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Jennifer Chia Wee Fern, Shuji Ohsaki, Satoru Watano, Robert Pfeffer
The synthesis of nano-size drug particles by antisolvent crystallization using a porous hollow fiber membrane provides promising benefits such as the capability of continuous operation, low energy input, and ease of scale-up for a variety of industrial processes. Porous hollow fiber membranes have also been shown to produce more efficient mixing than conventional mixing equipment mostly because in mixing binary fluids, they provide sufficient mixing time, retention time, and a large contact interface for the drug solution and the antisolvent, allowing for the precise control of nucleation and crystal growth necessary to form nano-size particles...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Sh Mohammadi, M Gholamin, M Mohammadi, A Mansouri, R Mahmoodian, S Attari, S M Kebriaei, B Zibaei, M Roshanaei, F Daneshvar, M Khandehro, M A Khodadadegan, A Delshad, F Mohammadzadeh, Mostafa Peyvandi, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Shima Tavallaie, Samaneh Boroumand-Noughabi, Gordon A A Ferns
In the study of the expression of CatSper genes, consideration of the effects of environmental metal toxicity is very important. Therefore, in this study, the effects of lead acetate and mercury chloride exposure on expression of CatSper genes, sperm parameters, histology of testis and prooxidant antioxidant balance (PAB) values of serum were investigated. A total of 28 mice was divided into four groups. The control group did not receive injections. The sham group received normal saline intraperitoneally. Lead and mercury groups were injected 60 and 1...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Peng Xing, Baozhong Ma, Chengyan Wang, Ling Wang, Yongqiang Chen
Continuous growth of the shipping industry and infrastructure has consumed large amounts of zinc-rich paint (ZP) for the protection of steel structures against corrosion. Consequently, a growing amount of waste zinc-rich paint residue (ZPR) is being generated from anticorrosion spraying. ZPR is classified as hazardous waste in most industrialized countries, but it contains considerable amounts of organic compounds with high calorific value and zinc species that can potentially be recycled. Most of the ZPR generated is not properly treated, and this study presents a simple and efficient process for recycling ZPR...
March 13, 2018: Waste Management
Matthew Quaife, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Robyn Eakle, Maria A Cabrera Escobar, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Mercy Mvundura, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Peter Vickerman
INTRODUCTION: A number of antiretroviral HIV prevention products are efficacious in preventing HIV infection. However, the sexual and reproductive health needs of many women extend beyond HIV prevention, and research is ongoing to develop multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that offer dual HIV and pregnancy protection. We do not yet know if these products will be an efficient use of constrained health resources. In this paper, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of combinations of candidate multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs), in South Africa among general population women and female sex workers (FSWs)...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Ralph J M Temmink, Sarah F Harpenslager, Alfons J P Smolders, Gijs van Dijk, Roy C J H Peters, Leon P M Lamers, Monique M L van Kempen
Azolla spp., a water fern often used for phytoremediation, is a strong phosphorus (P) accumulator due to its high growth rate and N2 fixing symbionts (diazotrophs). It is known that plant growth is stimulated by P, but the nature of the interactive response of both symbionts along a P gradient, and related changes in growth-limiting factors, are unclear. We determined growth, and N and P sequestration rates of Azolla filiculoides in N-free water at different P concentrations. The growth response appeared to be biphasic and highest at levels ≥10 P µmol l-1 ...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Song, Li-Yaung Kuo, Layne Huiet, Kathleen M Pryer, Carl J Rothfels, Fay-Wei Li
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Gene space in plant plastid genomes is well characterized and annotated, yet we discovered an unrecognized open reading frame (ORF) in the fern lineage that is conserved across flagellate plants. METHODS: We initially detected a putative uncharacterized ORF by the existence of a highly conserved region between rps16 and matK in a series of matK alignments of leptosporangiate ferns. We mined available plastid genomes for this ORF, which we now refer to as ycf94, to infer evolutionary selection pressures and assist in functional prediction...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Sean Doyle, Daniel Bloch Hansen, Jasmine Vella, Peter Bond, Glenn Harper, Christian Zammit, Mario Valentino, Robert Fern
The axon myelin sheath is prone to injury associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor activation but the source of glutamate in this context is unknown. Myelin damage results in permanent action potential loss and severe functional deficit in the white matter of the CNS, for example in ischemic stroke. Here, we show that in rats and mice, ischemic conditions trigger activation of myelinic NMDA receptors incorporating GluN2C/D subunits following release of axonal vesicular glutamate into the peri-axonal space under the myelin sheath...
March 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Fern Jaspers-Fayer, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Janet Mah, Elaine Chan, Clare Bleakley, Rhonda Ellwyn, Annie Simpson, Katherine McKenney, S Evelyn Stewart
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, including delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and disorders of sleep initiation and maintenance (DIMS), have repeatedly been identified in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These disturbances have not been well-characterized objectively in pediatric OCD. METHODS: Thirty OCD-affected youth (8-18 yrs, 40% male) and 30 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) completed the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), and one week of continuous actigraphy with concurrent sleep diary documentation...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Marta Ivars, Ana Martin-Santiago, Eulalia Baselga, Laurent Guibaud, Juan Carlos López-Gutiérrez
Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare congenital vascular disease associated with important morbidity and non-insignificant risk of mortality in cases of severe gastrointestinal or neurological involvement. Early diagnosis in the neonatal period can be difficult as very often skin lesions appear progressively during childhood having no correlation with gastrointestinal lesion development. The appearance of one large venous malformation (VM) in the neonatal period has suggested a characteristic finding of this syndrome...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Ledis Regalado, Alexander R Schmidt, Marc S Appelhans, Bork Ilsemann, Harald Schneider, Michael Krings, Jochen Heinrichs
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Weige Huo, Bodi Li, Jiebing Kuang, Pingan He, Zhihao Xu, Jinxiang Wang
Brassinosteroids are important phytohormones for plant growth and development. In soybean ( Glycine max ), BR receptors have been identified, but the genes encoding BR biosynthesis-related enzymes remain poorly understood. Here, we found that the soybean genome encodes eight steroid reductases (GmDET2a to GmDET2h). Phylogenetic analysis grouped 105 steroid reductases from moss, fern and higher plants into five subgroups and indicated that the steroid reductase family has experienced purifying selection. GmDET2a and GmDET2b, homologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana steroid 5 α -reductase AtDET2, are proteins of 263 amino acids...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Annie Herbert, Georgios Lyratzopoulos, Jeremy Whelan, Rachel M Taylor, Julie Barber, Faith Gibson, Lorna A Fern
Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) are thought to experience prolonged intervals to cancer diagnosis, but evidence quantifying this hypothesis and identifying high-risk patient subgroups is insufficient. We aimed to investigate diagnostic timeliness in a cohort of AYAs with incident cancers and to identify factors associated with variation in timeliness. Methods: We did a cross-sectional analysis of the BRIGHTLIGHT cohort, which included AYAs aged 12-24 years recruited within an average of 6 months from new primary cancer diagnosis from 96 National Health Service hospitals across England between July 1, 2012, and April 30, 2015...
March 2018: The lancet child & adolescent health
Fern Baedyananda, Arkom Chaiwongkot, Parvapan Bhattarakosol
OBJECTIVES: The primary replication protein, HPV E1, has been shown to play a role in mitigating host defence and disrupting normal cell cycle processes, leading to the development of cancer. This study investigated the expression profile of HPV16 E1 in various stages of cervical cancer development and the factors that control E1 expression. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-four HPV16-positive cervical samples ranging from normal to CIN 1, CIN 2/3, and SCC lesions were studied...
March 1, 2018: Intervirology
Zhen Gong, Guan-Zhu Han
Endogenous viral elements (paleoviruses) provide 'molecular fossils' for studying the deep history and macroevolution of viruses. Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are widespread in angiosperms, but little is known about EPRVs in earlier branching plants. Here we use a large-scale phylogenomic approach to investigate the diversity and macroevolution of plant pararetroviruses (formally known as Caulimoviridae ). We uncover an unprecedented and unappreciated diversity of EPRVs within the genomes of gymnosperms and ferns...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Rasika M Potdukhe, Priyanka Bedi, Bijaya K Sarangi, Ram A Pandey, Sanjog T Thul
Hyperaccumulation of arsenic (As) by brake fern Pteris vittata has been described as an important genetic trait that provides an option for development of a sustainable phytoremediation process for As mitigation. Accumulation of very high concentration of arsenic in above-ground tissues may be the result of arsenic vacuole compartmentalization, but the mechanism(s) of arsenic uptake and transport by underground tissues are largely unknown. In this study, we made an attempt towards understanding the molecular mechanism of As hyperaccumulation in this plant...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Zack Marshall, Fern Brunger, Vivian Welch, Shabnam Asghari, Chris Kaposy
BACKGROUND: This paper focuses on the collision of three factors: a growing emphasis on sharing research through open access publication, an increasing awareness of big data and its potential uses, and an engaged public interested in the privacy and confidentiality of their personal health information. One conceptual space where this collision is brought into sharp relief is with the open availability of patient medical photographs from peer-reviewed journal articles in the search results of online image databases such as Google Images...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Paige M Kulling, Kristine C Olson, Cait E Hamele, Mariella F Toro, Su-Fern Tan, David J Feith, Thomas P Loughran
T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGLL) is a rare incurable disease that is characterized by defective apoptosis of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Chronic activation of the Janus Kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is a hallmark of T-LGLL. One manifestation is the constitutive phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 of STAT1 (p-STAT1). T-LGLL patients also exhibit elevated serum levels of the STAT1 activator, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), thus contributing to an inflammatory environment...
2018: PloS One
Catherine Reeb, Jaap Kaandorp, Fredrik Jansson, Nicolas Puillandre, Jean-Yves Dubuisson, Raphaël Cornette, Florian Jabbour, Yoan Coudert, Jairo Patiño, Jean-François Flot, Alain Vanderpoorten
Morphometrics, the assignment of quantities to biological shapes, is a powerful tool to address taxonomic, evolutionary, functional and developmental questions. We propose a novel method for shape quantification of complex modular architecture in thalloid plants, whose extremely reduced morphologies, combined with the lack of a formal framework for thallus description, have long rendered taxonomic and evolutionary studies extremely challenging. Using graph theory, thalli are described as hierarchical series of nodes and edges, allowing for accurate, homologous and repeatable measurements of widths, lengths and angles...
February 22, 2018: New Phytologist
James E Glazer, Nicholas J Kelley, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Vijay A Mittal, Robin Nusslock
Most reward-related electroencephalogram (EEG) studies focus exclusively on the feedback-related negativity (FRN, also known as feedback negativity or FN, medial-frontal negativity or MFN, feedback error-related negativity or fERN, and reward positivity or RewP). This component is usually measured approximately 200-300 ms post-feedback at a single electrode in the frontal-central area (e.g., Fz or FCz). The present review argues that this singular focus on the FRN fails to leverage EEG's greatest strength, its temporal resolution, by underutilizing the rich variety of event-related potential (ERP) and EEG time-frequency components encompassing the wider temporal heterogeneity of reward processing...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
L E N Costa, R P Farias, A C P Santiago, I A A Silva, I C L Barros
We analyzed floristic variations in fern's metacommunity at the local scale and their relationship with abiotic factors in an Atlantic Forest remnant of northeastern Brazil. Floristic and environmental variations were accessed on ten plots of 10 × 20 m. We performed cluster analyses, based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index to establish the floristic relationship. The influence of abiotic factors: luminosity, temperature, relative air humidity and relative soil moisture was evaluated from a redundancy analysis...
February 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
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