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Aspergillus nidulans

Ákos P Molnár, Zoltán Németh, Erzsébet Fekete, Michel Flipphi, Nancy P Keller, Levente Karaffa
Aspergillus nidulans has one gene for alternative oxidase (EC To investigate the relationship between this mitochondrial terminal oxidase and the formation of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin, the encoding aodA gene was both deleted and overexpressed. Relative to the wild-type, the cyanide-resistant fraction of respiration in the late stationary stage—when sterigmatocystin production occurs—doubled in the overexpressing mutant carrying three aodA gene copies, but decreased to 10% in the deletant...
April 20, 2018: Toxins
Masashi Yamashita, Noriyuki Sueyoshi, Hiroki Yamada, Syouichi Katayama, Yukako Senga, Yasuhiro Takenaka, Atsuhiko Ishida, Isamu Kameshita, Yasushi Shigeri
We surveyed genome sequences from the basidiomycetous mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea and isolated a cDNA homologous to CMKA, a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) in Aspergillus nidulans. We designated this sequence, encoding 580 amino acids with a molecular weight of 63,987, as CoPK02. CoPK02 possessed twelve subdomains specific to protein kinases and exhibited 43, 35, 40% identity with rat CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIV, respectively, and 40% identity with CoPK12, one of the CaMK orthologs in C. cinerea. CoPK02 showed significant autophosphorylation activity and phosphorylated exogenous proteins in the presence of Ca2+ /CaM...
April 20, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yang Hu, Xiaoran Hao, Longfei Chen, Oren Akhberdi, Xi Yu, Yanjie Liu, Xudong Zhu
Sensing the environmental signals, the canonical Gα-cAMP/PKA pathway modulates mycelial growth and development, and negatively regulates some secondary metabolism in filamentous fungi, e.g. aflatoxin in Aspergillus nidulans. Here we report the characterization of this signaling pathway in Chaetomium globosum, a widely spread fungus known for synthesizing abundant secondary metabolites, e.g. chaetoglobosin A (ChA). RNAi-mediated knockdown of a putative Gα-encoding gene gna-1, led to plural changes in phenotype, e...
2018: PloS One
Miguel Hernández-González, Ignacio Bravo-Plaza, Mario Pinar, Vivian de Los Ríos, Herbert N Arst, Miguel A Peñalva
Intracellular traffic in Aspergillus nidulans hyphae must cope with the challenges that the high rates of apical extension (1μm/min) and the long intracellular distances (>100 μm) impose. Understanding the ways in which the hyphal tip cell coordinates traffic to meet these challenges is of basic importance, but is also of considerable applied interest, as fungal invasiveness of animals and plants depends critically upon maintaining these high rates of growth. Rapid apical extension requires localization of cell-wall-modifying enzymes to hyphal tips...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
Tamás Emri, Viktória Vékony, Barnabás Gila, Flóra Nagy, Katalin Forgács, István Pócsi
Radial growth, asexual sporulation, and cleistothecia formation as well as extracellular chitinase and proteinase formation of Aspergillus nidulans were monitored in surface cultures in order to study the physiological role of extracellular hydrolase production in carbon-stressed cultures. We set up carbon-stressed and carbon-overfed experimental conditions by varying the starting glucose concentration within the range of 2.5 and 40 g/L. Glucose starvation induced radial growth and hydrolase production and enhanced the maturation of cleistothecia; meanwhile, glucose-rich conditions enhanced mycelial biomass, conidia, and cleistothecia production...
March 30, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Michael J Davis, Janyce A Sugui, Tzvia Pinkhasov, Shannon Moyer, Andres M Salazar, Yun C Chang, Kyung J Kwon-Chung
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients, often due to infection by Aspergillus species refractory to antifungals. This motivates the search for alternative treatments, including immunotherapy. We investigated the effect of exogenous type I interferon (IFN) activation on the outcome of IA caused by three Aspergillus species, A. fumigatus , A. nidulans , and A. tanneri , in CGD mice. The animals were treated with poly(I):poly(C) carboxymethyl cellulose poly-l-lysine (PICLC), a mimetic of double-stranded RNA, 24 h preinfection and postinfection...
March 27, 2018: MBio
Claire Khosravi, Evy Battaglia, Roland S Kun, Sacha Dalhuijsen, Jaap Visser, María Victoria Aguilar-Pontes, Miaomiao Zhou, Heino M Heyman, Young-Mo Kim, Scott E Baker, Ronald P de Vries
BACKGROUND: Plant biomass is the most abundant carbon source for many fungal species. In the biobased industry fungi, are used to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes to degrade agricultural waste biomass. Here we evaluated if it would be possible to create an Aspergillus nidulans strain that releases, but does not metabolize hexoses from plant biomass. For this purpose, metabolic mutants were generated that were impaired in glycolysis, by using hexokinase (hxkA) and glucokinase (glkA) negative strains...
March 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
Philipp Wiemann, Alexandra A Soukup, Jacob S Folz, Pin-Mei Wang, Andreas Noack, Nancy P Keller
Background: Sequencing of fungal species has demonstrated the existence of thousands of putative secondary metabolite gene clusters, the majority of them harboring a unique set of genes thought to participate in production of distinct small molecules. Despite the ready identification of key enzymes and potential cluster genes by bioinformatics techniques in sequenced genomes, the expression and identification of fungal secondary metabolites in the native host is often hampered as the genes might not be expressed under laboratory conditions and the species might not be amenable to genetic manipulation...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Sophie L Mader, Alois Bräuer, Michael Groll, Ville R I Kaila
The recently discovered FeII /α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase AsqJ from Aspergillus nidulans stereoselectively catalyzes a multistep synthesis of quinolone alkaloids, natural products with significant biomedical applications. To probe molecular mechanisms of this elusive catalytic process, we combine here multi-scale quantum and classical molecular simulations with X-ray crystallography, and in vitro biochemical activity studies. We discover that methylation of the substrate is essential for the activity of AsqJ, establishing molecular strain that fine-tunes π-stacking interactions within the active site...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
J Denis, M-P Ledoux, Y Nivoix, R Herbrecht
Triazoles compounds are first-line agents for the treatment of invasive fungal diseases. Isavuconazole is the most recent triazole compound, approved in 2015 by the FDA and the EMA to treat invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. We reviewed here the in vitro activity of isavuconazole against a vast spectrum of species. Isavuconazole MICs were evaluated using CLSI, EUCAST or Etest methods, with no significant differences between the technics. Low MIC50 and MIC90 (<1μg/mL) were described for isavuconazole against the majority of Candida spp...
March 10, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Ioannis F Kalampokis, George C Kapetanakis, Konstantinos A Aliferis, George Diallinas
The development of fungicide-resistant fungal populations represents a major challenge for the agrochemical and agri-food sectors, which threatens food supply and security. The issue becomes complex for fungi that cause quantitative and qualitative losses due to mycotoxin biosynthesis. Nonetheless, currently, the molecular details underlying fungicide action and fungal resistance mechanisms are partially known. Here, we have investigated whether plasma membrane transporters contribute to specific fungicide uptake in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans...
February 28, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Thi Huynh Tram Le, Ayana Oki, Masatoshi Goto, Kiminori Shimizu
Aspergillus nidulans produces sterigmatocystin (ST), a precursor of a carcinogenic secondary metabolite aflatoxin (AF), during its developmental process. ST biosynthesis has been shown to be affected by various regulatory factors. In this study, we investigated the involvement of O-mannosyltransferases (PmtA, PmtB, PmtC), in ST production and morphological development. Deletion of pmtA (ΔpmtA), pmtB (ΔpmtB) or pmtC (ΔpmtC) caused no spore production and a significant decline of vegetative growth. A tremendous decline of ST level was observed in all Δpmt mutants at the third day after inoculation...
February 28, 2018: Current Genetics
Idris Yazgan, Jing Zhang, Victor Murithi Kariuki, Ayfer Akgul, Lauren Cronmiller, Ali Akgul, Francis Osonga, Abbey McMahon, Yang Gao, Gaddi Eshun, Seokheun Choi, Omowunmi A Sadik
The blue-green mold Penicillium italicum is among the most problematic post-harvest plant infections limiting the integrity of citrus and many other crops during storage and transportation, but there is no sensor for its on-site or field detection. We hereby, for the first time, report the development of novel biomolecular sensor for assessing the presence of Penicillium italicum spores and hyphae using carbohydrate-lectin recognitions. Two approaches were developed: (i) lateral tests using stand-alone poly (amic) acid (PAA) membranes and glass surfaces and (ii) quantitative tests on 96-well polystyrene plates and paper electrodes...
February 20, 2018: ACS Sensors
Luiza Cesca Piva, Janice Lisboa De Marco, Lidia Maria Pepe de Moraes, Viviane Castelo Branco Reis, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves Torres
We have investigated the use of the gene coding for acetamidase (amdS) as a recyclable dominant marker for the methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii in order to broaden its genetic toolbox. First, the endogenous constitutive AMD2 gene (a putative acetamidase) was deleted generating strain LA1. A cassette (amdSloxP) was constructed bearing a codon-optimized version of the Aspergillus nidulans amdS gene flanked by loxP sites for marker excision with Cre recombinase. This cassette was successfully tested as a dominant selection marker for transformation of the LA1 strain after selection on plates containing acetamide as a sole nitrogen source...
February 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
I Al Salmi, A M Metry, F Al Ismaili, A Hola, M Al Riyami, F Khamis, S Al-Abri
BACKGROUND: Deceased and live-related renal transplants (RTXs) are widespread approved methods throughout the world. In addition, commercial RTX has become popular in certain places driven by financial greed. METHOD: This is a retrospective, descriptive study was done at the Royal Hospital (RH) from 2013 to 2015. The data have been collected from the national Oman kidney transplant registry. All transplant cases retrieved were divided into two groups, Live-related-RTX performed in Oman and commercial-unrelated-RTX performed abroad...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Ashraf A Kadry, Amira M El-Ganiny, Rasha A Mosbah, Susan G W Kaminskyj
Systemic human fungal infections are increasingly common. Aspergillus species cause most of the airborne fungal infections. Life-threatening invasive aspergillosis was formerly found only in immune-suppressed patients, but recently some strains of A. fumigatus have become primary pathogens. Many fungal cell wall components are absent from mammalian systems, so they are potential drug targets. Cell-wall-targeting drugs such as echinocandins are used clinically, although echinocandin-resistant strains were discovered shortly after their introduction...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Jasmine Pham, Remco Stam, Victor Martinez Heredia, Michael Csukai, Edgar Huitema
Phytophthora spp. cause devastating disease epidemics on important crop plants and pose a grave threat to global crop production. Critically, Phytophthora pathogens represent a distinct evolutionary lineage in which pathogenicity has been acquired independently. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand and disrupt the processes that drive infection, if we aspire to defeat oomycete parasites in the field. One area that has received little attention thus far in this respect is the regulation of Phytophthora gene expression during infection...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yibo Hu, Yuqi Qin, Guodong Liu
Transcriptional regulation has important roles in various biological processes (e.g., development and metabolism) in filamentous fungi. However, regulatory interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their target genes in these species have only been described in different forms by primary scientific literature, which limits the integrated analysis of these data. Here, we extensively curated the reported transcriptional regulatory interactions in Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. For each interaction, the identifiers of involved proteins or genes were unified, and the types of supporting experiments were recorded...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Miriam Kolog Gulko, Gabriele Heinrich, Carina Gross, Blagovesta Popova, Oliver Valerius, Piotr Neumann, Ralf Ficner, Gerhard H Braus
The transition from vegetative growth to multicellular development represents an evolutionary hallmark linked to an oxidative stress signal and controlled protein degradation. We identified the Sem1 proteasome subunit, which connects stress response and cellular differentiation. The sem1 gene encodes the fungal counterpart of the human Sem1 proteasome lid subunit and is essential for fungal cell differentiation and development. A sem1 deletion strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is able to grow vegetatively and expresses an elevated degree of 20S proteasomes with multiplied ATP-independent catalytic activity compared to wildtype...
February 5, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Lu Zhou, Minoas Evangelinos, Valentin Wernet, Antonia F Eckert, Yuji Ishitsuka, Reinhard Fischer, G Ulrich Nienhaus, Norio Takeshita
Polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires continuous transport of biomolecules to the hyphal tip. To this end, construction materials are packaged in vesicles and transported by motor proteins along microtubules and actin filaments. We have studied these processes with quantitative superresolution localization microscopy of live Aspergillus nidulans cells expressing the photoconvertible protein mEosFPthermo fused to the chitin synthase ChsB. ChsB is mainly located at the Spitzenkörper near the hyphal tip and produces chitin, a key component of the cell wall...
January 2018: Science Advances
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