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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054001/gate-violation-behavior-at-highway-rail-grade-crossings-and-the-consequences-using-geo-spatial-modeling-integrated-with-path-analysis
#1
Jun Liu, Asad J Khattak
Drivers undertaking risky behaviors at highway-rail grade crossings are often severely injured in collisions with trains. Among these behaviors, gate-violation (referring to driving around or through the gates that were activated and lowered by an approaching train) seems to be one of the most dangerous actions a driver might take at a gated crossing; it may compromise the intended safety improvement made by adding gates at crossings. This study develops a nuanced conceptual framework that uses path analysis to explore the contributing factors to gate-violation behaviors and the correlation between gate-violation behaviors and the crash consequence - the driver injury severity...
October 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053939/a-conceptual-model-for-take-home-workplace-exposures
#2
Rachael Jones, Igor Burstyn
The boundary between occupational and environmental exposures is often artificial, as occupational hazards can readily escape the workplace. One way that this occurs is when workers "take-home" occupational hazards, exposing family members. While take-home exposures have long been recognized, there is no comprehensive framework describing the pathways by which workers bring home workplace hazards. In this work we provide such a conceptual model that includes three pathways for take-home exposures: external contamination, internal dose and behavior change of workers...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052159/recommended-methods-for-the-collection-of-health-state-utility-value-evidence-in-clinical-studies
#3
REVIEW
Roberta Ara, John Brazier, Tracey Young
A conceptual model framework and an initial literature review are invaluable when considering what health state utility values (HSUVs) are required to populate health states in decision models. They are the recommended starting point early within a research and development programme, and before development of phase III trial protocols. While clinical trials can provide an opportunity to collect the required evidence, their appropriateness should be reviewed against the requirements of the model structure taking into account population characteristics, time horizon and frequency of clinical events...
October 19, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051759/ifn%C3%AE-enhances-cd64-potentiated-phagocytosis-of-treponema-pallidum-opsonized-with-human-syphilitic-serum-by-human-macrophages
#4
Kelly L Hawley, Adriana R Cruz, Sarah J Benjamin, Carson J La Vake, Jorge L Cervantes, Morgan LeDoyt, Lady G Ramirez, Daniza Mandich, Mary Fiel-Gan, Melissa J Caimano, Justin D Radolf, Juan C Salazar
Syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (Tp). Considered broadly, syphilis can be conceptualized as a dualistic process in which spirochete-driven inflammation, the cause of clinical manifestations, coexists to varying extents with bacterial persistence. Inflammation is elicited in the tissues, along with the persistence of spirochetes to keep driving a robust immune response while evading host defenses; this duality is best exemplified during the florid, disseminated stage called secondary syphilis (SS)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050900/bone-and-mineral-disorders-in-chronic-kidney-disease-implications-for-cardiovascular-health-and-ageing-in-the-general-population
#5
REVIEW
Adrian Covic, Marc Vervloet, Ziad A Massy, Pablo Ureña Torres, David Goldsmith, Vincent Brandenburg, Sandro Mazzaferro, Pieter Evenepoel, Jordi Bover, Mugurel Apetrii, Mario Cozzolino
The patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents an extreme model for arteriosclerosis, vascular calcification, and bone disorders, all of which are also associated with ageing in the general population. These pathological features are also relevant to other common chronic health disorders such as diabetes, and chronic inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. Although management and interventions for these major risk factors are now incorporated into most public health guidelines (eg, smoking cessation and control of bodyweight and blood pressure, as well as glucose and cholesterol concentrations), some residual cardiovascular risk is not reduced by implementation of these interventions...
October 16, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049100/models-of-borderline-personality-disorder-recent-advances-and-new-perspectives
#6
Alessandra D'Agostino, Mario Rossi Monti, Vladan Starcevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant conceptual models of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with a focus on recent developments in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: Several conceptual models have been proposed with the aim of better understanding BPD: the borderline personality organization, emotion dysregulation, reflective (mentalization) dysfunction, interpersonal hypersensitivity and hyperbolic temperament models. These models have all been supported to some extent and their common components include disorganized attachment and traumatic early experiences, emotion dysregulation, interpersonal sensitivity and difficulties with social cognition...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048571/pain-in-survivors-of-pediatric-cancer-applying-a-prevention-framework
#7
Amanda L Stone, Cynthia W Karlson, Lauren C Heathcote, Abby R Rosenberg, Tonya M Palermo
To apply a biopsychosocial framework to understand factors influencing pain in survivors of pediatric cancer to inform pain prevention efforts and highlight the need for interdisciplinary care. This topical review draws from both pediatric cancer survivorship research and chronic noncancer pain research to illustrate how components of a preventative model can be applied to pain in survivorship. Pain is a common experience among long-term survivors of pediatric cancer. The pain experience in survivorship can be conceptualized in terms of biological disease and treatment factors, cognitive and affective factors, and social and contextual factors...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048547/perspectives-on-integrating-genetic-and-physical-explanations-of-evolution-and-development-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#8
Alan C Love, Thomas A Stewart, Gunter P Wagner, Stuart A Newman
In the 20th century, genetic explanatory approaches became dominant in both developmental and evolutionary biological research. By contrast, physical approaches, which appeal to properties such as mechanical forces, were largely relegated to the margins, despite important advances in modeling. Recently, there have been renewed attempts to find balanced viewpoints that integrate both biological physics and molecular genetics into explanations of developmental and evolutionary phenomena. Here we introduce the 2017 SICB symposium "Physical and Genetic Mechanisms for Evolutionary Novelty" that was dedicated to exploring empirical cases where both biological physics and developmental genetic considerations are crucial...
October 17, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048210/breastfeeding-challenges-and-the-preterm-mother-infant-dyad-a-conceptual-model
#9
Chantal Lau
Breastfeeding is an experience that only a mother and her infant(s) can share. Infants who can feed from the breast receive not only the best nutrition but also, due to the close physical contact between mother and child, it is the optimal nurturance they can receive from their mother. When breastfeeding is trouble free, maternal well-being is uniquely heightened. However, breastfeeding remains a challenge for many mother-infant dyads and more so for those whose infants are born prematurely. This article introduces a conceptual model of the breastfeeding challenges facing preterm mother-infant dyads...
October 19, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048194/applying-intersectionality-to-explore-the-relations-between-gendered-racism-and-health-among-black-women
#10
Jioni A Lewis, Marlene G Williams, Erica J Peppers, Cecile A Gadson
The purpose of this study was to apply an intersectionality framework to explore the influence of gendered racism (i.e., intersection of racism and sexism) on health outcomes. Specifically, we applied intersectionality to extend a biopsychosocial model of racism to highlight the psychosocial variables that mediate and moderate the influence of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle gendered racism) on health outcomes. In addition, we tested aspects of this conceptual model by exploring the influence of gendered racial microaggressions on the mental and physical health of Black women...
October 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047026/an-observation-that-illustrates-most-t-cell-receptor-structure-function-relationships
#11
REVIEW
Melvin Cohn
The Standard model of the T cell receptor (TCR) structure-function relationships is based on an analogy with the B cell receptor. Here a single observation is analyzed to show why this appears to be untenable. The Standard model cannot account for allele-specific recognition of theMHC-encoded presenter of peptide (R) by the TCR nor can it adequately explain alloreactivity. The competing framework is based on the assumptions that (1) single V-domains recognize the alleles of R, (2) restrictive reactivity is peptide specific, whereas alloreactivity is peptide unspecific, and (3) the TCR is born in two conformations, which display reciprocal behaviors (see text)...
October 18, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045664/understanding-the-impact-of-accreditation-on-quality-in-healthcare-a-grounded-theory-approach
#12
L Desveaux, J I Mitchell, J Shaw, N M Ivers
Objective: To explore how organizations respond to and interact with the accreditation process and the actual and potential mechanisms through which accreditation may influence quality. Design: Qualitative grounded theory study. Setting: Organizations who had participated in Accreditation Canada's Qmentum program during January 2014-June 2016. Participants: Individuals who had coordinated the accreditation process or were involved in managing or promoting quality...
October 17, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044652/the-impact-of-accreditation-on-medical-schools-processes
#13
Danielle Blouin, Ara Tekian, Carol Kamin, Ilene B Harris
OBJECTIVES: Increased emphasis is being placed worldwide on accreditation of undergraduate medical education programmes, and costs of participation in accreditation continue to rise. The primary purposes of accreditation are to ensure the quality of medical education and to promote quality improvement. Student performance data as indicators of the impact of accreditation have important limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of accreditation using an innovative marker: the processes implemented at medical schools as a result of accreditation...
October 18, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043020/secondary-invasion-when-invasion-success-is-contingent-on-other-invaders-altering-the-properties-of-recipient-ecosystems
#14
REVIEW
Luke S O'Loughlin, Peter T Green
Positive interactions between exotic species may increase ecosystem-level impacts and potentially facilitate the entry and spread of other exotic species. Invader-facilitated invasion success-"secondary invasion"-is a key conceptual aspect of the well-known invasional meltdown hypothesis, but remains poorly defined and empirically underexplored. Drawing from heuristic models and published empirical studies, we explore this form of "secondary invasion" and discuss the phenomenon within the recognized conceptual framework of the determinants of invasion success...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042847/an-enquiry-into-nurse-to-nurse-collaboration-within-the-older-people-care-chain-as-part-of-the-integrated-care-a-qualitative-study
#15
Terhi Lemetti, Päivi Voutilainen, Minna Stolt, Sini Eloranta, Riitta Suhonen
INTRODUCTION: Health care systems for older people are becoming more complex and care for older people, in the transition between hospital and primary healthcare requires more systematic collaboration between nurses. This study describes nurses' perceptions of their collaboration when working between hospital and primary healthcare within the older people care chain. THEORY AND METHODS: Using a qualitative approach, informed by grounded theory, six focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of registered nurses (n = 28) from hospitals (n = 14) and primary healthcare (n = 14) during 2013...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Integrated Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042088/distribution-of-glyphosate-and-aminomethylphosphonic-acid-ampa-in-agricultural-topsoils-of-the-european-union
#16
Vera Silva, Luca Montanarella, Arwyn Jones, Oihane Fernández-Ugalde, Hans G J Mol, Coen J Ritsema, Violette Geissen
Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated information is available for European soils. We provide the first large-scale assessment of distribution (occurrence and concentrations) of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in EU agricultural topsoils, and estimate their potential spreading by wind and water erosion...
October 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041981/an-integrated-conceptual-framework-for-evaluating-and-improving-understanding-in-informed-consent
#17
Sabine Bossert, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: The development of understandable informed consent (IC) documents has proven to be one of the most important challenges in research with humans as well as in healthcare settings. Therefore, evaluating and improving understanding has been of increasing interest for empirical research on IC. However, several conceptual and practical challenges for the development of understandable IC documents remain unresolved. METHODS: In this paper, we will outline and systematize some of these challenges...
October 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040927/combination-of-hollow-fluorescent-carbon-and-gold-nanoparticles-a-super-catalyst
#18
Kakali Santra, Pradipta Purkayastha
Hollow fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (HFCNs) have been combined with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to produce a special catalyst. The catalytic properties of HFCNs and AuNPs were exploited to conceptualize the new catalytic functionality. The AuNP-embedded-HFCNs produced in situ were found to massively enhance the rate of reduction of 4-nitrophenol (a model reaction) in presence of sodium borohydride. Comparison with functioning of other nanoparticulate catalysts on the same reaction proved our product to be an extremely efficient catalyst...
October 10, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040596/high-fidelity-phenotyping-richness-and-freedom-from-bias
#19
George Hripcsak, David J Albers
Electronic health record phenotyping is the use of raw electronic health record data to assert characterizations about patients. Researchers have been doing it since the beginning of biomedical informatics, under different names. Phenotyping will benefit from an increasing focus on fidelity, both in the sense of increasing richness, such as measured levels, degree or severity, timing, probability, or conceptual relationships, and in the sense of reducing bias. Research agendas should shift from merely improving binary assignment to studying and improving richer representations...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040294/towards-social-autonomous-vehicles-efficient-collision-avoidance-scheme-using-richardson-s-arms-race-model
#20
Faisal Riaz, Muaz A Niazi
This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM) level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC) framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson's arms race model has also been presented...
2017: PloS One
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