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Hepatitis and pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330989/hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-virus-in-women-with-first-pregnancy
#1
Shandana Mustafa Jadoon, Muhammad Adeel, Shaheen Aslam, Ahsan Rasool
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are amongst the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women throughout the globe. This study is aimed at determining the frequency of these infections among primigravid females and the common factors that make them prone to these infections. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from December 2015 to May 2016. A total of 174 jaundiced primigravida patients were included in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329329/prevalence-risk-factors-and-molecular-evaluation-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-among-pregnant-women-resident-in-the-northern-shores-of-persian-gulf-iran
#2
Fatemeh Farshadpour, Reza Taherkhani, Mohamad Reza Ravanbod, Seyed Sajjad Eghbali, Sakineh Taherkhani, Easa Mahdavi
BACKGROUND: Although Iran is reported to be an endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV), data on the prevalence of HEV infection among pregnant women are scarce and the epidemiology of HEV is unknown in most parts of the country. Therefore, this study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence, risk factors and genotypic pattern of HEV infection among pregnant women resident in the northern shores of Persian Gulf. This is the first report on the epidemiology of HEV infection among pregnant women in this territory...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327522/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-pregnant-patients-with-acute-hev-hepatitis-during-water-borne-epidemic-in-himachal-pradesh-a-hospital-based-study
#3
Asha Ranjan, Surinder Thakur, Jatinder Mokta, Rajesh Bhawani, Varsha Ranjan
Background: Recent outbreak of HEV hepatitis epidemic in Himachal Pradesh in Shimla caused significant morbidity and mortality especially among pregnant patients. Overall mortality is 0.5- 4% in patients developing acute hepatic failure (ALF) and is significantly higher in pregnant patients (20%). Present study conducted to observe clinical profile and outcome in pregnant patients. Methodology: this is a retrospective observational study done on admitted pregnant and post partum patients with acute HEV hepatitis during 3 months periods...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300723/sexual-intercourse-among-high-school-students-29-states-and-united-states-overall-2005-2015
#4
Kathleen A Ethier, Laura Kann, Timothy McManus
Early initiation of sexual activity is associated with having more sexual partners, not using condoms, sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy during adolescence (1,2). The majority of adolescents initiate sexual activity during high school, and the proportion of high school students who have ever had sexual intercourse increases by grade; black students are more likely to have ever had sexual intercourse than are white students (3). The proportion of high school students overall who had ever had sexual intercourse did not change significantly during 1995-2005 (53...
January 5, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286012/hepatitis-a-b-c-and-hiv-seroprevalence-among-syrian-refugee-children-admitted-to-outpatient-clinics
#5
Şükran Köse, Ilker Ödemiş, Didem Çelik, Bengü Gireniz Tatar, Ilkay Akbulut, Dilek Yilmaz Çiftdoğan
Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of serious health problems such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leading to immunodeficiency disorders through different mechanisms, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes the development of severe secondary infections. Hepatitis A (HAV) is thought to spread by the faecal-oral route, while Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV are mostly transmitted vertically during childhood. In our study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV among Syrian refugee children who were admitted to outpatient clinics...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284078/hepatobiliary-and-pancreatic-pregnancy-induced-hepatic-veno-occlusive-disease-requiring-liver-transplantation
#6
N Harimoto, K Yugawa, T Ikegami, M Ohira, Y Mano, T Motomura, T Toshima, S Itoh, N Harada, Y Soejima, T Yoshizumi, Y Maehara, Y Oda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283994/timing-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-diagnosis-after-migration-and-its-determinants-among-sub-saharan-african-migrants-living-in-france
#7
Julie Pannetier, Virginie Gigonzac, Nathalie Lydié, Annabel Desgrées du Loû, Rosemary Dray Spira
OBJECTIVE: In European countries, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) disproportionately affects migrants from medium- and high-endemic areas and is largely underdiagnosed. To inform policy and improve screening strategies, we measured the timing of CHB diagnosis after migration and its determinants among sub-Saharan migrants living in the Paris metropolitan area (France). DESIGN: The PARCOURS study is a retrospective life-event history survey conducted in health care services in 2012-2013 among 779 migrants from sub-Saharan Africa who were receiving care for CHB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250459/intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy-refractory-to-multiple-medical-therapies-and-plasmapheresis
#8
Adam John Covach, William Nicholas Rose
Objectives  We report on a patient suffering from intractable itching secondary to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) unresponsive to conventional medical therapies. She was started on a regimen of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), which is often efficacious in relieving patient's itching from all causes of cholestasis, including ICP. Methods  We performed a retrospective review of a patient's medical record. Results  Following initial TPE, the patient reported dramatic relief of her itching and consequent insomnia...
October 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249214/hitting-a-triple-in-the-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-field-sucrose-intake-in-adulthood-increases-fat-content-in-the-female-but-not-in-the-male-rat-offspring-of-dams-fed-a-gestational-low-protein-diet
#9
L Nicolás-Toledo, M Cervantes-Rodríguez, E Cuevas-Romero, D L Corona-Quintanilla, E Pérez-Sánchez, E Zambrano, F Castelán, J Rodríguez-Antolín
The excessive consumption of carbohydrates is related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in infants and adults. The effect of combining maternal malnutrition and a high carbohydrate intake on the development of NAFLD in adulthood remains unknown. We therefore hypothesized that consumption of 5% sucrose by the offspring of dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy promotes liver fat accumulation and oxidative damage differently in females and males. To test this, 12-month-old female and male offspring of mothers fed a Control (C) or low-protein diet (Restricted, R) were provided with either tap water or 5% sucrose for a period of 10 weeks...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246878/de-novo-recipient-specific-glutathione-s-transferase-t1-antibody-development-after-hla-identical-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#10
María José Martínez-Bravo, Berta Sánchez, María José Acevedo, José Antonio Pérez-Simón, Antonio Núñez-Roldán, Isabel Aguilera
Donor-specific antibodies against Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) have been associated with de novo immune hepatitis after liver transplantation. These antibodies have also been found very early in allo-HCT associated with acute hepatic GvHD but in all the cases the donor cells had experienced previous priming through pregnancies. It remained to be explored whether or not primary recognition of the antigen occurs after HCT and what could be the consequences in the long term outcome. We genotyped a cohort of 68 HCT patients and found 11 with the GSTT1 null donor/positive recipient mismatch...
December 13, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239849/hepatitis-during-pregnancy-a-case-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#11
Halil Yildiz, Bernard Vandercam, Xave Thissen, Mina Komuta, Nicolas Lanthier, Frederic Debieve, Geraldine Dahlqvist
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but severe and potentially fatal syndrome that can occur during pregnancy. A 36 years-old woman, at 29 weeks of gestation, presented with itchiness and jaundice since a week. On clinical examination she was apyrexial and frankly icteric. Laboratory data showed evidence of acute hepatitis. A complete work-up was made excluding viral hepatitis (HAV, HEV, HBV, HCV, HHV6, CMV, EBV) and autoimmune liver disease. Liver diseases related to pregnancy were not completely excluded...
November 24, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238270/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#12
REVIEW
Patrick Tang, James Johnston
The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an essential component of tuberculosis (TB) elimination in regions that have a low incidence of TB. However, the decision to treat individuals with LTBI must consider the limitations of current diagnostic tests for LTBI, the risk of developing active TB disease, the potential adverse effects from chemoprophylactic therapy, and the importance of treatment adherence. When an individual has been diagnosed with LTBI and active TB has been ruled out, this is followed by an evaluation of the risks and benefits of LTBI treatment within the context of the regional epidemiology of TB and public health priorities...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237941/successful-management-of-a-live-14-week-primary-hepatic-ectopic-pregnancy-combined-with-a-residual-horn-of-the-uterus-using-laparoscopy
#13
Ren-Feng Zhao, Shun-Rong Huang, Li-Li Xu, Ni-Ping Liu, Ning Liang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227009/fetal-liver-injury-ameliorated-by-migration-inhibitory-factor-inhibition-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-pancreatitis-in-pregnancy
#14
Zheng-Da Guo, Liang Zhao, Peng Wang, Wen-Hong Deng, Qiao Shi, Teng Zuo, Yu-Pu Hong, Wei-Xing Wang
AIM: This study was designed to investigate and assess fetal liver injury in a rat model of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy (APIP) as well as its possible mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: The APIP model was induced by sodium taurocholate in Sprague-Dawley rats during the third trimester. ISO-1, a macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) antagonist, was given before the induction of APIP. In addition, sham-operated rats at later gestation were set as controls...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227001/antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus-during-second-pregnancies
#15
Yasuhiro Wakano, Tokio Sugiura, Takeshi Endo, Koichi Ito, Mitsuyoshi Suzuki, Hitoshi Tajiri, Yasuhito Tanaka, Shinji Saitoh
Mother-to-child transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major concern for infected mothers, especially after their first child has become an HBV carrier despite immunoprophylaxis. Eight mothers whose first child had become an HBV carrier despite immunoprophylaxis were referred for antiviral therapy during the subsequent pregnancy. All pregnant women were seropositive for both the hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen. In the treatment group (three receiving lamivudine and two receiving tenofovir), mother-to-child transmission of the HBV was successfully prevented in all infants (5/5)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225680/presumed-acute-fatty-liver-of-pregnancy-following-influenza-a-hepatitis
#16
Adam Morton
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is a rare mitochondrial hepatopathy characterised by microvesicular fatty infiltration, and is believed to be due to impaired fatty acid oxidation. Hepatitis following influenza virus infection is uncommon. Rarely influenza virus infection may be complicated by Reye's syndrome, another hepatic microvesicular fat disease. A case of influenza A hepatitis in third trimester of pregnancy, followed by the evelopment of presumed acute fatty liver of pregnancy is described in this report and a potential mechanism why this may have occurred is discussed...
December 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225673/update-on-hepatitis-c-and-implications-for-pregnancy
#17
REVIEW
Jeffrey J Post
Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus infection occurs in a significant minority of cases and the diagnosis, treatment and cure of hepatitis C virus infection with direct acting antivirals prior to pregnancy can eliminate this risk in almost all cases. Women with hepatitis C virus infection have increased risks of adverse events in pregnancy and poor perinatal outcomes for their children, although the contribution of hepatitis C virus per se is difficult to determine. Altering the mode of delivery does not reduce mother to child transmission of hepatitis C virus infection, although avoidance of fetal scalp electrodes and other potential high risk procedures is recommended during pregnancy and delivery...
December 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225131/role-of-tenofovir-alafenamide-taf-in-the-treatment-and-prophylaxis-of-hiv-and-hbv-infections
#18
REVIEW
Erik De Clercq
Tenofovir (TFV) is the cornerstone of the treatment and prophylaxis of HIV infections. It has been routinely used in its prodrug form TDF (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) combined with emtricitabine ((-)FTC) and other antiretroviral agents. TDF has now been replaced by TAF (tenofovir alafenamide) which allows better uptake by the lymphoid tissue. In combination with elvitegravir (E), cobicistat (C), emtricitabine (F), TAF can be advocated as an STR (single tablet regimen, Genvoya®) for the treatment of HIV infections...
December 7, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224865/effects-of-supplementation-with-ruminally-protected-choline-on-performance-of-multiparous-holstein-cows-did-not-depend-upon-prepartum-caloric-intake
#19
M G Zenobi, R Gardinal, J E Zuniga, A L G Dias, C D Nelson, J P Driver, B A Barton, J E P Santos, C R Staples
Objectives were to evaluate the effect of prepartum energy intake on performance of dairy cows supplemented with or without ruminally protected choline (RPC; 0 or 17.3 g/d of choline chloride; 0 or 60 g/d of ReaShure, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). At 47 ± 6 d before the expected calving date, 93 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Cows were fed energy to excess [EXE; 1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of dry matter (DM)] or to maintenance (MNE; 1...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193547/safety-and-efficacy-of-telbivudine-in-late-pregnancy-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Yali Hu, Chenyu Xu, Biao Xu, Lingqing Hu, Qin Liu, Jie Chen, Jingli Liu, Lanhua Liu, Jishi Yang, Tingmei Chen, Jian Wen, Na Jiang, Yaguang Zhang, Minkai Cao, Jing Feng, Xiaoqian Lin, Zhiqun Wang, Biyun Xu, Yi-Hua Zhou
Infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) occurs in ~10% of infants of HBV-infected mothers with positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) after immunoprophylaxis. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of telbivudine used during late pregnancy for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HBV. We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study in five hospitals from 2012-2014, which enrolled HBV-infected singleton pregnant women with positive HBeAg. By their choice, women were divided into therapy (telbivudine 600 mg/day, from gestation 28-32 weeks to 3-4 weeks postpartum) and control (no antiviral agent) groups...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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