodium halide ions (NaX, X = F-, Cl-, Br- and I-) stimulated NAD(P)H in Vibrio fischeri (VF). However, it remained unanswered whether this pattern applied in salts with other cations, e.g., K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, whose aquatic concentrations were increased by anthropogenic activities and climate change. Currently, VF were incubated with chloride salts, including KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2, and effects were measured in a time-dependent fashion...
February 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Rui Wan, Yinguang Chen, Xiong Zheng, Yinglong Su, Haining Huang
The potential effect of CO2 on environmental microbes has drawn much attention recently. As an important section of the nitrogen cycle, biological denitrification requires electron donor to reduce nitrogen oxide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which is formed during carbon source metabolism, is a widely reported electron donor for denitrification. Here we studied the effect of CO2 on NADH production and carbon source utilization in the denitrifying microbe Paracoccus denitrificans. We observed that NADH level was decreased by 45...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Toshimitsu Okamura, Maki Okada, Tatsuya Kikuchi, Hidekatsu Wakizaka, Ming-Rong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Apocynin is a constituent of the medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa. It is an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. This compound shows potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and has been tested as a neuroprotectant in many animal models of brain disease. In such studies, understanding the brain kinetics of apocynin would be important for interpreting its in vivo efficacy; however, little has been reported on the kinetics of apocynin in the brain...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Gang Chen, Shi-Fen Pan, Xiang-Li Cui, Li-Hong Liu
The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of puerarin on angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Considering the role of H2O2 in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation, we hypothesized that modulating catalase activity would be a potential target in regulating the redox-sensitive pathways. Our results showed that the activation of Rac1 was dependent on the levels of intracellular H2O2. Puerarin blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2, abolished activator protein (AP)-1 binding activity, and eventually attenuated cardiac fibroblast proliferation through the inhibition of H2O2-dependent Rac1 activation...
January 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Keisuke Yaku, Keisuke Okabe, Takashi Nakagawa
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a major co-factor that mediates multiple biological processes including redox reaction and gene expression. Recently, NAD metabolism has received considerable attention because administration of NAD precursors exhibited beneficial effects against aging-related metabolic disorders in animals. Although numerous studies have reported that NAD levels declined with aging in multiple animal tissues, the pathway and kinetics of NAD metabolism in aged organs are not completely understood...
February 9, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Kana Tanabe, Jiaan Liu, Daiki Kato, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Kenzo Yamatsugu, Motomu Kanai, Shigehiro A Kawashima
Chromatin structure and gene expression are dynamically regulated by posttranslational modifications of histones. Recent advance in mass spectrometry has identified novel types of lysine acylations, such as butyrylation and malonylation, whose functions and regulations are likely different from those of acetylation. Sirtuins, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent histone deacetylases, catalyze various deacylations. However, it is poorly understood how distinct sirtuins regulate the histone acylation states of nucleosomes that have many lysine residues...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alamzeb Khan, Hazem Dawoud, Tadeusz Malinski
Background: Clinical studies indicate that vitamin D3 improves circulation and may have beneficial effects in hypertension. This study uses nanomedical systems to investigate the role of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 in the preservation/restoration of endothelial function in an angiotensin II (Ang II) cellular model of hypertension. Methods: 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) concentrations were measured in situ with nanosensors (200-300 mm diameter with a detection limit of 1 nM) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells of African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) donors exposed to Ang II...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Abdulazeez T Lawal
This review discusses recent graphene (GR) electrochemical biosensor for accurate detection of biomolecules, including glucose, hydrogen peroxide, dopamine, ascorbic acid, uric acid, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, DNA, metals and immunosensor through effective immobilization of enzymes, including glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and haemoglobin. GR-based biosensors exhibited remarkable performance with high sensitivities, wide linear detection ranges, low detection limits, and long-term stabilities...
January 31, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Shengchao Li, Weiping Zheng
Sirtuins are a family of intracellular enzymes whose enzymatic activities include catalyzing the β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD+)-dependent Nɛ-acyl-lysine deacylation and the β-NAD+-dependent mono-ADP-ribosylation. Among the seven sirtuin family members (i.e., SIRT1-7) thus far identified in mammals including humans, we know SIRT1/2/3/5/6 better than SIRT4/7 as for their enzymatic activities and the cellular roles of the reactions they catalyze. This chapter will provide an updated account on the enzymology and biology of SIRT4 and SIRT7, the two less well-understood mammalian sirtuins...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Xiao Hu, Weiping Zheng
Sirtuins refer to a family of intracellular enzymes that are the yeast silent information regulator 2 (sir2) protein homologs found in organisms from all the three kingdoms of life. This family of enzymes primarily catalyze the protein Nɛ-acyl-lysine deacylation reaction despite the report for a type of bacterial/fungal sirtuins to robustly catalyze a protein mono-ADP-ribosylation reaction, however, these two group transfer reactions employ the redox coenzyme β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD+) as the obligatory cosubstrate...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Devy Deliyanti, Saeed F Alrashdi, Sih Min Tan, Colin Meyer, Keith W Ward, Judy B de Haan, Jennifer L Wilkinson-Berka
Purpose: Oxidative stress is a causal factor in the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, clinically relevant strategies to treat the disease by augmenting antioxidant defense mechanisms have not been fully explored. We hypothesized that boosting nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant capacity with the novel Nrf2 activator dh404, would protect the retina in diabetes including vision-threatening breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and associated damage to macroglial Müller cells...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Morten Dall, Melanie Penke, Karolina Sulek, Madlen Matz-Soja, Birgitte Holst, Antje Garten, Wieland Kiess, Jonas T Treebak
Dietary supplementation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors has been suggested as a treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity. In the liver, NAD+ is primarily generated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), and hepatic levels of NAMPT and NAD+ have been reported to be dependent on age and body composition. The aim of the present study was to identify time-course-dependent changes in hepatic NAD content and NAD+ salvage capacity in mice challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD)...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sandra J Page, Maria M Rivera, David E Kleiner, Xiongce Zhao, Sungyoung Auh, Elaine F Remmers, Theo Heller
Approximately 71 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a potentially lethal pathogen. HCV generates oxidative stress correlating with disease severity. HCV proteins increase reactive oxygen species production by stimulating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) activity. Reactive oxygen species are necessary for host defense and cell signaling; however, elevated NOX activity contributes to cancer, and NOX overexpression is associated with hepatic fibrosis...
November 2017: Hepatology Communications
Meng Wang, S Courtney Frasch, Guiying Li, Dechun Feng, Bin Gao, Liangguo Xu, Diana Ir, Daniel N Frank, Donna L Bratton, Cynthia Ju
Hepatic macrophages (M Φ s) are important in the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). This study investigates the role of gp91phox(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2) in the severity of ALD and specifically in regulating hepatic M Φ efferocytic capability and the subsequent reprogramming associated with resolution of inflammation. After 4 weeks of ethanol feeding, more severe ALD developed in gp91phox-/-mice than in wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6J mice, evidenced by increased liver injury and inflammation...
October 2017: Hepatology Communications
Kow Essuman, Daniel W Summers, Yo Sasaki, Xianrong Mao, Aldrin Kay Yuen Yim, Aaron DiAntonio, Jeffrey Milbrandt
The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain is the signature signaling domain of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their adaptors, serving as a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes for innate immune signaling [1, 2]. TIR domain proteins are also expressed in plants, where they mediate disease resistance [3, 4], and in bacteria, where they have been associated with virulence [5-9]. In pursuing our work on axon degeneration [10], we made the surprising discovery that the TIR domain of SARM1 (sterile alpha and TIR motif containing 1), a TLR adaptor protein, has enzymatic activity [11]...
January 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Hao Xiong, Yongkang Ou, Yaodong Xu, Qiuhong Huang, Jiaqi Pang, Lan Lai, Yiqing Zheng
The sirtuin SIRT1 is a highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylase known to have protective effects against a wide range of neurological disorders. In the present study, we discovered that C57BL/6 mice fed a long-term diet supplemented with high-dose resveratrol exhibited increased cochlear SIRT1 activity and presented a better recovery of hearing and less loss of hair cells after intense noise exposure compared with those fed a standard chew. Moreover, resveratrol attenuated cochlear SIRT1 decrease and reduced oxidative stress in the cochlea after noise exposure...
January 25, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
Elysian Graham, Stacia Rymarchyk, Marci Wood, Yana Cen
Sirtuins consume stoichiometric amounts of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to remove acetyl group from lysine residues. These enzymes have been implicated in regulating various cellular events and have also been suggested to mediate the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR). However, controversies on sirtuin biology also peaked during the last few years because of conflicting results from different research groups. This is partly because these enzymes have been discovered recently, and the intricate interaction loops between sirtuins and other proteins make the characterization of them extremely difficult...
January 31, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
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