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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925902/adipose-triglyceride-lipase-regulation-an-overview
#1
Ines Katrin Cerk, Lisa Wechselberger, Monika Oberer
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the key-enzyme for the release of fatty acids (FAs) from triacylglycerol (TG) stores during intracellular lipolysis producing FAs used for energy production. There is growing evidence that the products and intermediates from lipolytic breakdown during the FA mobilization process also have fundamental regulatory functions affecting cell signaling, gene expression, metabolism, cell growth, cell death, and lipotoxicity. Regulation of ATGL is therefore vital for maintaining a defined balance between lipid storage and mobilization...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913358/central-modulation-of-neuroinflammation-by-neuropeptides-and-energy-sensing-hormones-during-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Roger Maldonado-Ruiz, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Alberto Camacho
Central nervous system (CNS) senses energy homeostasis by integrating both peripheral and autonomic signals and responding to them by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides release. Although it is previously considered an immunologically privileged organ, we now know that this is not so. Cells belonging to the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes, can be recruited into the CNS to face damage or infection, in addition to possessing resident immunological cells, called microglia. In this way, positive energy balance during obesity promotes an inflammatory state in the CNS...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911168/developmental-programming-impact-of-gestational-steroid-and-metabolic-milieus-on-mediators-of-insulin-sensitivity-in-prenatal-testosterone-treated-female-sheep
#3
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Victoria Andriessen, Makeda Mesquitta, Lixia Zeng, Subramaniam Pennathur, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Prenatal testosterone (T) excess in sheep leads to peripheral insulin resistance (IR), reduced adipocyte size, and tissue-specific changes, with liver and muscle but not adipose tissue being insulin resistant. To determine the basis for the tissue-specific differences in insulin sensitivity, we assessed changes in negative (inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity) and positive mediators (adiponectin and antioxidants) of insulin sensitivity in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of control and prenatal T-treated sheep...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903761/protective-effects-of-grape-seed-and-skin-extract-against-high-fat-diet-induced-lipotoxicity-in-rat-lung
#4
Mohamed El Ayed, Safwen Kadri, Selima Smine, Salem Elkahoui, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a public health problem characterized by increased fat accumulation in different tissues. Obesity is directly linked to breathing problems and medical complications with lung, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma….In the present work, we aimed to investigate the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on lung lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, fatty acid composition and proportions in lung and implication in asthma development...
September 13, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901416/protective-role-of-berberine-and-coptischinensis-extract-on-t2md-rats-and-associated-islet-rin%C3%A2-5f-cells
#5
Yu-Yu Jiang, Han-Ming Cui, Jia-Long Wang, Hui Liu, Meng-Meng Dang, Qiu-Yan Zhang, Fang Yang, Jian-Tao Kou, Xiao-Lin Tong
The aim of the present study was to compare the different effects of berberine (Ber) and Coptischinensis extract (CCE) on a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the islet Rin‑5f cell line was used to examine the differences between Ber and CCE and the underlying mechanisms. CCE was extracted and purified prior to analysis. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were provided with a high‑fat diet to induce insulin resistance prior to injecting with streptozotocinto establish the T2DM model, the T2DM rats were treated with Ber and CCE, and blood samples and pancreatic tissues were obtained and compared to examine T2DM metabolic syndromes among the groups of rats, which included healthy rats, model rats, and model rats treated with Ber and CCE at different doses between 0 and 8 weeks...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901411/palmitate-induces-myocardial-lipotoxic-injury-via-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress%C3%A2-mediated-apoptosis-pathway
#6
Lu Zou, Xiaoyan Li, Nan Wu, Pengyu Jia, Chunting Liu, Dalin Jia
Increased free fatty acids in cardiomyocytes induce myocardial lipotoxic injury, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress‑mediated apoptosis pathway in palmitate (PA)‑induced cardiomyocyte lipotoxicity. H9c2 cells were treated with various doses (100, 200 and 400 µM) of PA to mimic cardiomyocyte lipotoxicity in vitro. Oil Red O staining was used to determine the accumulation of intracellular lipids...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892713/stearic-acid-at-physiologic-concentrations-induces-in%C3%A2-vitro-lipotoxicity-in-circulating-angiogenic-cells
#7
Valentina Spigoni, Federica Fantuzzi, Alessia Fontana, Monia Cito, Eleonora Derlindati, Ivana Zavaroni, Miriam Cnop, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Alessandra Dei Cas
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Saturated free fatty acids (SFAs) can induce lipotoxicity in different cells. No studies have investigated the effects of SFA in circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), which play a key role in endothelial repair processes. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of SFAs, specifically stearic acid (SA), on viability and function of CACs and to investigate potential underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: CACs were isolated from healthy subjects by established methods...
September 4, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891994/mdivi-1-protects-adult-rat-hippocampal-neural-stem-cells-against-palmitate-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#8
Sehee Kim, Chanyang Kim, Seungjoon Park
Palmitate concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients are higher than in healthy subjects. The prolonged elevation of plasma palmitate levels induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neuronal cells. In this study, we examined the role of mdivi-1, a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-regulated protein 1 (Drp1), on the survival of cultured hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) exposed to high palmitate. Treatment of hippocampal NSCs with mdivi-1 attenuated palmitate-induced increase in cell death and apoptosis...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888352/high-fat-diet-aggravates-atrial-and-ventricular-remodeling-of-hypertensive-heart-disease-in-aging-rats
#9
Yi-Lin Shiou, I-Chieh Huang, Hsin-Ting Lin, Hsiang-Chun Lee
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Left ventricular hypertrophy is a major cause of heart failure in aging population. This study is to determine whether an excess dietary fat is lipotoxic or lipoprotein to the hypertrophic aging heart. METHODS: At 44-week-old, a normal chow (12% fat) was replaced a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) for randomly selective spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR + HFD, n = 6) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY + HFD, n = 6, normotensive control). Others (SHR, n = 11; WKY, n = 10) were continuously fed with normal diets...
September 6, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878811/serum-metabolites-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-development-or-reversion-a-targeted-metabolomic-approach-within-the-predimed-trial
#10
Christopher Papandreou, Mònica Bullò, Francisco José Tinahones, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Dolores Corella, Georgios A Fragkiadakis, José López-Miranda, Ramon Estruch, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND: Limited prospective studies have examined changes in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) related serum-metabolites and none the effects of NAFLD-reversion. We aimed to evaluate whether perturbations in metabolites indicate predisposition to NAFLD development and to assess the effects of NAFLD reversion on metabolite profiles. METHODS: A targeted liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry metabolic profiling (n = 453 metabolites) approach was applied, using serum from 45 subjects of the PREDIMED study, at baseline and after a median 3...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878132/therapeutic-opportunities-for-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-exploiting-similarities-and-differences-in-pathogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Greuter, Harmeet Malhi, Gregory J Gores, Vijay H Shah
Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are among the most frequent causes of chronic liver disease in the United States. Although the two entities are triggered by different etiologies - chronic alcohol consumption (ASH) and obesity-associated lipotoxicity (NASH) - they share overlapping histological and clinical features owing to common pathogenic mechanisms. These pathogenic processes include altered hepatocyte lipid metabolism, organelle dysfunction (i.e., ER stress), hepatocyte apoptosis, innate immune system activation, and hepatic stellate cell activation...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877979/fatty-acids-promote-fatty-liver-disease-via-the-dysregulation-of-3-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase-hydrogen-sulfide-pathway
#12
Meng Li, Chengfu Xu, Junping Shi, Jiexia Ding, Xingyong Wan, Dahua Chen, Jianguo Gao, Chunxiao Li, Jie Zhang, Yiming Lin, Zhenhua Tu, Xiaoni Kong, Youming Li, Chaohui Yu
OBJECTIVE: Accumulation of free fatty acids (FFAs) in hepatocytes induces lipotoxicity, leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which FFA contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD via the regulation of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST), a key enzyme that regulates endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biosynthesis. DESIGN: Hepatic MPST expression was evaluated in mice and patients with NAFLD...
September 6, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877220/attenuated-lipotoxicity-and-apoptosis-is-linked-to-exogenous-and-endogenous-augmenter-of-liver-regeneration-by-different-pathways
#13
Thomas S Weiss, Madeleine Lupke, Sara Ibrahim, Christa Buechler, Julia Lorenz, Petra Ruemmele, Ute Hofmann, Michael Melter, Rania Dayoub
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Free fatty acids (FFA) induce steatosis and lipo-toxicity and correlate with severity of NAFLD. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of exogenous and endogenous ALR (augmenter of liver regeneration) for FFA induced ER (endoplasmatic reticulum) -stress and lipoapoptosis. Primary human hepatocytes or hepatoma cells either treated with recombinant human ALR (rhALR, 15kDa) or expressing short form ALR (sfALR, 15kDa) were incubated with palmitic acid (PA) and analyzed for lipo-toxicity, -apoptosis, activation of ER-stress response pathways, triacylglycerides (TAG), mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolizing genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873005/recycling-the-danger-via-lipid-droplet-biogenesis-after-autophagy
#14
Yuan Li, Wei-Xing Zong, Wen-Xing Ding
Fatty acids are important cellular energy source under starvation conditions. However, excessive free fatty acids (FFAs) in the cytoplasm cause lipotoxicity. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which cells mobilize lipids and maintain a homeostatic level of fatty acids. Recent evidence suggests that cells can break down lipid droplets (LDs), the intracellular organelles that store neutral lipids, via PNPLA2/adipose triglyceride lipase and a selective type of macroautophagy/autophagy termed lipophagy, to release FFAs under starvation conditions...
September 5, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865931/age-associated-alterations-in-the-levels-of-cytotoxic-lipid-molecular-species-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-murine-thymus-are-reduced-by-growth-hormone-treatment
#15
Valeria de Mello-Coelho, Roy G Cutler, Allyson Bunbury, Anita Tammara, Mark P Mattson, Dennis D Taub
During age-associated thymic involution, thymocytes decrease and lipid-laden cells accumulate. However, if and how aging affects the thymic lipid profile is not well understood, nor is it known if the hormonal milieu modifies this process. Here we demonstrate a correlation between reduced thymocyte numbers and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress with age. Evaluating the lipidomics profile of the whole thymus, between the ages of 4 (young) and 18 months (old), we found increased amounts of triacylglycerides, free cholesterol, cholesterol ester and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) with age...
August 30, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863380/effect-of-two-andrographolide-derivatives-on-cellular-and-rodent-models-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Erenius Toppo, S Sylvester Darvin, S Esakkimuthu, Mahesh Kumar Nayak, K Balakrishna, K Sivasankaran, P Pandikumar, S Ignacimuthu, N A Al-Dhabi
The prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is increasing and there is an increasing interest in natural products to treat NAFLD. This study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of andrographolide and two of its derivatives; in one the OH group at C-14 was removed and in the other OH groups at C-3 and C-19 were protected. Andrographolide (AN) was isolated from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata Wall. Isoandrographolide (IAN) and 3,19-acetonylidene andrographolide (ANA) were derivatized from AN...
August 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860163/proximal-tubular-cannabinoid-1-receptor-regulates-obesity-induced-ckd
#17
Shiran Udi, Liad Hinden, Brian Earley, Adi Drori, Noa Reuveni, Rivka Hadar, Resat Cinar, Alina Nemirovski, Joseph Tam
Obesity-related structural and functional changes in the kidney develop early in the course of obesity and occur independently of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Activating the renal cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) induces nephropathy, whereas CB1R blockade improves kidney function. Whether these effects are mediated via a specific cell type within the kidney remains unknown. Here, we show that specific deletion of CB1R in the renal proximal tubule cells did not protect the mice from obesity, but markedly attenuated the obesity-induced lipid accumulation in the kidney and renal dysfunction, injury, inflammation, and fibrosis...
August 31, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852221/cytosolic-lipolysis-and-lipophagy-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#18
REVIEW
Rudolf Zechner, Frank Madeo, Dagmar Kratky
Fatty acids are the most efficient substrates for energy production in vertebrates and are essential components of the lipids that form biological membranes. Synthesis of triacylglycerols from non-esterified free fatty acids (FFAs) combined with triacylglycerol storage represents a highly efficient strategy to stockpile FFAs in cells and prevent FFA-induced lipotoxicity. Although essentially all vertebrate cells have some capacity to store and utilize triacylglycerols, white adipose tissue is by far the largest triacylglycerol depot and is uniquely able to supply FFAs to other tissues...
August 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844956/interleukin-6-deficiency-facilitates-myocardial-dysfunction-during-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-by-promoting-lipotoxicity-and-inflammation
#19
Fan Chen, Dandan Chen, Xinmei Zhao, Shuai Yang, Zhe Li, Daniel Sanchis, Liang Jin, Xizhe Qiang, Kaiye Wang, Yitao Xu, Yubin Zhang, Junmei Ye
Objective Obesity is associated with metabolic disorder and chronic inflammation that plays a crucial role in cardiovascular diseases. IL-6 is involved in regulating obesity-related lipid metabolism and inflammation. In this study, we sought to determine the role of IL-6 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiomyopathy and explore the signaling pathway. METHODS: Female, 5-week-old IL-6 knockout (KO) and littermate mice were fed a normal diet (ND, 10% fat) or HFD (45% fat) for 14 weeks. At the end of treatment, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography...
August 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827060/pancreatic-stellate-cell-activation-is-regulated-by-fatty-acids-and-er-stress
#20
Yael Ben-Harosh, Mariana Anosov, Hagit Salem, Yekaterina Yatchenko, R Birk
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic pathologies are characterized by a progressive fibrosis process. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) play a crucial role in pancreatic fibrogenesis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress emerges as an important determinant of fibrotic remodeling. Overload of fatty acids (FA), typical to obesity, may lead to lipotoxic state and cellular stress. AIM: to study the effect of different lipolytic challenges on pancreatic ER stress and PSC activation. METHODS: Primary PSCs were exposed to different FAs, palmitate (pal) and oleate (ole), at pathophysiological concentrations typical to obese state, and in acute caerulein-induced stress (cer)...
August 5, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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