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Andrzej M Fal, Frank Conrad, Karina Schönknecht, Hartwig Sievers, Anna Pawińska
THE AIM: The in-vitro antiviral activity of the "Virus Blocking Factor" (VBF), a combination of Pelargonium extract and Sambucus juice with addition of Betaglucan 1,3 / 1,6, Zincum gluconium, Acidum ascorbicum, was studied against human pathogenic viruses: Influenza A H1N1 (FluA H1N1), Rhinovirus B subtype 14 (HRV14), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Parainfluenzavirus subtype 3 (Para 3), and Adenovirus C subtype 5 (Adeno 5). METHOD: Antiviral activity was assessed using plaque-reduction assays after adding the test substance post infection of the MDCK, HeLa and HEp-2 cells with the viruses...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Marija Vidović, Filis Morina, Ljiljana Prokić, Sonja Milić-Komić, Bojana Živanović, Sonja Veljović Jovanović
In this study we exposed variegated leaves of Pelargonium zonale to strong sunlight (>1100μmolm(-2)s(-1) of photosynthetically active radiation) with and without paraquat (Pq), with the aim to elucidate the mechanisms of H2O2 regulation in green and white tissues with respect to the photosynthetically-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sunlight induced marked accumulation of H2O2 in the apoplast of vascular and (peri)vascular tissues only in green sectors. This effect was enhanced by the addition of Pq...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Claramaría Rodríguez-González, Pamela Velázquez-Villalba, Pedro Salas, Víctor M Castaño
A green facile method has been successfully used for the synthesis of graphene oxide sheets decorated with silver nanoparticles (rGO/AgNPs), employing graphite oxide as a precursor of graphene oxide (GO), AgNO3 as a precursor of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs), and geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) extract as reducing agent. Synthesis was accomplished using the weight ratios 1:1 and 1:3 GO/Ag, respectively. The synthesised nanocomposites were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis...
October 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
Felix Grewe, Andan Zhu, Jeffrey P Mower
The mitochondrial nad1 gene of seed plants has a complex structure, including four introns in cis or trans configurations and a maturase gene (matR) hosted within the final intron. In the geranium family (Geraniaceae), however, sequencing of representative species revealed that three of the four introns, including one in a trans configuration and another that hosts matR, were lost from the nad1 gene in their common ancestor. Despite the loss of the host intron, matR has been retained as a freestanding gene in most genera of the family, indicating that this maturase has additional functions beyond the splicing of its host intron...
September 23, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Jyoti Singh Jadaun, Neelam S Sangwan, Lokesh K Narnoliya, Neha Singh, Shilpi Bansal, Bhawana Mishra, Rajender Singh Sangwan
Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.) is one of the most important aromatic plants and is well known for its diverse perfumery uses. Its economic importance is due to presence of fragrance rich essential oil of its foliage. The essential oil is a mixture of various volatile phytochemicals which are mainly terpenes (isoprenoids) in nature. In this study, genes related to isoprenoid biosynthesis (DXS, DXR and HMGR) were isolated, cloned and confirmed by sequencing. Further, the first gene of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS), was made full length by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends strategy...
August 31, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Janice Luehring Giongo, Rodrigo de Almeida Vaucher, Viviane Pedroso Fausto, Priscilla Maciel Quatrin, Leonardo Quintana Soares Lopes, Roberto Christ Vianna Santos, André Gündel, Patrícia Gomes, Martin Steppe
Infections due to microbial biofilm formation on the surface of catheters and other medical devices are constantly reported as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to hospitals. Furthermore, sessile cells are more resistant to phagocytosis and most antimicrobial, which complicates the treatment of such infections. Researches aimed at new antimicrobial originating mainly from plants have increased in recent years and the development of new strategies for their release is critical in combating the formation of biofilms...
August 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Stefanie Duchow, Renate I Dahlke, Thomas Geske, Wolfgang Blaschek, Birgit Classen
Root extracts of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides, native to South Africa, are used globally for the treatment of common cold and cough. Due to an increasing economic commercialization of P. sidoides remedies, wild collections of root material should be accompanied by effective methods for plant propagation like somatic embryogenesis. Based on this, the influence of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) on somatic embryogenesis and plant propagation of P. sidoides has been investigated. High-molecular weight AGPs have been isolated from dried roots as well as from cell cultures of P...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Nazlihan Aztopal, Buse Cevatemre, Mehmet Sarimahmut, Ferda Ari, Egemen Dere, Mustafa Zafer Ozel, Mehmet Firat, Engin Ulukaya
Pelargonium species have various uses in folk medicine as traditional remedies, and several of them have been screened for their biological activity, including anticancer. Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew (P. quercetorum) is traditionally used for its anthelminthic activity. However, little is known about its biological activity or its effect on cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxic activity of P. quercetorum extract on lung cancer cell lines with varying properties. Following the analyses of its chemical composition, the cytotoxic activity was screened by the adenosine triphosphate viability test...
August 2016: Oncology Letters
Anna K Koch, Petra Klose, Romy Lauche, Holger Cramer, Jennifer Baasch, Gustav J Dobos, Jost Langhorst
Herbal medicine is a promising alternative in the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). We performed a systematic review for phytopharmaceutical treatments of ARS. A computerized search of databases (Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Scopus) up to 16 September 2015 was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled trials (CTs) were included and assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Seven trials on Pelargonium sidoides (EPs 7630, Umckaloabo®), Myrtol (GeloMyrtol® forte), BNO 1016 (Sinupret® extract), BNO 101 (Sinupret®), Cyclamen europaeum (Nasodren®), and Esberitox® were included...
2016: Forschende Komplementärmedizin, Research in Complementary Medicine
Georgia Tooulakou, Andreas Giannopoulos, Dimosthenis Nikolopoulos, Panagiota Bresta, Elissavet Dotsika, Malvina G Orkoula, Christos G Kontoyannis, Costas Fasseas, Georgios Liakopoulos, Maria I Klapa, George Karabourniotis
Calcium oxalate crystals are widespread among animals and plants. In land plants, crystals often reach high amounts, up to 80% of dry biomass. They are formed within specific cells, and their accumulation constitutes a normal activity rather than a pathological symptom, as occurs in animals. Despite their ubiquity, our knowledge on the formation and the possible role(s) of these crystals remains limited. We show that the mesophyll crystals of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) exhibit diurnal volume changes with a gradual decrease during daytime and a total recovery during the night...
August 2016: Plant Physiology
Esma Kozan, Esra Küpeli Akkol, Ipek Süntar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The decoction prepared from the roots of Pelargonium endlicherianum Fenzl. has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasitism in small ruminants in Turkish Folk Medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the present study is to investigate in vitro anthelmintic activity of the extracts prepared from the roots of Pelargonium endlicherianum Fenzl. (Geraniaceae). MATERIALS AND METHODS: So as to determine the potential anthelmintic effect of the roots of the plant, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) extracts were successively prepared...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
J Chris Blazier, Tracey A Ruhlman, Mao-Lun Weng, Sumaiyah K Rehman, Jamal S M Sabir, Robert K Jansen
Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families...
2016: Scientific Reports
Boubourakas Iraklis, Hiroko Kanda, Tomoyuki Nabeshima, Mayu Onda, Nao Ota, Sota Koeda, Munetaka Hosokawa
CSVd could not infect Nicotiana benthamiana when the plants were pretreated with crude leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. C. chinense leaves were revealed to contain strong RNA-digesting activity. Several studies have identified active antiviral and antiviroid agents in plants. Capsicum plants are known to contain antiviral agents, but the mechanism of their activity has not been determined. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of Capsicum extract's antiviroid activity. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) was inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants before or after treating the plants with a leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'...
August 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Marta Blanco-Pérez, Miryam Pérez-Cañamás, Leticia Ruiz, Carmen Hernández
Cap-independent translational enhancers (CITEs) have been identified at the 3´-terminal regions of distinct plant positive-strand RNA viruses belonging to families Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae. On the bases of their structural and/or functional requirements, at least six classes of CITEs have been defined whose distribution does not correlate with taxonomy. The so-called TED class has been relatively under-studied and its functionality only confirmed in the case of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, a parasitic subviral agent...
2016: PloS One
Marta Blanco-Pérez, Carmen Hernández
Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV) is a plus-strand RNA virus that has been proposed as type species of a tentative new genus, Pelarspovirus, in the family Tombusviridae. One of the singular traits of members of this prospective genus is the production of a unique subgenomic (sg) mRNA that is structurally and functionally tricistronic. Here, we have aimed to get insights into the mechanism that governs PLPV sg mRNA transcription. A long-range RNA-RNA interaction that is critical for the process has been identified through RNA folding predictions and mutational analysis of the viral genome...
June 2016: Journal of General Virology
B Tok, M B Kaydan, M Mustu, M R Ulusoy
The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P...
August 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Richard K A Boyle, Martin McAinsh, Ian C Dodd
The physiological response of plants to different irrigation frequencies may affect plant growth and water use efficiency (WUE; defined as shoot biomass/cumulative irrigation). Glasshouse-grown, containerized Pelargonium × hortorum BullsEye plants were irrigated either daily at 100% of plant evapotranspiration (ET) (well-watered; WW), or at 50% ET applied either daily [frequent deficit irrigation (FDI)] or cumulatively every 4 days [infrequent deficit irrigation (IDI)], for 24 days. Both FDI and IDI applied the same irrigation volume...
September 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Wendy J McGavin, Stuart A MacFarlane
Investigation of a tombusvirus isolated from tulip plants in Scotland revealed that it was pelargonium leaf curl virus (PLCV) rather than the originally suggested tomato bushy stunt virus. The complete sequence of the PLCV genome was determined for the first time, revealing it to be 4789 nucleotides in size and to have an organization similar to that of the other, previously described tombusviruses. Primers derived from the sequence were used to construct a full-length infectious clone of PLCV that recapitulates the disease symptoms of leaf curling in systemically infected pelargonium plants...
May 2016: Archives of Virology
Caio Marcelo Cury Souza, Silvio Alves Pereira Junior, Thaís da Silva Moraes, Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno, Suzana Amorim Mendes, Herbert Júnior Dias, Ricardo Stefani, Denise Crispim Tavares, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins, Antônio Eduardo Miller Crotti, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini, Regina Helena Pires
Dental prosthesis supports Candida species growth and may predispose the oral cavity to lesions. C. tropicalis has emerged as a colonizer of prosthesis and has shown resistance to clinically used antifungal agents, which has increased the search for new antifungals. This work describes the effectiveness of fifteen essential oils (EOs) against C. tropicalis The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and were chemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antifungal activities of the EOs were evaluated by the microdilution method and showed that Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) (PG-EO) was the most effective oil...
July 1, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Adrienne B Nicotra, Caroline Chong, Jason G Bragg, Chong Ren Ong, Nicola C Aitken, Aaron Chuah, Brendan Lepschi, Justin O Borevitz
Species delimitation has seen a paradigm shift as increasing accessibility of genomic-scale data enables separation of lineages with convergent morphological traits and the merging of recently diverged ecotypes that have distinguishing characteristics. We inferred the process of lineage formation among Australian species in the widespread and highly variable genus Pelargonium by combining phylogenomic and population genomic analyses along with breeding system studies and character analysis. Phylogenomic analysis and population genetic clustering supported seven of the eight currently described species but provided little evidence for differences in genetic structure within the most widely distributed group that containing P...
May 2016: Molecular Ecology
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