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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154569/the-social-transmission-of-risk-maternal-stress-physiology-synchronous-parenting-and-well-being-mediate-the-effects-of-war-exposure-on-child-psychopathology
#1
Galit Halevi, Amir Djalovski, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Karen Yirmiya, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Lee Koren, Ruth Feldman
While chronic early stress increases child susceptibility to psychopathology, risk and resilience trajectories are shaped by maternal social influences whose role requires much further research in longitudinal studies. We examined the social transmission of risk by assessing paths leading from war-exposure to child symptoms as mediated by 3 sources of maternal social influence; stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and psychiatric disorder. Mothers and children living in a zone of continuous war were assessed in early childhood (1...
November 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154564/self-criticism-and-dependency-in-female-adolescents-prediction-of-first-onsets-and-disentangling-the-relationships-between-personality-stressful-life-events-and-internalizing-psychopathology
#2
Daniel C Kopala-Sibley, Daniel N Klein, Greg Perlman, Roman Kotov
There is substantial evidence that personality traits, such as self-criticism and dependency, predict the development of depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as depressive episodes. However, it is unknown whether self-criticism and dependency predict the first onset of depressive and anxiety disorders, and unclear how to characterize dynamic mechanisms by which these traits, stressful life events, and psychopathology influence one another over time. In this study, 550 female adolescents were assessed at baseline, 528 and 513 of whom were assessed again at Waves 2 and 3, respectively, over the course of 18 months...
November 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154382/review-of-strategies-to-reduce-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-clabsi-and-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-cauti-in-adult-icus
#3
Payal K Patel, Ashwin Gupta, Valerie M Vaughn, Jason D Mann, Jessica M Ameling, Jennifer Meddings
Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) are costly and morbid. Despite evidence-based guidelines, Some intensive care units (ICUs) continue to have elevated infection rates. In October 2015, we performed a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature within the PubMed and Cochrane databases for interventions to reduce CLABSI and/or CAUTI in adult ICUs and synthesized findings using a narrative review process. The interventions were categorized using a conceptual model, with stages applicable to both CAUTI and CLABSI prevention: (stage 0) avoid catheter if possible, (stage 1) ensure aseptic placement, (stage 2) maintain awareness and proper care of catheters in place, and (stage 3) promptly remove unnecessary catheters...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154096/sorption-and-desorption-of-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-onto-sediments-affected-by-rhamnolipidic-biosurfactants
#4
Yan-Ping Guo, Yong-You Hu, Hui Lin, Xue-Lian Ou
Many studies have addressed the desorption and mobilization performances of sorbed contaminants affected by different rhamnolipidic biosurfactants. Study results have been mixed and complicated. Rhamnolipids are always microbial produced with variable homologues. In this study, two representative rhamnolipidic fractions (i.e., RL-F1 and RL-F2, which are mono- and di-rhamnolipids, respectively) were investigated and compared to determine their influence on 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) distribution within sediment-water sorption and desorption systems...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154003/tracing-the-role-of-endogenous-carbon-in-denitrification-using-wine-industry-by-product-as-an-external-electron-donor-coupling-isotopic-tools-with-mathematical-modeling
#5
R Carrey, P Rodríguez-Escales, A Soler, N Otero
Nitrate removal through enhanced biological denitrification (EBD), consisting of the inoculation of an external electron donor, is a feasible solution for the recovery of groundwater quality. In this context, liquid waste from wine industries (wine industry by-products, WIB) may be feasible for use as a reactant to enhance heterotrophic denitrification. To address the feasibility of WIB as electron donor to promote denitrification, as well as to evaluate the role of biomass as a secondary organic C source, a flow-through experiment was carried out...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152564/authorship-and-contribution-disclosures
#6
Henry Sauermann, Carolin Haeussler
Most scientific research is performed by teams, and for a long time, observers have inferred individual team members' contributions by interpreting author order on published articles. In response to increasing concerns about this approach, journals are adopting policies that require the disclosure of individual authors' contributions. However, it is not clear whether and how these disclosures improve upon the conventional approach. Moreover, there is little evidence on how contribution statements are written and how they are used by readers...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148355/vertical-integration-of-hospitals-and-physicians-economic-theory-and-empirical-evidence-on-spending-and-quality
#7
Brady Post, Tom Buchmueller, Andrew M Ryan
Hospital-physician vertical integration is on the rise. While increased efficiencies may be possible, emerging research raises concerns about anticompetitive behavior, spending increases, and uncertain effects on quality. In this review, we bring together several of the key theories of vertical integration that exist in the neoclassical and institutional economics literatures and apply these theories to the hospital-physician relationship. We also conduct a literature review of the effects of vertical integration on prices, spending, and quality in the growing body of evidence ( n = 15) to evaluate which of these frameworks have the strongest empirical support...
August 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143636/a-review-of-measures-of-women-s-empowerment-and-related-gender-constructs-in-family-planning-and-maternal-health-program-evaluations-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#8
Mahua Mandal, Arundati Muralidharan, Sara Pappa
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that gender-integrated interventions, which actively seek to identify and integrate activities that address the role of gender norms and dynamics, improve family planning (FP) and maternal health (MH). To understand the link between the gender components of interventions and FP and MH outcomes, it is critical to examine the gender measures used in evaluations. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of evaluations of gender-integrated FP and MH interventions in low- and middle-income countries...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143627/conceptualizing-pathways-linking-women-s-empowerment-and-prematurity-in-developing-countries
#9
Patience A Afulani, Molly Altman, Joseph Musana, May Sudhinaraset
BACKGROUND: Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143143/soil-respiration-patterns-and-rates-at-three-taiwanese-forest-plantations-dependence-on-elevation-temperature-precipitation-and-litterfall
#10
Yu-Hsuan Huang, Chih-Yu Hung, I-Rhy Lin, Tomonori Kume, Oleg V Menyailo, Chih-Hsin Cheng
BACKGROUND: Soil respiration contributes to a large quantity of carbon emissions in the forest ecosystem. In this study, the soil respiration rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations (two lowland and one mid-elevation) were investigated. We aimed to determine how soil respiration varies between lowland and mid-elevation forest plantations and identify the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors affecting soil respiration. RESULTS: The results showed that the temporal patterns of soil respiration rates were mainly influenced by soil temperature and soil water content, and a combined soil temperature and soil water content model explained 54-80% of the variation...
November 15, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136559/determinants-of-pedestrian-and-bicyclist-crash-severity-by-party-at-fault-in-san-francisco-ca
#11
Deborah Salon, Andrew McIntyre
Pedestrian and bicyclist safety is of growing concern, especially given the increasing numbers of urban residents choosing to walk and bike. Sharing the roads with automobiles, these road users are particularly vulnerable. An intuitive conceptual model is proposed of the determinants of injury severity in crashes between vehicles and nonmotorized road users. Using 10 years of crash data from San Francisco, CA, we estimate logistic regression models to illuminate key determinants of crash severity for both pedestrian and bicyclist collisions...
November 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133902/a-test-of-the-hierarchical-model-of-litter-decomposition
#12
Mark A Bradford, G F Ciska Veen, Anne Bonis, Ella M Bradford, Aimee T Classen, J Hans C Cornelissen, Thomas W Crowther, Jonathan R De Long, Gregoire T Freschet, Paul Kardol, Marta Manrubia-Freixa, Daniel S Maynard, Gregory S Newman, Richard S P Logtestijn, Maria Viketoft, David A Wardle, William R Wieder, Stephen A Wood, Wim H van der Putten
Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of decomposition at regional to global scales is climate (temperature and moisture), with the controlling effects of decomposers negligible at such broad spatial scales...
November 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133138/contextual-factors-and-motivations-affecting-rural-community-sanitation-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Josef Novotný, Jiří Hasman, Martin Lepič
BACKGROUND: Unsafe management of human faecal waste represents a major risk for public health, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Efforts to improve sanitation conditions are considerably sensitive to contextual specifics of natural and social environments. This review operationalises, analyses, and synthesises evidence of how contextual factors and motivations affect different sanitation outcomes with a specific focus on community approaches to rural sanitation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We operationalised contextual factors and motivations as determinants that influence sanitation conditions independently of the examined intervention...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132776/predicting-predator-recognition-in-a-changing-world
#14
REVIEW
Alexandra J R Carthey, Daniel T Blumstein
Through natural as well as anthropogenic processes, prey can lose historically important predators and gain novel ones. Both predator gain and loss frequently have deleterious consequences. While numerous hypotheses explain the response of individuals to novel and familiar predators, we lack a unifying conceptual model that predicts the fate of prey following the introduction of a novel or a familiar (reintroduced) predator. Using the concept of eco-evolutionary experience, we create a new framework that allows us to predict whether prey will recognize and be able to discriminate predator cues from non-predator cues and, moreover, the likely persistence outcomes for 11 different predator-prey interaction scenarios...
November 10, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132084/integrated-and-ecosystemic-approaches-for-bridging-the-gap-between-environmental-management-and-port-management
#15
Javier García-Onetti, Marinez E G Scherer, Juan Manuel Barragán
The rapid exploitation of coastal and marine ecosystemic capital is on course to reach a critical point. The difficulty of implementing Integrated and ecosystem based management models, taking into the account the great complexity of the marine socio-ecological systems, has resulted in a significant gap between theory and practice. The majority of authors emphasize difficulties in engaging and convincing private stakeholders and a number of economic sectors involved in these processes. This reticence is traditionally more pronounced in the port sector, despite their important role in the transformation of coastal and marine areas...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131050/the-clinical-inadequacy-of-the-placebo-model-and-the-development-of-an-alternative-conceptual-framework
#16
Giovanni A Fava, Jenny Guidi, Chiara Rafanelli, Karl Rickels
Placebo effects are often attributed to clinical interactions and contextual factors that affect expectations of the patient about the treatment and result in symptom changes. The prevailing conceptualization consists of an undifferentiated placebo response that needs to be minimized in controlled investigations and maximized in clinical practice. However, treatment outcome is the cumulative result of the interaction of several classes of variables with a selected treatment: living conditions (housing, nutrition, work environment, social support), patient characteristics (age, sex, genetics, general health conditions, personality, well-being), illness features and previous therapeutic experience, self-management, and treatment setting (physician's attitude and attention, illness behavior)...
November 3, 2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130023/anxiety-and-mood-clinical-profile-following-sport-related-concussion-from-risk-factors-to-treatment
#17
Natalie Sandel, Erin Reynolds, Paul E Cohen, Brandon L Gillie, Anthony P Kontos
Conceptual models for assessing and treating sport-related concussion (SRC) have evolved from a homogenous approach to include different clinical profiles that reflect the heterogeneous nature of this injury and its effects. There are six identified clinical profiles, or subtypes from SRC, and one such clinical profile is the anxiety/mood profile. Athletes with this profile experience predominant emotional disturbance and anxiety following SRC. The purpose of this targeted review was to present an overview of the empirical evidence to support factors contributing to the anxiety/mood profile, along with methods of evaluation and treatment of this clinical profile following SRC...
August 2017: Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128951/insights-from-the-genomes-of-microbes-thriving-in-uranium-enriched-sediments
#18
Brodie Sutcliffe, Anthony A Chariton, Andrew J Harford, Grant C Hose, Sarah Stephenson, Paul Greenfield, David J Midgley, Ian T Paulsen
Elevated uranium dose (4 g kg(-1)) causes a shift in billabong sediment communities that result in the enrichment of five bacterial species. These taxa include Geobacter, Geothrix and Dyella species, as well as a novel-potentially predatory-Bacteroidetes species, and a new member of class Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi). Additionally, a population of methanogenic Methanocella species was also identified. Genomic reconstruction and metabolic examination of these taxa reveal a host of divergent life strategies and putative niche partitioning...
November 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127669/conserving-connectivity-human-influence-on-subsidy-transfer-and-relevant-restoration-efforts
#19
REVIEW
Emily V Buckner, Daniel L Hernández, Jameal F Samhouri
Conservation efforts tend to focus on the direct impacts humans have on their surrounding environment; however there are also many ways in which people indirectly affect ecosystems. Recent research on ecological subsidies-the transfer of energy and nutrients from one ecosystem to another-has highlighted the importance of nutrient exchange for maintaining productivity and diversity at a landscape scale, while also pointing toward the fragility of ecotones and vulnerability of subsidies to human activities. We review the recent literature on landscape connectivity and ecosystem subsidies from aquatic systems to terrestrial systems...
November 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125424/understanding-postdisaster-substance-use-and-psychological-distress-using-concepts-from-the-self-medication-hypothesis-and-social-cognitive-theory
#20
Adam C Alexander, Kenneth D Ward
This article applies constructs from the Self-Medication Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Theory to explain the development of substance use and psychological distress after a disaster. A conceptual model is proposed, which employs a sequential mediation model, identifying perceived coping self-efficacy, psychological distress, and self-medication as pathways to substance use after a disaster. Disaster exposure decreases perceived coping self-efficacy, which, in turn, increases psychological distress and subsequently increases perceptions of self-medication in vulnerable individuals...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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