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Traumatic Coagulopathy

Henna Wong, Nicola Curry, Simon J Stanworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Death from uncontrolled haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of trauma-related mortality and is potentially preventable. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) have focused attention on the role of blood products and procoagulants in mitigating the sequelae of TIC and how these therapies can be improved. RECENT FINDINGS: A host of preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated blood product availability and efficacy in trauma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Sharon Edwards, Jason Smith
Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, in civilian environments and on the battlefield. Trauma-induced haemorrhage is the principal cause of potentially preventable death, which is generally attributable to a combination of vascular injury and coagulopathy. Survival rates following severe traumatic injury have increased due to advanced trauma management initiatives and treatment protocols, influenced by lessons learned from recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The use of tourniquets and intraosseous needles, early blood and blood product transfusion, administration of tranexamic acid in pre-hospital settings, and consultant-led damage control resuscitation incorporating damage control surgery have all played their part...
October 6, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Kai Oliver Jensen, Leonhard Held, Andrea Kraus, Frank Hildebrand, Philipp Mommsen, Ladislav Mica, Guido A Wanner, Peter Steiger, Rudolf M Moos, Hans-Peter Simmen, Kai Sprengel
BACKGROUND: Although under discussion, induced hypothermia (IH) is an established therapy for patients with cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injuries. The influences on coagulopathy and bleeding tendency in severely injured patients (SIP) with concomitant traumatic brain injury are most widely unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of mild IH in SIP with concomitant severe traumatic brain injuries on transfusion rate and mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective multi-centre study, SIP from three European level-1 trauma centres with an ISS ≥16 between 2009 and 2011 were included...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Medical Research
Daniele Poole, Andrea Cortegiani, Arturo Chieregato, Emanuele Russo, Concetta Pellegrini, Elvio De Blasio, Francesca Mengoli, Annalisa Volpi, Silvia Grossi, Lara Gianesello, Vanni Orzalesi, Francesca Fossi, Osvaldo Chiara, Carlo Coniglio, Giovanni Gordini
BACKGROUND: Traumatic coagulopathy is thought to increase mortality and its treatment to reduce preventable deaths. However, there is still uncertainty in this field, and available literature results may have been overestimated. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database using the PubMed platform. We formulated four queries investigating the prognostic weight of traumatic coagulopathy defined according to conventional laboratory testing, and the effectiveness in reducing mortality of three different treatments aimed at contrasting coagulopathy (high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios, fibrinogen, and tranexamic acid administration)...
2016: PloS One
Dara L Gottlieb, Jennifer Prittie, Yekaterina Buriko, Kenneth E Lamb
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in dogs and cats following blunt trauma and to relate coagulation variables with injury severity and admission variables. DESIGN: Prospective, single center, observational study from 2013 to 2014. SETTING: Urban private referral hospital. ANIMALS: Eighteen and 19 client-owned dogs and cats, respectively, sustaining blunt trauma within 8 hours of presentation without prior resuscitation; 17 healthy staff and client-owned control cats METHODS: Blood samples were collected upon presentation for measurement of blood gas, lactate, blood glucose, ionized calcium, PCV, total plasma protein, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, platelet count, and thromboelastography...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Jacob Chen, Xiaowu Wu, Jeffrey Keesee, Bin Liu, Daniel N Darlington, Andrew P Cap
INTRODUCTION: We have recently shown that human whole blood stored at 4°C maintains hemostatic and platelet function. In this study, we compared restoration of hemodynamic, metabolic and hemostatic function after limited resuscitation with rat fresh whole blood, rat stored whole blood, or Lactated Ringers in traumatized rats. METHODS: Rat whole blood was stored for 10 days at 4°C for evaluation of hemostatic function. Polytrauma was performed on isoflurane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (350-450 g) by damage to the intestines, liver, right leg skeletal muscle and right femur fracture, followed by 40% hemorrhage...
September 19, 2016: Shock
James Winearls, Michael Reade, Helen Miles, Andrew Bulmer, Don Campbell, Klaus Görlinger, John F Fraser
Hemorrhage in the setting of severe trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide. The pathophysiology of hemorrhage and coagulopathy in severe trauma is complex and remains poorly understood. Most clinicians currently treating trauma patients acknowledge the presence of a coagulopathy unique to trauma patients-trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC)-independently associated with increased mortality. The complexity and incomplete understanding of TIC has resulted in significant controversy regarding optimum management...
October 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Simone E Dekker, Anne Duvekot, Hielke-Martijn de Vries, Leo M G Geeraedts, Saskia M Peerdeman, Monique C de Waard, Christa Boer, Patrick Schober
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related coagulopathy appears to be most prevalent in patients with tissue hypoperfusion, but evidence for this association is scarce. This study investigated the relationship between tissue perfusion and hemostatic derangements in TBI patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Coagulation parameters were measured on emergency department admission in patients with TBI (head abbreviated injury scale ≥ 3). The level of hypoperfusion was simultaneously assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) at the forehead and arm, and by base excess and lactate...
September 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Matthew Keane
Multiple organ failure is a significant complication in traumatic injury, and can be exacerbated by a failure to adequately monitor and control trauma patients' core body temperature in emergency departments (EDs). Nearly half of trauma patients are hypothermic on arrival at emergency departments, often due to factors beyond the control of emergency service responders and during on-scene resuscitation attempts. This article examines the physiology of the 'triad of death' -hypothermia, metabolic acidosis and coagulopathy - to highlight the importance of monitoring and maintaining normothermia, or normal body temperature, which is between 36°C and 37...
September 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
J Zwingmann, R Lefering, M Feucht, N P Südkamp, P C Strohm, T Hammer
BACKGROUND: Data of the TraumaRegister DGU® were analyzed to derive survival rates, neurological outcome and prognostic factors of patients who had suffered traumatic cardiac arrest in the early treatment phase. METHODS: The database of the TraumaRegister DGU® from 2002 to 2013 was analyzed. The main focus of this survey was on different time points of performed resuscitation. Descriptive and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) were performed with the neurological outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale) and survival rate as the target variable...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Margaret Carroll, Deirdre Daly, Cecily M Begley
BACKGROUND: Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality with approximately 225 women dying as a result of it each day especially in low income countries. However, much less is known about morbidity after a PPH. This systematic review aimed to determine the overall prevalence of emotional and physical health problems experienced by women following a postpartum haemorrhage. METHODS: Eight databases were searched for published non-randomised, observational, including cohort, primary research studies that reported on the prevalence of emotional and/or physical health problems following a PPH...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Brandon W Godfrey, Ashley Martin, Paul J Chestovich, Gordon H Lee, Nichole K Ingalls, Vilas Saldanha
INTRODUCTION: Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) are the primary wounding mechanism for casualties in Operation Enduring Freedom. Patients can sustain devastating traumatic amputations, which are unlike injuries seen in the civilian trauma sector. This is a database analysis of the largest patient registry of multiple traumatic amputations. METHODS: The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried for patients with a traumatic amputation from 2009 to 2012. Data obtained included the Injury Severity Score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), blood products, transfer from theatre, and complications including DVT, PE, infection (Acinetobacter and fungal), acute renal failure, and rhabdomyolysis...
August 17, 2016: Injury
Ashley N Bartels, Cory Johnson, Julie Lewis, James W Clevenger, Stephen L Barnes, Richard D Hammer, Salman Ahmad
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of platelet dysfunction in acute traumatic coagulopathy is unknown. Traumatic brain injury is hypothesized as a cause, while some investigators presume platelets become "exhausted." We hypothesized that platelet hyperstimulation and consumption resulting from trauma leads to decreased platelet function secondary to depletion of platelet granules. METHODS: Twenty-five trauma patients were divided into traumatic brain injury and no traumatic brain injury groups...
October 2016: Surgery
Natasha van Zyl, Elissa M Milford, Sara Diab, Kimble Dunster, Peter McGiffin, Stephen G Rayner, Andrew Staib, Michael C Reade, John F Fraser
INTRODUCTION: Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is an endogenous coagulopathy that develops following tissue injury and shock. The pathogenesis of ATC remains poorly understood, with platelet dysfunction, activation of the protein C pathway, and endothelial glycocalyx shedding all hypothesized to contribute to onset. The primary aim of this study was to develop an ovine model of traumatic coagulopathy, with a secondary aim of assessing proposed pathophysiological mechanisms within this model...
October 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Anne Godier, Kiran Parmar, Karuna Manandhar, Beverley J Hunt
AIMS: Acute traumatic coagulopathy is characterised by fibrinolysis and low fibrinogen. It is unclear how much fibrinogenolysis contributes to reduce fibrinogen levels. The study aim was to: investigate in vitro the effects of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) and tranexamic acid (TXA) on coagulation and fibrinolysis. METHODS: Whole blood was spiked with varying t-PA concentrations. Clauss fibrinogen levels and thrombelastography (TEG, Haemonetics) were performed, including functional fibrinogen level (FLEV)...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Lin Xu, Kun Zhao, Xiao Shen, Xin-Xin Fan, Kai Ding, Ren-Min Liu, Feng Wang
BACKGROUND As an extracellularly released mediator, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) initiates sterile inflammation following severe trauma. Serum HMGB1 levels correlate well with acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in trauma patients, which is independently associated with higher mortality. We investigated the involvement of HMGB1 in ATC through blocking extracellular HMGB1. MATERIAL AND METHODS The ATC model was induced by polytrauma and hemorrhage in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were randomly assigned to sham, ATC, and ATCH (ATC with HMGB1 blockade) groups...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
M Gissel, K E Brummel-Ziedins, S Butenas, A E Pusateri, K G Mann, T Orfeo
BACKGROUND: Disruption of hydrogen ion homeostasis is a consequence of traumatic injury often associated with clinical coagulopathy. Mechanisms by which acidification of the blood lead to aberrant coagulation require further elucidation. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of acidified conditions on coagulation dynamics using in vitro models of increasing complexity. METHODS: Coagulation dynamics were assessed at pH 7.4 and 7.0 as follows: 1) Tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation proteome mixtures (± factor (F)XI, ± fibrinogen/FXIII), with reaction progress monitored as thrombin generation or fibrin formation; 2) Enzyme/inhibitor reactions; 3) TF-dependent or -independent clot dynamics in contact pathway inhibited blood via viscoelastometry...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Kelsey Stack, Lindsey Pryor
Bees and wasps of the Hymenoptera order are encountered on a daily basis throughout the world. Some encounters prove harmless, while others can have significant morbidity and mortality. Hymenoptera venom is thought to contain an enzyme that can cleave phospholipids and cause significant coagulation abnormalities. This toxin and others can lead to reactions ranging from local inflammation to anaphylaxis. We report a single case of a previously healthy man who presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and anaphylaxis after a massive honeybee envenomation that caused a fall from standing resulting in significant head injury...
September 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Tatsuhiro Fujii, Gabriela Moriel, Daniel R Kramer, Frank Attenello, Gabriel Zada
Over the past several decades, the rate of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency room visits in the United States has steadily increased, yet mortality in these patients has decreased. This improvement in outcome is largely due to advances in prehospital care, intensive care unit management, and the effectiveness of neurosurgical procedures, such as decompressive craniectomies. It is imperative to identify clinical factors predictive of patients who benefit from early mobilization of resources and operative treatment...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Robert T Gerhardt, Elon Glassberg, John B Holcomb, Robert L Mabry, Martin B Schreiber, Philip C Spinella
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled major hemorrhage and delayed evacuation remain substantial contributors to potentially survivable combat death, along with mission, environment, terrain, logistics, and hostile action. Life-saving interventions and the onset of acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) may also contribute. OBJECTIVE: Analyze US casualty records from the DoD Trauma Registry, using International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 1.5 for onset of ATC. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study from September 2007 to June 2011, inclusive...
September 2016: Shock
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