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Conceptual model

Milou A Feijt, Yvonne Aw de Kort, Inge Mb Bongers, Wijnand A IJsselsteijn
BACKGROUND: The internet offers major opportunities in supporting mental health care, and a variety of technology-mediated mental and behavioral health services have been developed. Yet, despite growing evidence for the effectiveness of these services, their acceptance and use in clinical practice remains low. So far, the current literature still lacks a structured insight into the experienced drivers and barriers to the adoption of electronic mental health (eMental health) from the perspective of clinical psychologists...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Rosemarie Samaritter
The paper will draw on materials from arts therapies literature and comments from experts’ panels to discuss some specific characteristics of the arts therapies and to investigate the role of aesthetic engagement for resilience and mental well-being. The arts increasingly find their way as interventions in mental health domains. However, explorations into the specific mechanisms that underpin the therapeutic effect of arts-based activities are still scarce. Qualitative data were collected from a thematic literature review and expert comments on meaningful working procedures in arts therapies...
April 23, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Suianny Nayara da Silva Chaves, Gabriel Felício Rocha, Bruna Patrícia Dutra Costa, Witallo Etevaldo Araújo de Oliveira, Monica Gomes Lima, Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira Silva, Caio Maximino
Chronic alcohol use induces adaptations and toxicity that can induce symptoms of anxiety, autonomic hyperarousal, and epileptic seizures when alcohol is removed (withdrawal syndrome). Zebrafish has recently gained wide attention as a behavioral model to study the neurobehavioral effects of acute and chronic alcohol use, including withdrawal. The literature, however, is very contradictory on findings regarding withdrawal effects, with some studies reporting increased anxiety, while others report no effect. A meta-analytic approach was taken to find the sources of this heterogeneity, and ethanol concentration during exposure and exposure duration were found to be the main sources of variation...
April 21, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Chenkai Wu, G John Geldhof, Qian-Li Xue, Dae H Kim, Anne B Newman, Michelle C Odden
Frailty is an age-related clinical syndrome of decreased resilience to stressors. Among numerous assessments of frailty, the frailty phenotype (FP) scale, proposed by Fried and colleagues has been the most widely used one. We aimed to develop a continuous frailty scale that may overcome limitations facing the categorical FP scale and to evaluate its construct validity, predictive validity, and measurement properties. Data were from the Cardiovascular Health Study (N = 4243) and Health and Retirement Study (N = 7600)...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Geraldo Jose Ferrari Junior, Christopher L Drake, Diego Grasel Barbosa, Rubian Diego Andrade, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Gomes Felden Érico Pereira
The present study aimed to analyze the construct validity of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) for the evaluation of the daytime sleepiness construct in adolescents through confirmatory factorial analysis. The cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 773 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, enrolled in the state schools of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. We investigated the sex, age, school year, study shift, occupational status, socioeconomic level and daytime sleepiness. The PDSS questions were not normal (p <0...
April 24, 2018: Chronobiology International
Wanfu Shen, Chunguang Hu, Jin Tao, Jun Liu, Shuangqing Fan, Yaxu Wei, Chunhua An, Jiancui Chen, Sen Wu, Yanning Li, Jing Liu, Daihua Zhang, Lidong Sun, Xiaotang Hu
Optical anisotropy is one of the most fundamental physical characteristics of emerging low-symmetry two-dimensional (2D) materials. It provides abundant structural information and is crucial for creating diverse nanoscale devices. Here, we have proposed an azimuth-resolved microscopic approach to directly resolve the normalized optical difference along two orthogonal directions at normal incidence. The differential principle ensures that the approach is only sensitive to anisotropic samples and immune to isotropic materials...
April 24, 2018: Nanoscale
Jesús Nadal, Carolina Ponz, Antoni Margalida
Two methodological criticisms of our paper "Synchronizing biological cycles as key to survival under a scenario of global change: The Common quail (Coturnix coturnix) strategy" (Nadal et al., 2018) were proposed in the comment by Rodriguez-Teijeiro et al. (2018) regarding: 1) our estimates of the mean date of arrival, duration of stay and departure stages in the different regions studied; and 2) the analyses carried out to correlate the phenology of the species with changes in the climate variables...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sheena E Ramsay, Efstathios Papachristou, Richard G Watt, Lucy T Lennon, A Olia Papacosta, Peter H Whincup, S Goya Wannamethee
Background: The influence of life-course socioeconomic disadvantage on oral health at older ages is not well-established. We examined the influence of socioeconomic factors in childhood, middle-age and older age on oral health at older ages, and tested conceptual life-course models (sensitive period, accumulation of risk, social mobility) to determine which best described observed associations. Methods: A representative cohort of British men aged 71-92 in 2010-12 included socioeconomic factors in childhood, middle-age and older age...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Xunyi Wang, Srikanth Parameswaran, Darshan Mahendra Bagul, Rajiv Kishore
Objective: We studied the impact of online social support on patient self-care behavior in an online health community for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. We conceptualized emotional and informational support provided by community members into nuanced sub-dimensions. We explored how the direct and interaction effects of these sub-dimensions impact the self-care behavior of a support seeker. Methods: We used data from 330 255 posts in 30 050 threads from POZ, an online health community for HIV patients...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño, Martin Debbané, Raymond C K Chan, David Cicero, Lisa C Zhang, Colleen Brenner, Emma Barkus, Richard J Linscott, Thomas Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Alex Cohen, Adrian Raine, Michael T Compton, Erin B Tone, Julie Suhr, Felix Inchausti, Julio Bobes, Axit Fumero, Stella Giakoumaki, Ioannis Tsaousis, Antonio Preti, Michael Chmielewski, Julien Laloyaux, Anwar Mechri, Mohamed Aymen Lahmar, Viviana Wuthrich, Frank Larøi, Johanna C Badcock, Assen Jablensky, Adela M Isvoranu, Sacha Epskamp, Eiko I Fried
Elucidating schizotypal traits is important if we are to understand the various manifestations of psychosis spectrum liability and to reliably identify individuals at high risk for psychosis. The present study examined the network structures of (1) 9 schizotypal personality domains and (2) 74 individual schizotypal items, and (3) explored whether networks differed across gender and culture (North America vs China). The study was conducted in a sample of 27001 participants from 12 countries and 21 sites (M age = 22...
April 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Marie-Ève St-Louis, Robert W Hughes, Jean Saint-Aubin, Sébastien Tremblay
In a single large-scale study, we demonstrate that verbal sequence learning as studied using the classic Hebb repetition effect (Hebb, 1961)-the improvement in the serial recall of a repeating sequence compared to nonrepeated sequences-is resilient to both wide and irregular spacing between sequence repetitions. Learning of a repeated sequence of letters was evident to a comparable degree with three, five, and eight intervening nonrepeated sequences and regardless of whether the spacing between repetitions was regular or irregular...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Alexander H Flannery, Melissa L Thompson Bastin, Ashley Montgomery-Yates, Corrine Hook, Evan Cassity, Phillip M Eaton, Peter E Morris
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based medicine often has many barriers to overcome prior to implementation in practice, hence the importance of continuous quality improvement. We report on a brief (≤10 minutes) multidisciplinary meeting prior to rounds to establish a dashboard for continuous quality improvement and studied the success of this meeting on a particular area of focus: continuous infusion benzodiazepine minimization. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a large academic medical center over a 4-month period...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Gerald T Ankley, Stephen W Edwards
The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework serves as a knowledge assembly, interpretation, and communication tool designed to support the translation of pathway-specific mechanistic data into responses relevant to assessing and managing risks of chemicals to human health and the environment. As such, AOPs facilitate the use of data streams often not employed by risk assessors, including information from in silico models, in vitro assays and short-term in vivo tests with molecular/biochemical endpoints. This translational capability can increase the capacity and efficiency of safety assessments both for single chemicals and chemical mixtures...
June 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
Tingting Liu, Randall J F Bruins, Matthew T Heberling
Best management practices (BMPs) for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution are widely available. However, agriculture remains a major global contributor to degradation of waters because farmers often do not adopt BMPs. To improve water quality, it is necessary to understand the factors that influence BMP adoption by farmers. We review the findings of BMP adoption studies from both developed and developing countries, published after (or otherwise not included in) two major literature reviews from 2007 and 2008...
2018: Sustainability
Marianne Hoogmoed, Victor O Sadras
Nitrogen dilution curves relate a crop's critical nitrogen concentration (%Nc ) to biomass (W) according to the allometric model %Nc = a W -b . This model has a strong theoretical foundation, and parameters a and b show little variation for well-watered crops. Here we explore the robustness of this model for water stressed crops. We established experiments to examine the combined effects of water stress, phenology, partitioning of biomass, and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), as driven by environment and variety, on the %Nc of wheat crops...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lisa Sevenich
Inflammation is a hallmark of different central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. It has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders as well as primary and metastatic brain tumors. Microglia, the brain-resident immune cells, are emerging as a central player in regulating key pathways in CNS inflammation. Recent insights into neuroinflammation indicate that blood-borne immune cells represent an additional critical cellular component in mediating CNS inflammation. The lack of experimental systems that allow for discrimination between brain-resident and recruited myeloid cells has previously halted functional analysis of microglia and their blood-borne counterparts in brain malignancies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Bettina K Doering, Julia A Glombiewski, Winfried Rief
Placebo research has shown that patients' expectations are among the strongest predictors of treatment outcome regarding various medical conditions. Therefore, interventions focusing on the change of such expectations might be most effective. This could be of relevance not only for outcome expectations but also for disease-specific, problem-specific, and treatment-specific expectations. A theoretical model is introduced to illustrate the conditions for expectation change and persistence. Strategies for patients regarding how to devalue learning effects in expectation violation situations are exemplified, and ways to optimize expectation-violating effects are highlighted...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Elizabeth R E Burner, Michael D Menchine, Katrina Kubicek, Marisela Robles, Marjorie Kagawa Singer, Sanjay Arora
BACKGROUND: Diabetes disproportionately affects the US Latino population, due to socioeconomic pressures, genetics, reduced access to care and cultural practices. While efforts to improve self-care through interventions incorporating family are highly rated by Latinos, family can be both supportive and obstructive. To develop effective interventions, this role needs clarification. METHODS: We conducted group interviews in Spanish and English with 24 participants with diabetes from a mobile health diabetes self-care intervention...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
S M Skevington, J R Böhnke
Subjective well-being (SWB) and subjective quality of life (QoL) are key concepts describing experience, capacities, states, behaviours, appraisals, and emotional reactions to circumstances. Used widely in public discourse, policy, and research, their theoretical and empirical relations remain little explored. The present research aimed to develop an integrated model of SWB and QoL through empirically testing its overlapping and exclusive dimensions. Survey data was obtained from N = 2533 in 11 countries...
April 6, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Shaun Cardiff, Brendan McCormack, Tanya McCance
AIMS & OBJECTIVES: How does person-centred leadership manifest in clinical nursing. BACKGROUND: Person-centred practice fosters healthful relationships and is gaining increasing attention in nursing and healthcare, but nothing is known about the influence of a person-centred approach to leadership practice. Most leadership models used in nursing were originally developed outside of nursing. DESIGN: A three year participatory action research study where participant leaders planned, researched and learned from their practice development...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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