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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215274/cry11aa-interacts-with-the-atp-binding-protein-from-culex-quinquefasciatus-to-improve-the-toxicity
#1
Lingling Zhang, Guohui Zhao, Xiaohua Hu, Jiannan Liu, Mingwei Li, Khadija Batool, Mingfeng Chen, Junxiang Wang, Jin Xu, Tianpei Huang, Xiaohong Pan, Lei Xu, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiong Guan
Cry11Aa displays high toxicity to the larvae of several mosquito species, including Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles. To study its binding characterization against Culex quinquefasciatus, Cry11Aa was purified and western blot results showed that Cry11Aa could bind successfully to the brush border membrane vesicles. To identify Cry11Aa-binding proteins in C. quinquefasciatus, a biotin-based protein pull-down experiment was performed and seven Cry11Aa-binding proteins were isolated from the midgut of C. quinquefasciatus larvae...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189732/identification-and-characterization-of-hyphantria-cunea-aminopeptidase-n-as-a-binding-protein-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab35-toxin
#2
Yakun Zhang, Dan Zhao, Xiaoping Yan, Wei Guo, Yajun Bao, Wei Wang, Xiaoyun Wang
The fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) is a major invasive pest in China. Aminopeptidase N (APN) isoforms in lepidopteran larvae midguts are known for their involvement in the mode of action of insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. In the present work, we identified a putative Cry1Ab toxin-binding protein, an APN isoform designated HcAPN3, in the midgut of H. cunea by ligand blot and mass spectrometry. HcAPN3 was highly expressed throughout all larval developmental stages and was abundant in the midgut and hindgut tissues...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177935/pool-deconvolution-approach-for-high-throughput-gene-mining-from-bacillus-thuringiensis
#3
Bhupendra S Panwar, Chet Ram, Rakesh K Narula, Sarvjeet Kaur
Novel genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are required for effective deployment in agriculture, human health, and forestry. In an improvement over conventional PCR-based screening, next generation sequencing (NGS) has been used for identification of new genes of potential interest from Bt strains, but cost becomes a constraint when several isolates are to be sequenced. We demonstrate the potential of a DNA pooling strategy known as pool deconvolution to identify commercially important toxin genes from 36 native Bt isolates...
November 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155358/criticism-of-efsa-s-scientific-on-combinatorial-effects-of-stacked-gm-plants
#4
Thomas Bøhn
Recent genetically modified plants tend to include both insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits. Some of these 'stacked' GM plants have multiple Cry toxins expressed as well as tolerance to several herbicides. This means that non-target organisms in the environment (biodiversity) will be co-exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously. A similar co-exposure may happen to consumers through chemical residues in the food chain. EFSA, the responsible unit for minimizing risk of harm in European food chains, has expressed its scientific interest in combinatorial effects...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150505/cry64ba-and-cry64ca-two-etx-mtx2-bacillus-thuringiensis-insecticidal-proteins-against-hemipteran-pests
#5
Yonglei Liu, Yinglong Wang, Changlong Shu, Kejian Lin, Fuping Song, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Jie Zhang
Genetically modified crops that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary approach for control of lepidopteran (moth) and coleopteran (beetle) pests that feed by chewing the plants. However, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. In this study, we describe two Cry toxins (Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca) from a Bt 1012 strain showed toxicity against two important rice hemipteran pests, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera Both of these two proteins contain an ETX/MTX2 domain, and share common sequence features with the β-pore forming toxins...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111354/three-gpi-anchored-alkaline-phosphatases-are-involved-in-the-intoxication-of-cry1ca-toxin-to-spodoptera-exigua-larvae
#6
Xiang-Liang Ren, Hong-Yan Hu, Wei-Li Jiang, Xiao-Yan Ma, Ya-Jie Ma, Guo-Qing Li, Yan Ma
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoforms are crucial for the intoxication of crystal proteins (Cry) to several insect species. We cloned five SeALPs from the larval midgut of Spodoptera exigua, a major pest of many crops. All five SeALPs contain a signal peptide at the N-terminus, a phosphatase domain, and a GPI-anchor site at the C-terminus. Additionally, the sequences encode two or three potential N-glycosylation sites. The five SeALPs were highly expressed at the larval stage, especially in the larval gut or Malpighian tubules...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097681/using-phage-display-technology-to-obtain-crybodies-active-against-non-target-insects
#7
Tania Domínguez-Flores, María Dolores Romero-Bosquet, Diana Marcela Gantiva-Díaz, María José Luque-Navas, Colin Berry, Antonio Osuna, Susana Vílchez
The insecticidal Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are increasingly important in the biological control of insect pests and vectors of human disease. Markets for Bt products and transgenic plants expressing their toxins are driven by their specificity, safety and the move away from chemical control agents. However, the high specificity of Cry toxins can also prove to be a limitation when there is no known Cry toxin active against a particular target. Novel activities can be discovered by screening natural Bt isolates or through modifications of the Cry proteins...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094185/nisin-induced-expression-of-recombinant-t-cell-epitopes-of-major-japanese-cedar-pollen-allergens-in-lactococcus-lactis
#8
Vinh Van Hoang, Takahumi Ochi, Kentaro Kurata, Yutaka Arita, Yusuke Ogasahara, Keiichi Enomoto
Japanese cedar pollinosis is a seasonal allergic disease caused by two major pollen allergens: Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens. To develop an oral vaccine to treat pollinosis, we constructed recombinant Lactococcus lactis harboring the gene encoding fused T cell epitopes from the Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens. The recombinant T cell epitope peptide was designed to contain the fused cholera toxin B subunit as an adjuvant and a FLAG tag at the C-terminus. An expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the T cell epitope peptide gene into the multiple cloning sites of plasmid pNZ8148, an Escherichia coli-L...
November 2, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069426/small-rna-mediated-cry-toxin-silencing-allows-bacillus-thuringiensis-to-evade-caenorhabditis-elegans-avoidance-behavioral-defenses
#9
Donghai Peng, Xiaoxia Luo, Ni Zhang, Suxia Guo, Jinshui Zheng, Ling Chen, Ming Sun
Pathogen avoidance behavior protects animal hosts against microbial pathogens. Pathogens have evolved specific strategies during coevolution in response to such host defenses. However, these strategies for combatting host avoidance behavioral defenses remain poorly understood. Here, we used Caenorhabditis elegans and its bacterial pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis as a model and determined that small RNA (sRNA)-mediated Cry toxin silencing allowed pathogens to evade host avoidance behavioral defenses. The B. thuringiensis strain YBT-1518, which encodes three nematicidal cry genes, is highly toxic to C...
October 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027367/the-parasporal-crystals-of-bacillus-pumilus-strain-15-1-a-potential-virulence-factor
#10
Diana C Garcia-Ramon, Colin Berry, Carmen Tse, Alberto Fernández-Fernández, Antonio Osuna, Susana Vílchez
Bacillus pumilus strain 15.1 was previously found to cause larval mortality in the Med-fly Ceratitis capitata and was shown to produce crystals in association with the spore. As parasporal crystals are well-known as invertebrate-active toxins in entomopathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry and Cyt toxins) and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Bin and Cry toxins), the B. pumilus crystals were characterized. The crystals were composed of a 45 kDa protein that was identified as an oxalate decarboxylase by peptide mass fingerprinting, N-terminal sequencing and by comparison with the genome sequence of strain 15...
October 12, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019656/adsorption-of-insecticidal-crystal-protein-cry11aa-onto-nano-mg-oh-2-effects-on-bioactivity-and-anti-ultraviolet-ability
#11
Xiaohong Pan, Zhangyan Xu, Lan Li, Enshi Shao, Saili Chen, Tengzhou Huang, Zhi Chen, Wenhua Rao, Tianpei Huang, Lingling Zhang, Songqing Wu, Xiong Guan
The traditional Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulations for field applications are not resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Hence, the active ingredients of the Bt bioinsecticides could degrade quickly and has low anti-ultraviolet ability in the field, which significantly limits its practical application. In the present study, we developed an efficient and stable delivery system for Bt Cry11Aa toxins. We coated Cry11Aa proteins with Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles (MHNPs), and then assessed the effects of MHNPs on bioactivity and anti-ultraviolet ability of the Cry11Aa proteins...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018619/alpha-arylphorin-is-a-mitogen-in-the-heliothis-virescens-midgut-cell-secretome-upon-cry1ac-intoxication
#12
Anais Castagnola, Jerreme Jackson, Omaththage P Perera, Cris Oppert, Shigetoshi Eda, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes
Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) target cells in the midgut epithelium of susceptible larvae. While the mode of action of Cry toxins has been extensively investigated, the midgut response to Cry intoxication and its regulation are not well characterized. In this work, we describe the secreted proteome (secretome) of primary mature midgut cell cultures from Heliothis virescens larvae after exposure to Cry1Ac toxin compared to control buffer treatment. The Cry1Ac-induced secretome caused higher proliferation and differentiation and an overall reduction in total cell mortality over time in primary H...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981636/bitrophic-and-tritrophic-effects-of-transgenic-cry1ab-cry2aj-maize-on-the-beneficial-nontarget-harmonia-axyridis-coleoptera-coccinellidae
#13
Xue Chang, Zengbin Lu, Zhicheng Shen, Yufa Peng, Gongyin Ye
Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) is a common and abundant predator in China and may be exposed to Cry toxins that are produced in Bt crops either by feeding on plant parts or by feeding on target or nontarget herbivorous insects. A new Bt maize line, expressing the Cry1Ab/Cry2Aj fused protein, has been developed and should be rigorously assessed for the ecological risks on the natural enemy. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of this Bt maize on nontarget predator H. axyridis via bitrophic interaction of adult H...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958733/identification-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1abmod-binding-proteins-from-spodoptera-frugiperda
#14
Diana L Martínez de Castro, Blanca I García-Gómez, Isabel Gómez, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are currently used for pest control in transgenic crops but evolution of resistance by the insect pests threatens the use of this technology. The Cry1AbMod toxin was engineered to lack the alpha helix-1 of the parental Cry1Ab toxin and was shown to counter resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins in different insect species including the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. In addition, Cry1AbMod showed enhanced toxicity to Cry1Ab-susceptible S. frugiperda populations. To gain insights into the mechanisms of this Cry1AbMod-enhanced toxicity, we isolated the Cry1AbMod toxin binding proteins from S...
September 25, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940938/downregulation-of-chilo-suppressalis-alkaline-phosphatase-genes-associated-with-resistance-to-three-transgenic-bacillus-thuringiensis-rice-lines
#15
L Qiu, P Wang, T Wu, B Li, X Wang, C Lei, Y Lin, J Zhao, W Ma
Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are highly toxic to lepidopteran pests. Strains of transgenic rice expressing cry genes have been developed that are resistant to rice pests. Understanding the mode of action of Cry toxins in rice pests will improve our ability to use them effectively as insecticides. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) are involved in Cry1A, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca toxicity in Chilo suppressalis, an important insect pest of rice crops in China...
September 21, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939515/broad-specificity-immunoassay-for-detection-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry-toxins-through-engineering-of-a-single-chain-variable-fragment-with-mutagenesis-and-screening
#16
Jianfeng Zhong, Xiaodan Hu, Xiao Zhang, Yuan Liu, Chongxin Xu, Cunzheng Zhang, Manman Lin, Xianjin Liu
The cultivation of genetically modified crops (GMCs) has greatly increased worldwide. Given the fact that over 10 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins have been applied in GMCs, there is a need to develop an efficient and economically affordable detection method that simultaneously screen such compounds with similar structures in crops and foodstuff. Here we described an approach using a site-directed mutagenesis that enhances the generic specificity of single chain variable fragment (scFv). After three rounds of panning against mixed antigen (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1B, Cry1C and Cry1F) from the constructed mutagenesis library, one mutant showed greater ability to bind to a range of Cry toxins...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928675/larval-mid-gut-responses-to-sub-lethal-dose-of-cry-toxin-in-lepidopteran-pest-achaea-janata
#17
Vinod K Chauhan, Narender K Dhania, R K Chaitanya, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran, Aparna Dutta-Gupta
The lack of homogeneity in field application of Bacillus thuringiensis formulation often results in ingestion of sub-lethal doses of the biopesticide by a fraction of pest population and there by promotes the toxin tolerance and resistance in long term. Gut regeneration seems to be one of the possible mechanism by which this is accomplished. However, the existing information is primarily derived from in vitro studies using mid-gut cell cultures. Present study illustrates cellular and molecular changes in mid-gut epithelium of a Bt-susceptible polyphagous insect pest castor semilooper, Achaea janata in response to a Cry toxin formulation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901209/the-distinct-properties-of-natural-and-gm-cry-insecticidal-proteins
#18
Jonathan R Latham, Madeleine Love, Angelika Hilbeck
The Cry toxins are a family of crystal-forming proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Their mode of action is thought to be to create pores that disrupt the gut epithelial membranes of juvenile insects. These pores allow pathogen entry into the hemocoel, thereby killing the insect. Genes encoding a spectrum of Cry toxins, including Cry mutants, Cry chimaeras and other Cry derivatives, are used commercially to enhance insect resistance in genetically modified (GM) crops. In most countries of the world, such GM crops are regulated and must be assessed for human and environmental safety...
September 13, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900215/highly-effective-broad-spectrum-chimeric-larvicide-that-targets-vector-mosquitoes-using-a-lipophilic-protein
#19
Dennis K Bideshi, Hyun-Woo Park, Robert H Hice, Margaret C Wirth, Brian A Federici
Two mosquitocidal bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Ls) are the active ingredients of commercial larvicides used widely to control vector mosquitoes. Bti's efficacy is due to synergistic interactions among four proteins, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, Cry11Aa, and Cyt1Aa, whereas Ls's activity is caused by Bin, a heterodimer consisting of BinA, the toxin, and BinB, a midgut-binding protein. Cyt1Aa is lipophilic and synergizes Bti Cry proteins by increasing midgut binding...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899808/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-nematicidal-bacillus-thuringiensis-mybt18247
#20
Jacqueline Hollensteiner, Anja Poehlein, Cathrin Spröer, Boyke Bunk, Anna E Sheppard, Philip Rosenstiel, Hinrich Schulenburg, Heiko Liesegang
The Gram-positive spore forming bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis MYBT18247 encodes three cry toxin genes, (cry6Ba2, cry6Ba3 and cry21-like) which are active against nematodes. For a better understanding of the evolution of virulence and cry toxins, we present here the complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis MYBT18247. Various additional virulence factors such as bacteriocins, proteases and hemolysins were identified. In addition, the methylome and the metabolic potential of the strain were analyzed and the strain phylogenetically classified...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
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