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Genki Yoshikawa, Ahmed Askora, Romain Blanc-Mathieu, Takeru Kawasaki, Yanze Li, Miyako Nakano, Hiroyuki Ogata, Takashi Yamada
Xanthomonas virus (phage) XacN1 is a novel jumbo myovirus infecting Xanthomonas citri, the causative agent of Asian citrus canker. Its linear 384,670 bp double-stranded DNA genome encodes 592 proteins and presents the longest (66 kbp) direct terminal repeats (DTRs) among sequenced viral genomes. The DTRs harbor 56 tRNA genes, which correspond to all 20 amino acids and represent the largest number of tRNA genes reported in a viral genome. Codon usage analysis revealed a propensity for the phage encoded tRNAs to target codons that are highly used by the phage but less frequently by its host...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alessio Cimmino, Paola Nocera, Benedetto Teodoro Linaldeddu, Marco Masi, Marcin Gorecki, Gennaro Pescitelli, Lucio Montecchio, Lucia Maddau, Antonio Evidente
From the culture filtrates of Diaporthella cryptica, an emerging hazelnut pathogen, 2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoate methyl ester and its 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) and 3-(1H-indol-3-yl) analogues, named crypticins A-C, were isolated together with the well-known tyrosol. Crypticins A-C were identified by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS) methods. The R absolute configuration (AC) of crypticin A was determined comparing its optical rotation power and ECD spectrum with those of papuline, the methyl ester of (-)(S)-phenyllactic acid isolated as the main phytotoxin of Pseudomonas syringae pv papulans, responsible for apple blister spot...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Munmun Nandi, Jacqueline MacDonald, Peng Liu, Brian Weselowski, Ze-Chun Yuan
Bacterial canker disease is considered one of the most destructive diseases of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and is caused by the seed-borne gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). This vascular pathogen generally invades and proliferates in the xylem through natural openings or wounds, causing wilt and canker symptoms. The incidence of symptomless latent infections and the invasion of tomato seeds by Cmm are widespread. Pathogenicity is mediated by virulence factors and transcriptional regulators encoded by the chromosome and two natural plasmids...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Hiroto Inoue, Yuto Sato, Shuuhei Shintani, Hiroki Tanabe, Hiromichi Bamba, Yasunobu Komai, Tomoaki Nakamura, Takayuki Imai, Akira Andou
We report the case of a 61-year-old man who experienced severe adverse effects of capecitabine because of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency. In 2016, he visited our hospital for adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction and was prescribed neoadjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine, cisplatin, and trastuzumab. On day 14 of chemotherapy, he developed severe diarrhea, canker sores, enterocolitis, febrile neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. He was then urgently hospitalized, and anticancer treatment was stopped...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Abigail Savietto, Carlos Roberto Polaquini, Malgorzata Kopacz, Dirk-Jan Scheffers, Beatriz Carvalho Marques, Luís Octavio Regasini, Henrique Ferreira
Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) is an incurable disease of citrus plants caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri). It affects all the commercially important citrus varieties in the major orange producing areas around the world. Control of the pathogen requires recurrent sprays of copper formulations that accumulate in soil and water reservoirs. Here, we describe the improvement of the alkyl gallates, which are potent anti-X. citri compounds, intended to be used as alternatives to copper in the control of ACC...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Christina Straub, Elena Colombi, Li Li, Hongwen Huang, Matthew D Templeton, Honour C McCann, Paul B Rainey
Interactions between commensal microbes and invading pathogens are understudied, despite their likely effects on pathogen population structure and infection processes. We describe the population structure and genetic diversity of a broad range of co-occurring Pseudomonas syringae isolated from infected and uninfected kiwifruit during an outbreak of bleeding canker disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) in New Zealand. Overall population structure was clonal and affected by ecological factors including infection status and cultivar...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Evelyn Fletcher, Kelly T Morgan, Jawwad A Qureshi, Jorge A Leiva, Peter Nkedi-Kizza
Imidacloprid (IM) is used to control the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) and citrus leafminer (CLM), which are related to the spread of huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) and citrus canker diseases, respectively. In Florida citrus, imidacloprid is mainly soil-drenched around the trees for proper root uptake and translocation into plant canopy to impact ACP and CLM. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of imidacloprid rate, and irrigate amount on concentration of imidacloprid in the soil following drench application to citrus trees in three age classes...
2018: PloS One
Pei Li, De-Yu Hu, Dandan Xie, Jixiang Chen, Linhong Jin, Song Baoan
This study aimed to synthesize some new sulfone derivatives containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety and investigate their in vitro antibacterial activities against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the pathogens of rice bacterial leaf blight and citrus canker, respectively, by performing turbidimeter tests. Antibacterial-bioassay results showed that compound 6d revealed excellent bioactivities against Xoo and Xac, with the 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 0...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ying Hu, Jie Ren, Zhao Peng, Arnoldo A Umana, Ha Le, Tatiana Danilova, Junjie Fu, Haiyan Wang, Alison Robertson, Scot H Hulbert, Frank F White, Sanzhen Liu
Goss's wilt (GW) of maize is caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and has spread in recent years throughout the Great Plains, posing a threat to production. The genetic basis of plant resistance is unknown. Here, a simple method for quantifying disease symptoms was developed and used to select cohorts of highly resistant and highly susceptible lines known as extreme phenotypes (XP). Copy number variation (CNV) analyses using whole genome sequences of bulked XP revealed 141 genes containing CNV between the two XP groups...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shuo Duan, Hongge Jia, Zhiqian Pang, Doron Teper, Frank White, Jeffrey Jones, Changyong Zhou, Nian Wang
Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc) is an important plant pathogenic bacterium that causes citrus canker disease worldwide. PthA, a transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effector, directs the expression of canker susceptibility gene CsLOB1. Here, we report our recent progress in functional characterization of CsLOB1. Subcellular localization analysis of CsLOB1 protein in citrus protoplast revealed that CsLOB1 is primarily localized in the nucleus. We showed that CsLOB1 expression driven by the dexamethasone (DEX) in the CsLOB1-GR transgenic plants is associated with pustule formation following treatment with DEX...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Ahmad A Omar, Mayara M Murata, Hesham A El-Shamy, James H Graham, Jude W Grosser
Genetic engineering approaches offer an alternative method to the conventional breeding of Citrus sp. 'W. Murcott' mandarin (a hybrid of 'Murcott' and an unknown pollen parent) is one of the most commercially important cultivars grown in many regions around the world. Transformation of 'W. Murcott' mandarin was achieved by direct DNA uptake using a protoplast transformation system. DNA construct (pAO3), encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and the cDNA of Xa21, a Xanthomonas resistance gene from rice, was used to transform protoplasts of 'W...
February 14, 2018: Transgenic Research
Marin Ježić, Jelena Mlinarec, Rosemary Vuković, Zorana Katanić, Ljiljana Krstin, Lucija Nuskern, Igor Poljak, Marilena Idžojtić, Mirta Tkalec, Mirna Curkovic-Perica
Invasive species, especially plant pathogens have a potential to completely eradicate native plant species and remodel landscapes. Tripartite interaction among sweet chestnut, Castanea sativa, chestnut blight-causing invasive fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, and a hyperparasitic virus, Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirus 1 (CHV1) were studied in two populations. The number of different vegetative compatibility (vc) types of C. parasitica more than doubled over the ten years, while the hypovirulence incidence dropped in one population, and slightly increased in the other one...
February 14, 2018: Phytopathology
Ruo-Lan Yang, Chao-Ying Deng, Jin-Wei Wei, Wei He, Ai-Ning Li, Wei Qian
Poplar, which is a dominant species in plant communities distributed in the northern hemisphere, is commonly used as a model plant in forestry studies. Poplar production can be inhibited by infections caused by bacteria, including Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi, which is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for bark canker disease. However, the molecular basis of the pathogenesis remains uncharacterized. In this study, we annotated the two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) encoded by the L. quercina subsp...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Albert E Mayfield, Jackson Audley, Robert Camp, Bryan T Mudder, Adam Taylor
The walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a regulated pest in the United States due to its causal role in thousand cankers disease of walnut trees, including the commercially valuable eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.). Several state quarantines designed to limit spread of P. juglandis regulate movement of kiln-dried walnut lumber that contains bark. Previous research demonstrated that P. juglandis will enter and re-emerge from bark of kiln-dried, J. nigra slabs subjected to extreme beetle pressure (baited with a pheromone lure and hung in infested J...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Rulin Wang, Qing Li, Shisong He, Yuan Liu, Mingtian Wang, Gan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a major threat to the kiwifruit industry throughout the world and accounts for substantial economic losses in China. The aim of the present study was to test and explore the possibility of using MaxEnt (maximum entropy models) to predict and analyze the future large-scale distribution of Psa in China. METHOD: Based on the current environmental factors, three future climate scenarios, which were suggested by the fifth IPCC report, and the current distribution sites of Psa, MaxEnt combined with ArcGIS was applied to predict the potential suitable areas and the changing trend of Psa in China...
2018: PloS One
B L Blood, W E Klingeman, M A Paschen, Ð Hadžiabdic, J J Couture, M D Ginzel, Lukasz Stelinski
Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a pest complex formed by the association of the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), with the fungal pathogen Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley and Tisserat (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Bionectriaceae). Current monitoring and detection efforts for WTB rely on a pheromone lure that is effective over a limited distance while plant- and fungal-derived volatiles that may facilitate host location remain poorly understood...
January 24, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Tao Wang, Gang Wang, Zhan-Hui Jia, De-Lin Pan, Ji-Yu Zhang, Zhong-Ren Guo
Kiwifruit bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) has brought about a severe threat to the kiwifruit industry worldwide since its first outbreak in 2008. Studies on other pathovars of P. syringae are revealing the pathogenesis of these pathogens, but little about the mechanism of kiwifruit bacterial canker is known. In order to explore the species-specific interaction between Psa and kiwifruit, we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of kiwifruit infected by Psa. After 48 h, 8255 differentially expressed genes were identified, including those involved in metabolic process, secondary metabolites metabolism and plant response to stress...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ji Cao, Jiajun Zhang, Lin Ma, Lin Li, Wenchang Zhang, Jinnian Li
Vibrio alginolyticus (V. alginolyticus) is a common pathogen for humans and marine aquatic animals. Vibriosis of marine aquatic animals, caused by V. alginolyticus, has become more prevalent globally in recent years. Hence, a safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed for the control of this disease. Here, the strain 16-3 isolated from the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) suffered from canker was identified as V. alginolyticus based on morphological, biochemical, and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis...
January 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Amit Levy, Choaa El-Mochtar, Chunxia Wang, Michael Goodin, Vladimir Orbovic
Background: Transient gene expression is a powerful tool to study gene function in plants. In citrus, Agrobacterium transformation is the method of choice for transient expression studies, but this method does not work efficiently with many gene constructs, and there is a need for a more robust transient expression system in citrus leaves. Biolistic particle delivery is an alternative to Agrobacterium transformation, and in some plants, such as Arabidopsis, gives higher transformation rates in leaf tissues than Agrobacterium...
2018: Plant Methods
Luca Giannetti, Alberto Murri Dello Diago, Lorenzo Lo Muzio
Recurrent aphtous stomatitis (RAS; recurrent aphtous ulcers, canker sores) is the most common ulcerative disease of the oral mucosa. In this paper we presented the main clinical features, epidemiologic data, etiopathogenetic factors and clinical management, based on the current medical literature reports.
January 11, 2018: Minerva Stomatologica
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