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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748497/a-large-scale-study-on-the-effects-of-sex-on-gray-matter-asymmetry
#1
Christian Núñez, Constantina Theofanopoulou, Carl Senior, Maria Rosa Cambra, Judith Usall, Christian Stephan-Otto, Gildas Brébion
Research on sex-related brain asymmetries has not yielded consistent results. Despite its importance to further understanding of normal brain development and mental disorders, the field remains relatively unexplored. Here we employ a recently developed asymmetry measure, based on the Dice coefficient, to detect sex-related gray matter asymmetries in a sample of 457 healthy participants (266 men and 191 women) obtained from 5 independent databases. Results show that women's brains are more globally symmetric than men's (p < 0...
July 26, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730501/the-pseudo-sah-sign-an-imaging-pitfall-in-postmortem-computed-tomography
#2
Go Shirota, Wataru Gonoi, Masako Ikemura, Masanori Ishida, Yukako Shintani, Hiroyuki Abe, Masashi Fukayama, Tomohiko Higashida, Hidemi Okuma, Osamu Abe
Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) of the brain has an important role in detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which has a high mortality rate. However, a phenomenon known as "pseudo-SAH," or high-attenuation areas along the cisterns mimicking SAH, may be seen on CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of brain PMCT for SAH and to identify the characteristics of pseudo-SAH. Findings on PMCT (sulcal effacement, asymmetry, maximum thickness of SAH signs, presence of acute/subacute intraventricular/intraparenchymal hemorrhage) and clinical history (left ventricular assist device [LVAD] implantation, anticoagulation therapy/coagulation disorder, global ischemia) were compared between subjects with true SAH and those with pseudo-SAH...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722200/the-gibraltar-sign-an-anatomic-landmark-for-predicting-transverse-sinus-dominance-laterality-on-conventional-mri
#3
David R Pettersson, Joel D McLouth, Benjamin Addicott, Jeffrey M Pollock, Ramon F Barajas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physiologic asymmetry of transverse sinus (TS) caliber is common and can lead to misinterpretation of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) studies of the brain. This retrospective study assesses the ability of multiple anatomic features on axial noncontrast T1-weighted images (T1WIs) of the brain to predict congenital TS dominance. METHODS: One hundred consecutively acquired combined MRI-MRV studies of the brain were reviewed. On noncontrast axial T1WI, each reviewer measured (1) inclination of the groove for the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), (2) angulation of the posterior falx, (3) laterality of the SSS flow void, and (4) laterality of the inferior-most occipital lobe...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712566/left-habenular-activity-attenuates-fear-responses-in-larval-zebrafish
#4
Erik R Duboué, Elim Hong, Kiara C Eldred, Marnie E Halpern
Fear responses are defensive states that ensure survival of an organism in the presence of a threat. Perception of an aversive cue causes changes in behavior and physiology, such as freezing and elevated cortisol, followed by a return to the baseline state when the threat is evaded [1]. Neural systems that elicit fear behaviors include the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex. However, aside from a few examples, little is known about brain regions that promote recovery from an aversive event [2]...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709112/mens-inversus-in-corpore-inverso-language-lateralization-in-a-boy-with-situs-inversus-totalis
#5
Anna-Lisa Schuler, Gregor Kasprian, Ernst Schwartz, Rainer Seidl, Mariana C Diogo, Christian Mitter, Georg Langs, Daniela Prayer, Lisa Bartha-Doering
Situs inversus totalis is a rare condition where the visceral organs are organized as a mirror image of default organ position. In this study we picture the co-development between brain and visceral organs in a case of situs inversus totalis from a fetal stage to adolescence and compare our findings to an age-, gender-, and education-matched control with normal position of thoracic and abdominal organs. We show that in this case of situs inversus, functional and structural brain lateralization do not coincide with visceral organ situs...
July 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702262/hemispheric-asymmetry-of-development-due-to-drug-exposure
#6
Harold W Gordon
BACKGROUND: A previous survey of the literature of fMRI brain activation for two risk factors, impulsivity and craving, for addiction were lateralized to the right and left hemispheres respectively. Most articles reported these findings without consideration of how lateral asymmetries might be relevant to understanding the underlying factors leading to addiction. OBJECTIVE: The current survey is intended to extend these observations by demonstrating hemispheric asymmetry of development due to pre-natal or adolescent/adult exposure to drugs of abuse...
2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688480/an-intelligent-support-system-for-automatic-detection-of-cerebral-vascular-accidents-from-brain-ct-images
#7
Elmira Hajimani, M G Ruano, A E Ruano
OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a Radial Basis Functions Neural Network (RBFNN) based detection system, for automatic identification of Cerebral Vascular Accidents (CVA) through analysis of Computed Tomographic (CT) images. METHODS: For the design of a neural network classifier, a Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) framework is used to determine the architecture of the classifier, its corresponding parameters and input features by maximizing the classification precision, while ensuring generalization...
July 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679229/the-asymmetry-of-the-entrainment-range-induced-by-the-difference-in-intrinsic-frequencies-between-two-subgroups-within-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#8
Changgui Gu, Huijie Yang
The rhythms of physiological and behavioral activities in mammals, which are regulated by the main clock suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain, can not be only synchronized to the natural 24 h light-dark cycle, but also to cycles with artificial periods. The range of the artificial periods that the animal can be synchronized to is called entrainment range. In the absence of the light-dark cycle, the animal can also maintain the circadian rhythm with an endogenous period close to 24 h. Experiments found that the entrainment range is not symmetrical with respect to the endogenous period...
June 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670296/the-evolution-of-lateralized-brain-circuits
#9
Michael C Corballis
In the vast clade of animals known as the bilateria, cerebral and behavioral asymmetries emerge against the backdrop of bilateral symmetry, with a functional trade-off between the two. Asymmetries can lead to more efficient processing and packaging of internal structures, but at the expense of efficient adaptation to a natural world without systematic left-right bias. Asymmetries may arise through the fissioning of ancestral structures that are largely symmetrical, creating new circuits. In humans these may include asymmetrical adaptations to language and manufacture, and as one or other hemisphere gains dominance for functions that were previously represented bilaterally...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660303/the-role-of-eeg-recordings-in-children-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-for-congenital-heart-disease
#10
Sascha Meyer, Martin Poryo, Mohammed Shatat, Ludwig Gortner, Hashim Abdul-Khaliq
BACKGROUND: Neurological dysfunction may occur after corrective cardiac surgery using cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) with or without circulatory arrest. Different neurophysiological monitoring systems have been employed to detect neurological complications and possible brain injury in infants and children during and after cardiac surgery. The value of Elecetroencephalogram (EEG) in infants and children at risk for neurological sequelae has not been systematically studied. METHODS: Sequential performance of two EEGs before and after cardiac surgery at a tertiary University Hospital to screen for possible brain injury after cardiac surgery in neonates and children undergoing CPB surgery...
June 28, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658600/rheological-characterization-of-human-brain-tissue
#11
S Budday, G Sommer, J Haybaeck, P Steinmann, G A Holzapfel, E Kuhl
The rheology of ultrasoft materials like the human brain is highly sensitive to regional and temporal variations and to the type of loading. While recent experiments have shaped our understanding of the time-independent, hyperelastic response of human brain tissue, its time-dependent behavior under various loading conditions remains insufficiently understood. Here we combine cyclic and relaxation testing under multiple loading conditions, shear, compression, and tension, to understand the rheology of four different regions of the human brain, the cortex, the basal ganglia, the corona radiata, and the corpus callosum...
June 25, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654387/phosphatidylserine-targeted-nanotheranostics-for-brain-tumor-imaging-and-therapeutic-potential
#12
Lulu Wang, Amyn A Habib, Akiva Mintz, King C Li, Dawen Zhao
Phosphatidylserine (PS), the most abundant anionic phospholipid in cell membrane, is strictly confined to the inner leaflet in normal cells. However, this PS asymmetry is found disruptive in many tumor vascular endothelial cells. We discuss the underlying mechanisms for PS asymmetry maintenance in normal cells and its loss in tumor cells. The specificity of PS exposure in tumor vasculature but not normal blood vessels may establish it a useful biomarker for cancer molecular imaging. Indeed, utilizing PS-targeting antibodies, multiple imaging probes have been developed and multimodal imaging data have shown their high tumor-selective targeting in various cancers...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653210/lateralized-microstructural-changes-in-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease-in-anterior-olfactory-structures-but-not-in-substantia-nigra
#13
N Joshi, T M Rolheiser, J D Fisk, J R McKelvey, K Schoffer, G Phillips, M Armstrong, M N Khan, R A Leslie, B Rusak, H A Robertson, K P Good
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms as well as severe deficits in olfactory function and microstructural changes in olfactory brain regions. Because of the evidence of asymmetric neuropathological features in early-stage PD, we examined whether lateralized microstructural changes occur in olfactory brain regions and the substantia nigra in a group of early-stage PD patients. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), we assessed 24 early-stage PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 or 2) and 26 healthy controls (HC)...
July 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653033/neuroticism-depression-and-anxiety-traits-exacerbate-the-state-of-cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampal-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Valérie Zufferey, Alessia Donati, Julius Popp, Reto Meuli, Jérôme Rossier, Richard Frackowiak, Bogdan Draganski, Armin von Gunten, Ferath Kherif
INTRODUCTION: Certain personality traits are associated with higher risk of Alzheimer's disease, similar to cognitive impairment. The identification of biological markers associated with personality in mild cognitive impairment could advance the early detection of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We used hierarchical multivariate linear models to quantify the interaction between personality traits, state of cognitive impairment, and MRI biomarkers (gray matter brain volume, gray matter mean water diffusion) in the medial temporal lobe (MTL)...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648465/planum-temporale-asymmetry-in-people-who-stutter
#15
Patricia M Gough, Emily L Connally, Peter Howell, David Ward, Jennifer Chesters, Kate E Watkins
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported that the planum temporale - a language-related structure that normally shows a leftward asymmetry - had reduced asymmetry in people who stutter (PWS) and reversed asymmetry in those with severe stuttering. These findings are consistent with the theory that altered language lateralization may be a cause or consequence of stuttering. Here, we re-examined these findings in a larger sample of PWS. METHODS: We evaluated planum temporale asymmetry in structural MRI scans obtained from 67 PWS and 63 age-matched controls using: 1) manual measurements of the surface area; 2) voxel-based morphometry to automatically calculate grey matter density...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647436/social-judgments-frontal-asymmetry-and-aggressive-behavior-in-young-children-a-replication-study-using-eeg
#16
Ilse C van Wijk, Bianca G van den Bulk, Saskia Euser, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Renske Huffmeijer
Early in their lives young children are confronted with social judgments by peers. Previous studies have shown that in adults negative social judgments are associated with more aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the relation between social judgments and aggressive behavior, or the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, in early childhood. We developed the Social Network Aggression Task - Early Childhood (SNAT-EC) to examine the mediating role of frontal EEG asymmetry in the relation between social judgment and aggressive behavior in 4-6 year old children...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633971/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-depicts-brain-activity-in-models-of-acute-and-chronic-pain-a-new-window-to-study-experimental-spontaneous-pain
#17
I M Devonshire, J J Burston, L Xu, A Lillywhite, M J Prior, D J G Watson, C M Greenspon, S J Iwabuchi, D P Auer, V Chapman
Application of functional imaging techniques to animal models is vital to understand pain mechanisms, but is often confounded by the need to limit movement artefacts with anaesthesia, and a focus on evoked responses rather than clinically relevant spontaneous pain and related hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to measure neural responses during on-going pain that underpins hyperalgesia in pre-clinical models of nociception...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632520/are-sex-related-category-specific-differences-in-semantic-tasks-innate-or-influenced-by-social-roles-a-viewpoint
#18
Guido Gainotti
In semantic tasks, sex-related categorical differences, in the form of better processing of fruits and vegetables by women and of artifacts (human-made objects) and animals by men, have been reported both in healthy participants and in brain-damaged patients. Researchers' interpretation of these sex-related categorical asymmetries has, however, been controversial, being connected with the more general (innatist versus experience-dependent) interpretations that had been given of the mechanisms subsuming the categorical organization of the brain...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632041/automated-volumetry-of-hippocampus-is-useful-to-confirm-unilateral-mesial-temporal-sclerosis-in-patients-with-radiologically-positive-findings
#19
Guilherme Silva, Cristina Martins, Nádia Moreira da Silva, Duarte Vieira, Dias Costa, Ricardo Rego, José Fonseca, João Paulo Silva Cunha
Background and purpose We evaluated two methods to identify mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS): visual inspection by experienced epilepsy neuroradiologists based on structural magnetic resonance imaging sequences and automated hippocampal volumetry provided by a processing pipeline based on the FMRIB Software Library. Methods This retrospective study included patients from the epilepsy monitoring unit database of our institution. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging in 1.5T and 3T scanners with protocols that included thin coronal T2, T1 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and isometric T1 acquisitions...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629961/tortoises-in-front-of-mirrors-brain-asymmetries-and-lateralized-behaviours-in-the-tortoise-testudo-hermanni
#20
Valeria Anna Sovrano, Caterina Quaresmini, Gionata Stancher
Brain lateralization in response to social stimuli is well known for its involvement of the right hemisphere in several vertebrate species, including humans. This study aimed to investigate the laterality of the social behavior during the mirror-images inspection in tortoises (Testudo hermanni). In a rectangular apparatus, in presence or in absence of two mirrors as the longer walls, we assessed: 1) the animal's position and 2) the monocular viewing compared to the longer walls, 3) the paw used to start a movement from a resting position...
June 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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