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Robert Marshall Beresford, Joy Lorraine Tyson, Warwick Ralph Henshall
A weather-based disease prediction model for bacterial canker of kiwifruit (known worldwide as Psa; Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3) was developed using a new mechanistic scheme for bacterial disease forecasters, the multiplication and dispersal concept. Bacterial multiplication is estimated from a temperature function, the M index, accumulated from hourly air temperature over 3 days for hours when the leaf canopy is wet. Rainfall provides free water to move inoculum to infection sites and the daily risk indicator, the R index, is the 3-day accumulation of the M index, output on days with total rainfall > 1 mm; otherwise R is zero...
October 17, 2016: Phytopathology
Andrea Kunova, Cristina Pizzatti, Matteo Cerea, Andrea Gazzaniga, Paolo Cortesi
AIMS: This study aimed to develop a new formulation of Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirulent mycelium suitable for inoculations of tall trees from the ground. C. parasitica hypovirulent strains are widely used for biological control of chestnut blight. However, it is often inconsistent and ineffective not only for biological reasons, but also because the current manual application of hypovirulent strains on adult plants is difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Here, we propose an improved formulation and more effective mode of application of hypovirulent strains, which could boost chestnut blight biocontrol...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Bin-Yan Wu, Jian-Ren Ye, Lin Huang, Ling-Min He, De-Wei Li
Burkholderia pyrrocinia strain JK-SH007 isolated from poplar stems plays a highly significant role in the growth promotion and the biocontrol of poplar canker during colonization in poplar. In this research, the ideal reference gene was filtered and determined for the transcript normalization. Additionally, the expression of pyrG under all four conditions was relatively stable in B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007.
October 7, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Antonio Gómez-Cortecero, Robert J Saville, Reiny W A Scheper, Joanna K Bowen, Hugo Agripino De Medeiros, Jennifer Kingsnorth, Xiangming Xu, Richard J Harrison
Apple canker caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Neonectria ditissima is an economically important disease, which has spread in recent years to almost all pome-producing regions of the world. N. ditissima is able to cross-infect a wide range of apple varieties and causes branch and trunk lesions, known as cankers. Most modern apple varieties are susceptible and in extreme cases suffer from high mortality (up to 50%) in the early phase of orchard establishment. There is no known race structure of the pathogen and the global level of genetic diversity of the pathogen population is unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Angelica Marsberg, Martin Kemler, Fahimeh Jami, Jan H Nagel, Alisa Postma-Smidt, Sanushka Naidoo, Michael J Wingfield, Pedro W Crous, Joseph Spatafora, Cedar N Hesse, Barbara Robbertse, Bernard Slippers
: Botryosphaeria dothidea is the type species of Botryosphaeria (Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriales). Fungi residing in this order are amongst the most widespread and important canker and dieback pathogens of trees worldwide, with B. dothidea one of the most common species on a large number of hosts. Its taxonomic circumscription has undergone substantial change in the past decade, making it difficult to interpret the large volume of literature linked to the name B. dothidea. This pathogen profile synthesises the current understanding of B...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Shih-Chieh Chang, Wen-Ling Deng, Hsiou-Chen Huang, Kuang-Ren Chung, Kuo-Ching Tzeng
Bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. The pectolytic enzymes produced by phytobacteria are important virulence factors involved in tissue maceration, electrolyte loss and cell death of host plants. In this study, the promoter activity of the pectolytic enzyme genes pel1, pel2, pel3, pglA, and peh-1 were investigated in Xcc XW19 strain using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene as a reporter. GUS activity expressed under the control of the pel1, pel3, pglA, and peh-1 gene promoters positively correlated with bacterial growth...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Silvana Petrocelli, Maite R Arana, Marcela N Cabrini, Adriana C Casabuono, Laura Moyano, Matías Beltramino, Leandro M Moreira, Alicia S Couto, Elena G Orellano
Type IV pili (Tfp) are widely distributed adhesins of bacterial surfaces. In plant pathogenic bacteria, Tfp are involved in host colonization and pathogenesis. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker disease. In this work, three Tfp structural genes, fimA, fimA1, and pilA from Xcc were studied. A pilA mutant strain from Xcc (XccΔpilA) was constructed and differences in physiological features, such as motilities, adhesion, and biofilm formation, were observed...
December 2016: Current Microbiology
Roxana A Roeschlin, María A Favaro, María A Chiesa, Sergio Alemano, Adrián A Vojnov, Atilio P Castagnaro, María P Filippone, Frederick G Gmitter, José Gadea, María R Marano
Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (X. citri) is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a disease that seriously affects most commercially important Citrus species worldwide. We have previously identified a natural variant, X. citri A(T) , that triggers a host-specific defense response in Citrus limon. However, the mechanisms involved in this canker disease resistance are unknown. In this work, the defense response induced by X. citri A(T) was assessed by transcriptomic, physiological and ultrastructural analyses and the effects on bacterial biofilm formation were monitored in parallel...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Zhiyuan Yin, Baitao Zhu, Hao Feng, Lili Huang
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) often has strong benefits for fungi. In a study of samples from apple canker in Shaanxi Province, China, diverse microbes, along with the necrotrophic pathogen Valsa mali, were found to colonize the apple bark, thus providing ample opportunity for HGT to occur. In the present study, we identified 32 HGT events in V. mali by combining phyletic distribution-based methods with phylogenetic analyses. Most of these HGTs were from bacteria, whereas several others were from eukaryotes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joaquín Abolafia, Mehrdad Alizadeh, Reza Khakvar
A new species of the genus Panagrellus, P. ulmi sp. n., has been found inside wetwood cankers of elms from the city of Tabriz, Iran. The new species is characterized by having small body size (0.91‒1.22 mm long in females and 0.82‒1.18 mm long in males), lateral field with three longitudinal incisures, lip region narrowing to distal end with six small lips and oral opening surrounded by six acute liplets, stoma with gymnostom shorter than cheilostom, cheilorhabdia not refringent, gymnorhabdia refringent, pharynx with metacorpus not swollen and isthmus slender, excretory pore at level of metacorpus, ovary very long without flexures, oviduct swollen, postvulval uterine sac long, 2...
2016: Zootaxa
André Vessoni Alexandrino, Leandro Seiji Goto, Maria Teresa Marques Novo-Mansur
Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is a severe disease of citrus. Xcc presents broad spectrum of citrus hosts including economically important species whereas X. fuscans subsp. aurantifolii-type C (XauC) causes a milder disease and only infects Citrus aurantifolia. Trehalase catalyzes hydrolysis of the disaccharide trehalose, a sugar that has been reported to be related to Xcc pathogenicity. We expressed the recombinant gene product and assessed Xcc trehalase structural and kinetics data...
2016: PloS One
Dongying Fan, Yanfang Li, Lingyun Zhao, Zhengpeng Li, Lili Huang, Xia Yan
The mechanism of biocontrol agent Saccharothrix yanglingensis Hhs.015 action against Valsa mali, a major apple Valsa canker pathogen, was examined using a novel, sensitive (minimum detection limit 100 pg/μL) and reliably RT-qPCR technique. Prior to lesion formation, total concentration of V. mali in the bark showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) after 24 h of Hhs.015 treatment. This was more pronounced at 48 and 96 h post treatment. After lesion formation, levels of V. mali remained constant at the boundary between infected and uninfected bark tissues, although the relative expansion rate of the lesion was significantly reduced (p<0...
2016: PloS One
Leandro Seiji Goto, André Vessoni Alexandrino, Camila Malvessi Pereira, Carla Silva Martins, Humberto D'Muniz Pereira, José Brandão-Neto, Maria Teresa Marques Novo-Mansur
Citrus canker, caused by bacteria Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, can affect all economically important varieties of citrus. Studying Xanthomonas genes related to the invasive capacity may improve the knowledge on how this works and ultimately use the information to avoid the disease. Some annotated genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri published genome are addressed to an interesting class of genes named "pathogenicity, virulence and adaptation". One of them is xanA, which encodes a predicted phosphoglucomutase...
August 25, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ning Yan, Yongmei Du, Xinmin Liu, Hongbo Zhang, Yanhua Liu, John Shi, Sophia Jun Xue, Zhongfeng Zhang
The objective of this work was to study the underlying mechanisms of growth inhibition of Valsa mali var. mali, the causative pathogen of apple tree canker disease, by α-cembratrien-diol. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of α-cembratrien-diol against V. mali var. mali is 18.0mg/L. Treatment of V. mali var. mali with α-cembratrien-diol resulted in various mycelial and cellular abnormalities, and the up- and down-regulation of 94 and 170 differentially expressed genes, respectively. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that α-cembratrien-diol substantially altered the expression of genes involved in the redox process, tetrapyrrole binding, coenzyme binding, heme binding, and iron binding...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Guixia Hao, Ed Stover, Goutam Gupta
Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Biljana Todorović, Ivana Potočnik, Emil Rekanović, Miloš Stepanović, Miroslav Kostić, Mihajlo Ristić, Svetlana Milijašević-Marčić
ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Yu-Rim Song, Min-Seon Choi, Geun-Won Choi, Il-Kwon Park, Chang-Sik Oh
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays...
August 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
D W Waite, R Griffin, R Taylor, S George
: Citrus canker is an economically important disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). This organism targets a wide range of citrus plants, including sweet orange, grapefruit, lemon and lime. As Xcc is spread by environmental factors such as wind and rain, it is difficult to control its movement once the disease has established. In order to facilitate monitoring of citrus canker we sought to design a novel diagnostic protocol based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for identification of bacterial cells directly from canker pustules without cultivation or DNA extraction...
November 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Vasthi Alonso Chavez, Stephen Parnell, Frank VAN DEN Bosch
The global increase in the movement of plant products in recent years has triggered an increase in the number of introduced plant pathogens. Plant nurseries importing material from abroad may play an important role in the introduction and spread of diseases such as ash dieback and sudden oak death which are thought to have been introduced through trade. The economic, environmental and social costs associated with the spread of invasive pathogens become considerably larger as the incidence of the pathogen increases...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Julie Gervais, Clémence Plissonneau, Juliette Linglin, Michel Meyer, Karine Labadie, Corinne Cruaud, Isabelle Fudal, Thierry Rouxel, Marie-Hélène Balesdent
Leptosphaeria maculans, causal agent of stem canker disease, colonises oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in two stages: a short and early colonisation stage corresponding to cotyledon or leaf colonisation, and a late colonisation stage during which the fungus colonises systemically and symptomlessly the plant during several months before stem canker appears. To date, determinants of the late colonisation stage are poorly understood; L. maculans may either successfully escape plant defences leading to the stem canker development, or the plant can develop an "adult-stage" resistance reducing canker incidence...
July 30, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
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