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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719602/prehospital-immune-responses-and-development-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-following-traumatic-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Jon Hazeldine, David N Naumann, Emma Toman, David Davies, Jonathan R B Bishop, Zhangjie Su, Peter Hampson, Robert J Dinsdale, Nicholas Crombie, Niharika Arora Duggal, Paul Harrison, Antonio Belli, Janet M Lord
BACKGROUND: Almost all studies that have investigated the immune response to trauma have analysed blood samples acquired post-hospital admission. Thus, we know little of the immune status of patients in the immediate postinjury phase and how this might influence patient outcomes. The objective of this study was therefore to comprehensively assess the ultra-early, within 1-hour, immune response to trauma and perform an exploratory analysis of its relationship with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718060/innate-immune-responses-and-osteoarthritis
#2
REVIEW
Evangelia Kalaitzoglou, Timothy M Griffin, Mary Beth Humphrey
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful joint disease that affects approximately 40% of adults over 70 year. Age is the strongest predictor of OA, while obesity is considered the primary preventable risk factor for OA. Both conditions are associated with abnormal innate immune inflammatory responses that contribute to OA progression and are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified risk factors for OA progression including increased innate immune responses secondary to aging-associated myeloid skewing, obesity-related myeloid activation, and synovial tissue hyperplasia with activated macrophage infiltration...
August 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716751/rehmannia-glutinosa-polysaccharide-induced-an-anti-cancer-effect-by-activating-natural-killer-cells
#3
Li Xu, Wei Zhang, Ling Zeng, Jun-O Jin
Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide (RGP) has exhibited an immune stimulatory effect, such as dendritic cell activation, but it has not been studied in terms of the activation capacity of natural killer (NK) cells in mice in vivo. In this study, we examined the effect of RGP on the proliferation and activation of NK cells in the spleen, mesenteric lymph node (mLN), and blood in vivo and compared that function with that of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The administration of RGP to C57BL/6 mice induced the increase in circulating blood NK cell numbers and in the proliferation of NK cells in the spleen, mLN, and blood...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716745/gut-derived-endotoxin-stimulates-factor-viii-secretion-from-endothelial-cells-implications-for-hypercoagulability-in-cirrhosis
#4
Carnevale Roberto, Raparelli Valeria, Nocella Cristina, Bartimoccia Simona, Novo Marta, Severino Anna, De Falco Elena, Cammisotto Vittoria, Pasquale Chiara, Crescioli Clara, Sili Scavalli Antonio, Riggio Oliviero, Basili Stefania, Violi Francesco
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis display enhanced blood levels of factor VIII, which may result in harmful activation of the clotting system; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in cirrhotic patients (n=61) and matched controls (n=61) comparing blood levels of factor VIII, von Willebrand factor (vWf), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and positivity for Escherichia Coli DNA. Furthermore, we performed an in-vitro study to investigate if LPS, in a range of concentration similar to that found in the peripheral circulation of cirrhotic patients, was able to elicit factor VIII secretion from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716464/modulating-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-pioglitazone-combination-on-insulin-resistance-through-toll-like-receptor-4-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Salma M Eraky, Noha Abdel-Rahman, Laila A Eissa
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) plays important roles in innate immunity. Changes in the reduction-oxidation balance of tissues can lead to a pro-inflammatory state and insulin resistance. An action thought to be mediated by TLRs. Omega-3 fatty acids and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists as pioglitazone are used for decreasing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of combining omega -3 fatty acid with pioglitazone on type 2 diabetes, and the modifying effects on TLR-4...
June 17, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715808/retinoic-acid-facilitates-toll-like-receptor-4-expression-to-improve-intestinal-barrier-function-through-retinoic-acid-receptor-beta
#6
Yingying Li, Yuan Gao, Ting Cui, Ting Yang, Lan Liu, Tingyu Li, Jie Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vitamin A (VA) protects the intestinal epithelial barrier by improving cell migration and proliferation. Our previous studies demonstrated that VA deficiency (VAD) during pregnancy suppresses the systemic and mucosal immune responses in the intestines of offspring and that VA supplementation (VAS) during early life can increase immune cell counts. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which VA regulates intestinal epithelial barrier function. METHODS: Caco-2 cells were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 24 hours to determine the optimum ATRA concentration to which the cells in question respond...
July 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715767/non-human-primates-as-a-model-for-understanding-the-mechanism-of-action-of-toll-like-receptor-based-vaccine-adjuvants
#7
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Thompson, Karin Loré
While transgenic mouse models are powerful for understanding how the immune system is manipulated by vaccines, they cannot fully recapitulate the characteristics of the innate immune responses leading to adaptive immunity after vaccination in humans. Outbred non-human primates are far more representative models of human vaccine responses as there is high degree of similarities in immune cell subset distributions, receptor expression (including toll-like receptors; TLRs), and immune cell functions, in addition to modeling doses and injection sites more accurately...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714872/immunomodulatory-activity-of-octenyl-succinic-anhydride-modified-porang-amorphophallus-oncophyllus-glucomannan-on-mouse-macrophage-like-j774-1-cells-and-mouse-primary-peritoneal-macrophages
#8
Sellen Gurusmatika, Kosuke Nishi, Eni Harmayani, Yudi Pranoto, Takuya Sugahara
Porang is a local plant of Indonesia, which has a high content of glucomannan. In this study, porang glucomannan (PG) was esterified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) to enhance emulsion properties to be widely used in food industry. OSA-modified PG (OSA-PG) enhanced the phagocytosis activity of macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages. In addition, OSA-PG increased the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by enhancing their gene expression. Immunoblot analysis displayed that OSA-PG tended to activate both nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades...
July 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714001/lps-enhances-tlr4-expression-and-ifn%C3%A2-%C3%AE-production-via-the-tlr4-irak-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-rat-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#9
Pengyan Wang, Xuhui Han, Biwen Mo, Guojin Huang, Changming Wang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the Toll‑like receptor (TLR)4 signaling pathway in cellular response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rats were established with passive inhaling cigarette smoke plus injection of LPS. The TLR4 protein in lung tissues was determined with immunohistochemical staining and protein levels of the components of the TLR4 pathway in PASMCs were analyzed with western blotting...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713916/activation-of-the-hmgb1%C3%A2-tlr4%C3%A2-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-may-occur-in-patients-with-atopic-eczema
#10
Yong Wang, Hui Weng, Jian Fei Song, Yun Hua Deng, Shuang Li, Hong Bo Liu
High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) has been reported to serve important roles in various pathological conditions. Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4), as one of the HMGB1 receptors, has been reported to be involved in the development of certain inflammatory diseases by activating nuclear factor NF‑κ‑B (NF‑κB). However, there are few studies investigating the effects of HMGB1, TLR4 and NF‑κB on human inflammatory dermatoses. In the present study, the distribution and characteristics of HMGB1, TLR4 and NF‑κB p65 expression in psoriasis and atopic eczema (AE) were investigated...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713897/expression-of-irak%C3%A2-3-is-associated-with-colitis%C3%A2-associated-tumorigenesis-in-mice
#11
Dingting Xu, Hanyun Zhang, Xiaoying Wang, Yan Chen
Interleukin‑1 receptor‑associated kinase‑3 (IRAK‑3) is a negative regulator in Toll‑like receptor (TLR) pathways. The present study investigated the importance of IRAK‑3 in a mouse model of chemically‑induced colitis‑associated tumorigenesis. The colitis‑associated tumorigenesis was induced in ICR mice by the administration of 1,2‑dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), termed the DMH + DSS group. In the DSS group, mice were administered with DSS; in the DMH group, mice were injected with DMH; in the control group, mice were injected with physiological saline...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711717/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase-%C3%AE-contributes-to-toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-immune-responses-in-microglial-cells-stimulated-with-lipoteichoic-acid
#12
Tu Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Eunjeong Seo, Juyong Choi, Oanh Thi Tu Le, Ji Yun Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Yoon Lee
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important lipid regulator of membrane signaling and remodeling processes. Accumulating evidence indicates a link between PIP2 metabolism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, a key transducer of immune responses such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Microglia are immune effector cells that serve as macrophages in the brain. Here, we examined the potential role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α (PIP5Kα), a PIP2-producing enzyme, in TLR2 signaling in microglial cells...
July 12, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711715/novel-peptide-motifs-from-lysozyme-suppress-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-macrophages-by-antagonizing-toll-like-receptor-and-lps-scavenging-action
#13
Hisham R Ibrahim, Kosuke Hamasaki, Takeshi Miyata
Lysozyme is commonly found in spots where bacterial infections are most likely to enter the body. Earlier we found that lysozyme possesses five antimicrobial peptide motifs in its N-terminal region which can be generated by newborn pepsin. In this study, we explore the role of these peptides in the anti-inflammatory activity of lysozyme. The five peptides, helix1 (H1), helix2 (H2), H1 and H2 connected with a loop (HLH), H2 extended with either 2 β-strands (H2-S12) or 3 β-strands (H2-S13), were synthesized and examined for anti-inflammatory action...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707480/in-ovo-silver-nanoparticle-supplementation-for-improving-the-post-hatch-immunity-status-of-broiler-chickens
#14
Akshat Goel, Subrat Kumar Bhanja, Manish Mehra, Samir Majumdar, Asitbaran Mandal
Silver nanoparticles (AgNano) are known for their unique physical, chemical and biological properties, enabling cell penetration and anti-inflammatory response. In Experiment 1, the effect of an in ovo administration of AgNano (15 µg/egg; n = 360) at different incubation times (d 7 and d 18) on hatchability parameters was explored. In Experiment 2, post-hatch performance of broilers (42 d, n = 250) was studied after in ovo AgNano administration: Group T1 remained un-injected, Group T2 was the sham control and Groups T3, T4 and T5 were injected with 12...
July 14, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706484/alantolactone-improves-prolonged-exposure-of-interleukin-6-induced-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-associated-glucose-intolerance-and-insulin-resistance
#15
Minjee Kim, Kwangho Song, Yeong Shik Kim
The pro-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been proposed to be one of the mediators that link chronic inflammation to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of IL-6 on insulin action in the skeletal muscle. However, few studies have investigated the effect of long-term treatment of IL-6, leading to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. In the present study, we observed protective effects of alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula helenium against glucose intolerance and insulin resistance induced by prolonged exposure of IL-6...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706254/mir-30a-targets-il-1%C3%AE-and-regulates-islet-functions-as-an-inflammation-buffer-and-response-factor
#16
Xin Jiang, Chenke Xu, Fan Lei, Meijian Liao, Wei Wang, Naihan Xu, Yaou Zhang, Weidong Xie
Diabetes is an inflammatory disease. Inflammation plays an important role in islet functions. However, the exact mechanisms by which inflammation affects islet functions remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of miR-30a on inflammation and islet functions. The results indicate that miR-30a serves as an inflammation-resolving buffer factor by targeting interleukin 1a (IL-1α) in immune cells and in islet cells, which might play an important role in inflammation homeostasis. miR-30a ameliorates islet functions in an inflammatory micro-environment by targeting the IL-1α/nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) p65 subunit (p65)/p62 (SQSTM1)/insulin axis, which can be developed into a novel antidiabetic approach...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705722/identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-tlr5-in-the-mucosal-tissues-of-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-l-following-bacterial-challenge
#17
Fengqiao Liu, Baofeng Su, Qiang Fu, Mei Shang, Chengbin Gao, Fenghua Tan, Chao Li
TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are very important pathogen pattern recognition receptors, which control the host immune responses against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. In this regard, investigation of the turbot TLRs could help to understand the immune responses for pathogen recognition. Here, transcripts of two TLRs (TLR5a and TLR5b) were captured, and their protein structures were also predicted. Meanwhile, we characterized their expression patterns with emphasis on mucosal barriers following different bacterial infection...
July 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700533/cd103-dendritic-cell-function-is-altered-in-the-colons-of-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#18
Hiroshi Matsuno, Hisako Kayama, Junichi Nishimura, Yuki Sekido, Hideki Osawa, Soumik Barman, Takayuki Ogino, Hidekazu Takahashi, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Taishi Hata, Chu Matsuda, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Motoi Uchino, Hiroki Ikeuchi, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Kiyoshi Takeda, Tsunekazu Mizushima
BACKGROUND: Human intestinal innate myeloid cells can be divided into 3 subsets: HLA-DRCD14 cells, HLA-DRCD103 dendritic cells (DCs), and HLA-DRCD14CD103 cells. CD103 DCs generate Treg cells and Th17 cells in the ileum, but their function in the colon remains largely unknown. This study characterized CD103 DCs in the colon and investigated whether these cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Normal intestinal mucosa was obtained from intact sites of patients with colorectal cancer (n = 24)...
July 11, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699598/role-of-toll-like-receptor-10-gene-polymorphism-and-gastric-mucosal-pattern-in-patients-with-chronic-gastritis
#19
Taweesak Tongtawee, Theeraya Bartpho, Wareeporn Wattanawongdon, Chavaboon Dechsukhum, Wilairat Leeanansaksiri, Likit Matrakool, Sukij Panpimanmas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Helicobacter pylori stimulates the host's toll-like receptors (TLRs). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of TLRs is related to the manipulation of regulatory cytokines and also implicated in the varied outcomes of the inflammatory response, including the development of precancerous lesions of gastric mucosa and disease progression. We hypothesized that TLR10 rs10004195 polymorphism is associated with gastric mucosal patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TLR10 rs10004195 polymorphisms were identified in a total of 400 gastritis patients using the TagMan SNP genotyping assay...
July 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698147/rip2-deficiency-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-pressure-overload-induced-mice
#20
Cui-Hua Zhao, Xiang Ma, Hong-Yu Guo, Peng Li, Hong-Yang Liu
Although the pathological cardiac hypertrophy presents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease is still poor. Here, we reported that receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIP2), promoting pro-inflammatory gene expression, enhanced the pathological cardiac hypertrophy in animals. The effects of RIP2 on the cardiac hypertrophy triggered by pathological stimuli have not been fully investigated. In our study, mice were subjected to aortic banding (AB) surgery to explore the pathological, echocardiographic and molecular mechanisms...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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