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Aspergillus nidulans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634472/antifungal-activity-against-filamentous-fungi-of-ts1-a-multifunctional-toxin-from-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom
#1
Welligton M Santussi, Karla C F Bordon, Ana P N Rodrigues Alves, Camila T Cologna, Suraia Said, Eliane C Arantes
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ubiquitous and multipotent components of the innate immune defense arsenal used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The search for new AMPs has increased in recent years, due to the growing development of microbial resistance to therapeutical drugs. In this work, we evaluate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv), its fractions and its major toxin Ts1, a beta-neurotoxin, on fungi growth. The fractions were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography of Tsv. The growth inhibition of 11 pathogenic and non-pathogenic filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611736/copper-resistance-in-aspergillus-nidulans-relies-on-the-pi-type-atpase-crpa-regulated-by-the-transcription-factor-acea
#2
Martzel Antsotegi-Uskola, Ane Markina-Iñarrairaegui, Unai Ugalde
Copper homeostasis has been extensively studied in mammals, bacteria, and yeast, but it has not been well-documented in filamentous fungi. In this report, we investigated the basis of copper tolerance in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Three genes involved in copper homeostasis have been characterized. First, crpA the A. nidulans ortholog of Candida albicans CaCRP1 gene encoding a PI-type ATPase was identified. The phenotype of crpA deletion led to a severe sensitivity to Cu(+2) toxicity and a characteristic morphological growth defect in the presence of high copper concentration...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605488/in-vitro-activity-of-the-novel-antifungal-compound-f901318-against-difficult-to-treat-aspergillus-isolates
#3
J B Buil, A J M M Rijs, J F Meis, M Birch, D Law, W J G Melchers, P E Verweij
Background: F901318 is a new antifungal agent with a novel mechanism of action with activity against Aspergillus species. We investigated the in vitro activity of F901318 against a collection of Aspergillus isolates. Methods: A total of 213 Aspergillus isolates were used in this study. A total of 143 Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto isolates were used, of which 133 were azole resistant [25 TR 34 /L98H; 25 TR 46 /Y121F/T289A; 33 A. fumigatus with cyp51A -associated point mutations (25 G54, 1 G432 and 7 M220); and 50 azole-resistant A...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604695/a-scalable-platform-to-identify-fungal-secondary-metabolites-and-their-gene-clusters
#4
Kenneth D Clevenger, Jin Woo Bok, Rosa Ye, Galen P Miley, Maria H Verdan, Thomas Velk, Cynthia Chen, KaHoua Yang, Matthew T Robey, Peng Gao, Matthew Lamprecht, Paul M Thomas, Md Nurul Islam, Jonathan M Palmer, Chengcang C Wu, Nancy P Keller, Neil L Kelleher
The genomes of filamentous fungi contain up to 90 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding diverse secondary metabolites-an enormous reservoir of untapped chemical potential. However, the recalcitrant genetics, cryptic expression, and unculturability of these fungi prevent scientists from systematically exploiting these gene clusters and harvesting their products. As heterologous expression of fungal BGCs is largely limited to the expression of single or partial clusters, we established a scalable process for the expression of large numbers of full-length gene clusters, called FAC-MS...
June 12, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595329/a-mechanism-for-a-single-nucleotide-intron-shift
#5
Erzsébet Fekete, Michel Flipphi, Norbert Ág, Napsugár Kavalecz, Gustavo Cerqueira, Claudio Scazzocchio, Levente Karaffa
Spliceosomal introns can occupy nearby rather than identical positions in orthologous genes (intron sliding or shifting). Stwintrons are complex intervening sequences, where an 'internal' intron interrupts one of the sequences essential for splicing, generating after its excision, a newly formed canonical intron defined as 'external'. In one experimentally demonstrated configuration, two alternatively excised internal introns, overlapping by one G, disrupt respectively the donor and the acceptor sequence of an external intron, leading to mRNAs encoding identical proteins...
June 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578805/expression-system-for-heterologous-protein-expression-in-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-unguis
#6
Aravind Madhavan, Ashok Pandey, Rajeev K Sukumaran
Heterologous protein expression in filamentous fungi is advantageous, especially in the context of large scale production of high volume low value recombinant proteins. However, such systems are rare and not available in public domain. A novel filamentous fungus - Aspergillus unguis NII 08123 was used as host for developing a protein expression system. An expression cassette was assembled using A. nidulans glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (Pgapd), tryptophan synthase transcription terminator (TtrpC) and hygromycin resistance gene (hph) as selection marker...
May 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550524/cop9-signalosome-subunit-pfcsne-regulates-secondary-metabolism-and-conidial-formation-in-pestalotiopsis-fici
#7
Yanjing Zheng, Xiuna Wang, Xiaoling Zhang, Wei Li, Gang Liu, Shihua Wang, Xiufeng Yan, Huixi Zou, Wen-Bing Yin
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a highly conserved multiprotein complex in all eukaryotes and involved in regulation of organism development. In filamentous fungi, several lines of evidence indicate that fungal development and secondary metabolism (SM) are mediated by the fifth subunit of CSN, called CsnE. Here we uncover a connection with CsnE and conidial formation as well as SM regulation in the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici. A homology search of the P. fici genome with CsnE, involved in sexual development and SM in Aspergillus nidulans, identified PfCsnE...
May 25, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550061/the-lectin-chaperone-calnexin-is-involved-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response-by-regulating-ca-2-homeostasis-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#8
Shenghua Zhang, Hailin Zheng, Qiuyi Chen, Yuan Chen, Sha Wang, Ling Lu, Shizhu Zhang
The Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway is crucial for environmental adaptation in fungi. Here we show that calnexin, a molecular chaperone located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays an important role in regulating cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in Aspergillus nidulans Inactivation of calnexin (ClxA) in A. nidulans caused severe defects in hyphal growth and conidiation under ER stress caused by the ER-stress inducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) or high temperature. Importantly, defects in the ΔclxA mutant were restored by the addition of extracellular calcium...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548131/erratum-differential-control-of-asexual-development-and-sterigmatocystin-biosynthesis-by-a-novel-regulator-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#9
Yong Jin Kim, Yeong Man Yu, Pil Jae Maeng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517364/a-cryptic-pigment-biosynthetic-pathway-uncovered-by-heterologous-expression-is-essential-for-conidial-development-in-pestalotiopsis-fici
#10
Peng Zhang, Xiuna Wang, Aili Fan, Yanjing Zheng, Xingzhong Liu, Shihua Wang, Huixi Zou, Berl R Oakley, Nancy P Keller, Wen-Bing Yin
Spore pigmentation is very common in the fungal kingdom. The best studied pigment in fungi is melanin which coats the surface of single cell spores. What and how pigments function in a fungal species with multiple cell conidia is poorly understood. Here, we identified and deleted a polyketide synthase (PKS) gene PfmaE and showed that it is essential for multicellular conidial pigmentation and development in a plant endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis fici. To further characterize the melanin pathway, we utilized an advanced Aspergillus nidulans heterologous system for the expression of the PKS PfmaE and the Pfma gene cluster...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509393/nmea-a-novel-efflux-transporter-specific-for-nucleobases-and-nucleosides-contributes-to-metal-resistance-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#11
Sofia Balaska, Vassilios Myrianthopoulos, Martha Tselika, Dimitris G Hatzinikolaou, Emmanuel Mikros, George Diallinas
Through Minos transposon mutagenesis we obtained A. nidulans mutants resistant to 5-fluorouracil due to insertions into the upstream region of the uncharacterized gene nmeA, encoding a Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporter. Minos transpositions increased nmeA transcription, which is otherwise extremely low under all conditions tested. To dissect the function of NmeA we used strains overexpressing or genetically lacking the nmeA gene. Strains overexpressing NmeA are resistant to toxic purine analogues, but also, to cadmium, zinc and borate, whereas an isogenic nmeAΔ null mutant exhibits increased sensitivity to these compounds...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507141/pulses-of-ca-2-coordinate-actin-assembly-and-exocytosis-for-stepwise-cell-extension
#12
Norio Takeshita, Minoas Evangelinos, Lu Zhou, Tomoko Serizawa, Rosa A Somera-Fajardo, Ling Lu, Naoki Takaya, G Ulrich Nienhaus, Reinhard Fischer
Many eukaryotic cells grow by extending their cell periphery in pulses. The molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not yet fully understood. Here we present a comprehensive model of stepwise cell extension by using the unique tip growth system of filamentous fungi. Live-cell imaging analysis, including superresolution microscopy, revealed that the fungus Aspergillus nidulans extends the hyphal tip in an oscillatory manner. The amount of F-actin and secretory vesicles (SV) accumulating at the hyphal tip oscillated with a positive temporal correlation, whereas vesicle amounts were negatively correlated to the growth rate...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496100/structure-and-function-of-a-broad-specificity-chitin-deacetylase-from-aspergillus-nidulans-fgsc-a4
#13
Zhanliang Liu, Laurie M Gay, Tina R Tuveng, Jane W Agger, Bjørge Westereng, Geir Mathiesen, Svein J Horn, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad, Daan M F van Aalten, Vincent G H Eijsink
Enzymatic conversion of chitin, a β-1,4 linked polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is of major interest in areas varying from the biorefining of chitin-rich waste streams to understanding how medically relevant fungi remodel their chitin-containing cell walls. Although numerous chitinolytic enzymes have been studied in detail, relatively little is known about enzymes capable of deacetylating chitin. We describe the structural and functional characterization of a 237 residue deacetylase (AnCDA) from Aspergillus nidulans FGSC A4...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484941/proteomics-as-a-tool-to-identify-new-targets-against-aspergillus-and-scedosporium-in-the-context-of-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Andoni Ramirez-Garcia, Aize Pellon, Idoia Buldain, Aitziber Antoran, Aitana Arbizu-Delgado, Xabier Guruceaga, Aitor Rementeria, Fernando L Hernando
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that increases the risk of suffering microbial, including fungal, infections. In this paper, proteomics-based information was collated relating to secreted and cell wall proteins with potential medical applications from the most common filamentous fungi in CF, i.e., Aspergillus and Scedosporium/Lomentospora species. Among the Aspergillus fumigatus secreted allergens, β-1,3-endoglucanase, the alkaline protease 1 (Alp1/oryzin), Asp f 2, Asp f 13/15, chitinase, chitosanase, dipeptidyl-peptidase V (DppV), the metalloprotease Asp f 5, mitogillin/Asp f 1, and thioredoxin reductase receive a special mention...
May 8, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481894/the-role-of-vosa-velb-activated-developmental-gene-vada-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#15
Hee-Soo Park, Mi-Kyung Lee, Sun Chang Kim, Jae-Hyuk Yu
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans primarily reproduces by forming asexual spores called conidia, the integrity of which is governed by the NF-κB type velvet regulators VosA and VelB. The VosA-VelB hetero-complex regulates the expression of spore-specific structural and regulatory genes during conidiogenesis. Here, we characterize one of the VosA/VelB-activated developmental genes, called vadA, the expression of which in conidia requires activity of both VosA and VelB. VadA (AN5709) is predicted to be a 532-amino acid length fungal-specific protein with a highly conserved domain of unknown function (DUF) at the N-terminus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475687/the-quinoline-bromoquinol-exhibits-broad-spectrum-antifungal-activity-and-induces-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#16
Dafna Ben Yaakov, Yana Shadkchan, Nathaniel Albert, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Nir Osherov
Objectives: Over the last 30 years, the number of invasive fungal infections among immunosuppressed patients has increased significantly, while the number of effective systemic antifungal drugs remains low. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize antifungal compounds that inhibit fungus-specific metabolic pathways not conserved in humans. Methods: We screened a diverse compound library for antifungal activity in the pathogenic mould Aspergillus fumigatus ...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465348/sirtuin-e-is-a-fungal-global-transcriptional-regulator-that-determines-the-transition-from-the-primary-growth-to-the-stationary-phase
#17
Eriko Itoh, Rika Odakura, Ken-Ichi Oinuma, Motoyuki Shimizu, Shunsuke Masuo, Naoki Takaya
In response to limited nutrients, fungal cells exit the primary growth phase, enter the stationary phase, and cease proliferation. Although fundamental to microbial physiology in many environments, the regulation of this transition is poorly understood, but likely involves many transcriptional regulators. These may include the sirtuins, which deacetylate acetyllysine residues of histones, and epigenetically regulate global transcription. Therefore, we investigated the role of a nuclear sirtuin, sirtuin E (SirE), from the ascomycete fungus, Aspergillus nidulans...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453536/rtfa-controls-development-secondary-metabolism-and-virulence-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#18
Ryan R Myers, Timothy D Smith, Sherine F Elsawa, Olivier Puel, Souraia Tadrist, Ana M Calvo
Invasive aspergillosis by Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infection-related mortality in immune-compromised patients. In order to discover potential genetic targets to control A. fumigatus infections we characterized rtfA, a gene encoding a putative RNA polymerase II transcription elongation factor-like protein. Our recent work has shown that the rtfA ortholog in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans regulates morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. The present study on the opportunistic pathogen A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451846/conservation-and-diversity-of-the-regulators-of-cellulolytic-enzyme-genes-in-ascomycete-fungi
#19
REVIEW
Emi Kunitake, Tetsuo Kobayashi
In the past decade, various transcriptional activators of cellulolytic enzyme genes have been identified in Ascomycete fungi. The regulatory system of cellulolytic enzymes is not only partially conserved, but also significantly diverse. For example, Trichoderma reesei has a system distinct from those of Aspergillus and Neurospora crassa-the former utilizes Xyr1 (the Aspergillus XlnR ortholog) as the major regulator of cellulolytic enzyme genes, while the latter uses CLR-2/ClrB/ManR orthologs. XlnR/Xyr1 and CLR-2/ClrB/ManR are evolutionarily distant from each other...
April 27, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442441/aspergillus-flavus-aswa-a-gene-homolog-of-aspergillus-nidulans-oefc-regulates-sclerotial-development-and-biosynthesis-of-sclerotium-associated-secondary-metabolites
#20
Perng-Kuang Chang, Leslie L Scharfenstein, Robert W Li, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Sarah De Saeger, José Diana Di Mavungu
Aspergillus flavus aswA (AFLA_085170) is a gene encoding a Zn(II)2Cys6 DNA-binding domain and a transcriptional activation domain, DUF3468. Disruption of aswA yielded strains that made a truncated gene transcript and generated a fungus that produced a greatly increased number of sclerotia. These sclerotia were odd-shaped and non-pigmented (white) and different from oval and pigmented (dark brown to black) mature sclerotia. Transcriptomic analysis of the ΔaswA strain grown on potato dextrose agar plates and Wickerham agar plates showed that expression of clustering genes involved in the biosynthesis of three sclerotium-associated secondary metabolites was down-regulated...
April 22, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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