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toll like receptor 4

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339850/allelic-variation-in-tlr4-is-linked-to-resistance-to-salmonella-enteritidis-infection-in-chickens
#1
Peng Li, Huihua Wang, Xingwang Zhao, Zhongyong Gou, Ranran Liu, Yongmei Song, Qinghe Li, Maiqing Zheng, Huanxian Cui, Nadia Everaert, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen
Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a foodborne pathogen that negatively affects both animal and human health. Polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene may affect recognition by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to differences in host resistance to pathogenic infections. The present study has investigated polymorphic loci of chicken TLR4 (ChTLR4) in ten chicken breeds, electrostatic potentials of mutant structures of TLR4, and a linkage analysis between allelic variation and survival ratio to infection with SE in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorns...
March 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339054/overexpression-of-tim-3-reduces-helicobacter-pylori-associated-inflammation-through-tlr4-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in%C3%A2-vitro
#2
Fucai Wang, Zhirong Mao, Dongsheng Liu, Jing Yu, Youhua Wang, Wen Ye, Dongjia Lin, Nanjin Zhou, Yong Xie
The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor κB (NF‑κB) signaling in Helicobacter pylori-infected RAW264.7 macrophage cells. RAW264.7 cells were co‑cultured with H. pylori SS1 at different bacteria/cell ratios, and subsequently the mRNA expression of Tim‑3, TLR4, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR)...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333693/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#3
Cathleen M Courtney, Brad W Warner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332554/fucoidan-induces-toll-like-receptor-4-regulated-reactive-oxygen-species-and-promotes-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis-in-lung-cancer
#4
Hsien-Yeh Hsu, Tung-Yi Lin, Mei-Kuang Lu, Pei-Ju Leng, Shu-Ming Tsao, Yu-Chung Wu
Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, exhibits anti-cancer activity. However, the effects and mechanism of fucoidan-induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan prevents tumorigenesis and reduces tumor size in LLC1-xenograft male C57BL/6 mice. Fucoidan induces an ER stress response by activating the PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway, resulting in apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ATF4 knockdown abolishes fucoidan-induced CHOP expression and rescues cell viability...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332241/toll-like-receptor-2-arg753gln-and-arg677trp-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-pulmonary-and-peritoneal-tuberculosis
#5
Mohammed A Saleh, Mahmoud M Ramadan, Eman O Arram
Recent evidence suggests that toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) is important for host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). TLR2 polymorphisms have shown significant impact on susceptibility or resistance to tuberculosis (TB). This case-control study aims to determine the influence of TLR2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp) polymorphisms on the susceptibility to develop pulmonary or peritoneal TB. Genotyping of TLR2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp) polymorphisms was carried out on 52 patients with pulmonary TB, 44 patients with peritoneal TB, and 50 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
March 23, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332235/toll-like-receptor-and-related-cytokine-mrna-expression-in-bovine-corpora-lutea-during-the-oestrous-cycle-and-pregnancy
#6
J E Gadsby, A M Tyson Nipper, H A Faircloth, M D'Annibale-Tolhurst, J Chang, P W Farin, I M Sheldon, D H Poole
Improving our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the corpus luteum (CL) and its role in regulating the reproductive cycle should lead to improvements in the sustainability of today's global animal industry. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ composed of a heterogeneous mixture steroidogenic, endothelial and immune cells, and it is becoming clear that immune mechanisms play a key role in CL regulation especially in luteolysis. Toll-like receptors (TLR) mediate innate immune mechanisms via the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially within various tissues, although the role of TLR within CL remains unknown...
March 22, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330785/the-interplay-between-angiotensin-ii-tlr4-and-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Vinicia Campana Biancardi, Gisele Facholi Bomfim, Wagner Luis Reis, Sarah Al-Gassimi, Kenia Pedrosa Nunes
Hypertension is a multifactorial disease. Although a number of different underlying mechanisms have been learned from the various experimental models of the disease, hypertension still poses challenges for treatment. Angiotensin II plays an unquestionable role in blood pressure regulation acting through central and peripheral mechanisms. During hypertension, dysregulation of the Renin-Angiotensin System is associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species causing kidney damage, endothelial dysfunction, and increase in sympathetic activity, among other damages, eventually leading to decline in organ function...
March 19, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329286/short-course-tlr9-agonist-treatment-impacts-innate-immunity-and-plasma-viremia-in-individuals-with-hiv-infection
#8
Line Vibholm, Mariane H Schleimann, Jesper F Højen, Thomas Benfield, Rasmus Offersen, Katrine Rasmussen, Rikke Olesen, Anders Dige, Jørgen Agnholt, Judith Grau, Maria Buzon, Burghardt Wittig, Mathias Lichterfeld, Andreas Munk Petersen, Xutao Deng, Mohammed Abdel-Mohsen, Satish K Pillai, Sofie Rutsaert, Wim Trypsteen, Ward De Spiegelaere, Linos Vandekerchove, Lars Østergaard, Thomas A Rasmussen, Paul W Denton, Martin Tolstrup, Ole S Søgaard
Background: Treatment with latency reversing agents (LRA) enhances HIV-1 transcription in vivo but only leads to modest reductions in the size of the reservoir, possibly due to insufficient immune-mediated elimination of infected cells. We hypothesized that a single drug molecule - a novel toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, MGN1703 - could function as an enhancer of innate immunity and an LRA in vivo. Methods: We conducted a single-arm, open-label study, where 15 virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy received 60 mg MGN1703 s...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328972/altered-gut-microbiome-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness-causes-neuroinflammation-and-intestinal-injury-via-leaky-gut-and-tlr4-activation
#9
Firas Alhasson, Suvarthi Das, Ratanesh Seth, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Caitlin N Ryan, Luisa S Chan, Traci Testerman, James Burch, Lorne J Hofseth, Ronnie Horner, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Stephen M Lasley, Saurabh Chatterjee
Many of the symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI) that include neurological abnormalities, neuroinflammation, chronic fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances have been traced to Gulf War chemical exposure. Though the association and subsequent evidences are strong, the mechanisms that connect exposure to intestinal and neurological abnormalities remain unclear. Using an established rodent model of Gulf War Illness, we show that chemical exposure caused significant dysbiosis in the gut that included increased abundance of phylum Firmicutes and Tenericutes, and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328108/ex-vivo-infection-of-human-placental-chorionic-villi-explants-with-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-toxoplasma-gondii-induces-different-toll-like-receptor-expression-and-cytokine-chemokine-profiles
#10
Christian Castillo, Lorena Muñoz, Ileana Carrillo, Ana Liempi, Christian Gallardo, Norbel Galanti, Juan Diego Maya, Ulrike Kemmerling
PROBLEM: Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii present, respectively, low and high congenital transmission rates. The placenta as an immune regulatory organ expresses TLRs, leading to the secretion of cytokines. Both parasites are recognized by TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9. Here, we studied if the parasites induce differences in TLR protein expression, cytokine profiles, and whether receptor inhibition is related to parasite infection. METHOD OF STUDY: Placental tissue explants were infected ex vivo with each parasite, TLRs protein expression, cytokine profile and parasite infection were determined by Western blotting, ELISA and qPCR...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327786/polymorphisms-in-genes-tlr1-2-and-4-are-associated-with-differential-cytokine-and-chemokine-serum-production-in-patients-with-leprosy
#11
Nadja de Lima Santana, Jamile Leão Rêgo, Joyce Moura Oliveira, Lucas Frederico de Almeida, Marcos Braz, Lídia Maria Medeiros Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado, Léa Cristina Castellucci
BACKGROUND: Leprosy or hansen's disease is a spectral disease whose clinical forms mostly depends on host's immune and genetic factors. Different Toll-like receptors (TLR) variants have been described associated with leprosy, but with some lack of replication across different populations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of polymorphisms in genes TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 and susceptibility to leprosy in a genetic case control study; to verify the association between genotypes of these markers and the immunological profile in the serum of patients with leprosy...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327628/corrigendum-pregnane-x-receptor-regulates-pathogen-induced-inflammation-and-host-defense-against-an-intracellular-bacterial-infection-through-toll-like-receptor-4
#12
Zhijuan Qiu, Jorge L Cervantes, Basak B Cicek, Subhajit Mukherjee, Madhukumar Venkatesh, Leigh A Maher, Juan C Salazar, Sridhar Mani, Kamal M Khanna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326931/overexpression-of-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-3-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-attenuates-cancer-induced-pain-in-rats
#13
Jinrong Wei, Meng Li, Dieyu Wang, Hongyan Zhu, Xiangpeng Kong, Shusheng Wang, You-Lang Zhou, Zhong Ju, Guang-Yin Xu, Guo-Qin Jiang
Background Cancer-induced pain (CIP) is one of the most severe types of chronic pain with which clinical treatment remains challenging and the involved mechanisms are largely unknown. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is an important intracellular protein and provides a classical negative feedback loop, thus involving in a wide variety of processes including inflammation and nociception. However, the role of SOCS3 pathway in CIP is poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the role of SOCS3 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the development of CIP...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325574/decoy-receptor-3-analogous-supplement-protects-steatotic-rat-liver-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Tzu-Hao Li, Chih-Wei Liu, Pei-Chang Lee, Chia-Chang Huang, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Han-Chieh Lin, Chang-Youh Tsai
BACKGROUND: For steatotic livers, pharmacological approaches to minimize the hepatic neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, and cytokine and chemokine release in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury are still limited. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α superfamily-stimulated pathogenic cascades and M1 macrophage/Kupffer cells (KC) polarization from Th1 cytokines are important in the pathogenesis of IR liver injury with hepatic steatosis (HS). Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages produce Th2 cytokine (interleukin-4), which reciprocally enhances M2 polarization...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323977/short-term-vs-long-term-effects-of-adipocyte-toll-like-receptor-4-activation-on-insulin-resistance-in-male-mice
#15
Caroline Tao, William L Holland, Qiong A Wang, Mengle Shao, Lin Jia, Kai Sun, Xiaoli Lin, Yi-Chun Kuo, Joshua A Johnson, Ruth Gordillo, Joel K Elmquist, Philipp E Scherer
Chronic exposure to diets high in saturated fat (HFD) increases the prevalence of obesity and contributes to the development of low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. A possible mediator accounting for obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance is Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We investigated the role of adipocyte TLR4 in lipid and glucose homeostasis through an inducible, adipocyte-specific deletion of TLR4, the "TADIPO mouse". Consistent with a critical role for inflammation as a positive force for healthy adipose tissue expansion, chronic HFD exposure resulted in exacerbated whole body and muscle insulin resistance in the absence of TLR4 in the adipocyte...
February 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322750/supradural-inflammatory-soup-in-awake-and-freely-moving-rats-induces-facial-allodynia-that-is-blocked-by-putative-immune-modulators
#16
Julie Wieseler, Amanda Ellis, Andrew McFadden, Kendra Stone, Kimberley Brown, Sara Cady, Leandro F Bastos, David Sprunger, Niloofar Rezvani, Kirk Johnson, Kenner C Rice, Steven F Maier, Linda R Watkins
Facial allodynia is a migraine symptom that is generally considered to represent a pivotal point in migraine progression. Treatment before development of facial allodynia tends to be more successful than treatment afterwards. As such, understanding the underlying mechanisms of facial allodynia may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying migraine. Migraine facial allodynia is modeled by applying inflammatory soup (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E2) over the dura. Whether glial and/or immune activation contributes to such pain is unknown...
March 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322341/angiotensin-ii-induces-kidney-inflammatory-injury-and-fibrosis-through-binding-to-myeloid-differentiation-protein-2-md2
#17
Zheng Xu, Weixin Li, Jibo Han, Chunpeng Zou, Weijian Huang, Weihui Yu, Xiaoou Shan, Hazel Lum, Xiaokun Li, Guang Liang
Growing evidence indicates that angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent biologically active product of RAS, is a key regulator of renal inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II induces renal inflammatory injury and fibrosis through interaction with myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD2), the accessory protein of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of the immune system. Results indicated that in MD2(-/-) mice, the Ang II-induced renal fibrosis, inflammation and kidney dysfunction were significantly reduced compared to control Ang II-infused wild-type mice...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321220/adjusted-particle-size-eliminates-the-need-of-linkage-of-antigen-and-adjuvants-for-appropriated-t-cell-responses-in-virus-like-particle-based-vaccines
#18
Ariane C Gomes, Anna Flace, Philippe Saudan, Franziska Zabel, Gustavo Cabral-Miranda, Aadil El Turabi, Vania Manolova, Martin F Bachmann
Since the discovery of the first virus-like particle (VLP) derived from hepatitis B virus in 1980 (1), the field has expanded substantially. Besides successful use of VLPs as safe autologous virus-targeting vaccines, the powerful immunogenicity of VLPs has been also harnessed to generate immune response against heterologous and even self-antigens (2-4). Linking adjuvants to VLPs displaying heterologous antigen ensures simultaneous delivery of all vaccine components to the same antigen-presenting cells. As a consequence, antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, will process and present the antigen displayed on VLPs while receiving costimulatory signals by the VLP-incorporated adjuvant...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319123/saccharomyces-boulardii-and-bacillus-subtilis-b10-modulate-tlrs-and-cytokines-expression-patterns-in-jejunum-and-ileum-of-broilers
#19
Imran Rashid Rajput, Huang Ying, Sun Yajing, Muhammad Asif Arain, Li Weifen, Li Ping, Dost Muhammad Bloch, Liu Wenhua
The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR), and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers) were allotted into three groups (n = 100) and each divided into five replications (n = 20). Control group (Ctr) birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed) Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318829/toll-like-receptor-4-inhibitor-protects-against-retinal-ganglion-cell-damage-induced-by-optic-nerve-crush-in-mice
#20
Yukimichi Nakano, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Kazuki Ojino, Hiroshi Izawa, Hiroto Takeuchi, Yuki Inoue, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Hideaki Hara
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays key roles in innate immune responses and inflammatory reactions. TAK-242 (resatorvid) is a small-molecule cyclohexene derivative that selectively inhibits TLR4 signaling pathways and suppresses inflammatory reactions. Here we investigated the protective effects of TAK-242 against optic nerve crush (ONC) which induces axonal injury like glaucoma in mice. TAK-242 was injected intravitreally immediately after ONC. The effect of TAK-242 was evaluated by measuring the number of fluorogold-labeled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at 10 days after ONC...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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