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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780978/i-ll-be-back-on-the-multiple-lives-of-users-of-a-mobile-activity-tracking-application
#1
Zhiyuan Lin, Tim Althoff, Jure Leskovec
Mobile health applications that track activities, such as exercise, sleep, and diet, are becoming widely used. While these activity tracking applications have the potential to improve our health, user engagement and retention are critical factors for their success. However, long-term user engagement patterns in real-world activity tracking applications are not yet well understood. Here we study user engagement patterns within a mobile physical activity tracking application consisting of 115 million logged activities taken by over a million users over 31 months...
April 2018: Proceedings of the International World-Wide Web Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779719/a-framework-for-ehealth-readiness-of-dietitians
#2
Kirsty Maunder, Karen Walton, Peter Williams, Maree Ferguson, Eleanor Beck
AIM: To develop a framework for assessing the eHealth readiness of dietitians. METHODS: Using an inductive approach, this research was divided into three stages: 1. a systematic literature review to identify models or frameworks on eHealth readiness; 2. data synthesis to identify eHealth readiness themes and develop a framework; and 3. semi-structured interviews with Australian nutrition informatics experts to gain consensus and validate the framework. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty one unique citations were identified, of which twenty four met the research criteria and were included in the review and subsequent synthesis...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779032/kidney-disease-in-women-is-associated-with-disadvantaged-childhood-socioeconomic-position
#3
Mark Canney, Siobhan Leahy, Siobhan Scarlett, Rose Anne Kenny, Mark A Little, Conall M O'Seaghdha, Cathal McCrory
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic position (SEP) is an important determinant of health and it is dynamic across the entire lifespan. We sought to investigate the relationship between life-course SEP and chronic kidney disease (CKD) using 3 conceptual models: critical period, pathway and accumulation. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 4,996 participants from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, a nationally representative cohort of community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776404/revisiting-out-of-pocket-requirements-trends-in-spending-financial-access-barriers-and-policy-in-ten-high-income-countries
#4
Thomas Rice, Wilm Quentin, Anders Anell, Andrew J Barnes, Pauline Rosenau, Lynn Y Unruh, Ewout van Ginneken
BACKGROUND: Countries rely on out-of-pocket (OOP) spending to different degrees and employ varying techniques. The article examines trends in OOP spending in ten high-income countries since 2000, and analyzes their relationship to self-assessed barriers to accessing health care services. The countries are Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. METHODS: Data from three sources are employed: OECD statistics, the Commonwealth Fund survey of individuals in each of ten countries, and country-specific documents on health care policies...
May 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776086/universal-avalanche-statistics-and-triggering-close-to-failure-in-a-mean-field-model-of-rheological-fracture
#5
Jordi Baró, Jörn Davidsen
The hypothesis of critical failure relates the presence of an ultimate stability point in the structural constitutive equation of materials to a divergence of characteristic scales in the microscopic dynamics responsible for deformation. Avalanche models involving critical failure have determined common universality classes for stick-slip processes and fracture. However, not all empirical failure processes exhibit the trademarks of criticality. The rheological properties of materials introduce dissipation, usually reproduced in conceptual models as a hardening of the coarse grained elements of the system...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776069/accelerating-simulation-for-the-multiple-point-statistics-algorithm-using-vector-quantization
#6
Chen Zuo, Zhibin Pan, Hao Liang
Multiple-point statistics (MPS) is a prominent algorithm to simulate categorical variables based on a sequential simulation procedure. Assuming training images (TIs) as prior conceptual models, MPS extracts patterns from TIs using a template and records their occurrences in a database. However, complex patterns increase the size of the database and require considerable time to retrieve the desired elements. In order to speed up simulation and improve simulation quality over state-of-the-art MPS methods, we propose an accelerating simulation for MPS using vector quantization (VQ), called VQ-MPS...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774765/-staying-safe-a-narrative-review-of-falls-prevention-in-people-with-parkinson-s-pdsafe
#7
Sophia Hulbert, Lynn Rochester, Alice Nieuwboer, Vicki Goodwin, Carolyn Fitton, Kim Chivers-Seymour, Ann Ashburn
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease demonstrates a spectrum of motor and non-motor symptoms. Falling is common and disabling. Current medical management shows minimal impact to reduce falls or fall-related risk factors, such as deficits in gait, strength, and postural instability. Despite evidence supporting rehabilitation in reducing fall risk factors, the most appropriate intervention to reduce overall fall rate remains inconclusive. This article aims to 1) synthesise current evidence and conceptual models of falls rehabilitation in Parkinson's in a narrative review; and based on this evidence, 2) introduce the treatment protocol used in the falls prevention and multi-centre clinical trial "PDSAFE"...
May 18, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764633/national-preceptor-development-program-pdp-prototype-the-third-of-a-3-part-series
#8
Craig D Cox, Katrina Mulherin, Sheila Walter
INTRODUCTION: Preceptor development is critical to successful delivery of experiential learning. Although many preceptor development programs exist, a more individualized approach to training is needed. To accomplish this a national preceptor development program should be considered based on the continuing professional development model. A detailed prototype for this program has been described. METHODS: In this final installment of the series, the twelve evidence-based recommendations from the first installment were utilized to construct a prototype for a preceptor development program...
March 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759920/dysphonia-perceived-control-and-psychosocial-distress-a-qualitative-study
#9
Stephanie Misono, Caroline Haut, Liza Meredith, Patricia A Frazier, Ali Stockness, Deirdre D Michael, Lisa Butcher, Eileen M Harwood
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine relationships between psychological factors, particularly perceived control, and voice symptoms in adults seeking treatment for a voice problem. METHODS: Semistructured interviews of adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of muscle tension dysphonia were conducted and transcribed. Follow-up interviews were conducted as needed for further information or clarification. A multidisciplinary team analyzed interview content using inductive techniques...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758870/effect-of-the-micro-flocculation-stage-on-the-flocculation-sedimentation-process-the-role-of-shear-rate
#10
Zhenbei Wang, Jun Nan, Xiaoyu Ji, Yueming Yang
Dynamic analysis on the variation of particle size distribution (PSD) and the fractal characteristics of PSD (Df ) were investigated to better understand the continuous procedure of the floc growth and optimize the control of flocculation process. It was found that the flocculation process could be divided into three stages, i.e., the micro-flocculation stage, the growth stage and the steady (or breakage) stage. As the stage which is crucial to the morphology of micro-flocs (the building blocks of large flocs), the micro-flocculation stage plays an important role on flocculation/sedimentation process...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758643/multiple-scales-in-metapopulations-of-public-goods-producers
#11
Marianne Bauer, Erwin Frey
Multiple scales in metapopulations can give rise to paradoxical behavior: in a conceptual model for a public goods game, the species associated with a fitness cost due to the public good production can be stabilized in the well-mixed limit due to the mere existence of these scales. The scales in this model involve a length scale corresponding to separate patches, coupled by mobility, and separate time scales for reproduction and interaction with a local environment. Contrary to the well-mixed high mobility limit, we find that for low mobilities, the interaction rate progressively stabilizes this species due to stochastic effects, and that the formation of spatial patterns is not crucial for this stabilization...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757818/surrogates-experiences-of-engaging-in-physician-orders-for-life-sustaining-treatment-discussions-for-persons-with-advanced-dementia
#12
Hyejin Kim, Christine Bradway, Susan E Hickman, Mary Ersek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about surrogates' experiences of engaging in Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) discussions. This study describes family surrogates' experiences when engaging in POLST discussions with primary care providers. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 family surrogates of individuals with advanced dementia who were enrolled in a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly or resided in a nursing home...
February 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756882/diversity-stability-and-reproducibility-in-stochastically-assembled-microbial-ecosystems
#13
Akshit Goyal, Sergei Maslov
Microbial ecosystems are remarkably diverse, stable, and usually consist of a mixture of core and peripheral species. Here we propose a conceptual model exhibiting all these emergent properties in quantitative agreement with real ecosystem data, specifically species abundance and prevalence distributions. Resource competition and metabolic commensalism drive the stochastic ecosystem assembly in our model. We demonstrate that even when supplied with just one resource, ecosystems can exhibit high diversity, increasing stability, and partial reproducibility between samples...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756714/developing-child-autonomy-in-pediatric-healthcare-towards-an-ethical-model
#14
Kyriakos Martakis, Helmut Brand, Peter Schröder-Bäck
The changes initiated by the new National Civil and Commercial Code in Argentina underline the pediatric task to empower children's and adolescents' developing autonomy. In this paper, we have framed a model describing autonomy in child healthcare. We carried out a literature review focusing on i) the concept of autonomy referring to the absolute value of the autonomous individual, and ii) the age-driven process of competent decisionmaking development. We summarized our findings developing a conceptual model that includes the child, the pediatrician and the parents...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755484/responses-of-aquatic-plants-to-eutrophication-in-rivers-a-revised-conceptual-model
#15
REVIEW
Matthew T O'Hare, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen, Inga Baumgarte, Anna Freeman, Iain D M Gunn, Attila N Lázár, Raeannon Sinclair, Andrew J Wade, Michael J Bowes
Compared to research on eutrophication in lakes, there has been significantly less work carried out on rivers despite the importance of the topic. However, over the last decade, there has been a surge of interest in the response of aquatic plants to eutrophication in rivers. This is an area of applied research and the work has been driven by the widespread nature of the impacts and the significant opportunities for system remediation. A conceptual model has been put forward to describe how aquatic plants respond to eutrophication...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753345/the-problem-of-rarity-estimation-of-prevalence-in-rare-disease
#16
Stéphane Auvin, John Irwin, Paul Abi-Aad, Alysia Battersby
BACKGROUND: From a disease's first description to its wider recognition, factors such as changes over time in diagnostic criteria, available therapies, and subsequent mortality rates may influence diagnosed prevalence of rare diseases. OBJECTIVES: To propose a novel methodology for estimating the true prevalence of rare diseases using current incidence adjusted to changing diagnostic practice over time. This article focuses on rare diseases whose diagnosis may have changed over time, and raises the hypothesis that prevalence calculated from current incidence may be higher than diagnosed prevalence, which may lag behind the current disease definition and diagnostic methods...
May 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751987/unmet-mental-health-and-social-service-needs-of-formerly-incarcerated-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-deep-south
#17
David W Pantalone, Michael L Scanlon, Shelley M Brown, Bharathi Radhakrishnan, Courtenay Sprague
Due to the disproportionate burden of HIV among incarcerated women in the United States, jails and prisons have been identified as key sites for health service delivery. Recidivism remains high, potentially reflecting unmet mental health and social service needs of incarcerated women, especially during the postrelease adjustment period. However, little published research has investigated this possibility directly. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with previously incarcerated women living with HIV, and other key informants, and completed service-availability mapping in two Alabama cities...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751309/modeling-salinization-and-recovery-of-road-salt-impacted-lakes-in-temperate-regions-based-on-long-term-monitoring-of-lake-george-new-york-usa-and-its-drainage-basin
#18
J W Sutherland, S A Norton, J W Short, C Navitsky
Road salt mitigates winter highway icing but accumulates in watershed soils and receiving waters, affecting soil chemistry and physical, biological, and ecological processes. Despite efforts to reduce salt loading in watersheds, accumulated cations and Cl- continue to impact tributaries and lakes, and the recovery process is not well understood. Lake George, New York (USA) is typical of many temperate lakes at risk for elevated Cl- concentrations from winter deicing; the lake salt concentration increased by ~3...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748656/the-capacity-load-model-of-non-communicable-disease-risk-understanding-the-effects-of-child-malnutrition-ethnicity-and-the-social-determinants-of-health
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells
The capacity-load model is a conceptual model developed to improve understanding of the life-course aetiology of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their ecological and societal risk factors. The model addresses continuous associations of both (a) nutrition and growth patterns in early life and (b) lifestyle factors at older ages with NCD risk. Metabolic capacity refers to physiological traits strongly contingent on early nutrition and growth during the first 1000 days, which promote the long-term capacity for homeostasis in the context of fuel metabolism and cardiovascular health...
May 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744580/analysis-of-limiting-factors-across-the-life-cycle-of-delta-smelt-hypomesus-transpacificus
#20
Scott A Hamilton, Dennis D Murphy
We developed a mechanistic life-cycle model derived from the elicitation of multiple factors influencing the success of individual life-stages of the imperiled delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus). We discuss the relevance of limiting factors in population ecology and problems with additive models in detecting them. We identify limiting factors and assess their significance using a non-linear optimization routine, combined with traditional metrics to assess the value of covariates and model performance. After reviewing previous conceptual models and multivariate analyses, we identified a set of factors that were consistent with conceptual models and useful in explaining the erratic fluctuations in a common abundance index: food at certain times in certain locations, predation by introduced species primarily in the spring, and entrainment...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Management
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