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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821431/bacillus-thuringiensis-cyt2aa2-binding-on-lipid-cholesterol-bilayer-depends-on-protein-concentration-and-time
#1
Sudarat Tharad, Alberto Moreno-Cencerrado, Öykü Üzülmez, Boonhiang Promdonkoy, Jose L Toca-Herrera
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium known for its bioinsecticide properties. Besides Cry toxins, B. thuringiensis also produces cytolytic proteins (Cyt) that show toxicity against dipteran insect larvae. Two different models have been proposed in order to explain the interaction mechanism of the cytolytic protein Cyt2Aa2 on lipid membranes: pore-forming and detergent-like action. Here we report on the interaction of Cyt2Aa2 with lipid/cholesterol bilayers at early stage as a function of protein concentration...
August 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808417/down-regulation-of-aminopeptidase-n-and-abc-transporter-subfamily-g-transcripts-in-cry1ab-and-cry1ac-resistant-asian-corn-borer-ostrinia-furnacalis-lepidoptera-crambidae
#2
Tiantao Zhang, Brad S Coates, Yueqin Wang, Yidong Wang, Shuxiong Bai, Zhenying Wang, Kanglai He
The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a highly destructive pest of cultivated maize throughout East Asia. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline protein (Cry) toxins cause mortality by a mechanism involving pore formation or signal transduction following toxin binding to receptors along the midgut lumen of susceptible insects, but this mechanism and mutations therein that lead to resistance are not fully understood. In the current study, quantitative comparisons were made among midgut expressed transcripts from O...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802270/intra-molecular-salt-bridge-in-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry4ba-toxin-is-involved-in-the-stability-of-helix-%C3%AE-3-that-is-needed-for-oligomerization-and-insecticidal-activity
#3
Sabino Pacheco, Isabel Gómez, Jorge Sanchez, Blanca-Ines García-Gómez, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo
Bacillus thuringiensis three domain Cry toxins kill insects by forming pores in the apical membrane of larval midgut cells. Oligomerization of the toxin is an important step for pore formation. Domain I helix α-3 participates in toxin oligomerization. Here we identify an intra-molecular salt bridge within helix α-3 of Cry4Ba (D111-K115) that is conserved in many members of the family of the three-domain Cry toxins. Single point mutations such as D111K or K115D resulted in proteins severely affected in toxicity...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790205/comparative-genomics-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-reveals-a-path-to-specialized-exploitation-of-multiple-invertebrate-hosts
#4
Jinshui Zheng, Qiuling Gao, Linlin Liu, Hualin Liu, Yueying Wang, Donghai Peng, Lifang Ruan, Ben Raymond, Ming Sun
Understanding the genetic basis of host shifts is a key genomic question for pathogen and parasite biology. The Bacillus cereus group, which encompasses Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis, contains pathogens that can infect insects, nematodes, and vertebrates. Since the target range of the essential virulence factors (Cry toxins) and many isolates is well known, this group presents a powerful system for investigating how pathogens can diversify and adapt to phylogenetically distant hosts. Specialization to exploit insects occurs at the level of the major clade and is associated with substantial changes in the core genome, and host switching between insect orders has occurred repeatedly within subclades...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780070/identification-of-cry48aa-cry49aa-toxin-ligands-in-the-midgut-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae
#5
Tatiana Maria Teodoro Rezende, Tatiany Patrícia Romão, Michel Batista, Colin Berry, Michael J Adang, Maria Helena Neves Lobo Silva-Filha
A binary mosquitocidal toxin composed of a three-domain Cry-like toxin (Cry48Aa) and a binary-like toxin (Cry49Aa) was identified in Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa has action on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, in particular, to those that are resistant to the Bin Binary toxin, which is the major insecticidal factor from L. sphaericus-based biolarvicides, indicating that Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa interacts with distinct target sites in the midgut and can overcome Bin toxin resistance. This study aimed to identify Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa ligands in C...
August 2, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777960/in-situ-surface-transfer-process-of-cry1ac-protein-on-sio2%C3%AF-the-effect-of-biosurfactants-for-desorption
#6
Shuzhou Miao, Xingzhong Yuan, Yunshan Liang, Hou Wang, Lijian Leng, Zhibin Wu, Longbo Jiang, Yifu Li, Dan Mo, Guangming Zeng
Genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops, which have been widely used in agricultural transgenic plants, express insecticidal Cry proteins and release the toxin into soils. Taking into consideration the environmental risk of Cry proteins, biosurfactant-rhamnolipids were applied to desorb Cry proteins from soil environment, which has not been elucidated before. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used in this article to investigate the adsorption and desorption behaviors of Cry1Ac on SiO2 surface (model soil)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768539/comprehensive-in-silico-allergenicity-assessment-of-novel-protein-engineered-chimeric-cry-proteins-for-safe-deployment-in-crops
#7
Maniraj Rathinam, Shweta Singh, Debasis Pattanayak, Rohini Sreevathsa
BACKGROUND: Development of chimeric Cry toxins by protein engineering of known and validated proteins is imperative for enhancing the efficacy and broadening the insecticidal spectrum of these genes. Expression of novel Cry proteins in food crops has however created apprehensions with respect to the safety aspects. To clarify this, premarket evaluation consisting of an array of analyses to evaluate the unintended effects is a prerequisite to provide safety assurance to the consumers. Additionally, series of bioinformatic tools as in silico aids are being used to evaluate the likely allergenic reaction of the proteins based on sequence and epitope similarity with known allergens...
August 2, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751252/pore-forming-toxins-in-cnidaria
#8
REVIEW
Marjetka Podobnik, Gregor Anderluh
The ancient phylum of Cnidaria contains many aquatic species with peculiar lifestyle. In order to survive, these organisms have evolved attack and defense mechanisms that are enabled by specialized cells and highly developed venoms. Pore-forming toxins are an important part of their venomous arsenal. Along some other types, the most representative are examples of four protein families that are commonly found in other kingdoms of life: actinoporins, Cry-like proteins, aerolysin-like toxins and MACPF/CDC toxins...
July 24, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736301/foxa-transcriptional-factor-modulates-insect-susceptibility-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ac-toxin-by-regulating-the-expression-of-toxin-receptor-abcc2-and-abcc3-genes
#9
Jianghuai Li, Yuemin Ma, Wanli Yuan, Yutao Xiao, Chenxi Liu, Jia Wang, Jianxin Peng, Rong Peng, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Yongbo Yang, Kaiyu Liu
Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are insecticidal proteins widely used in insect control. Recently, it was shown that ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins (ABC) such as ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCG1 and ABCA2 are implicated in the insecticidal action of Cry toxins as putative receptors. However, the transcriptional regulators involved in the expression of ABC transporter genes remain unknown. Sequence analysis of promoter regions of ABCC2 gene from Helicoverpa armigera and ABCC3 gene from Spodoptera litura Sl-HP cultured cells, revealed the potential participation of Forkhead box protein A (FOXA), a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes through remodeling chromatin...
July 21, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729614/knockdown-of-two-cadherin-genes-confers-resistance-to-cry2a-and-cry1c-in-chilo-suppressalis
#10
Zan Zhang, Xiaolu Teng, Weihua Ma, Fei Li
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins play an important role in the management of insect pests. Resistance to Bt toxins has been reported in many pest insects but the mechanism responsible for this resistance in rice crop pests remains largely unknown. Cadherin is one of several Bt toxin receptors. At present, only one cadherin gene, CsCAD1, has been documented in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. We amplified a nearly full-length transcript of another C. suppressalis cadherin gene, CsCAD2, and found that it has a different expression pattern to CsCAD1...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713202/toward-mosquito-control-with-a-green-alga-expression-of-cry-toxins-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-bti-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas
#11
Seongjoon Kang, Obed W Odom, Saravanan Thangamani, David L Herrin
We are developing Chlamydomonas strains that can be used for safe and sustainable control of mosquitoes, because they produce proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in the chloroplast. Chlamydomonas has a number of advantages for this approach, including genetic controls that are not generally available with industrial algae. The Bti toxin has been used for mosquito control for > 30 years and does not engender resistance; it contains three Cry proteins, Cry4Aa (135 kDa), Cry4Ba (128 kDa) and Cry11Aa (72 kDa), and Cyt1Aa (25 kDa)...
June 2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710264/two-novel-dissimilar-crystal-proteins-cry5ca1-and-cry5da1-synergistically-act-against-meloidogyne-incognita-and-delay-cry5ba-based-nematode-resistance
#12
Ce Geng, Yingying Liu, Miaomiao Li, Zhen Tang, Sajid Muhammad, Jinshui Zheng, Danfeng Wan, Donghai Peng, Lifang Ruan, Ming Sun
Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis have been successfully used as biopesticides and transgenic crops throughout the world. However, resources against the most serious agricultural pathogens, plant root-knot nematodes, are limited. The genomes of several highly nematicidal virulent Bt strains from our laboratory have been sequenced, facilitating the identification of novel Cry proteins and other virulence factors. We identified two novel Cry proteins, Cry5Ca1 and Cry5Da1, that exhibit high toxicity against Meloidogyne incognita Using the Caenorhabditis elegans model, both Cry5 toxins showed to negatively affect nematode lifespan, fertility and survival...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699724/toxicity-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry2ab-and-the-inheritance-of-cry2ab-resistance-in-the-pink-bollworm-pectinophora-gossypiella-saunders
#13
P A Malthankar, G T Gujar
Though the insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are effective against insect pests, evolution of resistance remains an issue of great concern. Here, we explored the ability of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a key pest of cotton, to evolve resistance to Cry2Ab and characterized it in terms of inheritance. Sixteen day bioassay of Bt Cry2Ab toxin against 5-day old pink bollworm larvae showed median lethal concentration (LC(50)) ranging 0...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688300/herbicide-and-insect-resistant-bt-cotton-pollen-assessment-finds-no-detrimental-effects-on-adult-honey-bees
#14
Lin Niu, Weihua Ma, Chaoliang Lei, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Lizhen Chen
One important concern regarding the use of transgenic cotton expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is its potential detrimental effect on non-target organisms. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most important pollinator species worldwide and it is directly exposed to transgenic crops by the consumption of genetically modified (GM) pollen. However, the potential effects of Bt cotton on A. mellifera remain unclear. In the present study, we assessed the effects of two Bt cotton varieties; ZMSJ expressing the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins, and ZMKCKC producing Cry1Ac and EPSPS, on A...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685236/engineered-cry1ac-cry9aa-hybrid-bacillus-thuringiensis-delta-endotoxin-with-improved-insecticidal-activity-against-helicoverpa-armigera
#15
Jigar V Shah, Rakeshkumar Yadav, Sanjay S Ingle
Recombinant Bt construct was prepared by exchange of pore forming domain I with cry1Ac to cry9Aa gene by overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) technique. Construction of cry1Ac-cry9Aa was accomplished by six base pair homology at 3' ends of PCR products of domain I of cry1Ac and domain II and III of cry9Aa. The recombinant toxin was also modified by deletion of N-terminal alpha helix-1 of recombinant toxin. Both Cry toxins were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) plysS and purified by His-tag purification. Upon insect bioassay analysis against devastating crop pest Helicoverpa armigera, toxicity of recombinant toxin was found around fivefold higher than native Cry1Ac while alpha helix-1 deleted N-terminal modified toxin did not resulted in significant increase in toxicity...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676354/cry46ab-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-tk-e6-is-a-new-mosquitocidal-toxin-with-aerolysin-type-architecture
#16
Tohru Hayakawa, Akira Sakakibara, Sho Ueda, Yoshinao Azuma, Toru Ide, So Takebe
Cry46Ab is a Cry toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis TK-E6. Cry46Ab is not significantly homologous to other mosquitocidal Cry or Cyt toxins and is classified as an aerolysin-type pore-forming toxin based on structural similarity. In this study, the potency of Cry46Ab was assessed for its potential application to mosquito control. A synthetic Cry46Ab gene, cry46Ab-S1, was designed to produce recombinant Cry46Ab as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Cry46Ab showed apparent toxicity to Culex pipiens larvae, with a 50% lethal dose of 1...
August 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634848/erratum-to-towards-novel-cry-toxins-with-enhanced-toxicity-broader-a-new-chimeric-cry4ba-cry1ac-toxin
#17
Raida Zribi Zghal, Jihen Elleuch, Mamdouh Ben Ali, Frédéric Darriet, Ahmed Rebaï, Fabrice Chandre, Samir Jaoua, Slim Tounsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601895/site-saturation-mutagenesis-library-construction-and-screening-for-specific-broad-spectrum-single-domain-antibodies-against-multiple-cry1-toxins
#18
Lingxia Jiao, Yuan Liu, Xiao Zhang, Beibei Liu, Cunzheng Zhang, Xianjin Liu
Potential ecological environmental and food safety risks of various Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in transgenic food have received gradually increasing attention, which urged to establish an efficient and broad-spectrum detection technology for Cry toxins. Based on the single-domain antibody (sdAb) A8 against Bt Cry1Ab toxin screened from the humanized domain antibody library, the key amino acids of sdAb (A8) binding five kinds of Cry1 toxins were predicted using homology modeling and molecular docking technology, and the results showed that 105th asparagine, 106th arginine, 107th valine, and 114th arginine, respectively, located in heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 were common key amino acid sites...
June 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597156/molecular-characterization-of-indigenous-bacillus-thuringiensis-strains-isolated-from-kashmir-valley
#19
A L Reyaz, L Gunapriya, P Indra Arulselvi
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) being an eco-friendly bioinsecticide is effectively used in pest management strategies and, therefore, isolation and identification of new strains effective against a broad range of target pests is important. In the present study, new indigenous B. thuringiensis strains were isolated and investigated so that these could be used as an alternative and/or support the current commercial strains/cry proteins in use. For this, 159 samples including soil, leaf and spider webs were collected from ten districts of Kashmir valley (India)...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587836/functional-characterization-of-aedes-aegypti-alkaline-phosphatase-alp1-involved-in-the-toxicity-of-cry-toxins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-and-jegathesan
#20
Jianwu Chen, Karly Aimanova, Sarjeet S Gill
Presently three major groups of proteins from Aedes aegypti, cadherin, alkaline phosphatases (ALP) and aminopeptidases N (APN), have been identified as Cry11Aa toxin receptors. To further characterize their role on toxicity, transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression were previously generated and the role of cadherin in mediating the toxicity of four different mosquitocidal toxins (Cry11Aa, Cry11Ba, Cry4Aa and Cry4Ba) was demonstrated. Here, we investigated the role of another reported Cry11Aa receptor, ALP1...
June 3, 2017: Peptides
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