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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644856/estimating-psychopathological-networks-be-careful-what-you-wish-for
#1
Sacha Epskamp, Joost Kruis, Maarten Marsman
Network models, in which psychopathological disorders are conceptualized as a complex interplay of psychological and biological components, have become increasingly popular in the recent psychopathological literature (Borsboom, et. al., 2011). These network models often contain significant numbers of unknown parameters, yet the sample sizes available in psychological research are limited. As such, general assumptions about the true network are introduced to reduce the number of free parameters. Incorporating these assumptions, however, means that the resulting network will lead to reflect the particular structure assumed by the estimation method-a crucial and often ignored aspect of psychopathological networks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644729/promoting-prenatal-exercise-from-a-sociocultural-and-life-course-perspective-an-embodied-conceptual-framework
#2
Shannon Jette, Julie Maier, Katelyn Esmonde, Cherise Davis
PURPOSE: Prenatal exercise is a health behavior that is receiving growing attention amid concern that women in Western societies are gaining excess weight during pregnancy and contributing to future obesity in both the mother and child. In this article, we draw on insights from the fields of social epidemiology and social theory of the body to examine existing prenatal exercise interventions and to propose a multidimensional framework intended to guide future theorizing and intervention design...
June 23, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644691/the-evolution-of-psychological-testing-at-the-austen-riggs-center-a-theoretical-analysis
#3
Jeremy M Ridenour, Brittany Zimmerman
Theoretical perspectives on personality and the development of psychopathology have shifted markedly over the last 7 decades. However, it remains unclear how those changes affect mental health practice. Comprehensive and conscientiously recorded reports of psychological testing provide a clear window on this process because they comprise distinctive records of how patients are assessed and understood. For this study, we conducted an exploratory, qualitative analysis of the narratives of the testing reports over the past 65 years at the Austen Riggs Center, a private psychiatric hospital and residential treatment center, to assess changes over time and to evaluate the influence that various factors had on the reports...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643470/the-association-of-hospital-governance-with-innovation-in-taiwan
#4
Chen-Wei Yang, Yu-Hua Yan, Shih-Chieh Fang, Syeda Noorein Inamdar, Hsien-Cheng Lin
Hospitals in Taiwan are facing major changes and innovation is increasingly becoming a critical factor for remaining competitive. One determinant that can have a significant impact on innovation is hospital governance. However, there is limited prior research on the relationship between hospital governance and innovation. The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual framework to hypothesize the relationship between governance mechanisms and innovation and to empirically test the hypotheses in hospital organizations...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642608/ocean-acidification-as-a-driver-of-community-simplification-via-the-collapse-of-higher-order-and-rise-of-lower-order-consumers
#5
S Vizzini, B Martínez-Crego, C Andolina, A Massa-Gallucci, S D Connell, M C Gambi
Increasing oceanic uptake of CO2 is predicted to drive ecological change as both a resource (i.e. CO2 enrichment on primary producers) and stressor (i.e. lower pH on consumers). We use the natural ecological complexity of a CO2 vent (i.e. a seagrass system) to assess the potential validity of conceptual models developed from laboratory and mesocosm research. Our observations suggest that the stressor-effect of CO2 enrichment combined with its resource-effect drives simplified food web structure of lower trophic diversity and shorter length...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640972/understanding-adaptogenic-activity-specificity-of-the-pharmacological-action-of-adaptogens-and-other-phytochemicals
#6
REVIEW
Alexander Panossian
Adaptogens are stress-response modifiers that increase an organism's nonspecific resistance to stress by increasing its ability to adapt and survive. The classical reductionist model is insufficiently complex to explain the mechanistic aspects of the physiological notion of "adaptability" and the adaptogenic activity of adaptogens. Here, I demonstrate that (1) the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are impossible to rationally describe using the reductionist concept of pharmacology, whereas the network pharmacology approach is the most suitable method; and (2) the principles of systems biology and pharmacological networks appear to be more suitable for conceptualizing adaptogen function and are applicable to any phytochemical...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639808/a-quarter-century-of-advances-in-the-statistical-analysis-of-longitudinal-neuropsychological-data
#7
John L Woodard
OBJECTIVE: Over the last 25 years, there has been an unprecedented increase in federal funding for large-scale longitudinal studies, many of which collect neuropsychological or neuroimaging outcome measures. These studies have collected data from thousands of study participants across multiple waves of data collection over many years. With the increased availability of longitudinal data, data sharing policies have become more liberal, thereby offering significant opportunities for interested researchers to carry out their own longitudinal research with these data...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639798/working-safely-at-some-times-and-unsafely-at-others-a-typology-and-within-person-process-model-of-safety-related-work-behaviors
#8
Jeremy M Beus, William D Taylor
Why do individuals choose to work safely in some instances and unsafely in others? Though this inherently within-person question is straightforward, the preponderance of between-person theory and research in the workplace safety literature is not equipped to answer it. Additionally, the limited way in which safety-related behaviors tend to be conceptualized further restricts understanding of why individuals vary in their safety-related actions. We use a goal-focused approach to conceptually address this question of behavioral variability and contribute to workplace safety research in 2 key ways...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638358/learning-to-detect-triggers-of-airway-symptoms-the-role-of-illness-beliefs-conceptual-categories-and-actual-experience-with-allergic-symptoms
#9
Thomas Janssens, Eva Caris, Ilse Van Diest, Omer Van den Bergh
Background: In asthma and allergic rhinitis, beliefs about what triggers allergic reactions often do not match objective allergy tests. This may be due to insensitivity for expectancy violations as a result of holding trigger beliefs based on conceptual relationships among triggers. In this laboratory experiment, we aimed to investigate how pre-existing beliefs and conceptual relationships among triggers interact with actual experience when learning differential symptom expectations. Methods: Healthy participants (N = 48) received information that allergic reactions were a result of specific sensitivities versus general allergic vulnerability...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638353/the-effects-of-spatial-endogenous-pre-cueing-across-eccentricities
#10
Jing Feng, Ian Spence
Frequently, we use expectations about likely locations of a target to guide the allocation of our attention. Despite the importance of this attentional process in everyday tasks, examination of pre-cueing effects on attention, particularly endogenous pre-cueing effects, has been relatively little explored outside an eccentricity of 20°. Given the visual field has functional subdivisions that attentional processes can differ significantly among the foveal, perifoveal, and more peripheral areas, how endogenous pre-cues that carry spatial information of targets influence our allocation of attention across a large visual field (especially in the more peripheral areas) remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637787/biophysics-and-biofluiddynamics-of-primary-cilia-evidence-for-and-against-the-flow-sensing-function
#11
Subhra Nag, Andrew Resnick
Primary cilia have been called "the forgotten organelle" for over 20 years. As cilia now have their own Journal and several books devoted to their study, perhaps it's time to reconsider the moniker "forgotten organelle". In fact, during the drafting of this review, 12 relevant publications have been issued- we therefore apologize in advance for any relevant work we inadvertently omitted. What purpose is yet another ciliary review? The primary goal of this review is to specifically examine the evidence for and against the hypothesized flow-sensing function of primary cilia expressed by differentiated epithelia within a kidney tubule, bringing together differing disciplines and their respective conceptual and experimental approaches...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637270/in-planta-recapitulation-of-isoprene-synthases-evolution-from-ocimene-synthases
#12
Mingai Li, Jia Xu, Alberto Algarra Alarcon, Silvia Carlin, Enrico Barbaro, Luca Cappellin, Violeta Velikova, Urska Vrhovsek, Francesco Loreto, Claudio Varotto
Isoprene is the most abundant biogenic volatile hydrocarbon compound naturally emitted by plants and plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry. It has been proposed that isoprene synthases (IspS) may readily evolve from other terpene synthases, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally investigated.We isolated and functionally validated in Arabidopsis the first isoprene synthase gene, AdoIspS, from a monocotyledonous species (Arundo donax L., Poaceae). Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that AdoIspS and dicots isoprene synthases most likely originated by parallel evolution from TPS-b monoterpene synthases...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637202/adherence-to-antipsychotic-medication-and-criminal-recidivism-in-a-canadian-provincial-offender-population
#13
Stefanie N Rezansoff, Akm Moniruzzaman, Seena Fazel, Lawrence McCandless, Julian M Somers
Preliminary evidence suggests that adherence to antipsychotic medication reduces criminal recidivism among patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, existing studies operationalize antipsychotic adherence as a binary variable (usually using a threshold of ≥80%), which does not reflect the prevalence of suboptimal adherence in real-world settings. The purpose of the current analysis was to investigate the association between successive ordinal levels of antipsychotic adherence and criminal recidivism in a well-defined sample of offenders diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 11462)...
June 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637156/the-sink-or-swim-hypothesis-a-roadmap-from-pathology-to-work-instability
#14
Bilal Akter Mateen, Catherine Doogan, Kate Hayward, Susan Hourihan, Joanne Hurford, E Diane Playford
PURPOSE: Selecting the most appropriate health-related work outcome to evaluate an intervention can be fraught with difficulty. To aid clinicians in navigating this problem we have developed a model, which illustrates how pathology can affect specific measureable quantities, such as work instability. METHODS: Using a modified-Delphi procedure, a panel of experts met initially to analyze the content of 95 health-related work outcome measures and organize the identified areas of measurement into a coherent model, complemented by a narrative review of the literature...
March 3, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636768/driving-aggression-and-anxiety-intersections-assessment-and-interventions
#15
Heidi M Zinzow, Stephanie M Jeffirs
OBJECTIVE: Driving aggression and anxiety are significant contributors to risky driving and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), which are leading causes of U.S. morbidity and mortality. Even though aggression and anxiety can be conceptualized as related features of the fight-or-flight response, literature on these topics has not been integrated. Driving aggression and anxiety are also transdiagnostic constructs that span multiple psychiatric disorders. Assessment and treatment of these complex problems must be understood to reduce the public health burden of MVCs...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636163/the-pu-prom-a-patient-reported-outcome-measure-for-peptic-ulcer-disease
#16
Na Liu, Jing Lv, Jinchun Liu, Yanbo Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) conceived to enable description of treatment-related effects, from the patient perspective, bring the potential to improve in clinical research, and to provide patients with accurate information. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a patient-centred peptic ulcer patient-reported outcome measure (PU-PROM) and evaluate its reliability, validity, differential item functioning (DIF) and feasibility. METHOD: To develop a conceptual framework and item pool for the PU-PROM, we performed a literature review and consulted other measures created in China and other countries...
June 21, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636108/understanding-the-influences-and-impact-of-patient-clinician-communication-in-cancer-care
#17
Jennifer Elston Lafata, Laura A Shay, Jodi M Winship
BACKGROUND: Patient-clinician communication is thought to be central to care outcomes, but when and how communication affects patient outcomes is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We propose a conceptual model and classification framework upon which the empirical evidence base for the impact of patient-clinician communication can be summarized and further built. DESIGN: We use the proposed model and framework to summarize findings from two recent systematic reviews, one evaluating the use of shared decision making (SDM) on cancer care outcomes and the other evaluating the role of physician recommendation in cancer screening use...
June 21, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635974/conceptual-issues-surrounding-quality-of-life-in-oncology-nursing
#18
Marie Flannery
Quality of life (QOL) is a critical, prevalent, and enduring concept in oncology nursing research and practice. QOL is a paramount issue in the consideration of treatment, goal planning, and decision making for individuals with cancer, their families, and their care providers. Journals, well-developed valid and reliable instruments, and multiple conceptual models and frameworks are devoted to QOL. This column will review two broad conceptual aspects to consider in relation to QOL. First, conceptual considerations will be discussed for the definition and measurement of QOL...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634548/decline-in-memory-visuospatial-ability-and-crystalized-cognitive-abilities-in-older-adults-normative-aging-or-terminal-decline
#19
R Bendayan, A M Piccinin, S M Hofer, D Cadar, B Johansson, G Muniz-Terrera
The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death) and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline). Moreover, the association with individual characteristics as sex, education, and dementia diagnosis was also examined. Measures of cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and the Swedish Clock Test) and tests of crystallized (knowledge and synonyms), memory (verbal memory, nonverbal long-term memory, recognition and correspondence, and short-term memory), and visuospatial ability were included...
2017: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633681/copewell-a-conceptual-framework-and-system-dynamics-model-for-predicting-community-functioning-and-resilience-after-disasters
#20
Jonathan M Links, Brian S Schwartz, Sen Lin, Norma Kanarek, Judith Mitrani-Reiser, Tara Kirk Sell, Crystal R Watson, Doug Ward, Cathy Slemp, Robert Burhans, Kimberly Gill, Tak Igusa, Xilei Zhao, Benigno Aguirre, Joseph Trainor, Joanne Nigg, Thomas Inglesby, Eric Carbone, James M Kendra
OBJECTIVE: Policy-makers and practitioners have a need to assess community resilience in disasters. Prior efforts conflated resilience with community functioning, combined resistance and recovery (the components of resilience), and relied on a static model for what is inherently a dynamic process. We sought to develop linked conceptual and computational models of community functioning and resilience after a disaster. METHODS: We developed a system dynamics computational model that predicts community functioning after a disaster...
June 21, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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