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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511792/mechanisms-of-hemispheric-lateralization-a-replication-study
#1
Kim C Wende, Catherine Thiel, Jens Sommer, Frieder M Paulus, Sören Krach, Andreas Jansen
It has been shown, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that hemispheric lateralization of brain activity depends on the requirements of the cognitive task performed during the processing of a sensory stimulus rather than on the intrinsic characteristics of that stimulus [Stephan et al., 2003, Science 301 (5631): 384-6]. Task-dependent increase in the coupling of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a region involved in cognitive control, and brain areas in the left prefrontal and right parietal cortex, respectively, regions involved in task execution, was proposed as the mechanism underlying this task-dependency of hemispheric lateralization...
April 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500300/alterations-of-cerebral-perfusion-in-asymptomatic-internal-carotid-artery-steno-occlusive-disease
#2
Ya-Fang Chen, Sung-Chun Tang, Wen-Chau Wu, Hsien-Li Kao, Yen-Shu Kuo, Shun-Chung Yang
Patients with asymptomatic occlusion in the internal carotid arteries (ICA) have been shown to have a better preserved hemodynamic status of the brain as compared to patients with symptoms. This study was aimed to explore the cerebral perfusion alterations in asymptomatic patients using multi-parametric arterial spin-labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Forty-two patients diagnosed with asymptomatic ICA stenosis/occlusion were prospectively included and divided into high-grade (ultrasonographic stenosis ≥70%, N = 20) and low-grade groups (N = 22)...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492363/vagus-nerve-stimulation-improves-working-memory-performance
#3
Lihua Sun, Jari Peräkylä, Katri Holm, Joonas Haapasalo, Kai Lehtimäki, Keith H Ogawa, Jukka Peltola, Kaisa M Hartikainen
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for treating refractory epilepsy and major depression. While the impact of this treatment on seizures has been established, its impact on human cognition remains equivocal. The goal of this study is to elucidate the immediate effects of vagus nerve stimulation on attention, cognition, and emotional reactivity in patients with epilepsy. Twenty patients (12 male and 8 female; 45 ± 13 years old) treated with VNS due to refractory epilepsy participated in the study. Subjects performed a computer-based test of executive functions embedded with emotional distractors while their brain activity was recorded with electroencephalography...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488804/three-dimensional-shape-and-surface-features-distinguish-multiple-sclerosis-lesions-from-nonspecific-white-matter-disease
#4
Braeden D Newton, Katy Wright, Mandy D Winkler, Francesca Bovis, Masaya Takahashi, Ivan E Dimitrov, Maria Pia Sormani, Marco C Pinho, Darin T Okuda
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There remains a need to further refine the ability of clinicians to differentiate multiple sclerosis (MS) from other disease etiologies. Here, we illustrate the value of 3-dimensional (3D) geometric shape and surface lesion characteristics between disease states. METHODS: Standardized 3-Tesla 3D brain magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed on enrolled MS and nonspecific white matter (NSWM) patients. Focal supratentorial lesions were identified, reconstructed using maximum intensity projection, manually segmented, and 3D printed...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486882/foot-preference-underlies-bite-scar-asymmetry-in-the-gecko-ptyodactylus-guttatus
#5
Guy Sion
Scar-asymmetry may reflect brain laterality because scar location may reflect behaviour when being attacked. This has been studied in a few organisms, but never in lizards. Wild geckos (Ptyodactylus guttatus) from Israel were examined for bite-scar numbers and their lateral asymmetry. Social status was documented in the field before capture. Foot-preference, for either the right (R-footed) or left (L-footed) hind leg was determined in six trials for each gecko on adults captured in Jerusalem. I studied 48 geckos: 15 R-footed, 6 ambidextrous and 9 L-footed females; 6 R-footed, 3 ambidextrous and 9 L-footed males...
May 9, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481786/optimal-brain-99mtc-ethyl-cysteinate-dimer-spect-imaging-and-analysis-to-detect-misery-perfusion-on-15o-pet-imaging-in-patients-with-chronic-occlusive-disease-of-unilateral-major-cerebral-artery
#6
Yoshiyasu Matsumoto, Kohki Oikawa, Jun-Ichi Nomura, Daigo Kojima, Sotaro Oshida, Masakazu Kobayashi, Kazunori Terasaki, Yoshitaka Kubo, Kuniaki Ogasawara
PURPOSE: Misery perfusion is defined as marginally sufficient cerebral blood supply relative to cerebral metabolic demand. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal brain Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT imaging and analysis to detect misery perfusion on O PET imaging in patients with chronic occlusive disease of unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA). METHODS: For 97 patients, cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and oxygen extraction fraction were measured using O PET; Tc-ECD SPECT was performed using dynamic scanning with a scan duration of 10 minutes each for 50 minutes after tracer administration...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450537/being-first-matters-topographical-representational-similarity-analysis-of-erp-signals-reveals-separate-networks-for-audiovisual-temporal-binding-depending-on-the-leading-sense
#7
Roberto Cecere, Joachim Gross, Ashleigh Willis, Gregor Thut
In multisensory integration, processing in one sensory modality is enhanced by complementary information from other modalities. Inter-sensory timing is crucial in this process as only inputs reaching the brain within a restricted temporal window are perceptually bound. Previous research in the audiovisual field has investigated various features of the temporal binding window (TBW), revealing asymmetries in its size and plasticity depending on the leading input (auditory-visual, AV; visual-auditory, VA). We here tested whether separate neuronal mechanisms underlie this AV-VA dichotomy in humans...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449277/expertise-shapes-domain-specific-functional-cerebral-asymmetry-during-mental-imagery-the-case-of-culinary-arts-and-music
#8
Moustafa Bensafi, Arnaud Fournel, Pauline Joussain, Johan Poncelet, Lauranne Przybylski
Mental imagery in experts has been documented in visual arts, music and dance. Here, we examined this issue in an understudied art domain, namely culinary arts. Previous research investigating mental imagery in experts has reported either a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere or bilateral brain activation. The first aim of our study was to examine whether culinary arts also recruit such a hemispheric pattern specifically during odor mental imagery. In a second aim, we investigated whether expertise effects observed in a given sensory domain transfer to another modality...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445740/right-brain-left-brain-in-depressive-disorders-clinical-and-theoretical-implications-of-behavioral-electrophysiological-and-neuroimaging-findings
#9
REVIEW
Gerard E Bruder, Jonathan W Stewart, Patrick J McGrath
The right and left side of the brain are asymmetric in anatomy and function. We review electrophysiological (EEG and event-related potential), behavioral (dichotic and visual perceptual asymmetry), and neuroimaging (PET, MRI, NIRS) evidence of right-left asymmetry in depressive disorders. Recent electrophysiological and fMRI studies of emotional processing have provided new evidence of altered laterality in depressive disorders. EEG alpha asymmetry and neuroimaging findings at rest and during cognitive or emotional tasks are consistent with reduced left prefrontal activity in depressed patients, which may impair downregulation of amygdala response to negative emotional information...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444963/the-influence-of-frontal-alpha-asymmetry-on-the-processing-of-approach-and-withdrawal-related-stimuli-a-multichannel-psychophysiology-study
#10
Dirk Adolph, Michael von Glischinski, André Wannemüller, Jürgen Margraf
The approach-withdrawal model of hemispheric activation suggests that left frontal cortical areas mediate approach, while right frontal cortical areas mediate withdrawal motivation. Within this framework, the present study investigates the association of frontal cortical asymmetry with attentional and emotional responses toward approach- and withdrawal-related emotional stimuli. Resting frontal asymmetry was measured from 43 students before they passively viewed negative, neutral, and positive emotional pictures...
April 26, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444225/genetic-influence-on-the-sulcal-pits-on-the-origin-of-the-first-cortical-folds
#11
Yann Le Guen, Guillaume Auzias, François Leroy, Marion Noulhiane, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Edouard Duchesnay, Jean-François Mangin, Olivier Coulon, Vincent Frouin
The influence of genes on cortical structures has been assessed through various phenotypes. The sulcal pits, which are the putative first cortical folds, have for long been assumed to be under tight genetic control, but this was never quantified. We estimated the pit depth heritability in various brain regions using the high quality and large sample size of the Human Connectome Project pedigree cohort. Analysis of additive genetic variance indicated that their heritability ranges between 0.2 and 0.5 and displays a regional genetic control with an overall symmetric pattern between hemispheres...
April 21, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434159/decreased-hemispheric-connectivity-and-decreased-intra-and-inter-hemisphere-asymmetry-of-resting-state-functional-network-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#12
O Agcaoglu, R Miller, E Damaraju, B Rashid, J Bustillo, M S Cetin, T G M Van Erp, S McEwen, A Preda, J M Ford, K O Lim, D S Manoach, D H Mathalon, S G Potkin, V D Calhoun
Many studies have shown that schizophrenia patients have aberrant functional network connectivity (FNC) among brain regions, suggesting schizophrenia manifests with significantly diminished (in majority of the cases) connectivity. Schizophrenia is also associated with a lack of hemispheric lateralization. Hoptman et al. (2012) reported lower inter-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia patients compared to controls using voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity. In this study, we merge these two points of views together using a group independent component analysis (gICA)-based approach to generate hemisphere-specific timecourses and calculate intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere FNC on a resting state fMRI dataset consisting of age- and gender-balanced 151 schizophrenia patients and 163 healthy controls...
April 22, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431000/left-brain-asymmetry-of-the-planum-temporale-in-a-nonhominid-primate-redefining-the-origin-of-brain-specialization-for-language
#13
Damien Marie, Muriel Roth, Romain Lacoste, Bruno Nazarian, Alice Bertello, Jean-Luc Anton, William D Hopkins, Konstantina Margiotoudi, Scott A Love, Adrien Meguerditchian
The planum temporale (PT) is a critical region of the language functional network in the human brain showing a striking size asymmetry toward the left hemisphere. Historically considered as a structural landmark of the left-brain specialization for language, a similar anatomical bias has been described in great apes but never in monkeys-indicating that this brain landmark might be unique to Hominidae evolution. In the present in vivo magnetic resonance imaging study, we show clearly for the first time in a nonhominid primate species, an Old World monkey, a left size predominance of the PT among 96 olive baboons (Papio anubis), using manual delineation of this region in each individual hemisphere...
April 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429004/binding-site-opening-by-loop-c-shift-and-chloride-ion-pore-interaction-in-the-gabaa-receptor-model
#14
M A Michałowski, S Kraszewski, J W Mozrzymas
GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are crucial in mediating inhibition in the adult mammalian brain. Although the kinetics of this receptor has been extensively studied, the molecular picture of interactions occurring at various channel conformations remains elusive. While electrophysiology combined with mutagenesis sheds light on the role of specific residues, ultrastructural studies reveal static structures which, in the case of GABAARs, are limited to the β3 homomer. To take advantage of the newest crystal structures of cys-loop receptors, a homology model of α1β2γ2 GABAAR in the unbound closed state was built using a template of the homomeric glycine receptor in the closed state...
April 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426959/ontogenesis-of-lateralization
#15
REVIEW
Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
The brains of humans and other animals are asymmetrically organized, but we still know little about the ontogenetic and neural fundaments of lateralizations. Here, we review the current state of understanding about the role of genetic and non-genetic factors for the development of neural and behavioral asymmetries in vertebrates. At the genetic level, the Nodal signaling cascade is of central importance, but several other genetic pathways have been discovered to also shape the lateralized embryonic brain. Studies in humans identified several relevant genes with mostly small effect sizes but also highlight the extreme importance of non-genetic factors for asymmetry development...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420362/clinical-hemispheric-and-autonomic-changes-associated-with-use-of-closed-loop-allostatic-neurotechnology-by-a-case-series-of-individuals-with-self-reported-symptoms-of-post-traumatic-stress
#16
Charles H Tegeler, Jared F Cook, Catherine L Tegeler, Joshua R Hirsch, Hossam A Shaltout, Sean L Simpson, Brian C Fidali, Lee Gerdes, Sung W Lee
BACKGROUND: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the use of a closed-loop, allostatic, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology for individuals with self-reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress, as a potential means to impact symptomatology, temporal lobe high frequency asymmetry, heart rate variability (HRV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). METHODS: From a cohort of individuals participating in a naturalistic study to evaluate use of allostatic neurotechnology for diverse clinical conditions, a subset was identified who reported high scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416595/nonsinusoidal-beta-oscillations-reflect-cortical-pathophysiology-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Scott R Cole, Roemer van der Meij, Erik J Peterson, Coralie de Hemptinne, Philip A Starr, Bradley Voytek
Oscillations in neural activity play a critical role in neural computation and communication. There is intriguing new evidence that the nonsinusoidal features of the oscillatory waveforms may inform underlying physiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Time-domain waveform analysis approaches stand in contrast to traditional Fourier-based methods, which alter or destroy subtle waveform features. Recently, it has been shown that the waveform features of oscillatory beta (13-30 Hz) events, a prominent motor cortical oscillation, may reflect near-synchronous excitatory synaptic inputs onto cortical pyramidal neurons...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412316/differentiating-stroke-and-seizure-in-acute-setting-perfusion-computed-tomography
#18
Katarzyna Kubiak-Balcerewicz, Urszula Fiszer, Ewa Nagańska, Cezary Siemianowski, Aleksander Sobieszek, Agnieszka Witak-Grzybowska, Aldona Kosińska-Szot
BACKGROUND: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) is part of acute stroke protocol in many hospitals; however, its clinical utility is still being disputed. Beyond its use in core and penumbra estimation, there is also a question about PCT role in stroke mimics diagnosis. Case series or small, retrospective studies showed equivocal results. This is the first published prospective, comparative study on PCT in differentiating stroke and seizure in acute setting. METHODS: Patients with acute focal neurologic deficits and without acute ischemic lesions on routine CT underwent PCT and electroencephalography (EEG) within 12 hours after symptom onset...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410561/sexual-dimorphism-of-the-planum-temporale-in-schizophrenia-a-mri-study
#19
Giuseppe Delvecchio, Alessandro Pigoni, Cinzia Perlini, Marco Barillari, Mirella Ruggeri, Alfredo Carlo Altamura, Marcella Bellani, Paolo Brambilla
OBJECTIVE: Anatomical alterations in the superior temporal gyrus have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia, and they have mostly been linked to positive symptoms, including hallucinations and thought disorders. The superior temporal gyrus is considered one of the most asymmetric and lateralized structure of the human brain, and the process of lateralization seems to vary according to gender in the normal population. However, although it has been consistently suggested that patients with schizophrenia did not show normal brain lateralization in several regions, only few studies investigated it in the superior temporal gyrus and its sub-regions considering the effects of gender...
April 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409305/drosophila-melanogaster-neuroblasts-a-model-for-asymmetric-stem-cell-divisions
#20
Emmanuel Gallaud, Tri Pham, Clemens Cabernard
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a fundamental mechanism to generate cell diversity, giving rise to daughter cells with different developmental potentials. ACD is manifested in the asymmetric segregation of proteins or mRNAs, when the two daughter cells differ in size or are endowed with different potentials to differentiate into a particular cell type (Horvitz and Herskowitz, Cell 68:237-255, 1992). Drosophila neuroblasts, the neural stem cells of the developing fly brain, are an ideal system to study ACD since this system encompasses all of these characteristics...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
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