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Brain asymmetry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108254/changes-in-pitch-height-elicit-both-language-universal-and-language-dependent-changes-in-neural-representation-of-pitch-in-the-brainstem-and-auditory-cortex
#1
Ananthanarayan Krishnan, Chandan H Suresh, Jackson T Gandour
Language experience shapes encoding of pitch-relevant information at both brainstem and cortical levels of processing. Pitch height is a salient dimension that orders pitch from low to high. Herein we investigate the effects of language experience (Chinese, English) in the brainstem and cortex on i) neural responses to variations in pitch height, ii) presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude of pitch height between these two levels of brain structure...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101340/pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-imaging-of-cerebral-blood-perfusion-asymmetry-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-first-episode-major-depression
#2
Guangdong Chen, Haiman Bian, Deguo Jiang, Mingwei Cui, Shengzhang Ji, Mei Liu, Xu Lang, Chuanjun Zhuo
Many previous studies have reported that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) aberrations may be one of the pathological characteristics of depression and rCBF has demonstrated a certain degree of asymmetry. However, studies investigating the cerebral blood perfusion asymmetry changes of drug-naïve patients experiencing their first episode of major depression using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) are rare. Ten drug-naïve patients experiencing their first major depression episode and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the current study...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093370/a-comparison-of-locomotor-therapy-interventions-partial-body-weight-supported-treadmill-lokomat%C3%A2-and-g-eo%C3%A2-training-in-persons-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Alberto Esquenazi, Stella Lee, Amanda Wikoff, Andrew Packel, Theresa Toczylowski, John Feeley
BACKGROUND: Literature in the application of gait training techniques in persons with traumatic brain injury is limited. Current techniques require of multiple staff and are physically demanding. The use of a robotic locomotor training may provide improved training capacity for this population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of three different modes of locomotor therapy on gait velocity and spatiotemporal symmetry using: an end effector robot (G-EO™); a robotic exoskeleton (Lokomat®) and manual assisted partial-body weight supported treadmill training (PBWSTT) in participants with traumatic brain injury...
January 13, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093276/asymmetry-in-visual-information-processing-depends-on-the-strength-of-eye-dominance
#4
Romain Chaumillon, Nadia Alahyane, Patrice Senot, Judith Vergne, Christelle Lemoine-Lardennois, Jean Blouin, Karine Doré-Mazars, Alain Guillaume, Dorine Vergilino-Perez
Unlike handedness, sighting eye dominance, defined as the eye unconsciously chosen when performing monocular tasks, is very rarely considered in studies investigating cerebral asymmetries. We previously showed that sighting eye dominance has an influence on visually triggered manual action with shorter reaction time (RT) when the stimulus appears in the contralateral visual hemifield with respect to the dominant eye (Chaumillon et al. 2014). We also suggested that eye dominance may be more or less pronounced depending on individuals and that this eye dominance strength could be evaluated through saccadic peak velocity analysis in binocular recordings (Vergilino-Perez et al...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078760/a-study-of-volumetric-variations-of-basal-nuclei-in-the-normal-human-brain-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Amal Elkattan, Amal Mahdy, Mohamed Eltomey, Radwa Ismail
Knowledge of the effects of healthy aging on brain structures is necessary to identify abnormal changes due to diseases. Many studies have demonstrated age-related volume changes in the brain using MRI. 60 healthy individuals who had normal MRI aged from 20 years to 80 years were examined and classified into three groups: Group I: 21 persons; nine males and 12 females aging between 20-39 years old. Group II: 22 persons; 11 males and 11 females aging between 40-59 years old. Group III: 17 persons; eight males and nine females aging between 60-80 years old...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077727/asymmetries-of-dark-and-bright-negative-afterimages-are-paralleled-by-subcortical-on-and-off-post-stimulus-responses
#6
Hui Li, Xu Liu, Xiaohong Li, Yiliang Lu, Lothar Spillmann, Ian M Andolina, Wei Wang
: Humans are more sensitive to luminance decrements than increments, as evidenced by lower thresholds and shorter latencies for dark stimuli. This asymmetry is consistent with results of neurophysiological recordings in dorsal lateral-geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) of cat and monkey. Specifically, V1 population responses demonstrate that darks elicit higher levels of activation than brights, and the latency of OFF responses in dLGN and V1 is shorter than that of ON responses...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072386/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#7
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069542/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-the-transition-from-action-preparation-to-execution
#8
Valentina Sulpizio, Giuliana Lucci, Marika Berchicci, Gaspare Galati, Sabrina Pitzalis, Francesco Di Russo
Flexible and adaptive behavior requires the ability to contextually stop inappropriate actions and select the right one as quickly as possible. Recently, it has been proposed that three brain regions, i.e., the inferior frontal gyrus (iFg), the anterior insula (aIns), and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPs), play an important role in several processing phases of perceptual decision tasks, especially in the preparation, perception and action phases, respectively. However, little is known about hemispheric differences in the activation of these three areas during the transition from perception to action...
January 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059712/fetal-brain-anomalies-associated-with-ventriculomegaly-or-asymmetry-an-mri-based-study
#9
E Barzilay, O Bar-Yosef, S Dorembus, R Achiron, E Katorza
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fetal lateral ventriculomegaly is a relatively common finding with much debate over its clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between ventriculomegaly and asymmetry and concomitant CNS findings as seen in fetal brain MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fetal brain MR imaging performed for various indications, including ventriculomegaly, with or without additional ultrasound findings, was assessed for possible inclusion...
November 10, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057635/in-vivo-assessment-of-the-impact-of-regional-intracranial-atherosclerotic-lesions-on-brain-arterial-3d-hemodynamics
#10
C Wu, S Schnell, P Vakil, A R Honarmand, S A Ansari, J Carr, M Markl, S Prabhakaran
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial atherosclerosis induces hemodynamic disturbance, which is not well-characterized, particularly in cerebral flow redistribution. We aimed to characterize the impact of regional stenotic lesions on intracranial hemodynamics by using 4D flow MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 4D flow MR imaging was performed in 22 symptomatic patients (mean age, 68.4 ± 14.2 years) with intracranial stenosis (ICA, n = 7; MCA, n = 9; basilar artery, n = 6) and 10 age-appropriate healthy volunteers (mean age, 60...
January 5, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053860/dyke-davidoff-masson-syndrome-in-a-nigerian
#11
Philip B Adebayo, Amnat Bakare, Modupe M Bello, Opeyemi D Olaewe, Kolawole W Wahab
Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) is a rare, but important cause of drug-resistant seizures. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a constellation of clinical features that consists of hemiparesis, seizure, facial asymmetry, and intellectual disability with distinct neuroimaging features. A 27-year-old lady presented to us with drug-resistant epilepsy, hemiparesis, and intellectual disability that necessitated her withdrawal from school. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral hemiatrophy, calvarial thickening, and hyperpneumatization of the frontal sinuses consistent with DDMS...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053857/are-we-armed-with-the-right-data-pooled-individual-data-review-of-biomarkers-in-people-with-severe-upper-limb-impairment-after-stroke
#12
Kathryn S Hayward, Julia Schmidt, Keith R Lohse, Sue Peters, Julie Bernhardt, Natasha A Lannin, Lara A Boyd
: To build an understanding of the neurobiology underpinning arm recovery in people with severe arm impairment due to stroke, we conducted a pooled individual data systematic review to: 1) characterize brain biomarkers; 2) determine relationship(s) between biomarkers and motor outcome; and 3) establish relationship(s) between biomarkers and motor recovery. Three electronic databases were searched up to October 2, 2015. Eligible studies included adults with severe arm impairment after stroke...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042006/the-effects-of-gender-and-depression-severity-on-the-association-between-alpha-asymmetry-and-depression-across-four-brain-regions
#13
Emmanuel Jesulola, Christopher F Sharpley, Linda L Agnew
Data describing the association between EEG asymmetry and depression status have been equivocal. Effects from brain regions involved, depression severity, and the generalisability of findings across genders, have been inconsistently examined and/or verified. This study investigated these issues within a community sample to potentially expand the asymmetry hypothesis to non-severe depression participants. The singular effects of brain region and electrode site, gender, and depression severity, plus the interaction between gender and depression severity across brain regions were investigated in a study of alpha asymmetry among 46 males and 54 females (M age=32...
December 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039089/the-asymmetry-defect-of-hippocampal-circuitry-impairs-working-memory-in-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-deficient-mice
#14
Kazuhiro Goto, Isao Ito
Left-right (L-R) asymmetry is a fundamental feature of brain function, but the mechanisms underlying functional asymmetry remain largely unknown. We previously identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus that result from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B) subunits. By examining the synaptic distribution of ε2 subunits, we found that β2-microglobulin (β2m)-deficient mice that are defective in the stable cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) lack this circuit asymmetry...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031997/cortical-asymmetry-in-parkinson-s-disease-early-susceptibility-of-the-left-hemisphere
#15
Daniel O Claassen, Katherine E McDonell, Manus Donahue, Shiv Rawal, Scott A Wylie, Joseph S Neimat, Hakmook Kang, Peter Hedera, David Zald, Bennett Landman, Benoit Dawant, Swati Rane
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinically, Parkinson's disease (PD) presents with asymmetric motor symptoms. The left nigrostriatal system appears more susceptible to early degeneration than the right, and a left-lateralized pattern of early neuropathological changes is also described in several neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and Huntington's disease. In this study, we evaluated hemispheric differences in estimated rates of atrophy in a large, well-characterized cohort of PD patients...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030543/human-inferences-about-sequences-a-minimal-transition-probability-model
#16
Florent Meyniel, Maxime Maheu, Stanislas Dehaene
The brain constantly infers the causes of the inputs it receives and uses these inferences to generate statistical expectations about future observations. Experimental evidence for these expectations and their violations include explicit reports, sequential effects on reaction times, and mismatch or surprise signals recorded in electrophysiology and functional MRI. Here, we explore the hypothesis that the brain acts as a near-optimal inference device that constantly attempts to infer the time-varying matrix of transition probabilities between the stimuli it receives, even when those stimuli are in fact fully unpredictable...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026196/unresolved-loss-a-risk-factor-for-offspring-predicts-event-related-potential-responses-to-death-related-imagery
#17
Naomi I Gribneau Bahm, Emiliana R Simon-Thomas, Mary Main, Erik Hesse
This study investigates whether individual differences in attachment status can be detected by electrophysiological responses to loss-themed pictures. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was used to identify discourse/reasoning lapses during the discussion of loss experiences via death that place speakers in the Unresolved/disorganized AAI category. In parents, Unresolved AAI status has been associated with Disorganized infant Strange Situation response, a known risk factor for psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing/dissociation)...
January 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003442/the-heritability-of-chimpanzee-and-human-brain-asymmetry
#18
Aida Gómez-Robles, William D Hopkins, Steven J Schapiro, Chet C Sherwood
Human brains are markedly asymmetric in structure and lateralized in function, which suggests a relationship between these two properties. The brains of other closely related primates, such as chimpanzees, show similar patterns of asymmetry, but to a lesser degree, indicating an increase in anatomical and functional asymmetry during hominin evolution. We analysed the heritability of cerebral asymmetry in chimpanzees and humans using classic morphometrics, geometric morphometrics, and quantitative genetic techniques...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992088/interhemispheric-functional-connectivity-in-anorexia-and-bulimia-nervosa
#19
Antonietta Canna, Anna Prinster, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Elena Cantone, Palmiero Monteleone, Umberto Volpe, Mario Maj, Francesco Di Salle, Fabrizio Esposito
The functional interplay between hemispheres is fundamental for behavioral, cognitive and emotional control. Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have been largely studied with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to the functional mechanisms of high-level processing, but not in terms of possible inter-hemispheric functional connectivity anomalies. Using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) and regional inter-hemispheric spectral coherence (IHSC) were studied in 15 AN and 13 BN patients and 16 healthy controls (HC)...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989920/mechanical-characterization-of-human-brain-tissue
#20
S Budday, G Sommer, C Birkl, C Langkammer, J Haybaeck, J Kohnert, M Bauer, F Paulsen, P Steinmann, E Kuhl, G A Holzapfel
: Mechanics are increasingly recognized to play an important role in modulating brain form and function. Computational simulations are a powerful tool to predict the mechanical behavior of the human brain in health and disease. The success of these simulations depends critically on the underlying constitutive model and on the reliable identification of its material parameters. Thus, there is an urgent need to thoroughly characterize the mechanical behavior of brain tissue and to identify mathematical models that capture the tissue response under arbitrary loading conditions...
October 27, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
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