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Conceptual model

E Hoyau, A Roux-Sibilon, N Boudiaf, C Pichat, E Cousin, A Krainik, A Jaillard, C Peyrin, M Baciu
In this dynamic causal modeling (DCM) study, we evaluated the effect of age on the effective connectivity of a cerebral network involved in lexical production. Younger and older adults performed an object naming task during fMRI. The DCM was used to explore the interactions between four regions of interest: the occipital cortex, OC; the lateral temporal cortex, LTC; the medial temporal cortex, MTC; and the inferior frontal cortex, IFC. We mainly focused on the modulation of the fronto-temporal interaction, according to the hypothesis that aging requires strategies that modulate the access to the semantic knowledge, either through a neural reserve mechanism (increased MTC-LTC connectivity) or through a neural compensation mechanism (supplementary IFC-MTC connectivity)...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Language
André A V Perpignan, Mathijs G Talboom, Yeshayahou Levy, Arvind Gangoli Rao
Since its discovery, the flameless combustion (FC) regime has been a promising alternative to reduce pollutant emissions of gas turbine engines. This combustion mode is characterized by well-distributed reaction zones, which potentially decreases temperature gradients, acoustic oscillations, and NO x emissions. Its attainment within gas turbine engines has proved to be challenging because previous design attempts faced limitations related to operational range and combustion efficiency. Along with an aircraft conceptual design, the AHEAD project proposed a novel hybrid engine...
January 18, 2018: Energy & Fuels: An American Chemical Society Journal
Abby Parish, Jennifer Kim, Kanah May Lewallen, Sally Miller, Janet Myers, Robbie Panepinto, Cathy A Maxwell
A growing body of evidence indicates that biological aging or frailty is a determinant of health-related outcomes, however, frailty is likely poorly understood and under-recognized by the public-at-large. Using Whittemore and Knafl's methodology, we aimed to conduct an integrative review of research on public knowledge and perceptions of aging and frailty, and to create a conceptual model of our findings. Twenty-three studies are presented. The conceptual model suggests that culture, knowledge of aging, and stereotypes influence adults' beliefs and perceptions...
June 14, 2018: Geriatric Nursing
Xuhua Xia
There is a long-held belief that a mutation gradient exists along vertebrate mtDNA, mediated by mitochondrial replication that leaves different parts of the H-strand exposed in single-stranded state for different durations (DssH ). However, the predicted mutation gradient and its tests suffer from both conceptual and empirical problems. I assembled representative mammalian, avian and crocodilian mtDNA to test this prediction. I measured substitution rates at codon positions 1 and 2 (S12 ) and at codon position 3 (S3 ), as well as synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, and checked their change along the hypothetical gradient...
June 14, 2018: Mitochondrion
Abdallah Rothman, Adrian Coyle
A uniquely Islamic theoretical framework for an Islamic psychology has yet to be established. To do so requires that we understand how human beings are conceptualized within the cosmology that characterizes the Islamic tradition. This paper presents a model of the soul from within an Islamic paradigm, generated through a grounded theory analysis of interviews with 18 key informants with relevant academic or religious expertise. The model elaborates aspects of a mechanism for the development of the soul that constitutes a potential foundation for an Islamic theory of human psychology and has particular relevance for Islamic approaches to psychotherapy...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Jacek Kolacz, Stephen W Porges
Chronic diffuse pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), such as irritable bowel syndrome, place substantial burden on those affected and on the medical system. Despite their sizable impact, their pathophysiology is poorly understood. In contrast to an approach that focuses on the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) and a specific organ or symptom, we propose that a bio-evolutionary threat-related autonomic response-as outlined in the Polyvagal Theory-may serve as a plausible explanation of how HRV, particularly respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), would index the pathophysiology of these disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Jay M Bhatt, Anil Kumar Challa
Genetic analysis in model systems can provide a rich context for conceptual understanding of gene structure, regulation, and function. With an intent to create a rich learning experience in molecular genetics, we developed a semester-long course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system to disrupt specific genes in the zebrafish. The course was offered to freshman students; nine students worked in four groups (two to three members per group) to design, synthesize, and test the nuclease activity of the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/sgRNAs for targeted disruption of specific genes in the zebrafish...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Wagner C S Magalhães, Nathalia M Araujo, Thiago P Leal, Gilderlanio S Araujo, Paula J S Viriato, Fernanda S Kehdy, Gustavo N Costa, Mauricio L Barreto, Bernardo L Horta, Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa, Alexandre C Pereira, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Maíra R Rodrigues
EPIGEN-Brazil is one of the largest Latin American initiatives at the interface of human genomics, public health, and computational biology. Here, we present two resources to address two challenges to the global dissemination of precision medicine and the development of the bioinformatics know-how to support it. To address the underrepresentation of non-European individuals in human genome diversity studies, we present the EPIGEN-5M+1KGP imputation panel-the fusion of the public 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) Phase 3 imputation panel with haplotypes derived from the EPIGEN-5M data set (a product of the genotyping of 4...
June 14, 2018: Genome Research
Bettina Nielsen, Kari Slinning, Hanne Weie Oddli, Filip Drozd
BACKGROUND: A reoccurring finding from health and clinical services is the failure to implement theory and research into practice and policy in appropriate and efficient ways, which is why it is essential to develop and identify implementation strategies, as they constitute the how-to component of translating and changing health practices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide a systematic and comprehensive review of the implementation strategies that have been applied for the Circle of Security-Virginia Family (COS-VF) model by developing an implementation protocol...
June 14, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Boris M Velichkovsky, Olga A Krotkova, Artemy A Kotov, Vyacheslav A Orlov, Vitaly M Verkhlyutov, Vadim L Ushakov, Maxim G Sharaev
By taking into account Bruce Bridgeman's interest in an evolutionary framing of human cognition, we examine effective (cause-and-effect) connectivity among cortical structures related to different parts of the triune phylogenetic stratification: archicortex, paleocortex and neocortex. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 25 healthy subjects and spectral Dynamic Causal Modeling, we report interactions among 10 symmetrical left and right brain areas. Our results testify to general rightward and top-down biases in excitatory interactions of these structures during resting state, when self-related contemplation prevails over more objectified conceptual thinking...
June 11, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Mohamed A Ali, Alexxai V Kravitz
Feeding is a critical behavior that animals depend on for survival, and pathological alterations in food intake underlie disorders such as obesity and anorexia nervosa. To understand these disorders and their development in animal models, researchers must quantify food intake. Although conceptually straightforward, it remains a challenge to obtain accurate records of food intake in rodents. Several approaches have been used to accomplish this, each with benefits and drawbacks. In this article, we survey the four most common methods for measuring food intake in rodents: manual weighing of food, automated weighing scales, pellet dispensers, and video-based analyses...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
Eric J G Pollitt, Piotr T Szkuta, Nicola Burns, Simon J Foster
Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that can also cause systemic infections. This transition requires evasion of the immune response and the ability to exploit different niches within the host. However, the disease mechanisms and the dominant immune mediators against infection are poorly understood. Previously it has been shown that the infecting S. aureus population goes through a population bottleneck, from which very few bacteria escape to establish the abscesses that are characteristic of many infections...
June 14, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Abby L Mulay, Nicole M Cain, Mark H Waugh, Christopher J Hopwood, Jonathan M Adler, Darren J Garcia, John E Kurtz, Katherine A Lenger, Rebecca Skadberg
The DSM-5 Section III alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) is a personality disorder (PD) nosology based on severity of personality dysfunction and pathological traits. We examined the degree to which the personality constructs identified by McAdams and Pals (2006; dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations, narrative identity) and the paradigms of personality assessment described by Wiggins (2003; psychodynamic, interpersonal, personological, multivariate, empirical) are represented within the AMPD...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Bryan D James, Robert S Wilson, Raj C Shah, Lei Yu, Zoe Arvanitakis, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
BACKGROUND: Lowering the likelihood of hospitalization in older adults is a major public health goal for modern health care systems. Emerging data suggest that financial literacy is an important determinant of health outcomes in old age, but the relationship with hospitalization has not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that better financial literacy is related to lower risk of hospitalization in older persons. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
July 2018: Medical Care
Ana Isabel Vieira, Bárbara C Machado, Célia S Moreira, Paulo P P Machado, Isabel Brandão, António Roma-Torres, Sónia Gonçalves
Evidence suggests several risk factors for both eating disorders (ED) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), but the relationships between these factors are not well understood. Considering our previous work and a conceptual model, this cross-sectional study aimed to assess the relationships among distal and proximal factors for the presence of NSSI in ED. We assessed 245 ED patients with the Oxford Risk Factor Interview for ED. Structural equation modelling revealed that both distal and proximal factors were related to the presence of NSSI in ED, disclosing a mediating role of the proximal factors...
June 14, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Rui Figueiredo, Mario L V Martina, David B Stephenson, Benjamin D Youngman
There is a pressing need for simple and reliable risk transfer mechanisms that can pay out quickly after natural disasters without delays caused by loss estimation, and the need for long historical claims records. One such approach, known as parametric insurance, pays out when a key hazard variable exceeds a predetermined threshold. However, this approach to catastrophe risk, based on making deterministic binary predictions of loss occurrence, is susceptible to basis risk (mismatch between payouts and realized losses)...
June 13, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Franziska Weiss, Mark W Greenlee, Gregor Volberg
Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition in which objectively achromatic graphemes induce concurrent color experiences. While it was long thought that the colors emerge during perception, there is growing support for the view that colors are integral to synesthetes' cognitive representations of graphemes. In this work, we review evidence for two opposing theories positing either a perceptual or cognitive origin of concurrent colors: the cross-activation theory and the conceptual-mediation model. The review covers results on inducer and concurrent color processing as well as findings concerning the brain structure and grapheme-color mappings in synesthetes and trained mappings in nonsynesthetes...
May 2018: I-Perception
Milija Šimleša, Jérôme Guegan, Edouard Blanchard, Franck Tarpin-Bernard, Stéphanie Buisine
Flow is a well-known concept in the fields of positive and applied psychology. Examination of a large body of flow literature suggests there is a need for a conceptual model rooted in a cognitive approach to explain how this psychological phenomenon works. In this paper, we propose the Flow Engine Framework, a theoretical model explaining dynamic interactions between rearranged flow components and fundamental cognitive processes. Using an IPO framework (Inputs - Processes - Outputs) including a feedback process, we organize flow characteristics into three logically related categories: inputs (requirements for flow), mediating and moderating cognitive processes (attentional and motivational mechanisms) and outputs (subjective and objective outcomes), describing the process of the flow...
March 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
P Rocca, S Galderisi, A Rossi, A Bertolino, P Rucci, D Gibertoni, C Montemagni, S Bellino, E Aguglia, M Amore, A Bellomo, M Biondi, B Carpiniello, A Cuomo, E D'Ambrosio, L dell'Osso, P Girardi, C Marchesi, P Monteleone, C Montemitro, L Oldani, F Pacitti, R Roncone, A Siracusano, E Tenconi, A Vita, P Zeppegno, L Steardo, A Vignapiano, M Maj
BACKGROUND: A general consensus has not yet been reached regarding the role of disorganization symptoms in real-world functioning in schizophrenia. METHODS: We used structural equations modeling (SEM) to analyze the direct and indirect associations between disorganization and real-world functioning assessed through the Specific Levels of Functioning Scale (SLOF) in 880 subjects with schizophrenia. RESULTS: We found that: 1) conceptual disorganization was directly and strongly connected with SLOF daily activities; difficulty in abstract thinking was associated with moderate strength to all SLOF domains, and poor attention was connected with SLOF work skills; 2) grandiosity was only related with poor work skills, and delusions were associated with poor functioning in all SLOF domains; interpersonal relationships were weakly indirectly influenced by hallucinatory behavior, delusions and unusual thought contents through the mediation of social cognition (SC); 3) among the negative symptoms, avolition had only direct links with SLOF work skills and SLOF activities; anhedonia had direct links with SLOF work skills and SLOF interpersonal and indirect link with SLOF work skills through functional capacity (FC); asociality with SLOF interpersonal; blunted affect had direct links with SLOF activities and indirect links with SLOF interpersonal relationships mediated by SC...
June 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Taeho Kim, Jihoon Lee, David W Fredriksson, Judson DeCew, Andrew Drach, Solomon C Yim
This study provides an engineering approach for designing an aquaculture cage system for use in constructed channel flow environments. As sustainable aquaculture has grown globally, many novel techniques have been introduced such as those implemented in the global Atlantic salmon industry. The advent of several highly sophisticated analysis software systems enables the development of such novel engineering techniques. These software systems commonly include three-dimensional (3D) drafting, computational fluid dynamics, and finite element analysis...
2018: PloS One
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