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Yong-Ju Huang, Georgia K Mitrousia, Siti Nordahliawate M Sidique, Aiming Qi, Bruce D L Fitt
Using cultivar resistance against pathogens is one of the most economical and environmentally friendly methods for control of crop diseases. However, cultivar resistance can be easily rendered ineffective due to changes in pathogen populations or environments. To test the hypothesis that combining R gene-mediated resistance and quantitative resistance (QR) in one cultivar can provide more effective resistance than use of either type of resistance on its own, effectiveness of resistance in eight oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cultivars with different R genes and/or QR against Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) was investigated in 13 different environments/sites over three growing seasons (2010/2011, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013)...
2018: PloS One
Yuqiang Zhao, Yanli Tian, Xiang Li, Baishi Hu
Dickeya fangzhongdai DSM 101947T was isolated from pear trees ( Pyrus pyrifolia ) in Zhejiang Province, China, and is the causal agent of bleeding canker, a devastating disease of pear trees. Here, we provide the complete genome sequence of this bacterium, which has a 5,027,163-bp-long genome, including 4,375 protein-coding genes and 100 RNA genes. This strain possesses a number of genes encoding virulence factors of pathogens.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
Huawei Liu, Liping Wu, Ekaterina Nikolaeva, Kari Peter, Zongrang Liu, Dimitre Mollov, Mengji Cao, Ruhui Li
BACKGROUND: 'Rapid Apple Decline' (RAD) is a newly emerging problem of young, dwarf apple trees in the Northeastern USA. The affected trees show trunk necrosis, cracking and canker before collapse in summer. In this study, we discovered and characterized a new luteovirus from apple trees in RAD-affected orchards using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology and subsequent Sanger sequencing. METHODS: Illumina NextSeq sequencing was applied to total RNAs prepared from three diseased apple trees...
May 15, 2018: Virology Journal
Diana Martins, Mariana Q Mesquita, Maria G P M S Neves, Maria A F Faustino, Luís Reis, Etelvina Figueira, Adelaide Almeida
The studied cationic porphyrins formulation allows an effective photoinactivation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in kiwifruit leaves under sunlight irradiation, without damaging the plant. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium responsible for canker on kiwifruit plant. Over the last decade, this bacterium dramatically affected the production of this fruit worldwide, causing significant economic losses. In general, Psa control consists in the application of copper which are toxic and persist in the environment...
May 11, 2018: Planta
Danny Rioux, Martine Blais, Nicholas Nadeau-Thibodeau, Marie Lagacé, Pierre DesRochers, Krystyna Klimaszewska, Louis Bernier
Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Oc-j) endangers the survival of butternut (Juglans cinerea) throughout its native range. While screening for disease resistance, we found that artificial inoculations of 48 butternut seedlings with Oc-j induced the expression of external symptoms, but only after a period of dormancy. Before dormancy, compartmentalized tissues such as necrophylactic periderms (NPs) and xylem reaction zones (RZs) contributed to limiting pathogen invasion. Phenols were regularly detected in RZs, often in continuity with NPs during wound closure, and confocal microscopy revealed their presence in parenchyma cells, vessel plugs and cell walls...
May 11, 2018: Phytopathology
Michelle T Hulin, Andrew D Armitage, Joana G Vicente, Eric B Holub, Laura Baxter, Helen J Bates, John W Mansfield, Robert W Jackson, Richard J Harrison
Genome-wide analyses of the effector- and toxin-encoding genes were used to examine the phylogenetics and evolution of pathogenicity amongst diverse strains of Pseudomonas syringae causing bacterial canker of cherry (Prunus avium), including pathovars P. syringae pv morsprunorum (Psm) races 1 and 2, P. syringae pv syringae (Pss) and P. syringae pv avii. Phylogenetic analyses revealed Psm races and P. syringae pv avii clades were distinct and were each monophyletic, whereas cherry-pathogenic strains of Pss were interspersed amongst strains from other host species...
May 4, 2018: New Phytologist
Sining Han, Na Jiang, Qingyang Lv, Yumin Kan, Jianjun Hao, Jianqiang Li, Laixin Luo
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is a seed-borne pathogen that causes bacterial canker disease of tomato. Cmm is typically detected in tomato seeds using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with culture-based isolation. The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of Cmm may result in the underestimation or false negative detection of the pathogen. In the present study, propidium monoazide (PMA) and its improved structure PMAxx were used to pretreat Cmm prior to DNA extraction, followed by qPCR...
2018: PloS One
Marco Aurélio Siqueira Gama, Rosa Ramos Mariano, Wilson José Silva Júnior, Antônio Roberto Gomes Farias, Maria Angélica Guimarães Barbosa, Marisa A S V Ferreira, César Raimundo Lima Costa Júnior, Liliana A Santos, Elineide B Souza
Grapevine bacterial canker, which is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola, is one of the most important grapevine diseases in the northeastern region of Brazil. This disease causes severe damage and represents a high potential risk to the development of Brazilian viticulture. In turn, pigmented isolates pathogenic to cashew plant, making cashew fruit unfit for sale, also have been detected in Northeastern Brazil. Given that the taxonomic position of these bacteria is unclear, the multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) technique, average nucleotide identity (ANI) values and tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA) were used to analyze their phylogenetic relationship in relation to other Xanthomonas species...
April 24, 2018: Phytopathology
Giuseppe Firrao, Emanuela Torelli, Cesare Polano, Patrizia Ferrante, Francesca Ferrini, Marta Martini, Simone Marcelletti, Marco Scortichini, Paolo Ermacora
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) biovar 3 caused pandemic bacterial canker of Actinidia chinensis and Actinidia deliciosa since 2008. In Europe, the disease spread rapidly in the kiwifruit cultivation areas from a single introduction. In this study, we investigated the genomic diversity of Psa biovar 3 strains during the primary clonal expansion in Europe using single molecule real-time (SMRT), Illumina and Sanger sequencing technologies. We recorded evidences of frequent mobilization and loss of transposon Tn6212, large chromosome inversions, and ectopic integration of IS sequences (remarkably ISPsy31, ISPsy36, and ISPsy37)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tran Dang Khanh, Tran Dang Xuan
Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae causes serious stem canker in loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica ) trees. This study was conducted to determine whether plasmids are involved with its virulence. The strain NAE89, which belonged to the B group, harbored two plasmids at approximately 6.2 and 50 Mdal that caused stem canker and halo leaf spots on loquat plants. Following digestion with Bam HI and ligation into the Bam HI cloning site of the broad range host cosmid pLAFR3, four DNA fragments at 3.8, 6.6, 12.3, and 22...
April 14, 2018: Pathogens
Nadia Riera, Han Wang, Yong Li, Jinyun Li, Kirsten Pelz-Stelinski, Nian Wang
Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is an important citrus disease that causes significant economic losses worldwide. All commercial citrus varieties are susceptible to citrus canker. Currently, chemical control with copper based products is the main approach to control Xcc dispersal and plant colonization. However, extensive use of copper compounds can result in copper-resistant strains and cause adverse effects on the environment. Alternatives to chemical control involve the activation of citrus immunity to control the disease...
April 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Min-Jung Kim, Chang-Wook Jeon, Gyongjun Cho, Da-Ran Kim, Yong-Bum Kwack, Youn-Sig Kwak
Flowers of kiwifruit are morphologically hermaphroditic and survivable binucleate pollen is produced by the male flowers. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity in kiwifruit pollens by analyzing amplicon sequences of 16S rRNA. Four pollen samples were collected: 'NZ' was imported from New Zealand, 'CN' from China in year of 2014, respectively. 'KR13' and 'KR14' were collected in 2013' and 2014' in South Korea. Most of the identified bacterial phyla in the four different pollens were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Caio Henrique Nasi de Barros, Guilherme Crispim Faria Cruz, Willian Mayrink, Ljubica Tasic
Purpose: Despite the numerous reports on biological syntheses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), little is known about the composition of their capping agents, protein corona of plant extract-mediated synthesis, and their influence on the properties of AgNPs. Here, orange ( Citrus sinensis ) waste was utilized as a source of an extract for AgNP synthesis (the protein corona composition of which was elucidated), and also as a starting material for hesperidin and nanocellulose extraction, which were used for bio-based AgNP synthesis...
2018: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Gabrielle Vieira, Jelena Purić, Luana Galvão Morão, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Fábio José Inforsato, Lara Durães Sette, Henrique Ferreira, Daiane Cristina Sass
This study aims to obtain secondary metabolites extracts from filamentous fungi isolated from soil and marine sediments from Antarctica and assess its potential antibacterial activity on Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, the agent of citrus canker. Metabolites production was conducted in Malt 2% broth at 15 °C for 20 d after which intracellular and extracellular extracts were obtained. The extracts were evaluated by cell viability assays through Resazurin Microtiter Assay. From 158 fungal extracts, 33 hampered bacterial growth in vitro...
March 31, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Romina Gazis, Laura Poplawski, William Klingeman, Sarah L Boggess, Robert N Trigiano, Andrew D Graves, Steven J Seybold, Denita Hadziabdic
Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) affects Juglans and Pterocarya species. This disease poses not only a major threat to the nut and timber industries but also to native stands of walnut trees. Galleries created by Pityophthorus juglandis (vector) are colonized by the fungus Geosmithia morbida (causal agent of necrosis). It is unknown if other fungi colonizing these galleries might act antagonistically towards G. morbida. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the fungal community associated with TCD-infected trees and (2) develop a pilot study addressing their potential antagonism towards G...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Genki Yoshikawa, Ahmed Askora, Romain Blanc-Mathieu, Takeru Kawasaki, Yanze Li, Miyako Nakano, Hiroyuki Ogata, Takashi Yamada
Xanthomonas virus (phage) XacN1 is a novel jumbo myovirus infecting Xanthomonas citri, the causative agent of Asian citrus canker. Its linear 384,670 bp double-stranded DNA genome encodes 592 proteins and presents the longest (66 kbp) direct terminal repeats (DTRs) among sequenced viral genomes. The DTRs harbor 56 tRNA genes, which correspond to all 20 amino acids and represent the largest number of tRNA genes reported in a viral genome. Codon usage analysis revealed a propensity for the phage encoded tRNAs to target codons that are highly used by the phage but less frequently by its host...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alessio Cimmino, Paola Nocera, Benedetto Teodoro Linaldeddu, Marco Masi, Marcin Gorecki, Gennaro Pescitelli, Lucio Montecchio, Lucia Maddau, Antonio Evidente
From the culture filtrates of Diaporthella cryptica, an emerging hazelnut pathogen, 2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoate methyl ester and its 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) and 3-(1 H-indol-3-yl) analogues, named crypticins A-C, were isolated together with the well-known tyrosol. Crypticins A-C were identified by spectroscopic (essentially nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry) methods. The R absolute configuration (AC) of crypticin A was determined by comparing its optical rotation and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum with those of papuline, the methyl ester of (-)( S)-phenyllactic acid isolated as the main phytotoxin of Pseudomonas syringae pv...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Munmun Nandi, Jacqueline Macdonald, Peng Liu, Brian Weselowski, Ze-Chun Yuan
Bacterial canker disease is considered to be one of the most destructive diseases of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and is caused by the seed-borne Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis (Cmm). This vascular pathogen generally invades and proliferates in the xylem through natural openings or wounds, causing wilt and canker symptoms. The incidence of symptomless latent infections and the invasion of tomato seeds by Cmm are widespread. Pathogenicity is mediated by virulence factors and transcriptional regulators encoded by the chromosome and two natural plasmids...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Hiroto Inoue, Yuto Sato, Shuuhei Shintani, Hiroki Tanabe, Hiromichi Bamba, Yasunobu Komai, Tomoaki Nakamura, Takayuki Imai, Akira Andou
We report the case of a 61-year-old man who experienced severe adverse effects of capecitabine because of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency. In 2016, he visited our hospital for adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction and was prescribed neoadjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine, cisplatin, and trastuzumab. On day 14 of chemotherapy, he developed severe diarrhea, canker sores, enterocolitis, febrile neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. He was then urgently hospitalized, and anticancer treatment was stopped...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Abigail Savietto, Carlos Roberto Polaquini, Malgorzata Kopacz, Dirk-Jan Scheffers, Beatriz Carvalho Marques, Luís Octavio Regasini, Henrique Ferreira
Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) is an incurable disease of citrus plants caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri). It affects all the commercially important citrus varieties in the major orange producing areas around the world. Control of the pathogen requires recurrent sprays of copper formulations that accumulate in soil and water reservoirs. Here, we describe the improvement of the alkyl gallates, which are potent anti-X. citri compounds, intended to be used as alternatives to copper in the control of ACC...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
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