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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090081/metabolic-reprogramming-and-tolerance-during-sepsis-induced-aki
#1
REVIEW
Hernando Gómez, John A Kellum, Claudio Ronco
The host defence against infection is an adaptive response in which several mechanisms are deployed to decrease the pathogen load, limit tissue injury and restore homeostasis. In the past few years new evidence has suggested that the ability of the immune system to limit the microbial burden - termed resistance - might not be the only defence mechanism. In fact, the capacity of the host to decrease its own susceptibility to inflammation- induced tissue damage - termed tolerance - might be as important as resistance in determining the outcome of the infection...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079434/previous-pregnancy-outcomes-and-subsequent-pregnancy-anxiety-in-a-quebec-prospective-cohort
#2
Gabriel D Shapiro, Jean R Séguin, Gina Muckle, Patricia Monnier, William D Fraser
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy anxiety is an important psychosocial risk factor that may be more strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes than other measures of stress. Better understanding of the upstream predictors and causes of pregnancy anxiety could help to identify high-risk women for adverse maternal and infant outcomes. The objective of the present study was to measure the associations between five past pregnancy outcomes (live preterm birth (PTB), live term birth, miscarriage at <20 weeks, stillbirth at ≥20 weeks, and elective abortion) and pregnancy anxiety at three trimesters in a subsequent pregnancy...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073538/margalef-revisited-a-new-phytoplankton-mandala-incorporating-twelve-dimensions-including-nutritional-physiology
#3
Patricia M Glibert
Building on the classic depiction of the progression from a diatom to a dinoflagellate bloom as a function of nutrients and turbulence, known as the "Margalef mandala", a new conceptual model or mandala is presented here. The new mandala maps twelve response or effects traits, or environmental characteristics, related to different phytoplankton functional types: (1) relative preference for chemically reduced vs chemically oxidized forms of nitrogen; (2) relative availability of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus; (3) adaptation to high vs low light and the tendency to be autotrophic vs mixotrophic; (4) cell motility; (5) environmental turbulence; (6) pigmentation quality; (7) temperature; (8) cell size; (9) relative growth rate; (10) relative production of bioactive compounds such as toxins or reactive oxygen species (ROS); (11) r vs K strategy; and (12) fate of the production in terms of grazing...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069941/uranium-iv-adsorption-by-natural-organic-matter-in-anoxic-sediments
#4
Sharon E Bone, James J Dynes, John Cliff, John R Bargar
Uranium is an important carbon-free fuel source and environmental contaminant that accumulates in the tetravalent state, U(IV), in anoxic sediments, such as ore deposits, marine basins, and contaminated aquifers. However, little is known about the speciation of U(IV) in low-temperature geochemical environments, inhibiting the development of a conceptual model of U behavior. Until recently, U(IV) was assumed to exist predominantly as the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite (UO2+x) in anoxic sediments; however, studies now show that this is not often the case...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068645/characteristics-of-pah-tar-oil-contaminated-soils-black-particles-resins-and-implications-for-treatment-strategies
#5
Clément Trellu, Anja Miltner, Rosita Gallo, David Huguenot, Eric D van Hullebusch, Giovanni Esposito, Mehmet A Oturan, Matthias Kästner
Tar oil contamination is a major environmental concern due to health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the difficulty of reaching acceptable remediation end-points. Six tar oil-contaminated soils with different industrial histories were compared to investigate contamination characteristics by black particles. Here we provide a simple method tested on 6 soils to visualize and identify large amounts of black particles (BP) as either solid aggregates of resinified and weathered tar oil or various wood/coke/coal-like materials derived from the contamination history...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068624/measuring-a-conceptual-model-of-the-relationship-between-compulsive-cell-phone-use-in-vehicle-cell-phone-use-and-motor-vehicle-crash
#6
Stephen S O'Connor, Lindsey M Shain, Jennifer M Whitehill, Beth E Ebel
OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that anticipation of incoming phone calls or messages and impulsivity are significantly associated with motor vehicle crash. We took a more explanative approach to investigate a conceptual model regarding the direct and indirect effect of compulsive cell phone use and impulsive personality traits on crash risk. METHODS: We recruited a sample of 307 undergraduate college students to complete an online survey that included measures of cell phone use, impulsivity, and history of motor vehicle crash...
January 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068129/imagining-the-future-perspectives-among-youth-and-caregivers-in-the-trans-youth-family-study
#7
Sabra L Katz-Wise, Stephanie L Budge, Joe J Orovecz, Bradford Nguyen, Brett Nava-Coulter, Katharine Thomson
Future perspectives of transgender youth and their caregivers may be shaped by knowledge of discrimination and adverse mental health among transgender adults. Qualitative data from the Trans Youth Family Study were analyzed to examine how transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) youth and their caregivers imagine the youth's future. A community-based sample of 16 families (16 TGN youth, ages 7-18 years, and 29 caregivers) was recruited from 2 regions in the United States. Participants completed in-person qualitative interviews and surveys...
January 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063315/chemical-modeling-of-groundwater-in-the-banat-plain-southwestern-romania-with-elevated-as-content-and-co-occurring-species-by-combining-diagrams-and-unsupervised-multivariate-statistical-approaches
#8
Sinziana Butaciu, Marin Senila, Costel Sarbu, Michaela Ponta, Claudiu Tanaselia, Oana Cadar, Marius Roman, Emil Radu, Mihaela Sima, Tiberiu Frentiu
The study proposes a combined model based on diagrams (Gibbs, Piper, Stuyfzand Hydrogeochemical Classification System) and unsupervised statistical approaches (Cluster Analysis, Principal Component Analysis, Fuzzy Principal Component Analysis, Fuzzy Hierarchical Cross-Clustering) to describe natural enrichment of inorganic arsenic and co-occurring species in groundwater in the Banat Plain, southwestern Romania. Speciation of inorganic As (arsenite, arsenate), ion concentrations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), HCO3(-), Cl(-), F(-), SO4(2-), PO4(3-), NO3(-)), pH, redox potential, conductivity and total dissolved substances were performed...
December 29, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054443/risk-mitigation-of-emerging-zoonoses-hendra-virus-and-non-vaccinating-horse-owners
#9
J Manyweathers, H Field, D Jordan, N Longnecker, K Agho, C Smith, M Taylor
Hendra virus was identified in horses and humans in 1994, in Queensland, Australia. Flying foxes are the natural host. Horses are thought to acquire infection by direct or indirect contact with infected flying fox urine. Humans are infected from close contact with infected horses. To reduce risk of infection in horses and humans, Australian horse owners are encouraged to vaccinate horses against the virus and adopt property risk mitigation practices that focus on reducing flying fox horse contact and contamination of horses' environment with flying fox bodily fluids...
January 4, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052694/evaluating-and-refining-the-conceptual-model-used-in-the-study-of-health-and-activity-in-preschool-environments-shapes-intervention
#10
Ruth P Saunders, Karin Pfeiffer, William H Brown, Erin K Howie, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R O'Neill, Kerry McIver, Russell R Pate
This study investigated the utility of the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) conceptual model, which targeted physical activity (PA) behavior in preschool children, by examining the relationship between implementation monitoring data and child PA during the school day. We monitored implementation completeness and fidelity based on multiple elements identified in the conceptual model. Comparing high-implementing, low-implementing, and control groups revealed no association between implementation and outcomes...
January 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050947/-you-just-can-t-trust-everybody-the-impact-of-sexual-risk-partner-type-and-perceived-partner-trustworthiness-on-hiv-status-disclosure-decisions-among-hiv-positive-black-gay-and-bisexual-men
#11
Jason D P Bird, Michael Eversman, Dexter R Voisin
HIV remains an intractable public health concern in the USA, with infection rates notably concentrated among Black gay and bisexual men. Status disclosure by HIV-positive individuals can be an important aspect of risk reduction but doing so poses dilemmas concerning privacy, stigma and self-protection, especially among populations subjected to multiple types of stigmatisation. Understanding the factors related to the disclosure process can help to inform prevention efforts. Using exploratory in-depth interviews, this qualitative study examines the disclosure process among a sample of twenty HIV-positive Black gay and bisexual men (mean age = 40) recruited through a non-profit health centre in a mid-western city in the USA...
January 4, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049755/prevention-of-diabetes-in-mexico-pragmatic-solutions-for-a-complex-problem
#12
Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Hector Bourges Rodriguez, Ernestina Polo Oteyza
The Tenth Nestlé Nutrition Conference, held in Mexico City in November 2014, focused on prevention of type 2 diabetes considering environment, lifestyles, and nutrition. Based on the evidence and recommendations presented during the conference, which are summarized in another article within this supplemental issue, a series of pragmatic proposals to address the environmental, social, and medical factors that have contributed to the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Mexico was formulated. For this article, the actions were organized into 2 conceptual models: one that is applicable for the whole population and the other for at-risk individuals...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045699/agenda-for-sleep-research-in-older-adults-with-cancer-a-conference-report
#13
Ellyn E Matthews, Eileen Danaher Hacker, Julie L Otte, Grace E Dean
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are common but often neglected in older adults, particularly in the context of cancer. Underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and interventions frequently lack a clear scientific basis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report was to examine scientific content presented at a National Institutes of Health-sponsored U13 "Bedside to Bench" conference using a qualitative and iterative review procedure. Analysis of current scientific issues regarding sleep in older adults with cancer is needed to direct nurse scientists and clinicians toward research opportunities...
December 30, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045289/temporal-precedence-in-the-identification-of-mediators-of-change-a-brief-comment-on-mediators-of-change-in-the-child-adolescent-multimodal-treatment-study-kendall-et-al-2016
#14
Scott T Gaynor
OBJECTIVE: Comment on the issue of temporal precedence and the implications for interpreting the results of the mediation analyses in the Child/Adolescent Multimodal Treatment Study. METHOD: Review of Kendall et al. (2016). RESULTS: Kendall et al. reported that residualized (baseline to posttreatment) change in coping efficacy, but not anxious self-talk, mediated residualized (baseline to follow-up) change in anxiety symptoms in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), and CBT + SRT compared to placebo...
January 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043734/conceptual-model-of-acid-attacks-based-on-survivor-s-experiences-lessons-from-a-qualitative-exploration
#15
Mohammad Sabzi Khoshnami, Elham Mohammadi, Hamideh Addelyan Rasi, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Maliheh Arshi
INTRODUCTION: Acid attack, a worldwide phenomenon, has been increasing in recent years. In addition to severe injuries to the face and body, such violence leads to psychological and social problems that affect the survivors' quality of life. The present study provides a more in-depth understanding of this phenomenon and explores the nature and dimensions of acid attacks based on survivors' experiences. METHOD: A grounded theory study using semi-structured, recorded interviews and applying purposeful theoretical sampling was conducted with 12 acid attack survivors in Iran...
December 30, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042697/knowledge-into-action-supporting-the-implementation-of-evidence-into-practice-in-scotland
#16
Sandra Davies, Paul Herbert, Ann Wales, Karen Ritchie, Suzanne Wilson, Laura Dobie, Annette Thain
BACKGROUND: The knowledge into action model for NHS Scotland provides a framework for librarians and health care staff to support getting evidence into practice. Central to this model is the development of a network of knowledge brokers to facilitate identification, use, creation and sharing of knowledge. OBJECTIVE: To translate the concepts described in the model into tangible activities with the intention of supporting better use of evidence in health care and subsequently improving patient outcomes...
January 1, 2017: Health Information and Libraries Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039629/understanding-interactions-in-the-adsorption-of-gaseous-organic-compounds-to-indoor-materials
#17
Maneerat Ongwandee, Thabtim Chatsuvan, Wichitsawat Suksawas Na Ayudhya, John Morris
We studied adsorption of organic compounds to a wide range of indoor materials, including plastics, gypsum board, carpet, and many others, under various relative humidity conditions by applying a conceptual model of the free energy of interfacial interactions of both van der Waals and Lewis acid-base (e-donor/acceptor) types. Data used for the analyses were partitioning coefficients of adsorbates between surface and gas phase obtained from three sources: our sorption experiments and two other published studies...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038910/consumer-health-informatics-empowering-healthy-lifestyle-seekers-through-mhealth
#18
REVIEW
Anthony Faiola, Richard J Holden
People are at risk from noncommunicable diseases (NCD) and poor health habits, with interventions like medications and surgery carrying further risk of adverse effects. This paper addresses ways people are increasingly moving to healthy living medicine (HLM) to mitigate such health threats. HLM-seekers increasingly leverage mobile technologies that enable control of personal health information, collaboration with clinicians/other agents to establish healthy living practices. For example, outcomes from consumer health informatics research includes empowering users to take charge of their health through active participation in decision-making about healthcare delivery...
December 27, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035269/current-and-future-ozone-risks-to-global-terrestrial-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-processes
#19
REVIEW
Jürg Fuhrer, Maria Val Martin, Gina Mills, Colette L Heald, Harry Harmens, Felicity Hayes, Katrina Sharps, Jürgen Bender, Mike R Ashmore
Risks associated with exposure of individual plant species to ozone (O3) are well documented, but implications for terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystem processes have received insufficient attention. This is an important gap because feedbacks to the atmosphere may change as future O3 levels increase or decrease, depending on air quality and climate policies. Global simulation of O3 using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) revealed that in 2000, about 40% of the Global 200 terrestrial ecoregions (ER) were exposed to O3 above thresholds for ecological risks, with highest exposures in North America and Southern Europe, where there is field evidence of adverse effects of O3, and in central Asia...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034367/dendritic-trafficking-faces-physiologically-critical-speed-precision-tradeoffs
#20
Alex H Williams, Cian O'Donnell, Terrence J Sejnowski, Timothy O'Leary
Nervous system function requires intracellular transport of channels, receptors, mRNAs, and other cargo throughout complex neuronal morphologies. Local signals such as synaptic input can regulate cargo trafficking, motivating the leading conceptual model of neuron-wide transport, sometimes called the 'sushi-belt model' (Doyle and Kiebler, 2011). Current theories and experiments are based on this model, yet its predictions are not rigorously understood. We formalized the sushi belt model mathematically, and show that it can achieve arbitrarily complex spatial distributions of cargo in reconstructed morphologies...
December 30, 2016: ELife
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