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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917705/long-term-retention-of-ecm-hydrogel-after-implantation-into-a-sub-acute-stroke-cavity-reduces-lesion-volume
#1
Harmanvir Ghuman, Madeline Gerwig, Francesca J Nicholls, Jessie Liu, Julia Donnelly, Stephen F Badylak, Michel Modo
Salvaging or functional replacement of damaged tissue caused by stroke in the brain remains a major therapeutic challenge. In situ gelation and retention of a hydrogel bioscaffold composed of 8 mg/mL extracellular matrix (ECM) can induce a robust invasion of cells within 24 hours and potentially promote a structural remodeling to replace lost tissue. Herein, we demonstrate a long-term retention of ECM hydrogel within the lesion cavity. A decrease of approximately 32% of ECM volume is observed over 12 weeks...
September 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914148/dna-methylation-in-candidate-genes-for-handedness-predicts-handedness-direction
#2
Judith Schmitz, Robert Kumsta, Dirk Moser, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Handedness is a complex trait influenced by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Asymmetries of DNA methylation and gene expression in the developing foetus are thought to underlie its development. However, its molecular epigenetics are not well understood. We collected buccal cells from adult left- and right-handers (n = 60) to investigate whether epigenetic biomarkers of handedness can be identified in non-neuronal tissue. We associated DNA methylation in promoter regions of candidate genes with handedness direction...
September 15, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898497/a-pediatric-structural-mri-analysis-of-healthy-brain-development-from-newborns-to-young-adults
#3
Jacob Levman, Patrick MacDonald, Ashley Ruyan Lim, Cynthia Forgeron, Emi Takahashi
Assessment of healthy brain maturation can be useful toward better understanding natural patterns of brain growth and toward the characterization of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders as deviations from normal growth trajectories. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides excellent soft-tissue contrast, which allows for the assessment of gray and white matter in the developing brain. We performed a large-scale retrospective analysis of 993 pediatric structural brain MRI examinations of healthy subjects (n = 988, aged 0-32 years) imaged clinically at 3 T, and extracted a wide variety of measurements such as white matter volumes, cortical thickness, and gyral curvature localized to subregions of the brain...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892993/foetal-magnetic-resonance-images-of-two-cases-of-aicardi-syndrome
#4
Sebastián Gacio, Sebastián Lescano
Cerebral malformations are of fundamental importance in the clinical diagnosis of Aicardi Syndrome (AS). Some of these anomalies like callosal agenesis, cysts formation, posterior fossa anomalies and gross interhemispheric asymmetry are easily observed in the prenatal period with the use of foetal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). We present two cases of female newborns with cerebral MRI performed in the prenatal period and further diagnosed with AS. With the increase use of foetal MRI, AS will be easier suspected in the prenatal period in a female fetus with typical brain anomalies...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890315/subthalamic-neural-entropy-is-a-feature-of-freezing-of-gait-in-freely-moving-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Judy Syrkin-Nikolau, Mandy Miller Koop, Thomas Prieto, Chioma Anidi, Muhammad Furqan Afzal, Anca Velisar, Zack Blumenfeld, Talora Martin, Megan Trager, Helen Bronte-Stewart
The goal of this study was to investigate subthalamic (STN) neural features of Freezers and Non-Freezers with Parkinson's disease (PD), while freely walking without freezing of gait (FOG) and during periods of FOG, which were better elicited during a novel turning and barrier gait task than during forward walking. METHODS: Synchronous STN local field potentials (LFPs), shank angular velocities, and ground reaction forces were measured in fourteen PD subjects (eight Freezers) off medication, OFF deep brain stimulation (DBS), using an investigative, implanted, sensing neurostimulator (Activa® PC+S, Medtronic, Inc...
September 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864206/mice-lacking-hippocampal-left-right-asymmetry-show-non-spatial-learning-deficits
#6
Akihiro Shimbo, Yutaka Kosaki, Isao Ito, Shigeru Watanabe
Left-right asymmetry is known to exist at several anatomical levels in the brain and recent studies have provided further evidence to show that it also exists at a molecular level in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuit. The distribution of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunits in the apical and basal synapses of CA1 pyramidal neurons is asymmetrical if the input arrives from the left or right CA3 pyramidal neurons. In the present study, we examined the role of hippocampal asymmetry in cognitive function using β2-microglobulin knock-out (β2m KO) mice, which lack hippocampal asymmetry...
August 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862349/z-spectrum-appearance-and-interpretation-in-the-presence-of-fat-influence-of-acquisition-parameters
#7
Shu Zhang, Jochen Keupp, Xinzeng Wang, Ivan Dimitrov, Ananth J Madhuranthakam, Robert E Lenkinski, Elena Vinogradov
PURPOSE: Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is increasingly evolving from brain to body applications. One of the known problems in the body imaging is the presence of strong lipid signals. Although their influence on the CEST effect is acknowledged, there was no study that focuses on the interplay among echo time, fat fraction, and Z-spectrum. This study strives to address these points, with the emphasis on the application in the breast. METHODS: Z-spectra were simulated in phase and out of phase of the main fat peak at -3...
September 1, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858845/bidirectional-asymmetry-in-the-neurovisceral-communication-for-the-cardiovascular-control-new-insights
#8
I Prieto, A B Segarra, M Martinez-Canamero, M De Gasparo, S Zorad, M Ramirez-Sanchez
The cardiovascular control involves a bidirectional functional connection between the brain and heart. We hypothesize that this connection could be extended to other organs using endocrine and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) as communication pathways. This implies a neuroendocrine interaction controlling particularly the cardiovascular function where the enzymatic cascade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an essential role. It acts not only through its classic endocrine connection but also the ANS...
July 1, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856766/gray-matter-asymmetries-in-aging-and-neurodegeneration-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Lora Minkova, Annegret Habich, Jessica Peter, Christoph P Kaller, Simon B Eickhoff, Stefan Klöppel
Inter-hemispheric asymmetries are a common phenomenon of the human brain. Some evidence suggests that neurodegeneration related to aging and disease may preferentially affect the left-usually language- and motor-dominant-hemisphere. Here, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to assess gray matter (GM) loss and its lateralization in healthy aging and in neurodegeneration, namely, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's dementia (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD)...
August 30, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852074/mapping-white-matter-microstructure-in-the-one-month-human-brain
#10
D C Dean, E M Planalp, W Wooten, N Adluru, S R Kecskemeti, C Frye, C K Schmidt, N L Schmidt, M A Styner, H H Goldsmith, R J Davidson, A L Alexander
White matter microstructure, essential for efficient and coordinated transmission of neural communications, undergoes pronounced development during the first years of life, while deviations to this neurodevelopmental trajectory likely result in alterations of brain connectivity relevant to behavior. Hence, systematic evaluation of white matter microstructure in the normative brain is critical for a neuroscientific approach to both typical and atypical early behavioral development. However, few studies have examined the infant brain in detail, particularly in infants under 3 months of age...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846692/gyri-of-the-human-parietal-lobe-volumes-spatial-extents-automatic-labelling-and-probabilistic-atlases
#11
Heather M Wild, Rolf A Heckemann, Colin Studholme, Alexander Hammers
Accurately describing the anatomy of individual brains enables interlaboratory communication of functional and developmental studies and is crucial for possible surgical interventions. The human parietal lobe participates in multimodal sensory integration including language processing and also contains the primary somatosensory area. We describe detailed protocols to subdivide the parietal lobe, analyze morphological and volumetric characteristics, and create probabilistic atlases in MNI152 stereotaxic space...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845749/patterns-of-acute-ischemic-strokes-after-carotid-endarterectomy-and-therapeutic-implications
#12
Fabien Lareyre, Juliette Raffort, Caroline Weill, Claire Marsé, Laurent Suissa, Julien Chikande, Réda Hassen-Khodja, Elixène Jean-Baptiste
AIM: Acute ischemic strokes following surgical treatment of carotid stenosis lead to substantial disability and mortality, and vascular mechanisms underlying their development are not fully elucidated. The goal of this study was to analyze the topographic patterns of acute ischemic stroke following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from consecutive patients who underwent CEA and developed postoperative acute ischemic stroke...
January 1, 2017: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836490/unawareness-for-motor-impairment-and-distorted-perception-of-task-difficulty
#13
Gianna Cocchini, Nicoletta Beschin, Sergio Della Sala
OBJECTIVES: Anosognosia for motor impairment is a complex syndrome that can manifest itself under different forms, guiding patients' behavior and task decisions. However, current diagnostic tools tend to evaluate only more explicit aspects of anosognosia (asking the patients about their motor abilities) and fail to address more subtle features of awareness. We have developed a new assessment measure, the ECT (Errand Choice Test), where patients are asked to judge task difficulty rather than estimate their own impairment...
August 24, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834738/structural-hemispheric-asymmetries-underlie-verbal-stroop-performance
#14
Antonino Vallesi, Ilaria Mazzonetto, Ettore Ambrosini, Laura Babcock, Mariagrazia Capizzi, Sandra Arbula, Vincenza Tarantino, Carlo Semenza, Alessandra Bertoldo
Performance on tasks involving cognitive control such as the Stroop task is often associated with left lateralized brain activations. Based on this neuro-functional evidence, we tested whether leftward structural grey matter asymmetries would also predict inter-individual differences in combatting Stroop interference. To check for the specificity of the results, both a verbal Stroop task and a spatial one were administered to a total of 111 healthy young individuals, for whom T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were also acquired...
August 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830770/age-related-language-lateralization-assessed-by-fmri-the-effects-of-sex-and-handedness
#15
Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Amber M Martin, Christi Banks, Jennifer Vannest, Scott K Holland, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Previous studies focusing on the relationship between lateralization of language function and age suffer from lack of a balanced distribution of age and handedness among participants, especially in the extremes of age. This limits our understanding of the influence of these factors on lateralization of language circuitry. The hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD) model suggests that under similar circumstances, involvement in cognitive processes of prefrontal (and potentially other) cortical areas tends to be less lateralized with age...
August 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821654/wnt9a-can-influence-cell-fates-and-neural-connectivity-across-the-radial-axis-of-the-developing-cochlea
#16
Vidhya Munnamalai, Ulrike J Sienknecht, R Keith Duncan, M Katie Scott, Ankita Thawani, Kristen N Fantetti, Nadia M Atallah, Deborah J Biesemeier, Kuhn H Song, Kirsten Luethy, Eric Traub, Donna M Fekete
Vertebrate hearing organs manifest cellular asymmetries across the radial axis that underlie afferent versus efferent circuits between the inner ear and the brain. Thus, understanding the molecular control of patterning across this axis has important functional implications. Radial axis patterning begins before the cells become postmitotic, and is likely linked to the onset of asymmetric expression of secreted factors adjacent to the sensory primordium. This study explores one such asymmetrically-expressed gene, Wnt9a, that becomes restricted to the neural edge of the avian auditory organ, the basilar papilla, by embryonic day (E) 5...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820673/asymmetric-compression-of-representational-space-for-object-animacy-categorization-under-degraded-viewing-conditions
#17
Tijl Grootswagers, J Brendan Ritchie, Susan G Wardle, Andrew Heathcote, Thomas A Carlson
Animacy is a robust organizing principle among object category representations in the human brain. Using multivariate pattern analysis methods, it has been shown that distance to the decision boundary of a classifier trained to discriminate neural activation patterns for animate and inanimate objects correlates with observer RTs for the same animacy categorization task [Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. Emerging object representations in the visual system predict reaction times for categorization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818840/hcn4-ion-channel-function-is-required-for-early-events-that-regulate-anatomical-left-right-patterning-in-a-nodal-and-lefty-asymmetric-gene-expression-independent-manner
#18
Vaibhav P Pai, Valerie Willocq, Emily J Pitcairn, Joan M Lemire, Jean-François Paré, Nian-Qing Shi, Kelly A McLaughlin, Michael Levin
Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning...
August 17, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812367/the-usefulness-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-performed-in-the-acute-phase-as-an-early-predictor-of-delayed-neuropsychiatric-sequelae-in-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#19
Y S Kim, Y S Cha, M S Kim, H J Kim, Y S Lee, H Youk, H I Kim, O H Kim, K-C Cha, H Kim, K H Lee, S O Hwang
Delayed onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms after apparent recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been described as delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS). No previous study has determined whether early use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) can predict which patients will develop DNS in the acute CO poisoning. This retrospective observational study was performed on adult patients with acute CO poisoning consecutively treated over a 17-month period. All included patients with acute CO poisoning underwent DWI to evaluate brain injury within 72 h after CO exposure...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808202/-borneol-is-neuroprotective-against-permanent-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats-by-suppressing-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines
#20
Lei Chang, Chun-Yu Yin, Hai-Yin Wu, Bin-Bin Tian, Yan Zhu, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death globally. It occurs when a major artery is occluded in the brain and leads to death of cells within the injured tissue. (+)-Borneol, a simple bicyclic monoterpene extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in various types of diseases. However, no study has proved the effects of (+)-borneol on functional recovery from permanent ischemic stroke and the mechanism is still unknown. Here, we report that in the rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia, we found that (+)-borneol (1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
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