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"Conceptual model"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907846/modelling-life-satisfaction-and-adjustment-to-trauma-in-children-exposed-to-ongoing-military-violence-an-exploratory-study-in-palestine
#1
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Alaa Jaradah, Feda Al Muranak, Husam Hamdouna
Exposure to war and ongoing political violence increases mental health risks among children, especially in terms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive or somatic symptoms. However, an exclusive focus on negative functioning can lead to underestimating the coping abilities and natural potential for adjusting to trauma of war-affected children at different developmental phases. Using structural equation modelling, we tested the extent to which data gathered in a predominantly nonclinical sample of Palestinian children (N=1276) living in refugee camps supported a conceptual model in which the relationship between subjective wellbeing and the effects of trauma is mainly top-down in direction...
November 28, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898436/golden-anniversary-of-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-still-much-work-to-do
#2
Jesús Villar, Arthur S Slutsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past 50 years, we have developed a conceptual model of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and have witnessed significant advances in the care of patients with ARDS. In this commentary, we will discuss recent published articles reporting or suggesting new conceptual models for diagnosis, classification, stratification, prevention, ventilatory management, pharmacologic treatment, and outcome prediction of ARDS. RECENT FINDINGS: This review is a tribute to all clinicians and investigators that have contributed to a better understanding of ARDS...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894829/plasticity-of-the-postural-function-to-sport-and-or-motor-experience
#3
REVIEW
Thierry Paillard
This review addresses the possible structural and functional adaptations of the postural function to motor experience. Evidence suggests that postural performance and strategy evolve after training in inactive subjects. In trained subjects, postural adaptations could also occur, since elite athletes exhibit better postural performance than, and different postural strategy to sub-elite athletes. The postural adaptations induced are specific to the context in which the physical activity is practiced. They appear to be so specific that there would be no or only a very slight effect of transfer to non-experienced motor tasks (apart from in subjects presenting low initial levels of postural performance, such as aged subjects)...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894028/exploring-the-clinical-decision-making-used-by-experienced-cardiorespiratory-physiotherapists-a-mixed-method-qualitative-design-of-simulation-video-recording-and-think-aloud-techniques
#4
Debbie Thackray, Lisa Roberts
BACKGROUND: The ability of physiotherapists to make clinical decisions is a vital component of being an autonomous practitioner, yet this complex phenomenon has been under-researched in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to explore clinical decision-making (CDM) by experienced physiotherapists in a scenario of a simulated patient experiencing acute deterioration of their respiratory function. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this observational study was to identify the actions, thoughts, and behaviours used by experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists in their clinical decision-making processes...
November 14, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893932/density-driven-free-convection-model-for-isotopically-fractionated-geogenic-nitrate-in-sabkha-brine
#5
Warren W Wood, J K Böhlke
Subsurface brines with high nitrate (NO3(-) ) concentration are common in desert environments as atmospheric nitrogen is concentrated by the evaporation of precipitation and little nitrogen uptake. However, in addition to having an elevated mean concentration of ∼525 mg/L (as N), NO3- in the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi is enriched in (15) N (mean δ(15) N ∼17‰), which is an enigma. A NO3(-) solute mass balance analysis of the sabkha aquifer system suggests that more than 90% of the nitrogen is from local atmospheric deposition and the remainder from ascending brine...
November 28, 2016: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893833/increasing-the-size-of-the-microbial-biomass-altered-bacterial-community-structure-which-enhances-plant-phosphorus-uptake
#6
Pu Shen, Daniel Vaughan Murphy, Suman J George, Hazel Lapis-Gaza, Minggang Xu, Deirdre Bridget Gleeson
Agricultural production can be limited by low phosphorus (P) availability, with soil P being constrained by sorption and precipitation reactions making it less available for plant uptake. There are strong links between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability and P cycling within soil P pools, with microorganisms being an integral component of soil P cycling mediating the availability of P to plants. Here we tested a conceptual model that proposes (i) the addition of readily-available organic substrates would increase the size of the microbial biomass thus exhausting the pool of easily-available P and (ii) this would cause the microbial biomass to access P from more recalcitrant pools...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891291/knowledge-about-hiv-in-a-community-sample-of-urban-african-americans-in-the-south
#7
H Klein, C E Sterk, K W Elifson
PURPOSE: Race and HIV are intertwined in complex ways. African Americans, particularly those residing in the southern United States, are at great risk for contracting and subsequently transmitting HIV. Research on the extent to which members of this population understand the risks associated with engaging in specific behaviors is limited. This paper examines HIV knowledge among at-risk adult African American men and women and the factors associated with levels of HIV knowledge. METHODS: Based on a conceptual model derived from Social Disorganization Theory and Syndemics Theory, interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011...
October 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890920/protein-export-through-the-bacterial-sec-pathway
#8
Alexandra Tsirigotaki, Jozefien De Geyter, Nikolina Šoštaric, Anastassios Economou, Spyridoula Karamanou
The general secretory (Sec) pathway comprises an essential, ubiquitous and universal export machinery for most proteins that integrate into, or translocate through, the plasma membrane. Sec exportome polypeptides are synthesized as pre-proteins that have cleavable signal peptides fused to the exported mature domains. Recent advances have re-evaluated the interaction networks of pre-proteins with chaperones that are involved in pre-protein targeting from the ribosome to the SecYEG channel and have identified conformational signals as checkpoints for high-fidelity targeting and translocation...
November 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890126/hto-a-complementary-ergonomics-approach
#9
Anette Karltun, Johan Karltun, Martina Berglund, Jörgen Eklund
The field of human factors and ergonomics constitutes a strong potential in systems analysis, design and improvement. However, it is difficult to communicate its potential value. This paper addresses how the human-technology-organization (HTO) concept can be defined and supports the understanding, communication and development of the systems' character and potential of human factors and ergonomics. Empirical examples from the authors' experiences of working with the HTO concept in R&D and teaching are illustrated, including its usefulness as: 1) a conceptual model; 2) an analysis framework; 3) a meta methodology; 4) a pedagogical tool; and 5) a design tool...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888978/vulnerability-stress-and-support-in-the-disease-trajectory-from-prodrome-to-diagnosed-schizophrenia-diathesis-stress-support-model
#10
REVIEW
Sunny Chieh Cheng, Elaine Walsh, Karen G Schepp
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder seen across the world. The goal of current research is to provide a more comprehensive understanding of prodrome, the initial period before the disease manifests as schizophrenia. Unfortunately, there is little information to comprehensively understand the indicators that later lead to schizophrenia. This has resulted in a lack of scientific knowledge to aid in early identification and intervention by psychiatric nurses or school nurses. Such information could inform nursing assessment and care plan development...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887838/a-mixture-toxicity-approach-to-predict-the-toxicity-of-ag-decorated-zno-nanomaterials
#11
S L Azevedo, T Holz, J Rodrigues, T Monteiro, F M Costa, A M V M Soares, S Loureiro
Nanotechnology is a rising field and nanomaterials can now be found in a vast variety of products with different chemical compositions, sizes and shapes. New nanostructures combining different nanomaterials are being developed due to their enhancing characteristics when compared to nanomaterials alone. In the present study, the toxicity of a nanostructure composed by a ZnO nanomaterial with Ag nanomaterials on its surface (designated as ZnO/Ag nanostructure) was assessed using the model-organism Daphnia magna and its toxicity predicted based on the toxicity of the single components (Zn and Ag)...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886584/attributes-of-successful-actions-to-restore-lakes-and-estuaries-degraded-by-nutrient-pollution
#12
Catharine Gross, James D Hagy
As more success is achieved in restoring lakes and estuaries from the impacts of nutrient pollution, there is increased opportunity to evaluate the scientific, social, and policy factors associated with achieving restoration goals. We examined case studies where deliberate actions to reduce nutrient pollution and restore ecosystems resulted in ecological recovery. Prospective cases were identified from scientific literature and technical documents for lakes and estuaries with: (1) scientific evidence of nutrient pollution; (2) restoration actions taken to mitigate nutrient pollution; and (3) documented ecological improvement...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883204/mindfulness-moderates-the-association-between-perceived-burdensomeness-and-suicide-ideation-in-adults-with-elevated-depressive-symptoms
#13
Victor Buitron, Ryan M Hill, Jeremy W Pettit
A conceptual model in which the associations between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation, and between thwarted belongingness and suicide ideation, are moderated by mindfulness was examined. Participants were 218 undergraduates (mean age = 20.81) with moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Mindfulness significantly moderated the association between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation; participants with thoughts of burdensomeness experienced lower levels of suicide ideation if they were high, as opposed to low, in mindfulness...
November 24, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882819/cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-assistive-technology-device-predisposition-assessment-atd-pa-for-use-in-brazil-atd-pa-br
#14
Ana Cristina de Jesus Alves, Thelma Simões Matsukura, Marcia J Scherer
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) for use in Brazil. METHOD: The selection of the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) was determined by previous literature reviews of articles published in 2014 and 2016 in six databases with the terms "assistive device" or "assistive technology" or "self-help device" combined with "evidence-based practice" or "framework" or "measurement scale" or "model and outcome assessment"...
November 24, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878849/leading-change-a-concept-analysis
#15
Heather V Nelson-Brantley, Debra J Ford
AIM: To report an analysis of the concept of leading change. BACKGROUND: Nurses have been called to lead change to advance the health of individuals, populations and systems. Conceptual clarity about leading change in the context of nursing and healthcare systems provides an empirical direction for future research and theory development that can advance the science of leadership studies in nursing. DESIGN: Concept analysis. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite and Business Source Premier databases were searched using the terms: leading change, transformation, reform, leadership and change...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875073/orthodox-jewish-thought-leaders-insights-regarding-brca-mutations-a-descriptive-study
#16
Toby Bressler, Beth Popp
PURPOSE: To examine the factors that influence Orthodox Jewish (OJ) thought leaders' perceptions of genetic counseling and testing for BRCA mutations. The specific aims of this study were to describe (1) OJ thought leaders' views on genetic counseling and testing for BRCA mutation status and (2) insights into this high-risk faith-based minority group and their beliefs about counseling and testing for BRCA mutations. METHODS: In-depth focus groups and demographic questionnaires were used in this descriptive, qualitative study, which was performed in the cancer center of a 750-bed community teaching hospital in Brooklyn, New York...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871674/the-white-knight-hypothesis-or-does-the-environment-limit-innovations
#17
REVIEW
Andreas Wagner
Organisms often harbor latent traits that are byproducts of other adaptations. Such latent traits are not themselves adaptive but can become adaptive in the right environment. Here I discuss several examples of such traits. Their abundance suggests that environmental change rather than new mutations might often limit the origin of evolutionary adaptations and innovations. This is important, because environments can change much faster than new mutations arise. I introduce a conceptual model that distinguishes between mutation-limited and environment-limited trait origins and suggest how experiments could help discriminate between them...
November 18, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870407/evolutionary-framework-for-identifying-sex-and-species-specific-vulnerabilities-in-brain-development-and-functions
#18
REVIEW
David C Geary
Sexual selection describes the reproductive dynamics that drive the evolution of many sex differences but is rarely used to guide the study of brain development or function. This Mini-Review describes how these dynamics can result in trait elaboration in one sex or the other and why these traits have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. The framework provides a conceptual model that will help to organize what we know about sex differences in brain and cognition, a means to focus the search for additional sex differences, and a means to predict brain systems that are particularly vulnerable to disruption by exposure to stressors...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869564/willingness-to-engage-in-consensual-nonmonogamy-among-emerging-adults-a-structural-equation-analysis-of-sexual-identity-casual-sex-attitudes-and-gender
#19
Kayla M Sizemore, Spencer B Olmstead
Research on consensual nonmonogamy (CNM) has increased over the past decade. However, willingness to engage in CNM is an understudied phenomenon within this body of literature. Little research has examined the correlates of this aspect of CNM or focused on individuals in the developmental period of emerging adulthood. This study used multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) to test a conceptual model of emerging adults' (ages 18 to 29; N = 890) willingness to engage in CNM. Results indicated that emerging adult experimentation/possibilities, sexual identity exploration, and permissive attitudes toward casual sex were all related to willingness to engage in CNM...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869149/multiple-resource-use-efficiency-mrue-a-new-concept-for-ecosystem-production
#20
Juanjuan Han, Jiquan Chen, Yuan Miao, Shiqiang Wan
The resource-driven concept, which is an important school for investigating ecosystem production, has been applied for decades. However, the regulatory mechanisms of production by multiple resources remain unclear. We formulated a new algorithm model that integrates multiple resource uses to study ecosystem production and tested its applications on a water-availability gradient in semi-arid grassland. The result of our experiment showed that changes in water availability significantly affected the resources of light and nitrogen, and altered the relationships among multiple resource absorption rate (ε), multiple resource use efficiency (mRUE), and available resource (Ravail)...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
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