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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197092/bci-control-of-heuristic-search-algorithms
#1
Marc Cavazza, Gabor Aranyi, Fred Charles
The ability to develop Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) to Intelligent Systems would offer new perspectives in terms of human supervision of complex Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems, as well as supporting new types of applications. In this article, we introduce a basic mechanism for the control of heuristic search through fNIRS-based BCI. The rationale is that heuristic search is not only a basic AI mechanism but also one still at the heart of many different AI systems. We investigate how users' mental disposition can be harnessed to influence the performance of heuristic search algorithm through a mechanism of precision-complexity exchange...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195205/paracingulate-sulcus-asymmetry-in-the-human-brain-effects-of-sex-handedness-and-race
#2
Xuehu Wei, Yan Yin, Menglin Rong, Jinfeng Zhang, Lijie Wang, Yan Wu, Qing Cai, Chunshui Yu, Jiaojian Wang, Tianzi Jiang
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is thought to play a key role in cognitive and affective regulation, has been widely reported to have a high degree of morphological inter-individual variability and asymmetry. An obvious difference is in the morphology of the paracingulate sulcus (PCS). Three types of PCS have been identified: prominent, present, and absent. In this study, we examined the relationship between PCS asymmetry and whether the asymmetry of the PCS is affected by sex, handedness, or race...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190429/the-scope-of-neurology-of-critical-illness
#3
E F M Wijdicks
Critical illness increases the probability of a neurologic complication. There are many reasons to consult a neurologist in a critically ill patient and most often it is altered alertness with no intuitive plausible explanation. Other common clinical neurologic problems facing the intensive care specialist and consulting neurologist in everyday decisions are coma following prolonged cardiovascular surgery, newly perceived motor asymmetry, seizures or other abnormal movements, and generalized muscle weakness...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180083/lateralized-occipital-degeneration-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy-predicts-visual-field-deficits
#4
Rebecca S Millington, Merle James-Galton, Mari N Maia Da Silva, Gordon T Plant, Holly Bridge
BACKGROUND: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), the visual variant of Alzheimer's disease, leads to high-level visual deficits such as alexia or agnosia. Visual field deficits have also been identified, but often inconsistently reported. Little is known about the pattern of visual field deficits or the underlying cortical changes leading to this visual loss. METHODS: Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate differences in gray matter volume, cortical thickness, white matter microstructure and functional activity in patients with PCA compared to age-matched controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164245/variations-of-planum-temporale-asymmetries-with-heschl-s-gyri-duplications-and-association-with-cognitive-abilities-mri-investigation-of-428-healthy-volunteers
#5
Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer, B Mazoyer
In a large sample of 428 healthy adults balanced for gender and manual preference (MP), we investigated planum temporale (PT) surface area variability in relation with Heschl's gyrus (HG) duplication pattern, MP, and familial sinistrality (FS), considering different PT definitions. In a sub-sample of 362 participants, we also investigated whether variability of PT asymmetry was associated with differences in verbal abilities. On each participant brain hemisphere MRI, we delineated a posterior PT area (PTpost), excluding the second Heschl gyrus in case of either complete posterior duplication (CPD) or common stem partial duplication (CSD)...
February 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148832/larval-antlions-with-more-pronounced-behavioural-asymmetry-show-enhanced-cognitive-skills
#6
Krzysztof Miler, Karolina Kuszewska, Michał Woyciechowski
Brain lateralization is hypothesized to improve the efficiency of information processing. Here, we found that some Myrmeleon bore antlion larvae showed individual asymmetry in righting from a supine to normal position over one side of their body, which can be considered a reflection of greater brain lateralization. We demonstrated that these behaviourally asymmetrical individuals showed improved learning abilities, providing novel evidence that brain lateralization leads to beneficial effects on cognitive functions...
February 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137928/efficiency-of-physical-therapy-on-postural-imbalance-after-stroke-study-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
A Hugues, J Di Marco, P Janiaud, Y Xue, J Pires, H Khademi, M Cucherat, I Bonan, F Gueyffier, G Rode
INTRODUCTION: Stroke frequently results in balance disorders, leading to lower levels of activity and a diminution in autonomy. Current physical therapies (PT) aiming to reduce postural imbalance have shown a large variety of effects with low levels of evidence. The objectives are to determine the efficiency of PT in recovering from postural imbalance in patients after a stroke and to assess which PT is more effective. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search several databases from inception to October 2015...
January 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127722/magnetic-resonance-imaging-distortion-and-targeting-errors-from-strong-rare-earth-metal-magnetic-dental-implant-requiring-revision
#8
Park Seong-Cheol, Lee Chong Sik, Kim Seok Min, Choi Eu Jene, Lee Do Hee, Lee Jung Kyo
Recently, the use of magnetic dental implants has been re-popularized with the introduction of strong rare earth metal, for example, neodymium, magnets. Unrecognized magnetic dental implants can cause critical magnetic resonance image distortions. We report a case involving surgical failure caused by a magnetic dental implant. A 62-year-old man underwent deep brain stimulation for medically insufficiently controlled Parkinson's disease. Stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging performed for the first deep brain stimulation showed that the overdenture was removed...
December 22, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125008/primary-cilia-as-a-possible-link-between-left-right-asymmetry-and-neurodevelopmental-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Andrey Trulioff, Alexander Ermakov, Yegor Malashichev
Cilia have multiple functions in the development of the entire organism, and participate in the development and functioning of the central nervous system. In the last decade, studies have shown that they are implicated in the development of the visceral left-right asymmetry in different vertebrates. At the same time, some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, and dyslexia, are known to be associated with lateralization failure. In this review, we consider possible links in the mechanisms of determination of visceral asymmetry and brain lateralization, through cilia...
January 25, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123950/novel-surface-features-for-automated-detection-of-focal-cortical-dysplasias-in-paediatric-epilepsy
#10
Sophie Adler, Konrad Wagstyl, Roxana Gunny, Lisa Ronan, David Carmichael, J Helen Cross, Paul C Fletcher, Torsten Baldeweg
Focal cortical dysplasia is a congenital abnormality of cortical development and the leading cause of surgically remediable drug-resistant epilepsy in children. Post-surgical outcome is improved by presurgical lesion detection on structural MRI. Automated computational techniques have improved detection of focal cortical dysplasias in adults but have not yet been effective when applied to developing brains. There is therefore a need to develop reliable and sensitive methods to address the particular challenges of a paediatric cohort...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119135/relative-latency-and-temporal-variability-of-hemodynamic-responses-at-the-human-primary-visual-cortex
#11
Fa-Hsuan Lin, Jonathan R Polimeni, Jo-Fu Lotus Lin, Kevin W-K Tsai, Ying-Hua Chu, Pu-Yeh Wu, Yi-Tien Li, Yi-Cheng Hsu, Shang-Yueh Tsai, Wen-Jui Kuo
The blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) signal is a robust surrogate for local neuronal activity. However, it has been shown to vary substantially across subjects, brain regions, and repetitive measurements. This variability represents a limit to the precision of the BOLD response and the ability to reliably discriminate brain hemodynamic responses elicited by external stimuli or behavior that are nearby in time. While the temporal variability of the BOLD signal at human visual cortex has been found in the range of a few hundreds of milliseconds, the spatial distributions of the average and standard deviation of this temporal variability have not been quantitatively characterized...
January 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117178/targeting-interhemispheric-inhibition-with-neuromodulation-to-enhance-stroke-rehabilitation
#12
REVIEW
L J Boddington, J N J Reynolds
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Interhemispheric inhibition in the brain plays a dynamic role in the production of voluntary unimanual actions. In stroke, the interhemispheric imbalance model predicts the presence of asymmetry in interhemispheric inhibition, with excessive inhibition from the contralesional hemisphere limiting maximal recovery. Stimulation methods to reduce this asymmetry in the brain may be promising as a stroke therapy, however determining how to best measure and modulate interhemispheric inhibition and who is likely to benefit, remain important questions...
January 11, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111351/beauty-premium-event-related-potentials-evidence-of-how-physical-attractiveness-matters-in-online-peer-to-peer-lending
#13
Jia Jin, Bonai Fan, Shenyi Dai, Qingguo Ma
Although it is well known that attractiveness-based impressions affect the labor market, election outcomes and many other social activities, little is known about the role physical attractiveness plays in financial transactions. With the development of online finance, peer-to-peer lending has become one of the most important ways in which businesses or individuals raise capital. However, because of information asymmetry, the lender must decide whether or not to lend money to a stranger based on limited information, resulting in their decision being influenced by many other factors...
January 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108254/changes-in-pitch-height-elicit-both-language-universal-and-language-dependent-changes-in-neural-representation-of-pitch-in-the-brainstem-and-auditory-cortex
#14
Ananthanarayan Krishnan, Chandan H Suresh, Jackson T Gandour
Language experience shapes encoding of pitch-relevant information at both brainstem and cortical levels of processing. Pitch height is a salient dimension that orders pitch from low to high. Herein we investigate the effects of language experience (Chinese, English) in the brainstem and cortex on (i) neural responses to variations in pitch height, (ii) presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and (iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude of pitch height between these two levels of brain structure...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101340/pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-imaging-of-cerebral-blood-perfusion-asymmetry-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-first-episode-major-depression
#15
Guangdong Chen, Haiman Bian, Deguo Jiang, Mingwei Cui, Shengzhang Ji, Mei Liu, Xu Lang, Chuanjun Zhuo
Many previous studies have reported that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) aberrations may be one of the pathological characteristics of depression and rCBF has demonstrated a certain degree of asymmetry. However, studies investigating the cerebral blood perfusion asymmetry changes of drug-naïve patients experiencing their first episode of major depression using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) are rare. Ten drug-naïve patients experiencing their first major depression episode and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the current study...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093370/a-comparison-of-locomotor-therapy-interventions-partial-body-weight-supported-treadmill-lokomat%C3%A2-and-g-eo%C3%A2-training-in-persons-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Alberto Esquenazi, Stella Lee, Amanda Wikoff, Andrew Packel, Theresa Toczylowski, John Feeley
BACKGROUND: Literature in the application of gait training techniques in persons with traumatic brain injury is limited. Current techniques require of multiple staff and are physically demanding. The use of a robotic locomotor training may provide improved training capacity for this population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of three different modes of locomotor therapy on gait velocity and spatiotemporal symmetry using: an end effector robot (G-EO™); a robotic exoskeleton (Lokomat®) and manual assisted partial-body weight supported treadmill training (PBWSTT) in participants with traumatic brain injury...
January 13, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093276/asymmetry-in-visual-information-processing-depends-on-the-strength-of-eye-dominance
#17
Romain Chaumillon, Nadia Alahyane, Patrice Senot, Judith Vergne, Christelle Lemoine-Lardennois, Jean Blouin, Karine Doré-Mazars, Alain Guillaume, Dorine Vergilino-Perez
Unlike handedness, sighting eye dominance, defined as the eye unconsciously chosen when performing monocular tasks, is very rarely considered in studies investigating cerebral asymmetries. We previously showed that sighting eye dominance has an influence on visually triggered manual action with shorter reaction time (RT) when the stimulus appears in the contralateral visual hemifield with respect to the dominant eye (Chaumillon et al. 2014). We also suggested that eye dominance may be more or less pronounced depending on individuals and that this eye dominance strength could be evaluated through saccadic peak velocity analysis in binocular recordings (Vergilino-Perez et al...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078760/a-study-of-volumetric-variations-of-basal-nuclei-in-the-normal-human-brain-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#18
Amal Elkattan, Amal Mahdy, Mohamed Eltomey, Radwa Ismail
Knowledge of the effects of healthy aging on brain structures is necessary to identify abnormal changes due to diseases. Many studies have demonstrated age-related volume changes in the brain using MRI. 60 healthy individuals who had normal MRI aged from 20 years to 80 years were examined and classified into three groups: Group I: 21 persons; nine males and 12 females aging between 20-39 years old. Group II: 22 persons; 11 males and 11 females aging between 40-59 years old. Group III: 17 persons; eight males and nine females aging between 60-80 years old...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077727/asymmetries-of-dark-and-bright-negative-afterimages-are-paralleled-by-subcortical-on-and-off-post-stimulus-responses
#19
Hui Li, Xu Liu, Xiaohong Li, Yiliang Lu, Lothar Spillmann, Ian M Andolina, Wei Wang
: Humans are more sensitive to luminance decrements than increments, as evidenced by lower thresholds and shorter latencies for dark stimuli. This asymmetry is consistent with results of neurophysiological recordings in dorsal lateral-geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) of cat and monkey. Specifically, V1 population responses demonstrate that darks elicit higher levels of activation than brights, and the latency of OFF responses in dLGN and V1 is shorter than that of ON responses...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072386/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#20
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
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