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Brain asymmetry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768092/are-only-infants-held-more-often-on-the-left-if-so-why-testing-the-attention-emotion-hypothesis-with-an-infant-a-vase-and-two-chimeric-tests-one-emotional-one-not
#1
Lauren Julius Harris, Rodrigo A Cárdenas, Nathaniel D Stewart, Jason B Almerigi
Most adults, especially women, hold infants and dolls but not books or packages on the left side. One reason may be that attention is more often leftward in response to infants, unlike emotionally neutral objects like books and packages. Women's stronger bias may reflect greater responsiveness to infants. Previously, we tested the attention hypothesis by comparing women's side-of-hold of a doll, book, and package with direction-of-attention on the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT) [Harris, L. J., Cárdenas, R. A...
May 16, 2018: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766768/distinct-mechanisms-explain-the-control-of-reach-speed-planning-evidence-from-a-race-model-framework
#2
Prasanna Venkhatesh Venkataratamani, Aditya Murthy
Previous studies have investigated the computational architecture underlying the voluntary control of reach movements that demands a change in position or direction of movement planning. Here we used a novel task, where subjects either had to increase or decrease the movement speed according to a change in target color that occurred randomly during a trial. The applicability of different race models to such a speed redirect task was assessed. We found that the predictions of an independent race model that instantiated an abort and re-plan strategy was consistent with all aspects of performance in the fast to slow speed condition...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764998/mapping-cortical-brain-asymmetry-in-17-141-healthy-individuals-worldwide-via-the-enigma-consortium
#3
Xiang-Zhen Kong, Samuel R Mathias, Tulio Guadalupe, David C Glahn, Barbara Franke, Fabrice Crivello, Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer, Simon E Fisher, Paul M Thompson, Clyde Francks
Hemispheric asymmetry is a cardinal feature of human brain organization. Altered brain asymmetry has also been linked to some cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever analysis of cerebral cortical asymmetry and its variability across individuals. Cortical thickness and surface area were assessed in MRI scans of 17,141 healthy individuals from 99 datasets worldwide. Results revealed widespread asymmetries at both hemispheric and regional levels, with a generally thicker cortex but smaller surface area in the left hemisphere relative to the right...
May 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761256/quantitative-analysis-of-cranial-orbital-changes-in-infants-with-anterior-synostotic-plagiocephaly
#4
Rosalinda Calandrelli, Fabio Pilato, Luca Massimi, Marco Panfili, Concezio Di Rocco, Cesare Colosimo
PURPOSE: The effects of premature fusion of one coronal suture cause skull and orbital alterations in term of side-to-side asymmetry. This study aimed to quantify the cranio-orbital complex changes related to the severity of skull base dysmorphology in patients with unicoronal synostosis. METHODS: Twenty-four infants affected by unicoronal synostosis were subdivided in three subgroups according to the severity of skull base deformity and their high-resolution CT images were quantitatively analyzed (groups IIa, IIb, III)...
May 14, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761246/larval-antlions-show-a-cognitive-ability-hunting-efficiency-trade-off-connected-with-the-level-of-behavioural-asymmetry
#5
Krzysztof Miler, Karolina Kuszewska, Gabriela Zuber, Michal Woyciechowski
Recently, antlion larvae with greater behavioural asymmetry were shown to have improved learning abilities. However, a major evolutionary question that remained unanswered was why this asymmetry does not increase in all individuals during development. Here, we show that a trade-off exists between learning ability of larvae and their hunting efficiency. Larvae with greater asymmetry learn better than those with less, but the latter are better able to sense vibrational signals used to detect prey and can capture prey more quickly...
May 14, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761003/the-asymmetry-of-neural-symptoms-in-wilson-s-disease-patients-detecting-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging-resting-state-functional-mri-and-susceptibility-weighted-imaging
#6
Xiang-Xue Zhou, Xun-Hua Li, Ding-Bang Chen, Chao Wu, Li Feng, Jian-Ping Chu, Zhi-Yun Yang, Xin-Bei Li, Haolin Qin, Gui-Dian Li, Hai-Wei Huang, Ying-Ying Liang, Xiu-Ling Liang
Objective: To investigate the cause of the motor asymmetry in Wilson's disease (WD) patients using functional MRI. Methods: Fifty patients with WD and 20 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Neurological symptoms were scored using the modified Young Scale. All study subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) of the brain. Six regions of interest (ROI) were chosen. Fiber volumes between ROIs on DTI, corrected phase (CP) values on SWI, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and regional homogeneity (REHO) values on rs-fMRI were determined...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755611/morphological-biomarker-differentiating-mci-converters-from-nonconverters-longitudinal-evidence-based-on-hemispheric-asymmetry
#7
Xiaojing Long, Chunxiang Jiang, Lijuan Zhang
Identifying subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who may probably progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for better understanding the disease mechanisms and facilitating early treatments. In addition to the direct volumetric and thickness measurement based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hemispheric asymmetry could be a potential index to detect morphological variations in MCI patients with a high risk of conversion to AD. The present study collected a set of longitudinal MRI data from 53 MCI converters and nonconverters and investigated the asymmetry differences between groups...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755374/altered-amygdala-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#8
Ye-Ha Jung, Jung E Shin, Yoonji I Lee, Joon H Jang, Hang J Jo, Soo-Hee Choi
Background: The amygdala plays a key role in emotional hyperreactivity in response to social threat in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FCN) of the left and right amygdala with various brain regions and functional lateralization in patients with SAD. Methods: A total of 36 patients with SAD and 42 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest. Using the left and right amygdala as seed regions, we compared the strength of the rs-FCN in the patient and control groups...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752654/reduced-hemispheric-asymmetry-of-brain-anatomical-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Dandan Li, Ting Li, Yan Niu, Jie Xiang, Rui Cao, Bo Liu, Hui Zhang, Bin Wang
Despite many studies reporting a variety of alterations in brain networks in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alterations in hemispheric anatomical networks are still unclear. In this study, we investigated topology alterations in hemispheric white matter in patients with ADHD and the relationship between these alterations and clinical features of the illness. Weighted hemispheric brain anatomical networks were first constructed for each of 40 right-handed patients with ADHD and 53 matched normal controls...
May 11, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740301/impaired-prefrontal-amygdala-pathway-self-reported-emotion-and-erection-in-psychogenic-erectile-dysfunction-patients-with-normal-nocturnal-erection
#10
Jianhuai Chen, Yun Chen, Qingqiang Gao, Guotao Chen, Yutian Dai, Zhijian Yao, Qing Lu
Background: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex and amygdala play an important role in sexual arousal (SA). However, little is known about the interactions between the prefrontal and cortex amygdala, which mediate the cognitive regulation of emotion and SA. Objective: We seek to determine whether nocturnal erection of psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED) patients are normal and whether there are changes of topological organization in the prefrontal-amygdala pathway of brain network in pED...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728816/quantitative-mr-spectroscopy-reveals-metabolic-changes-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Qiaoyue Tan, Huaiqiang Sun, Weina Wang, Xintong Wu, Nanya Hao, Xiaorui Su, Xibiao Yang, Simin Zhang, Jingkai Su, Qiang Yue, Qiyong Gong
OBJECTIVE: To characterize possible metabolic changes of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies were performed on 24 TLE patients and 22 healthy controls. Metabolite concentrations were calculated using a linear combination model (LCModel) and corrected for cerebrospinal fluid contamination. Comparisons were performed between the TLE patients and the controls and between the left DLPFC and right DLPFC in each group...
May 4, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724119/stating-asymmetry-in-neural-pathways-methodological-trends-in-autonomic-neuroscience
#12
Carlos Henrique Xavier, Michelle Mendanha Mendonça, Fernanda Ribeiro Marins, Elder Sales da Silva, Danielle Ianzer, Diego Basile Colugnati, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Marco Antonio Peliky Fontes
Many particularities concerning interhemispheric differences still need to be explored and unveiled. Functional and anatomical differential features found between left and right brain sides are best known as asymmetries and are consequence of the unilateral neuronal recruitment or predominance that is set to organize some function. The outflow from different neural pathways involved in the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system may route through asymmetrically relayed efferences (ipsilateral/lateralized and/or contralateral)...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722805/network-based-asymmetry-of-the-human-auditory-system
#13
Bratislav Mišic, Richard F Betzel, Alessandra Griffa, Marcel A de Reus, Ye He, Xi-Nian Zuo, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Patric Hagmann, Olaf Sporns, Robert J Zatorre
Converging evidence from activation, connectivity, and stimulation studies suggests that auditory brain networks are lateralized. Here we show that these findings can be at least partly explained by the asymmetric network embedding of the primary auditory cortices. Using diffusion-weighted imaging in 3 independent datasets, we investigate the propensity for left and right auditory cortex to communicate with other brain areas by quantifying the centrality of the auditory network across a spectrum of communication mechanisms, from shortest path communication to diffusive spreading...
May 2, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719853/reconstruction-of-white-matter-fibre-tracts-using-diffusion-kurtosis-tensor-imaging-at-1-5t-pre-surgical-planning-in-patients-with-gliomas
#14
Joao Leote, Rita G Nunes, Luis Cerqueira, Ricardo Loução, Hugo A Ferreira
Tractography studies for pre-surgical planning of primary brain tumors is typically done using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which cannot resolve crossing, kissing or highly angulated fibres. Tractography based on the estimation of the diffusion kurtosis (DK) tensor was recently demonstrated to enable tackling these limitations. However, its use in the clinical context at low 1.5T field has not yet been reported. Purpose: To evaluate if the estimation of whole-brain tractography using the DK tensor is feasible for pre-surgical investigation of patients with brain tumors at 1...
2018: European Journal of Radiology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706878/mirror-image-equivalence-and-interhemispheric-mirror-image-reversal
#15
Michael C Corballis
Mirror-image confusions are common, especially in children and in some cases of neurological impairment. They can be a special impediment in activities such as reading and writing directional scripts, where mirror-image patterns (such as b and d ) must be distinguished. Treating mirror images as equivalent, though, can also be adaptive in the natural world, which carries no systematic left-right bias and where the same object or event can appear in opposite viewpoints. Mirror-image equivalence and confusion are natural consequences of a bilaterally symmetrical brain...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688392/challenge-to-unity-relationship-between-hemispheric-asymmetry-of-the-default-mode-network-and-mind-wandering
#16
Shogo Kajimura, Takanori Kochiyama, Nobuhito Abe, Michio Nomura
The default mode network (DMN) is considered a unified core brain function for generating subjective mental experiences, such as mind wandering. We propose a novel cognitive framework for understanding the unity of the DMN from the perspective of hemispheric asymmetry. Using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), effective connectivity estimation, and machine learning, we show that the bilateral angular gyri (AG), which are core regions of the DMN, exhibit heterogeneity in both inherent network organization and mind wandering regulation...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688293/frontoparietal-tracts-linked-to-lateralized-hand-preference-and-manual-specialization
#17
Henrietta Howells, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Ahmad Beyh, Giuseppe Zappalà, Anoushka Leslie, Andrew Simmons, Declan G Murphy, Marco Catani
Humans show a preference for using the right hand over the left for tasks and activities of everyday life. While experimental work in non-human primates has identified the neural systems responsible for reaching and grasping, the neural basis of lateralized motor behavior in humans remains elusive. The advent of diffusion imaging tractography for studying connectional anatomy in the living human brain provides the possibility of understanding the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry, hand preference, and manual specialization...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687282/early-asymmetric-inter-hemispheric-transfer-in-the-auditory-network-insights-from-infants-with-corpus-callosum-agenesis
#18
Parvaneh Adibpour, Jessica Dubois, Marie-Laure Moutard, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz
The left hemisphere specialization for language is a well-established asymmetry in the human brain. Structural and functional asymmetries are observed as early as the prenatal period suggesting genetically determined differences between both hemispheres. The corpus callosum is a large tract connecting mostly homologous areas; some have proposed that it might participate in an enhancement of the left-hemispheric advantage to process speech. To investigate its role in early development, we compared 13 3-4-month-old infants with an agenesis of the corpus callosum ("AgCC") with 18 typical infants using high-density electroencephalography in an auditory task...
April 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684774/hyperelastic-modeling-of-the-human-brain-tissue-effects-of-no-slip-boundary-condition-and-compressibility-on-the-uniaxial-deformation
#19
George Z Voyiadjis, Aref Samadi-Dooki
Being extremely soft, brain tissue is among the most challenging materials to be mechanically quantified. Despite recent advances in mechanical testing of ultra-soft matters, there still exists a need for robust procedures to analyze their behavior at large deformation. In this paper, it is shown how failing to taking into account the precise boundary conditions can result in substantial variation from the "assumed" ideal behavior, even for the case of simple loading conditions such as the uniaxial mode...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684462/a-comparison-of-seven-different-dti-derived-estimates-of-corticospinal-tract-structural-characteristics-in-chronic-stroke-survivors
#20
Bokkyu Kim, Beth E Fisher, Nicolas Schweighofer, Richard M Leahy, Justin P Haldar, Soyoung Choi, Dorsa B Kay, James Gordon, Carolee J Winstein
BACKGROUND: Different diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to estimate corticospinal tract (CST) structure in the context of stroke rehabilitation research. However, there is no gold standard for the estimate of CST structure in chronic stroke survivors. This study aims to determine the most accurate DTI-derived CST estimate that is associated with a clinical motor outcome measure. METHODS: We obtained imaging and behavioral data from a phase-I stroke rehabilitation clinical trial...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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