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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538406/dexmedetomidine-based-intravenous-anesthesia-of-a-pediatric-patient-with-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-g6pd-deficiency-a-case-report
#1
Nanae Takahashi, Takashi Ogawa, Zen'ichiro Wajima, Akibumi Omi
RATIONALE: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, resulting in deficits in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate production, an important intracellular antioxidant enzyme. G6PD-deficient subjects present with a susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative stress and hemolysis, and should avoid drugs or stressors that have oxidative actions. Dexmedetomidine is an anesthetic agent with antioxidant actions. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: A 5-year-old boy with G6PD deficiency...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534945/trb3-mediates-advanced-glycation-end-product-induced-apoptosis-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-through-the-protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-pathway
#2
Meng Wang, Wenjian Zhang, Shiqing Xu, Liang Peng, Zai Wang, Honglin Liu, Qing Fang, Tingting Deng, Xiuli Men, Jinning Lou
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in the body during the development of diabetes, may be one of the factors leading to pancreatic β-cell failure and reduced β-cell mass. However, the mechanisms responsible for AGE‑induced apoptosis remain unclear. This study identified the role and mechanisms of action of tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) in AGE-induced β-cell oxidative damage and apoptosis. Rat insulinoma cells (INS-1) were treated with 200 µg/ml AGEs for 48 h, and cell apoptosis was then detected by TUNEL staining and flow cytometry...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533555/scopolin-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-potential-involvement-of-sirt1-mediated-signaling-cascades-in-the-liver
#3
Ahyoung Yoo, Vikram P Narayan, Eun Young Hong, Wan Kyunn Whang, Taesun Park
The present study aimed to investigate whether scopolin exhibits beneficial effects on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. The involvement of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) as a molecular target for scopolin was also explored. Scopolin decreased the Km of SIRT1 for p53 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide without altering Vmax in a cell-free system. Scopolin alleviated oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation and downregulation of SIRT1 activity in HepG2 cells, and these beneficial effects of scopolin were abolished in the presence of SIRT1 inhibitor...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532757/redox-redux-and-nadph-oxidase%C3%A2-nox-even-more-complicated-than-we-thought%C3%A2-it%C3%A2-might-be
#4
Frank L Meyskens, Feng Liu-Smith
The NOX (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase) family includes seven unique members that are involved in a multitude of physiological functions, including extensive interaction with UVR and the skin. NOX1 is uniquely present and activated by UVB radiation with biphasic expression of the enzyme immediately and then after a several-hour delay. Specific inhibition of both early and late NOX1 activation leads to evidence of decreased photocarcinogenesis in in vitro keratinocytes and in well-characterized mouse models in which antitumor efficacy has been shown; inhibiting only late NOX activation does not exhibit such effects...
June 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529673/on-chip-two-photon-metabolic-imaging-for-drug-toxicity-testing
#5
Fang Yu, Shuangmu Zhuo, Yinghua Qu, Deepak Choudhury, Zhiping Wang, Ciprian Iliescu, Hanry Yu
We have developed a microfluidic system suitable to be incorporated with a metabolic imaging method to monitor the drug response of cells cultured on a chip. The cells were perfusion-cultured to mimic the blood flow in vivo. Label-free optical measurements and imaging of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide fluorescence intensity and morphological changes were evaluated non-invasively. Drug responses calculated using redox ratio imaging were compared with the drug toxicity testing results obtained with a traditional well-plate system...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527050/interplay-between-sirt-3-metabolism-and-its-tumor-suppressor-role-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
REVIEW
Serena De Matteis, Anna Maria Granato, Roberta Napolitano, Chiara Molinari, Martina Valgiusti, Daniele Santini, Francesco Giuseppe Foschi, Giorgio Ercolani, Umberto Vespasiani Gentilucci, Luca Faloppi, Mario Scartozzi, Giovanni Luca Frassineti, Andrea Casadei Gardini
Sirtuins (SIRT), first described as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent type III histone deacetylases, are produced by cells to support in the defense against chronic stress conditions such as metabolic syndromes, neurodegeneration, and cancer. SIRT-3 is one of the most studied members of the mitochondrial sirtuins family. In particular, its involvement in metabolic diseases and its dual role in cancer have been described. In the present review, based on the evidence of SIRT-3 involvement in metabolic dysfunctions, we aimed to provide an insight into the multifaceted role of SIRT-3 in many solid and hematological tumors with a particular focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
May 19, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526407/sirtuin-inhibition-leads-to-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-porcine-preimplantation-blastocysts
#7
Min Gyeong Kim, Duk Hyoun Kim, Hye Ran Lee, Jun Sung Lee, Su Jin Jin, Hoon Taek Lee
Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent class III histone deacetylase proteins that play a crucial role in several cellular processes, including DNA repair, apoptosis, and lifespan. Previous studies have shown that sirtuin inhibition leads to embryonic developmental arrest and oxidative stress in porcine and murine. However, sirtuin-mediated mechanisms have not been examined in porcine preimplantation blastocysts. We therefore investigated the relationship between sirtuins and autophagy. Embryos were cultured with 100 μM sirtinol (SIRT1/2 inhibitor) in NCSU-23 media after in vitro fertilization...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525515/lidocaine-prevents-oxidative-stress-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-of-the-systemic-artery-in-rats-with-intermittent-periodontal-inflammation
#8
Takumi Saito, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Guo-Gang Feng, Yoshiaki Kazaoka, Yoshihiro Fujiwara, Hiroyuki Kinoshita
BACKGROUND: Periodontal inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction of the systemic artery. However, it is unknown whether the use of local anesthetics during painful dental procedures alleviates periodontal inflammation and systemic endothelial function. This study was designed to examine whether the gingival or systemic injection of lidocaine prevents oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction of the systemic artery in rats with intermittent periodontal inflammation caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS)...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525376/exploiting-ros-and-metabolic-differences-to-kill-cisplatin-resistant-lung-cancer
#9
Medhi Wangpaichitr, Chunjing Wu, Ying Ying Li, Dan J M Nguyen, Hande Kandemir, Sumedh Shah, Shumei Chen, Lynn G Feun, Jeffrey S Prince, Macus T Kuo, Niramol Savaraj
Cisplatin resistance remains a major problem in the treatment of lung cancer. We have discovered that cisplatin resistant (CR) lung cancer cells, regardless of the signaling pathway status, share the common parameter which is an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and undergo metabolic reprogramming. CR cells were no longer addicted to the glycolytic pathway, but rather relied on oxidative metabolism. They took up twice as much glutamine and were highly sensitive to glutamine deprivation. Glutamine is hydrolyzed to glutamate for glutathione synthesis, an essential factor to abrogate high ROS via xCT antiporter...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521407/clinicopathological-implications-of-nqo1-overexpression-in-the-prognosis-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#10
Meiying Ji, Aihua Jin, Jie Sun, Xuelian Cui, Yang Yang, Liyan Chen, Zhenhua Lin
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) protects cells from oxidative damage. NQO1 has been reported to be upregulated in numerous solid tumors, suggesting a role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The present study attempted to investigate the clinical prognostic significance of NQO1 overexpression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). A total of 181 tissue specimens were studied, including 126 PDAC and 55 normal pancreas specimens, which were selected for immunohistochemical staining of NQO1 protein...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516502/differential-effects-of-exposure-to-parasites-and-bacteria-on-stress-response-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-simultaneously-stressed-by-low-water-depth
#11
J J Rodríguez-Quiroga, C Otero-Rodiño, P Suárez, T P Nieto, J M García Estévez, F San Juan, J L Soengas
The stress response of turbot Scophthalmus maximus was evaluated in fish maintained 8 days under different water depths, normal (NWD, 30 cm depth, total water volume 40 l) or low (LWD, 5 cm depth, total water volume 10 l), in the additional presence of infection-infestation of two pathogens of this species. This was caused by intraperitoneal injection of sublethal doses of the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or the parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora:Scuticociliatida)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516115/a-modified-chromogenic-assay-for-determination-of-the-ratio-of-free-intracellular-nad-nadh-in-streptococcus-mutans
#12
Jonathon L Baker, Roberta C Faustoferri, Robert G Quivey
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme present in all kingdoms of life and exists in two forms: oxidized (NAD(+)) and reduced (NADH). NAD(H) is involved in a multitude of essential metabolic redox reactions, providing oxidizing or reducing equivalents. The ratio of free intracellular NAD(+)/NADH is fundamentally important in the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis (Ying, 2008). Various chromogenic cycling assays have been used to determine the ratio of NAD(+)/NADH in both bacterial and mammalian cells for more than forty years (Bernofsky and Swan, 1973; Nisselbaum and Green, 1969)...
August 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515364/nicotinamide-metabolism-regulates-glioblastoma-stem-cell-maintenance
#13
Jinkyu Jung, Leo J Y Kim, Xiuxing Wang, Qiulian Wu, Tanwarat Sanvoranart, Christopher G Hubert, Briana C Prager, Lisa C Wallace, Xun Jin, Stephen C Mack, Jeremy N Rich
Metabolic dysregulation promotes cancer growth through not only energy production, but also epigenetic reprogramming. Here, we report that a critical node in methyl donor metabolism, nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), ranked among the most consistently overexpressed metabolism genes in glioblastoma relative to normal brain. NNMT was preferentially expressed by mesenchymal glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). NNMT depletes S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), a methyl donor generated from methionine. GSCs contained lower levels of methionine, SAM, and nicotinamide, but they contained higher levels of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) than differentiated tumor cells...
May 18, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506466/impaired-steroidogenesis-in-the-testis-of-leptin-deficient-mice-ob-ob
#14
Fabiane Ferreira Martins, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
The obesity and its comorbidities, including resistance to leptin, impacts the reproductive function. Testes express leptin receptors in the germ cells and Leydig cells. Then, leptin-deficient animals are obese and infertile. We aimed to evaluate the structure and steroidogenic pathway of the testis of deficient leptin mice. Three months old male C57BL/6 mice (wild-type, WT) and deficient leptin (ob/ob) mice had their testes dissected and prepared for analyses. Compared to the WT group, the ob/ob group showed a greater body mass with smaller testes, and alterations in the germinative epithelium: fewer spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids...
May 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505283/oxidative-injury-and-iron-redistribution-are-pathological-hallmarks-of-marmoset-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#15
Jordon Dunham, Jan Bauer, Graham R Campbell, Don J Mahad, Nikki van Driel, Susanne M A van der Pol, Bert A 't Hart, Hans Lassmann, Jon D Laman, Jack van Horssen, Yolanda S Kap
Oxidative damage and iron redistribution are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS), but these aspects are not entirely replicated in rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models. Here, we report that oxidative burst and injury as well as redistribution of iron are hallmarks of the MS-like pathology in the EAE model in the common marmoset. Active lesions in the marmoset EAE brain display increased expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (p22phox, p47phox, and gp91phox) and inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity within lesions with active inflammation and demyelination, coinciding with enhanced expression of mitochondrial heat-shock protein 70 and superoxide dismutase 1 and 2...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505091/the-importance-of-nadph-oxidases-and-redox-signaling-in-angiogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Rodrigo Prieto-Bermejo, Angel Hernández-Hernández
Eukaryotic cells have to cope with the constant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although the excessive production of ROS might be deleterious for cell biology, there is a plethora of evidence showing that moderate levels of ROS are important for the control of cell signaling and gene expression. The family of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NADPH oxidases or Nox) has evolved to produce ROS in response to different signals; therefore, they fulfil a central role in the control of redox signaling...
May 13, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504670/longevity-of-major-coenzymes-allows-minimal-de-novo-synthesis-in-microorganisms
#17
Johannes Hartl, Patrick Kiefer, Fabian Meyer, Julia A Vorholt
Coenzymes are vital for cellular metabolism and act on the full spectrum of enzymatic reactions. Intrinsic chemical reactivity, enzyme promiscuity and high flux through their catalytic cycles make coenzymes prone to damage. To counteract such compromising factors and ensure stable levels of functional coenzymes, cells use a complex interplay between de novo synthesis, salvage, repair and degradation. However, the relative contribution of these factors is currently unknown, as is the overall stability of coenzymes in the cell...
May 15, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501332/inhibition-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-and-depletion-of-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-contribute-to-arsenic-trioxide-suppression-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Xin Yue Wang, Jin Zhi Wang, Lu Gao, Fu Yin Zhang, Qi Wang, Ke Jian Liu, Bin Xiang
Emerging evidence suggests that increased nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) expression is associated with the development and prognosis of many cancers, but it remains unknown regarding its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the present study, the results from tissue microarray showed that NAMPT was overexpressed in OSCC patients and its expression level was directly correlated with differential grades of cancer. Interestingly, treatment of OSCC cells with chemotherapy agent arsenic trioxide (ATO) decreased the levels of NAMPT protein and increased cellular death in an ATO dose- and time-dependent manner...
May 10, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500115/erroneously-elevated-glucose-values-due-to-maltose-interference-in-mutant-glucose-dehydrogenase-pyrroloquinolinequinone-mutant-gdh-pqq-based-glucometer
#19
Partha Pratim Chakraborty, Shinjan Patra, Rana Bhattacharjee, Subhankar Chowdhury
Currently available glucose test strip enzymes include glucose oxidase (GOD) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). In GDH-based glucometers, glucose oxidation can be catalysed by different cofactors: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (GDH-NAD), flavin adenine dinucleotide (GDH-FAD), pyrroloquinolinequinone (GDH-PQQ) and mutant GDH-PQQ. GOD-based and GDH-NAD-based glucometers are substrate-specific and do not react with sugars other than glucose. GDH-FAD reacts with xylose only in addition to glucose. GDH-PQQ is not glucose-specific; in addition to glucose, it reacts with different other sugars and produces falsely high values of capillary glucose in the presence of such substances...
May 12, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495827/hyperbaric-oxygen-reduces-infarction-volume-and-hemorrhagic-transformation-through-atp-nad-sirt1-pathway-in-hyperglycemic-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-rats
#20
Qin Hu, Anatol Manaenko, Hetao Bian, Zongduo Guo, Jun-Long Huang, Zhen-Ni Guo, Peng Yang, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Energy depletion is a critical factor leading to cell death and brain dysfunction after ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated whether energy depletion is involved in hyperglycemia-induced hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke and determined the pathway underlying the beneficial effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). METHODS: After 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion, hyperglycemia was induced by injecting 50% dextrose (6 mL/kg) intraperitoneally at the onset of reperfusion...
May 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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