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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492498/assessment-of-inheritance-and-fitness-costs-associated-with-field-evolved-resistance-to-cry3bb1-maize-by-western-corn-rootworm
#1
Aubrey R Paolino, Aaron J Gassmann
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry) toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present...
May 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481307/histopathological-effects-of-bt-and-tcda-insecticidal-proteins-on-the-midgut-epithelium-of-western-corn-rootworm-larvae-diabrotica-virgifera-virgifera
#2
Andrew J Bowling, Heather E Pence, Huarong Li, Sek Yee Tan, Steven L Evans, Kenneth E Narva
Western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) is a major corn pest in the United States, causing annual losses of over $1 billion. One approach to protect against crop loss by this insect is the use of transgenic corn hybrids expressing one or more crystal (Cry) proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 together comprise a binary insecticidal toxin with specific activity against WCR. These proteins have been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids resistant to WCR feeding damage...
May 8, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472094/what-are-farmers-really-planting-measuring-the-presence-and-effectiveness-of-bt-cotton-in-pakistan
#3
David J Spielman, Fatima Zaidi, Patricia Zambrano, Asif Ali Khan, Shaukat Ali, H Masooma Naseer Cheema, Hina Nazli, Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan, Arshad Iqbal, Muhammad Amir Zia, Ghulam Muhammad Ali
Genetically modified, insect-resistant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is cultivated extensively in Pakistan. Past studies, however, have raised concerns about the prevalence of Bt cotton varieties possessing weak or nonperforming insect-resistance traits conferred by the cry gene. We examine this issue using data drawn from a representative sample of cotton-growing households that were surveyed in six agroclimatic zones spanning 28 districts in Pakistan in 2013, as well as measurements of Cry protein levels in cotton tissue samples collected from the sampled households' main fields...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450016/peptide-selection-and-antibody-generation-for-the-prospective-immunorecognition-of-cry1ab16-protein-of-transgenic-maize
#4
Joana Costa, Mariela M Marani, Liliana Grazina, Caterina Villa, Liliana Meira, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, José R S A Leite, Isabel Mafra
The introduction of genes isolated from different Bacillus thuringiensis strains to express Cry-type toxins in transgenic crops is a common strategy to confer insect resistance traits. This work intended to extensively in silico analyse Cry1A(b)16 protein for the identification of peptide markers for the biorecognition of transgenic crops. By combining two different strategies based on several bioinformatic tools for linear epitope prediction, a set of seven peptides was successfully selected as potential Cry1A(b)16 immunogens...
September 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416297/cry-toxin-specificities-of-insect-abcc-transporters-closely-related-to-lepidopteran-abcc2-transporters
#5
Haruka Endo, Shiho Tanaka, Kazuhiro Imamura, Satomi Adegawa, Shingo Kikuta, Ryoichi Sato
In this study, we examined insect and human ABCC transporters closely related to the lepidopteran ABC transporter C2 (ABCC2), a powerful receptor for the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin, for their responses to various Cry toxins. ABCC2 and the lepidopteran ABC transporter C3 (ABCC3) conferred cultured cells with susceptibility to a lepidopteran-specific Cry1Aa toxin but not to lepidopteran-specific Cry1Ca and Cry1Da. One coleopteran ABCC transporter specifically responded to a coleopteran-specific Cry8Ca toxin...
April 14, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389549/identification-of-holotrichia-oblita-midgut-proteins-that-bind-to-cry8-like-toxin-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-and-assembling-of-h-oblita-midgut-tissue-transcriptome
#6
Jian Jiang, Ying Huang, Changlong Shu, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Chunqing Liu, Fuping Song, Jinsheng Lai, Jie Zhang
The Bacillus thuringiensis strain HBF-18 (CGMCC2070), containing two cry genes (cry8-like and cry8Ga), is toxic to Holotrichia oblita larvae. Both Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins are active against this insect pest, while Cry8-like is the more toxic protein. To analyze the binding characteristics of Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) in H. oblita larvae, binding assays were conducted with a fluorescent DyLight488-labeled Cry8-like toxin. Results of binding saturation assays demonstrated that Cry8-like binds specifically to binding sites on BBMV from H...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379206/baseline-susceptibility-of-field-populations-of-helicoverpa-armigera-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3aa-toxin-and-lack-of-cross-resistance-between-vip3aa-and-cry-toxins
#7
Yiyun Wei, Shuwen Wu, Yihua Yang, Yidong Wu
The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is one of the most damaging cotton pests worldwide. In China, control of this pest has been dependent on transgenic cotton producing a single Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein Cry1Ac since 1997. A small, but significant, increase in H. armigera resistance to Cry1Ac was detected in field populations from Northern China. Since Vip3Aa has a different structure and mode of action than Cry proteins, Bt cotton pyramids containing Vip3Aa are considered as ideal successors of Cry1Ac cotton in China...
April 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364809/influence-of-ephestia-kuehniella-stage-larvae-on-the-potency-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1aa-delta-endotoxin
#8
Nouha Abdelmalek, Sameh Sellami, Mireille Kallassy-Awad, Molka Feki Tounsi, Abdelkrim Mebarkia, Slim Tounsi, Souad Rouis
The economically important crop pest Ephestia kuehniella was tested at two stages of larval development for susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin. Bioassays showed that toxicity decreased during the development of larvae stage. In fact, Cry1Aa toxins from BNS3-Cry(-) (pHT-cry1Aa) showed low toxicity against the first-instar larvae (L1) with a LC50 value of about 421.02μg/g of diet and was not toxic against the fifth-instar (L5), comparing to the BLB1 toxins used as positive control which represent a LC50 value of about 56...
April 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341807/the-human-cancer-cell-active-toxin-cry41aa-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-acts-like-its-insecticidal-counterparts
#9
Vidisha Krishnan, Barbara Domanska, Alicia Elhigazi, Fatai Afolabi, Michelle J West, Neil Crickmore
Understanding how certain protein toxins from the normally insecticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis target human cell lines has implications for both the risk assessment of products containing these toxins and potentially for cancer therapy. This understanding requires knowledge of whether the human cell active toxins work by the same mechanism as their insecticidal counterparts or by alternative ones. The B. thuringiensis Cry41Aa (also known as Parasporin3) toxin is structurally related to the toxins synthesized by commercially produced transgenic insect-resistant plants, with the notable exception of an additional C-terminal beta-trefoil ricin domain...
March 24, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334065/an-overview-of-mechanisms-of-cry-toxin-resistance-in-lepidopteran-insects
#10
B Peterson, C C Bezuidenhout, J Van den Berg
Arthropods have the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides and insecticidal traits in genetically modified crops. Resistance development among Lepidoptera is a common phenomenon, and a repertoire of resistance mechanisms to various Cry toxins have been identified from laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies in this insect order. Elucidation of such resistance mechanisms is crucial for developing IRM (insect resistance management) strategies to ensure sustainable use of genetically modified crops. This mini review provides a comprehensive overview of mechanisms of resistance that have been reported for lepidopteran pests...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321527/effects-of-site-mutations-within-the-22%C3%A2-kda-no-core-fragment-of-the-vip3aa11-insecticidal-toxin-of-bacillus-thuringiensis
#11
Ming Liu, Rongmei Liu, Guoxing Luo, Haitao Li, Jiguo Gao
Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) are not homologous to other known Cry proteins, and they act against lepidopteran larvae via a unique process. All reported studies on the mode of action of Vip3 proteins have been performed on the Vip3A family, mostly on the Vip3Aa subfamily. Vip3Aa proteins are activated by midgut proteases, and they cross the peritrophic membrane and bind specific proteins in apical membrane epithelial midgut cells, which results in pore formation and, eventually, death to the insects...
May 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316108/cry1a-b-16-toxin-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-theoretical-refinement-of-three-dimensional-structure-and-prediction-of-peptides-as-molecular-markers-for-detection-of-genetically-modified-organisms
#12
Alexandra Plácido, Andreia Coelho, Lucas Abreu Nascimento, Andreanne Gomes Vasconcelos, Maria Fátima Barroso, Joilson Ramos-Jesus, Vladimir Costa, Francisco das Chagas Alves Lima, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Ricardo Martins Ramos, Mariela M Marani, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida Leite
Transgenic maize produced by the insertion of the Cry transgene into its genome became the second most cultivated crop worldwide. Cry gene from Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki expresses protein derivatives of crystalline endotoxins which confer insect resistance onto the maize crop. Mandatory labeling of processed food containing or made by genetically modified organisms is in force in many countries, so, it is very urgent to develop fast and practical methods for GMO identification, for example, biosensors...
March 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282927/in-vivo-crystallization-of-three-domain-cry-toxins
#13
REVIEW
Rooma Adalat, Faiza Saleem, Neil Crickmore, Shagufta Naz, Abdul Rauf Shakoori
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most successful, environmentally-friendly, and intensively studied microbial insecticide. The major characteristic of Bt is the production of proteinaceous crystals containing toxins with specific activity against many pests including dipteran, lepidopteran, and coleopteran insects, as well as nematodes, protozoa, flukes, and mites. These crystals allow large quantities of the protein toxins to remain stable in the environment until ingested by a susceptible host. It has been previously established that 135 kDa Cry proteins have a crystallization domain at their C-terminal end...
March 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279647/isolation-of-a-peptide-from-ph-d-c7c-phage-display-library-for-detection-of-cry1ab
#14
Yun Wang, Qian Wang, Ai-Hua Wu, Zhen-Ping Hao, Xian-Jin Liu
Traditional ELISA methods of using animal immunity yield antibodies for detection Cry toxin. Not only is this incredibly harmful to the animals, but is also time-intensive. Here we developed a simple method to yield the recognition element. Using a critical selection strategy and immunoassay we confirmed a clone from the Ph.D-C7C phage library, which has displayed the most interesting Cry1Ab-binding characteristics examined in this study (Fig. 1). The current study indicates that isolating peptide is an alternative method for the preparation of a recognition element, and that the developed assay is a potentially useful tool for detecting Cry1Ab...
March 6, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274717/rna-interference-knockdown-of-aminopeptidase-n-genes-decrease-the-susceptibility-of-chilo-suppressalis-larvae-to-cry1ab-cry1ac-and-cry1ca-expressing-transgenic-rice
#15
Lin Qiu, Jinxing Fan, Boyao Zhang, Lang Liu, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Yongjun Lin, Weihua Ma
Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins are resistant to lepidopteran pests, such as Chilo suppressalis, a major insect pest of rice in Asia. Understanding how these toxins interact with their hosts is crucial to understanding their insecticidal action. In this study, knockdown of two aminopeptidase N genes (APN1 and APN2) by RNA interference resulted in decreased susceptibility of C. suppressalis larvae to the Bt rice varieties TT51 (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac fusion genes) and T1C-19 (Cry1Ca), but not T2A-1 (Cry2Aa)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235989/bacillus-thuringiensis-a-successful-insecticide-with-new-environmental-features-and-tidings
#16
REVIEW
Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani, Elena Valijanian, Reza Sharafi
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known as the most successful microbial insecticide against different orders of insect pests in agriculture and medicine. Moreover, Bt toxin genes also have been efficiently used to enhance resistance to insect pests in genetically modified crops. In light of the scientific advantages of new molecular biology technologies, recently, some other new potentials of Bt have been explored. These new environmental features include the toxicity against nematodes, mites, and ticks, antagonistic effects against plant and animal pathogenic bacteria and fungi, plant growth-promoting activities (PGPR), bioremediation of different heavy metals and other pollutants, biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles, production of polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymer, and anticancer activities (due to parasporins)...
April 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144706/pest-management-through-bacillus-thuringiensis-bt-in-a-tea-silkworm-ecosystem-status-and-potential-prospects
#17
REVIEW
Kavya Dashora, Somnath Roy, Akanksha Nagpal, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay Roy, Julie Flood, Anjali Km Prasad, Ravinder Khetarpal, Suzanne Neave, N Muraleedharan
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a soil bacterium that forms spores containing crystals comprising one or more Cry or Cyt proteins having potential and specific insecticidal activity. Different strains of Bt produce different types of toxins, affecting a narrow taxonomic group of insects. Therefore, it is used in non-chemical pest management, including inherent pest resistance through GM crops. The specificity of action of Bt toxins reduces the concern of adverse effects on non-target species, a concern which remains with chemical insecticides as well...
March 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123906/cry1ac-and-vip3aa-proteins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-targeting-cry-toxin-resistance-in-diatraea-flavipennella-and-elasmopalpus-lignosellus-from-sugarcane
#18
Ana Rita Nunes Lemes, Camila Soares Figueiredo, Isis Sebastião, Liliane Marques da Silva, Rebeka da Costa Alves, Herbert Álvaro Abreu de Siqueira, Manoel Victor Franco Lemos, Odair Aparecido Fernandes, Janete Apparecida Desidério
The biological potential of Vip and Cry proteins from Bacillus is well known and widely established. Thus, it is important to look for new genes showing different modes of action, selecting those with differentiated entomotoxic activity against Diatraea flavipennella and Elasmopalpus lignosellus, which are secondary pests of sugarcane. Therefore, Cry1 and Vip3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their toxicities were evaluated based on bioassays using neonate larvae. Of those, the most toxic were Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa considering the LC50 values...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114755/comparative-proteomic-and-nutritional-composition-analysis-of-independent-transgenic-pigeon-pea-seeds-harboring-cry1acf-and-cry2aa-genes-and-their-nontransgenic-counterparts
#19
Pragya Mishra, Shweta Singh, Maniraj Rathinam, Muralimohan Nandiganti, Nikhil Ram Kumar, Arulprakash Thangaraj, Vinutha Thimmegowda, Veda Krishnan, Vagish Mishra, Neha Jain, Vandna Rai, Debasis Pattanayak, Rohini Sreevathsa
Safety assessment of genetically modified plants is an important aspect prior to deregulation. Demonstration of substantial equivalence of the transgenics compared to their nontransgenic counterparts can be performed using different techniques at various molecular levels. The present study is a first-ever comprehensive evaluation of pigeon pea transgenics harboring two independent cry genes, cry2Aa and cry1AcF. The absence of unintended effects in the transgenic seed components was demonstrated by proteome and nutritional composition profiling...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067269/proteomic-analysis-of-cry2aa-binding-proteins-and-their-receptor-function-in-spodoptera-exigua
#20
Lin Qiu, Boyao Zhang, Lang Liu, Weihua Ma, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Lizhen Chen
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces Crystal (Cry) proteins that are toxic to a diverse range of insects. Transgenic crops that produce Bt Cry proteins are grown worldwide because of their improved resistance to insect pests. Although Bt "pyramid" cotton that produces both Cry1A and Cry2A is predicted to be more resistant to several lepidopteran pests, including Spodoptera exigua, than plants that produce Cry1Ac alone, the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of Cry2Aa in S. exigua are not well understood...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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