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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324813/increase-in-extraction-of-i-123-iomazenil-in-patients-with-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#1
Hiroki Kato, Kayako Isohashi, Eku Shimosegawa, Jun Hatazawa
BACKGROUND: Cerebral extraction of diffusively distributed substances like oxygen has been suggested to change according to the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and status of the microvasculature. The relationships between the cerebral extraction of diffusively distributed lipophilic tracers and the severity of cerebral ischemia has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the association between the extraction fraction of the lipophilic tracer I-123 iomazenil (IMZ) (IMZ-EF) and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) derived from O-15 PET in patients with chronic steno-occlusive disease of internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305876/resting-frontal-eeg-asymmetry-patterns-in-adolescents-with-and-without-major-depression
#2
Barbara D Grünewald, Ellen Greimel, Monika Trinkl, Jürgen Bartling, Nicola Großheinrich, Gerd Schulte-Körne
More right-sided frontal brain resting activity has been postulated to be a correlate of major depression in adults. In children and adolescents, more right-sided activity (as indicated by more left-sided alpha activity) seems to be associated with psychosocial risk factors. However, an association of frontal asymmetry and manifest unipolar depression has not been shown in adolescents so far. We analyzed frontal asymmetry in 20 adolescents (12-17 years) with unipolar depression (12 with first episode, 8 with recurrent depression) and 31 healthy age-matched controls...
January 3, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305647/investigation-of-brain-structure-in-the-1-month-infant
#3
Douglas C Dean, E M Planalp, W Wooten, C K Schmidt, S R Kecskemeti, C Frye, N L Schmidt, H H Goldsmith, A L Alexander, R J Davidson
The developing brain undergoes systematic changes that occur at successive stages of maturation. Deviations from the typical neurodevelopmental trajectory are hypothesized to underlie many early childhood disorders; thus, characterizing the earliest patterns of normative brain development is essential. Recent neuroimaging research provides insight into brain structure during late childhood and adolescence; however, few studies have examined the infant brain, particularly in infants under 3 months of age. Using high-resolution structural MRI, we measured subcortical gray and white matter brain volumes in a cohort (N = 143) of 1-month infants and examined characteristics of these volumetric measures throughout this early period of neurodevelopment...
January 5, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302744/brain-structural-and-functional-asymmetry-in-human-situs-inversus-totalis
#4
Guy Vingerhoets, Xiang Li, Lewis Hou, Stephanie Bogaert, Helena Verhelst, Robin Gerrits, Roma Siugzdaite, Neil Roberts
Magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate brain structural and functional asymmetries in 15 participants with complete visceral reversal (situs inversus totalis, SIT). Language-related brain structural and functional lateralization of SIT participants, including peri-Sylvian gray and white matter asymmetries and hemispheric language dominance, was similar to those of 15 control participants individually matched for sex, age, education, and handedness. In contrast, the SIT cohort showed reversal of the brain (Yakovlevian) torque (occipital petalia and occipital bending) compared to the control group...
January 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299691/knowing-left-from-right-asymmetric-functional-connectivity-during-resting-state
#5
Mathijs Raemaekers, Wouter Schellekens, Natalia Petridou, Nick F Ramsey
The functional organization of left and right hemispheres is different, and hemispheric asymmetries are thought to underlie variations in brain function across individuals. In this study, we assess how differences between hemispheres are reflected in Asymmetric Functional Connectivity (AFC), which provides a full description of how the brain's connectivity structure during resting state differs from that of the same brain mirrored over the longitudinal fissure. In addition, we assess how AFC varies across subjects...
January 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296476/optical-mapping-of-brain-activation-during-the-english-to-chinese-and-chinese-to-english-sight-translation
#6
Yan He, Meng-Yun Wang, Defeng Li, Zhen Yuan
Translating from Chinese into another language or vice versa is becoming a widespread phenomenon. However, current neuroimaging studies are insufficient to reveal the neural mechanism underlying translation asymmetry during Chinese/English sight translation. In this study, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to extract the brain activation patterns associated with Chinese/English sight translation. Eleven unbalanced Chinese (L1)/English (L2) bilinguals participated in this study based on an intra-group experimental design, in which two translation and two reading aloud tasks were administered: forward translation (from L1 to L2), backward translation (from L2 to L1), L1 reading, and L2 reading...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291241/pseudoneglect-in-visual-search-behavioral-evidence-and-connectional-constraints-in-simulated-neural-circuitry
#7
Onofrio Gigliotta, Tal Seidel Malkinson, Orazio Miglino, Paolo Bartolomeo
Most people tend to bisect horizontal lines slightly to the left of their true center (pseudoneglect) and start visual search from left-sided items. This physiological leftward spatial bias may depend on hemispheric asymmetries in the organization of attentional networks, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. Here, we modeled relevant aspects of the ventral and dorsal attentional networks (VAN and DAN) of the human brain. First, we demonstrated pseudoneglect in visual search in 101 right-handed psychology students...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290549/cholinergic-sensorimotor-integration-regulates-olfactory-steering
#8
He Liu, Wenxing Yang, Taihong Wu, Fengyun Duan, Edward Soucy, Xin Jin, Yun Zhang
Sensorimotor integration regulates goal-directed movements. We study the signaling mechanisms underlying sensorimotor integration in C. elegans during olfactory steering, when the sinusoidal movements of the worm generate an in-phase oscillation in the concentration of the sampled odorant. We show that cholinergic neurotransmission encodes the oscillatory sensory response and the motor state of head undulations by acting through an acetylcholine-gated channel and a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, respectively...
December 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290197/primary-cns-lymphoma-vs-tumefactive-multiple-sclerosis-a-diagnostic-challenge
#9
Sameen Bin Naeem, Farheen Niazi, Atif Baig, Hina Sadiq, Mubbasher Sattar
Primary CNS (central nervous system) lymphoma is a rare condition with the incidence of less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) and approximately 2% of all primary brain tumours. Diagnosis can be challenging and necessitates brain biopsy for definitive diagnosis. A 41-year male presented with history of impaired cognition, facial asymmetry, visual impairment and left sided body weakness. MRI brain demonstrated multiple enhancing lesions with one larger lesion in right basal ganglia with surrounding oedema and mass effect...
January 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287244/investigating-the-differential-contributions-of-sex-and-brain-size-to-gray-matter-asymmetry
#10
Florian Kurth, Paul M Thompson, Eileen Luders
Scientific reports of sex differences in brain asymmetry - the difference between the two hemispheres - are rather inconsistent. Some studies report no sex differences whatsoever, others reveal striking sex effects, with large discrepancies across studies in the magnitude, direction, and location of the observed effects. One reason for the lack of consistency in findings may be the confounding effects of brain size as male brains are usually larger than female brains. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the differential contributions of sex and brain size to asymmetry with a particular focus on gray matter...
December 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285657/inter-individual-variations-and-hemispheric-asymmetries-in-structural-connectivity-patterns-of-the-inferior-fronto-occipital-fascicle-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-study
#11
François Vassal, Benjamin Pommier, Anna Sontheimer, Jean-Jacques Lemaire
PURPOSE: Precise knowledge of the structural connectivity of white matter fascicles could yield new insights into function and is important for neurosurgical planning. Therefore, we aimed to provide a detailed map of the cortical terminations of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF), with special emphasis on putative inter-individual variations and hemispheric asymmetries. METHODS: Deterministic diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography was used to perform virtual dissection of the IFOF in 20 healthy subjects...
December 28, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282284/moesin-is-involved-in-polarity-maintenance-and-cortical-remodelling-during-asymmetric-cell-division
#12
Namal Abeysundara, Andrew J Simmonds, Sarah C Hughes
An intact actomyosin network is essential for anchoring polarity proteins to the cell cortex and maintaining cell size asymmetry during asymmetric cell division of Drosophila neuroblasts. However, the mechanisms that control changes in actomyosin dynamics during asymmetric cell division remain unclear. We find that the actin-binding protein, Moesin, is essential for neuroblast proliferation and mitotic progression in the developing brain. During metaphase, phosphorylated Moesin (p-Moesin) is enriched at the apical cortex and loss of Moesin leads to defects in apical polarity maintenance and cortical stability...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276478/application-of-the-physical-disector-principle-for-quantification-of-dopaminergic-neuronal-loss-in-a-rat-6-hydroxydopamine-nigral-lesion-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Katrine Fabricius, Pernille Barkholt, Jacob Jelsing, Henrik H Hansen
Stereological analysis is the optimal tool for quantitative assessment of brain morphological and cellular changes induced by neurotoxic lesions or treatment interventions. Stereological methods based on random sampling techniques yield unbiased estimates of particle counts within a defined volume, thereby providing a true quantitative estimate of the target cell population. Neurodegenerative diseases involve loss of specific neuron types, such as the midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase-positive dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease and in animal models of nigrostriatal degeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275005/behavioral-and-electrophysiological-signatures-of-word-translation-processes
#14
Lea B Jost, Narges Radman, Karin A Buetler, Jean-Marie Annoni
Translation is a demanding process during which a message is analyzed, translated and communicated from one language to another. Despite numerous studies on translation mechanisms, the electrophysiological processes underlying translation with overt production remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated how behavioral response patterns and spatial-temporal brain dynamics differ in a translation compared to a control within-language word-generation task. We also investigated how forward and backward translation differs on the behavioral and electrophysiological level...
December 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258375/motor-asymmetry-in-goats-during-a-stepping-task
#15
Carolina Baruzzi, Christian Nawroth, Alan McElligott, Luigi Baciadonna
Behavioural lateralization consists of perceptual and motor lateralization and provides adaptive advantages such as a general increase in brain efficiency. Motor laterality refers to the preferred use of either left or right limbs or organs to perform a specific task. We investigated motor laterality in goats (Capra hircus), using the First-stepping Task. During this task, the first foreleg used to step off a board after standing with both forelimbs was recorded. Subjects varied individually in their expression of motor lateralization with 36...
December 19, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249949/modulation-of-neural-activity-during-guided-viewing-of-visual-art
#16
Guillermo Herrera-Arcos, Jesús Tamez-Duque, Elsa Y Acosta-De-Anda, Kevin Kwan-Loo, Mayra de-Alba, Ulises Tamez-Duque, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, Rogelio Soto
Mobile Brain-Body Imaging (MoBI) technology was deployed to record multi-modal data from 209 participants to examine the brain's response to artistic stimuli at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo (MARCO) in Monterrey, México. EEG signals were recorded as the subjects walked through the exhibit in guided groups of 6-8 people. Moreover, guided groups were either provided with an explanation of each art piece (Guided-E), or given no explanation (Guided-NE). The study was performed using portable Muse (InteraXon, Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada) headbands with four dry electrodes located at AF7, AF8, TP9, and TP10...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248615/exploring-the-neural-correlates-of-lexical-stress-perception-in-english-among-chinese-english-bilingual-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-erp-study
#17
Juan Zhang, Yaxuan Meng, Xiuhong Tong, Zhen Yuan, Chenggang Wu
Previous studies found that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were less sensitive to the variations of lexical stress in their native language. However, no study has been conducted to explore the perception of lexical stress in the second language among individuals with ASD. Using ERP (event-related potential) measurement with an oddball paradigm, the current study examined and compared the neural responses by Chinese-English bilingual children with ASD and typically developing controls in the processing of English lexical stress...
December 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243530/electrophysiological-markers-of-motivation-in-psychosis
#18
Kazuki Sueyoshi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
Motivation is associated with electrophysiological markers, such as awake state delta oscillation and frontal alpha asymmetry, as well as event-related potentials, such as error-related negativity, feedback-related negativity, and prepulse inhibition. These indicators provide an objective measure of motivational deficits in psychiatric conditions, and response to treatment. Also, these modalities of brain activities are drawing attention as a target of neurofeedback training. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview on electrophysiological findings relevant to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying impaired motivation in psychiatric disorders and clinical practice...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240813/feature-reliability-determines-specificity-and-transfer-of-perceptual-learning-in-orientation-search
#19
Amit Yashar, Rachel N Denison
Training can modify the visual system to produce a substantial improvement on perceptual tasks and therefore has applications for treating visual deficits. Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is often specific to the trained feature, which gives insight into processes underlying brain plasticity, but limits VPL's effectiveness in rehabilitation. Under what circumstances VPL transfers to untrained stimuli is poorly understood. Here we report a qualitatively new phenomenon: intrinsic variation in the representation of features determines the transfer of VPL...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239973/involvement-of-adenosine-triphosphate-sensitive-potassium-channels-in-the-neuroprotective-activity-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-the-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Mohammad Reza Sarookhani, Hashem Haghdoost-Yazdi, Ali Sarbazi-Golezari, Arvin Babayan-Tazehkand, Nafiseh Rastgoo
Studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts a neuroprotective effect and may have a therapeutic value for treating neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective activity of H2S in vivo. Here, we evaluated the effect of glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker, on the neuroprotective activity of H2S in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of Parkinson's disease. 6-OHDA was administered by stereotaxic surgery into the medial forebrain bundle...
December 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
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