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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858245/specific-binding-between-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry9aa-and-vip3aa-toxins-synergizes-their-toxicity-against-asiatic-rice-borer-chilo-suppressalis
#1
Zeyu Wang, Longfa Fang, Zishan Zhou, Sabino Pacheco, Isabel Gómez, Fuping Song, Mario Soberón, Jie Zhang, Alejandra Bravo
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces several insecticidal proteins, such as the crystal proteins (Cry) and the vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip). In this work, we report that a specific interaction between two B. thuringiensis toxins creates insecticidal synergism and unravel the molecular basis of this interaction. When applied together, the three-domain Cry toxin, Cry9Aa and the Vip, Vip3Aa, exhibited high insecticidal activity against an important insect pest, the Asiatic rice borer ( Chilo suppressalis )...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800666/a-novel-vip3aa16-cry1ac-chimera-toxin-enhancement-of-toxicity-against-ephestia-kuehniella-structural-study-and-molecular-docking
#2
Sameh Sellami, Sonia Jemli, Nouha Abdelmalek, Marwa Cherif, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Slim Tounsi, Kais Jamoussi
Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A protein has been widely used for crop protection and for delay resistance to existing insecticidal Cry toxins. During current study, a fusion between vip3Aa16 and the toxic core sequence of cry1Ac was constructed in pHT Blue plasmid. Vip3Aa16-Cry1Ac protein was expressed in the supernatant of B. thuringiensis with a size of about 150 kDa. Bioassays tested on Ephestia kuehniella showed that the use of the chimera toxin as biopesticide improved the toxicity to reach 90% ± 2 with an enhancement of 20% compared to the single Vip3Aa16 protein...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778876/genome-sequence-analysis-of-a-novel-bacillus-thuringiensis-strain-blb406-active-against-aedes-aegypti-larvae-a-novel-potential-bioinsecticide
#3
Raida Zribi Zghal, Kais Ghedira, Jihen Elleuch, Marwa Kharrat, Slim Tounsi
BLB406 is a novel isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis with a larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae. It displays original plasmidic and crystal protein patterns. The present work reported molecular and bioinformatic analyses for the genome sequence of BLB406 using MiSeq Illumina next-generation sequencing technology. The reads were assembled by Velvet tool. Using RAST program and PGAAP the genome of BLB406 strain was shown to contain 6297 genes corresponding to 5924 protein coding sequences. The BLB406 genome investigation with BtToxin_scanner program shows that this strain has an original and different combination of toxins compared to the published ones: five cry genes (cry11, cry22, cry2, cry60, cry64) and two distinct vegetative insecticidal vip4 genes...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752275/whole-genomic-analysis-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-revealing-partial-genes-as-a-source-of-novel-cry-toxins
#4
Muhammad Sajid, Ce Geng, Miaomiao Li, Yueying Wang, Hualin Liu, Jinshui Zheng, Donghai Peng, Ming Sun
Despite the successful application of Crystal proteins (Cry) from Bacillus thuringiensis as biological control agents against insects, there is an increasing demand to identify new Cry toxins having higher toxicity and broad spectrum activity against insects and plant parasitic nematodes. To find novel Cry toxins, we screened 100 whole genome sequences of B. thuringiensis. Surprisingly, in addition to full Cry toxins, we found partial sequences, such as typical N-terminal or C-terminal with conserved domains, widely distributed among 20 strains of B...
May 11, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738473/expression-of-a-synthetic-gene-for-the-major-cytotoxin-cyt1aa-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-in-the-chloroplast-of-wild-type-chlamydomonas
#5
Seongjoon Kang, Obed W Odom, Candice L Malone, Saravanan Thangamani, David L Herrin
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ( Chlamydomonas ) strains that are toxic to mosquito larvae because they express chloroplast transgenes that are based on the mosquitocidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) could be very useful in mosquito control. Chlamydomonas has several advantages for this approach, including genetic controls not generally available with industrial algae. The Bti toxin is produced by sporulating bacteria and has been used for mosquito control for >30 years without creating highly resistant mosquito populations...
May 8, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668958/long-term-empirical-and-observational-evidence-of-practical-helicoverpa-zea-resistance-to-cotton-with-pyramided-bt-toxins
#6
Dominic D Reisig, Anders S Huseth, Jack S Bacheler, Mohammad-Amir Aghaee, Lewis Braswell, Hannah J Burrack, Kathy Flanders, Jeremy K Greene, D Ames Herbert, Alana Jacobson, Silvana V Paula-Moraes, Phillip Roberts, Sally V Taylor
Evidence of practical resistance of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Bt cotton in the United States is debatable, supported with occasional reports of boll damage in the field. Our objective was to provide both empirical and long-term observational evidence of practical resistance by linking both in-season and end-of-season measurements of H. zea damage to pyramided Bt cotton bolls and to provide Cry1Ac diet-based bioassay data in support of these damage estimates. In-season boll damage from H...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666188/extracellular-loop-structures-in-silkworm-abcc-transporters-determine-their-specificities-for-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry-toxins
#7
Haruka Endo, Shiho Tanaka, Satomi Adegawa, Fumika Ichino, Hiroko Tabunoki, Shingo Kikuta, Ryoichi Sato
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are insecticidal proteins used widely for pest control. They are lethal to a restricted range of insects via specific interactions with insect receptors such as the ABC transporter subfamily members C2 (ABCC2) and C3 (ABCC3). However, it is still unclear how these different receptors contribute to insect susceptibility to Cry1A toxins. Here, we investigated the differences between the silkworm ( Bombyx mori ) ABCC2 (BmABCC2_S) and ABCC3 (BmABCC3) receptors in mediating Cry toxicity...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607282/recent-advancement-on-chemical-arsenal-of-bt-toxin-and-its-application-in-pest-management-system-in-agricultural-field
#8
REVIEW
Pritam Chattopadhyay, Goutam Banerjee
Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, soil bacterium, which is very popular bio-control agent in agricultural and forestry. In general, B. thuringiensis secretes an array of insecticidal proteins including toxins produced during vegetative growth phase (such as secreted insecticidal protein, Sip; vegetative insecticidal proteins, Vip), parasporal crystalline δ-endotoxins produced during vegetative stationary phase (such as cytolytic toxin, Cyt; and crystal toxin, Cry), and β-exotoxins...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569843/evaluation-of-the-potential-exposure-of-butterflies-to-genetically-modified-maize-pollen-in-protected-areas-in-italy
#9
Salvatore Arpaia, Ferdinando Baldacchino, Sara Bosi, Giovanni Burgio, Simona Errico, Rosaria Alessandra Magarelli, Antonio Masetti, Salvatore Santorsola
Environmental impacts of genetically modified crops are mandatorily assessed during their premarket phase. One of the areas of concern is the possible impact on nontarget organisms. Crops expressing Cry toxins might affect Lepidoptera larvae living outside cultivated fields, through pollen deposition on wild plants, which constitute their food source. While pollen toxicity varies among different events, possible exposure of nontarget species depends on the agro-environmental conditions. This study was conducted in two protected areas in Italy, characterized by different climatic conditions, where many Lepidoptera species thrive in proximity to maize cultivations...
March 23, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563565/engineering-bacillus-thuringiensis-cyt1aa-toxin-specificity-from-dipteran-to-lepidopteran-toxicity
#10
Mary-Carmen Torres-Quintero, Isabel Gómez, Sabino Pacheco, Jorge Sánchez, Humberto Flores, Joel Osuna, Gretel Mendoza, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo
The Cyt and Cry toxins are different pore-forming proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria, and used in insect-pests control. Cry-toxins have a complex mechanism involving interaction with several proteins in the insect gut such as aminopeptidase N (APN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cadherin (CAD). It was shown that the loop regions of domain II of Cry toxins participate in receptor binding. Cyt-toxins are dipteran specific and interact with membrane lipids. We show that Cry1Ab domain II loop3 is involved in binding to APN, ALP and CAD receptors since point mutation Cry1Ab-G439D affected binding to these proteins...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509989/lineage-specific-plasmid-acquisition-and-the-evolution-of-specialized-pathogens-in-bacillus-thuringiensis-and-the-bacillus-cereus-group
#11
Guillaume Méric, Leonardos Mageiros, Ben Pascoe, Dan J Woodcock, Evangelos Mourkas, Sarah Lamble, Rory Bowden, Keith A Jolley, Ben Raymond, Samuel K Sheppard
Bacterial plasmids can vary from small selfish genetic elements to large autonomous replicons that constitute a significant proportion of total cellular DNA. By conferring novel function to the cell, plasmids may facilitate evolution but their mobility may be opposed by co-evolutionary relationships with chromosomes or encouraged via the infectious sharing of genes encoding public goods. Here, we explore these hypotheses through large-scale examination of the association between plasmids and chromosomal DNA in the phenotypically diverse Bacillus cereus group...
April 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502179/nematode-specific-cadherin-cdh-8-acts-as-a-receptor-for-cry5b-toxin-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Donghai Peng, Danfeng Wan, Chunsheng Cheng, Xiaobo Ye, Ming Sun
Parasitic nematodes of animals and plants cause worldwide devastating impacts on people's lives and agricultural crops. The crystal protein Cry5B produced by Bacillus thuringiensis has efficient and specific activity against a wide range of nematodes. However, the action mode of this toxin has not yet been thoroughly determined. Here, a nematode-specific cadherin CDH-8 was demonstrated to be a receptor for Cry5B toxin by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, providing evidence that the cadherin mutant worm cdh-8(RB815) possesses significant resistance to Cry5B, and the CDH-8 fragments bind specifically to Cry5B...
April 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495405/cross-resistance-a-consequence-of-bi-partite-host-parasite-coevolution
#13
Tilottama Biswas, Gerrit Joop, Charlotte Rafaluk-Mohr
Host-parasite coevolution can influence interactions of the host and parasite with the wider ecological community. One way that this may manifest is in cross-resistance towards other parasites, which has been observed to occur in some host-parasite evolution experiments. In this paper, we test for cross-resistance towards Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas entomophila in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum , which was previously allowed to coevolve with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana ...
February 26, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451334/microrna-profiling-between-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab-susceptible-and-resistant-european-corn-borer-ostrinia-nubilalis-h%C3%A3-bner
#14
T Yu, X Li, B-S Coates, Q Zhang, B-D Siegfried, X Zhou
Transgenic maize hybrids that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) protein toxins effectively protect against the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, a devastating maize pest. Field monitoring and laboratory selections have detected varying levels of O. nubilalis resistance to Cry1Ab toxin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Their potential roles in the evolution of Bt resistance, however, remain largely unknown...
June 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415259/analysis-of-homologs-of-cry-toxin-receptor-related-proteins-in-the-midgut-of-a-non-bt-target-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-hemiptera-delphacidae
#15
Ensi Shao, Li Lin, Sijun Liu, Jiao Zhang, Xuelin Chen, Li Sha, Zhipeng Huang, Biwang Huang, Xiong Guan
The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most destructive insect pests in the rice fields of Asia. Like other hemipteran insects, BPH is not susceptible to Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or transgenic rice carrying Bt cry genes. Lack of Cry receptors in the midgut is one of the main reasons that BPH is not susceptible to the Cry toxins. The main Cry-binding proteins (CBPs) of the susceptible insects are cadherin, aminopeptidase N (APN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In this study, we analyzed and validated de novo assembled transcripts from transcriptome sequencing data of BPH to identify and characterize homologs of cadherin, APN, and ALP...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382486/characterization-of-cry-toxins-from-autochthonous-bacillus-thuringiensis-isolates-from-mexico
#16
Raquel Camacho-Millán, Elsa Maribel Aguilar-Medina, Héctor Quezada, Óscar Medina-Contreras, Genaro Patiño-López, Héctor Manuel Cárdenas-Cota, Rosalío Ramos-Payán
BACKGROUND: Chemical pesticides, widely used in agriculture and vector-borne disease control, have shown toxic effects on the environment and the people in contact with them. Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterium for alternative and safer control of insect pests. Its toxins are specific for insects but innocuous for mammals and may be used as powerful adjuvants when applied with vaccines. The objective of this work was to characterize some autochthonous B. thuringiensis strains, which could be used for the control of a local pest (Diatraea considerata Heinrich) that affects sugar cane crops in Sinaloa, Mexico...
May 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360856/midgut-transcriptomal-response-of-the-rice-leaffolder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-guen%C3%A3-e-to-cry1c-toxin
#17
Yajun Yang, Hongxing Xu, Yanhui Lu, Caiyun Wang, Zhongxian Lu
Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) is one of the important insect pests in rice field. Bt agents were recommended in the C. medinalis control and Bt rice is bred as a tactic to control this insect. However, the tolerance or resistance of insect to Bt protein is a main threat to the application of Bt protein. In order to investigate the response of C. medinalis transcriptome in defending a Cry1C toxin, high-through RNA-sequencing was carried in the C. medinalis larvae treated with and without Cry1C toxin. A total of 35,586 high-quality unigenes was annotated in the transcriptome of C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329399/yield-losses-in-transgenic-cry1ab-and-non-bt-corn-as-assessed-using-a-crop-life-table-approach
#18
Gerson A Silva, Marcelo C Picanço, Lino R Ferreira, Dalton O Ferreira, Elizeu S Farias, Thadeu C Souza, Nilson Rodrigues-Silva, Eliseu José G Pereira
In this study, we constructed crop life tables for Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) Cry1Ab and non-Bt corn hybrids, in which yield-loss factors and abundance of predaceous arthropods were recorded during 2 yr at two locations. Corn kernel/grain was the yield component that had the heaviest losses and that determined the overall yield loss in the corn hybrids across years and locations. Yield losses in both corn hybrids were primarily caused by kernel-destroying insects. Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were the key loss factors at one location, while at the other, the key loss factor was the silk fly larvae, Euxesta spp...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305214/expression-of-cry1ac-toxin-binding-region-in-plutella-xyllostella-cadherin-like-receptor-and-studying-their-interaction-mode-by-molecular-docking-and-site-directed-mutagenesis
#19
Xiaodan Hu, Xiao Zhang, Jianfeng Zhong, Yuan Liu, Cunzheng Zhang, Yajing Xie, Manman Lin, Chongxin Xu, Lina Lu, Qing Zhu, Xianjin Liu
Cadherin-like protein has been identified as the primary Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxin receptor in Lepidoptera pests and plays a key role in Cry toxin insecticidal. In this study, we successfully expressed the putative Cry1Ac toxin-binding region (CR7-CR11) of Plutella xylostella cadherin-like in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expressed CR7-CR11 fragment showed binding ability to Cry1Ac toxin under denaturing (Ligand blot) and non-denaturing (ELISA) conditions. The three-dimensional structure of CR7-CR11 was constructed by homology modeling...
May 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237813/specificity-of-oral-immune-priming-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#20
Momir Futo, Marie P Sell, Megan A M Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz
Immune specificity is the degree to which a host's immune system discriminates among various pathogens or antigenic variants. Vertebrate immune memory is highly specific due to antibody responses. On the other hand, some invertebrates show immune priming, i.e. improved survival after secondary exposure to a previously encountered pathogen. Until now, specificity of priming has only been demonstrated via the septic infection route or when live pathogens were used for priming. Therefore, we tested for specificity in the oral priming route in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum For priming, we used pathogen-free supernatants derived from three different strains of the entomopathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis , which express different Cry toxin variants known for their toxicity against this beetle...
December 2017: Biology Letters
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