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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101896/adaptation-of-genetically-monomorphic-bacteria-evolution-of-copper-resistance-through-multiple-horizontal-gene-transfers-of-complex-and-versatile-mobile-genetic-elements
#1
D Richard, V Ravigné, A Rieux, B Facon, C Boyer, K Boyer, P Grygiel, S Javegny, M Terville, B I Canteros, I Robène, C Vernière, A Chabirand, O Pruvost, P Lefeuvre
Copper-based antimicrobial compounds are widely used to control plant bacterial pathogens. Pathogens have adapted in response to this selective pressure. Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, a major citrus pathogen causing Asiatic citrus canker, was first reported to carry plasmid-encoded copper resistance in Argentina. This phenotype was conferred by the copLAB gene system. The emergence of resistant strains has since been reported in Réunion and Martinique. Using microsatellite-based genotyping and copLAB PCR, we demonstrated that the genetic structure of the copper-resistant strains from these three regions was made up of two distant clusters and varied for the detection of copLAB amplicons...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100927/resolution-of-morphology-based-taxonomic-delusions-acrocordiella-basiseptospora-blogiascospora-clypeosphaeria-hymenopleella-lepteutypa-pseudapiospora-requienella-seiridium-and-strickeria
#2
W M Jaklitsch, A Gardiennet, H Voglmayr
Fresh material, type studies and molecular phylogeny were used to clarify phylogenetic relationships of the nine genera Acrocordiella, Blogiascospora, Clypeosphaeria, Hymenopleella, Lepteutypa, Pseudapiospora, Requienella, Seiridium and Strickeria. At first sight, some of these genera do not seem to have much in common, but all were found to belong to the Xylariales, based on their generic types. Thus, the most peculiar finding is the phylogenetic affinity of the genera Acrocordiella, Requienella and Strickeria, which had been classified in the Dothideomycetes or Eurotiomycetes, to the Xylariales...
December 2016: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065920/pamps-prrs-effectors-and-r-genes-associated-with-citrus-pathogen-interactions
#3
REVIEW
Ronaldo J D Dalio, Diogo M Magalhães, Carolina M Rodrigues, Gabriella D Arena, Tiago S Oliveira, Reinaldo R Souza-Neto, Simone C Picchi, Paula M M Martins, Paulo J C Santos, Heros J Maximo, Inaiara S Pacheco, Alessandra A De Souza, Marcos A Machado
BACKGROUND: Recent application of molecular-based technologies has considerably advanced our understanding of complex processes in plant-pathogen interactions and their key components such as PAMPs, PRRs, effectors and R-genes. To develop novel control strategies for disease prevention in citrus, it is essential to expand and consolidate our knowledge of the molecular interaction of citrus plants with their pathogens. SCOPE: This review provides an overview of our understanding of citrus plant immunity, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions with viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes and vectors related to the following diseases: tristeza, psorosis, citrus variegated chlorosis, citrus canker, huanglongbing, brown spot, post-bloom, anthracnose, gummosis and citrus root rot...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063194/evolution-of-copper-resistance-in-the-kiwifruit-pathogen-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-actinidiae-through-acquisition-of-integrative-conjugative-elements-and-plasmids
#4
Elena Colombi, Christina Straub, Sven Künzel, Matthew D Templeton, Honour C McCann, Paul B Rainey
Horizontal gene transfer can precipitate rapid evolutionary change. In 2010 the global pandemic of kiwifruit canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) reached New Zealand. At the time of introduction, the single clone responsible for the outbreak was sensitive to copper, however, analysis of a sample of isolates taken in 2015 and 2016 showed that a quarter were copper resistant. Genome sequences of seven strains showed that copper resistance - comprising czc/cusABC and copABCD systems - along with resistance to arsenic and cadmium, was acquired via uptake of integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), but also plasmids...
January 7, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062287/potential-use-of-cuminic-acid-as-a-botanical-fungicide-against-valsa-mali
#5
Yong Wang, Yang Sun, LiRong Han, Xing Zhang, Juntao Feng
Valsa canker caused by Valsa mali is commonly present in eastern Asia and cause large economic losses. Because of limited agricultural measures and chemical residues of commonly used fungicides there is an urgent need of alternative plant protecting agents. On this background the activity of cuminic acid, a plant extract from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L, was assessed. The median effective concentration (EC50) values for inhibition of mycelial growth of seven V. mali strains ranged from 3.046 to 8.342 μg/mL, with an average EC50 value of 4...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008326/localization-and-transcriptional-responses-of-chrysoporthe-austroafricana-in-eucalyptus-grandis-identify-putative-pathogenicity-factors
#6
Ronishree Mangwanda, Lizahn Zwart, Nicolaas A van der Merwe, Lucy Novungayo Moleleki, Dave Kenneth Berger, Alexander A Myburg, Sanushka Naidoo
Chrysoporthe austroafricana is a fungal pathogen that causes the development of stem cankers on susceptible Eucalyptus grandis trees. Clones of E. grandis that are partially resistant and highly susceptible have been identified based on the extent of lesion formation on the stem upon inoculation with C. austroafricana. These interactions have been used as a model pathosystem to enhance our understanding of interactions between pathogenic fungi and woody hosts, which may be different to herbaceous hosts. In previous research, transcriptomics of host responses in these two clones to C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997595/seedborne-pathogenic-fungi-in-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-cv-inta-rojo-in-nicaragua
#7
Delfia Marcenaro, Jari P T Valkonen
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936512/genome-editing-of-the-disease-susceptibility-gene-cslob1-in-citrus-confers-resistance-to-citrus-canker
#8
Hongge Jia, Yunzen Zhang, Vladimir Orbovic, Jin Xu, Frank White, Jeffrey Jones, Nian Wang
Citrus is a highly valued tree crop worldwide, while, at the same time, citrus production faces many biotic challenges, including bacterial canker and Huanglongbing (HLB). Breeding for disease resistant varieties is the most efficient and sustainable approach to control plant diseases. Traditional breeding of citrus varieties is challenging due to multiple limitations, including polyploidy, polyembryony, extended juvenility, and long crossing cycles. Targeted genome editing technology has the potential to shorten varietal development for some traits, including disease resistance...
December 9, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904461/outbreak-and-spread-of-bacterial-canker-of-kiwifruit-caused-by-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-actinidiae-biovar-3-in-korea
#9
Gyoung Hee Kim, Kwang-Hyung Kim, Kyeong In Son, Eu Ddeum Choi, Young Sun Lee, Jae Sung Jung, Young Jin Koh
A bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), is a causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker worldwide. Psa biovar 3 (Psa3) was first detected in 2011 at an orchard in Dodeok-myeon, Goheunggun, Jeonnam Province in Korea. In this study, we present the results of an epidemiological study regarding Psa3 occurrence on kiwifruit orchards in Korea for the period of 2013 to 2015. Since the first detection of Psa3 in 2011, there was no further case reported by 2013. However, Psa3 was rapidly spreading to 33 orchards in 2014; except for three orchards in Sacheonsi, Gyeongnam Province, most cases were reported in Jeju Island...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904460/d-psa-k-a-model-for-estimating-the-accumulated-potential-damage-on-kiwifruit-canes-caused-by-bacterial-canker-during-the-growing-and-overwintering-seasons
#10
Ki Seok Do, Bong Nam Chung, Jae Ho Joa
We developed a model, termed D-PSA-K, to estimate the accumulated potential damage on kiwifruit canes caused by bacterial canker during the growing and overwintering seasons. The model consisted of three parts including estimation of the amount of necrotic lesion in a non-frozen environment, the rate of necrosis increase in a freezing environment during the overwintering season, and the amount of necrotic lesion on kiwifruit canes caused by bacterial canker during the overwintering and growing seasons. We evaluated the model's accuracy by comparing the observed maximum disease incidence on kiwifruit canes against the damage estimated using weather and disease data collected at Wando during 1994-1997 and at Seogwipo during 2014-2015...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902236/corticicoccus-populi-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-member-of-the-family-staphylococcaceae-isolated-from-symptomatic-bark-of-populus-%C3%A3-euramericana-canker
#11
Yong Li, Sheng-Kun Wang, Han Xue, Ju-Pu Chang, Li-Min Guo, Xu-Qi Yang
Two gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, bacterial strains were isolated from symptomatic bark tissue of Populus × euramericana canker. The isolates were able to grow between 10 and 37°C, pH 6 to 10 and 0-4% (w/v) NaCl, with optimal growth at 28-30°C, pH 7.0-8.0 and 2% (w/v) NaCl The strains were found to be oxidase positive and catalase negative. The menaquinone of the 26D10-3-4T was found to be MK-7 and the peptidoglycan type A3α based on L-Lys-Gly3-?Ala. The polar lipid profiles of 26D10-3-4T showed diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified glycolipids; the major fatty acids found were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 and anteiso-C17:0...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872817/draft-whole-genome-sequence-of-the-diaporthe-helianthi-7-96-strain-causal-agent-of-sunflower-stem-canker
#12
Riccardo Baroncelli, Felice Scala, Mariarosaira Vergara, Michael R Thon, Michelina Ruocco
Diaporthe helianthi is a fungus pathogenic to sunflower. Virulent strains of this fungus cause stem canker with important yield losses and reduction of oil content. Here we present the first draft whole-genome sequence of the highly virulent isolate D. helianthi strain 7/96, thus providing a useful platform for future research on stem canker of sunflower and fungal genomics. The genome sequence of the D. helianthi isolate 7/96 was deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number MAVT00000000 (BioProject PRJNA327798)...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862716/development-of-qpcr-systems-to-quantify-shoot-infections-by-canker-causing-pathogens-in-stone-fruits-and-nut-crops
#13
Y Luo, S Gu, D Felts, R D Puckett, D P Morgan, T J Michailides
AIMS: To develop real-time PCR assays for quantification of shoot infection levels of canker disease of stone fruits and nut crops caused by six fungal pathogen groups. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study focused on six major canker-causing fungal pathogen groups: Phomopsis sp., Botryosphaeria dothidea, Lasiodiplodia sp., Cytospora sp., Neofusicoccum sp. and Diplodia sp., occurring in stone fruits and nut crops in California. DNA primers were designed to specifically target each of the six pathogen groups after the specificity tests using canker-causing and non-canker-causing pathogens and by using DNA sequences of other species from GenBank using blast...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798950/comparative-proteome-analysis-of-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri-periplasmic-proteins-reveals-changes-in-cellular-envelope-metabolism-during-in-vitro-pathogenicity-induction
#14
Juliana Artier, Flávia da Silva Zandonadi, Flávia Maria de Souza Carvalho, Bianca Alves Pauletti, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Carolina Moretto Carnielli, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre de Araujo, Maria Célia Bertolini, Jesus Aparecido Ferro, José Belasque Júnior, Julio Cezar Franco de Oliveira, Maria Teresa Marques Novo-Mansur
Citrus canker is a plant disease caused by gram-negative bacteria from the genus Xanthomonas, and the most virulent species is Xanthomonas citri subsp.citri (XAC), which attacks a wide range of citrus hosts. Differential proteomic analysis of periplasm-enriched fraction was performed for XAC cells grown in pathogenicity-inducing (XAM-M) and pathogenicity non-inducing (NB) media, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Among the 40 proteins identified, transglycosylase was detected in a highly abundant spot in XAC cells grown under inducing condition...
October 31, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749150/development-and-validation-of-an-infection-risk-model-for-bacterial-canker-of-kiwifruit-using-a-multiplication-and-dispersal-concept-for-forecasting-bacterial-diseases
#15
R M Beresford, J L Tyson, W R Henshall
A weather-based disease prediction model for bacterial canker of kiwifruit (known worldwide as Psa; Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3) was developed using a new mechanistic scheme for bacterial disease forecasters, the multiplication and dispersal concept. Bacterial multiplication is estimated from a temperature function, the M index, accumulated from hourly air temperature over 3 days for hours when the leaf canopy is wet. Rainfall provides free water to move inoculum to infection sites, and the daily risk indicator, the R index, is the 3-day accumulation of the M index output on days with total rainfall >1 mm; otherwise, R is zero...
February 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748552/new-formulation-and-delivery-method-of-cryphonectria-parasitica-for-biological-control-of-chestnut-blight
#16
A Kunova, C Pizzatti, M Cerea, A Gazzaniga, P Cortesi
AIMS: This study aimed to develop a new formulation of Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirulent mycelium suitable for inoculations of tall trees from the ground. Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirulent strains are widely used for biological control of chestnut blight. However, it is often inconsistent and ineffective not only for biological reasons but also because the current manual application of hypovirulent strains on adult plants is difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Here, we propose an improved formulation and more effective mode of application of hypovirulent strains, which could boost chestnut blight biocontrol...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725176/validation-of-reference-genes-for-rt-qpcr-analysis-in-burkholderia-pyrrocinia-jk-sh007
#17
Bin-Yan Wu, Jian-Ren Ye, Lin Huang, Ling-Min He, De-Wei Li
Burkholderia pyrrocinia strain JK-SH007 isolated from poplar stems plays a highly significant role in the growth promotion and the biocontrol of poplar canker during colonization in poplar. In this research, the ideal reference gene was filtered and determined for the transcript normalization. Additionally, the expression of pyrG under all four conditions was relatively stable in B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007.
January 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695463/variation-in-host-and-pathogen-in-the-neonectria-malus-interaction-toward-an-understanding-of-the-genetic-basis-of-resistance-to-european-canker
#18
Antonio Gómez-Cortecero, Robert J Saville, Reiny W A Scheper, Joanna K Bowen, Hugo Agripino De Medeiros, Jennifer Kingsnorth, Xiangming Xu, Richard J Harrison
Apple canker caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Neonectria ditissima is an economically important disease, which has spread in recent years to almost all pome-producing regions of the world. N. ditissima is able to cross-infect a wide range of apple varieties and causes branch and trunk lesions, known as cankers. Most modern apple varieties are susceptible and in extreme cases suffer from high mortality (up to 50%) in the early phase of orchard establishment. There is no known race structure of the pathogen and the global level of genetic diversity of the pathogen population is unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682468/botryosphaeria-dothidea-a-latent-pathogen-of-global-importance-to-woody-plant-health
#19
Angelica Marsberg, Martin Kemler, Fahimeh Jami, Jan H Nagel, Alisa Postma-Smidt, Sanushka Naidoo, Michael J Wingfield, Pedro W Crous, Joseph W Spatafora, Cedar N Hesse, Barbara Robbertse, Bernard Slippers
: Botryosphaeria dothidea is the type species of Botryosphaeria (Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriales). Fungi residing in this order are amongst the most widespread and important canker and dieback pathogens of trees worldwide, with B. dothidea one of the most common species on a large number of hosts. Its taxonomic circumscription has undergone substantial change in the past decade, making it difficult to interpret the large volume of literature linked to the name B. dothidea. This pathogen profile synthesizes the current understanding of B...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664718/differential-expression-of-pectolytic-enzyme-genes-in-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri-and-demonstration-that-pectate-lyase-pel3-is-required-for-the-formation-of-citrus-canker
#20
Shih-Chieh Chang, Wen-Ling Deng, Hsiou-Chen Huang, Kuang-Ren Chung, Kuo-Ching Tzeng
Bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. The pectolytic enzymes produced by phytobacteria are important virulence factors involved in tissue maceration, electrolyte loss and cell death of host plants. In this study, the promoter activity of the pectolytic enzyme genes pel1, pel2, pel3, pglA, and peh-1 were investigated in Xcc XW19 strain using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene as a reporter. GUS activity expressed under the control of the pel1, pel3, pglA, and peh-1 gene promoters positively correlated with bacterial growth...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
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