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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107775/beta-caryophyllene-protects-against-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-attenuating-inflammation-and-metabolic-dysregulation-in-mice
#1
Zoltan V Varga, Csaba Matyas, Katalin Erdelyi, Resat Cinar, Daniela Nieri, Andrea Chicca, Balazs Tamas Nemeth, Janos Paloczi, Tamas Lajtos, Lukas Corey, Gyorgy Hasko, Bin Gao, George Kunos, Jürg Gertsch, Pal Pacher
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a plant-derived FDA approved food additive with anti-inflammatory properties. Some of its beneficial effects in vivo reported to involve activation of cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2) that are predominantly expressed in immune cells. Herein, we evaluated the translational potential of BCP using a well-established model of chronic and binge alcohol-induced liver injury. METHODS: In this study we investigated the effects of BCP on liver injury induced by chronic plus binge alcohol feeding in mice in vivo by using biochemical assays, real-time PCR and histology analyses...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107731/natural-amelioration-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-toxicity-in-fenugreek%C3%A2-trigonella-foenum-gracum-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-glomus-intraradices-secretion-of-glomalin
#2
Narges Ghasemi Siani, Seyfollah Fallah, Lok Raj Pokhrel, Ali Rostamnejadi
Owing to rising production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in the myriad of consumer applications, ENPs are being released into the environment where their potential fate and effects have remained unclear. With naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF; Glomus intraradices) in soils, their influence (positive or negative) on ENPs toxicity in plants is not well documented. Herein, we investigated potential influence of AMF on the growth and development in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) under varied Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) treatments (0, 125, 250, 375 and 500 μg g(-1))...
January 3, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107722/microalgae-biorefinery-high-value-products-perspectives
#3
Kit Wayne Chew, Jing Ying Yap, Pau Loke Show, Ng Hui Suan, Joon Ching Juan, Tau Chuan Ling, Duu-Jong Lee, Jo-Shu Chang
Microalgae have received much interest as a biofuel feedstock in response to the uprising energy crisis, climate change and depletion of natural sources. Development of microalgal biofuels from microalgae does not satisfy the economic feasibility of overwhelming capital investments and operations. Hence, high-value co-products have been produced through the extraction of a fraction of algae to improve the economics of a microalgae biorefinery. Examples of these high-value products are pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and anti-oxidants, with applications in cosmetics, nutritional and pharmaceuticals industries...
January 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107588/mitochondrial-uncoupler-exerts-a-synthetic-lethal-effect-against-%C3%AE-catenin-mutant-tumor-cells
#4
Yuki Shikata, Masaki Kiga, Yushi Futamura, Harumi Aono, Hiroyuki Inoue, Manabu Kawada, Hiroyuki Osada, Masaya Imoto
The wingless/int-1 (Wnt) signal transduction pathway plays a central role in cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and apoptosis. When β-catenin: a component of the Wnt pathway, is mutated into an active form, cell growth signaling is hyperactive and drives oncogenesis. As β-catenin is mutated in a wide variety of tumors, including up to 10% of all sporadic colon carcinomas and 20% of hepatocellular carcinomas, it has been considered a promising target for therapeutic interventions. Therefore, we screened an in-house natural product library for compounds that exhibited synthetic lethality towards β-catenin mutations and isolated nonactin, an antibiotic mitochondrial uncoupler, as a hit compound...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107573/diversity-and-bioprospecting-of-actinomycete-endophytes-from-the-medicinal-plants
#5
REVIEW
Nalini Monnanda Somaiah, Harishchandra Sripathy Prakash
The endophytic actinomycetes constitute one of the fascinating group of microorganisms associated with a wide range of plant species. The diversity of actinomycetes in plants and their tissue parts is a matter of debate as no consensus are derived between individual studies. Nevertheless, their diversity correlates with the occurrence in plant species harbored in unique regions of biologically diverse areas called 'hot spots'. Recent advances in the isolation techniques have facilitated the isolation of rare taxa from these environments...
January 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107497/worldwide-increase-of-obesity-is-related-to-the-reduced-opportunity-for-natural-selection
#6
Alicja Budnik, Maciej Henneberg
Worldwide rise of obesity may be partly related to the relaxation of natural selection in the last few generations. Accumulation of mutations affecting metabolism towards excessive fat deposition is suggested to be a result of less purging selection. Using the WHO and UN data for 159 countries there is a significant correlation (r = 0.60, p<0.01) between an index of the relaxed opportunity for selection (Biological State Index) and prevalence of obesity (percentage of individuals with BMI >30kg/m2). This correlation remains significant (r = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107420/the-polyherbal-wattana-formula-displays-anti-amyloidogenic-properties-by-increasing-%C3%AE-secretase-activities
#7
Htut Htut Htoo, Suveerawan Limsuvan, Onusa Thamsermsang, Jean-François Hernandez, Frédéric Checler, Piyarat Govitrapong, Narawut Pakaprot, Pravit Akarasereenont, Bruno Vincent
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the deposition of insoluble amyloid-β peptides produced from the β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP). Because α-secretase cleavage by ADAM10 and ADAM17 takes place in the middle of Aβ, its activation is considered as a promising anti-AD therapeutic track. Here we establish that the polyherbal Wattana formula (WNF) stimulates sAPPα production in cells of neuronal and non-neuronal origins through an increase of both ADAM10 and ADAM17 catalytic activities with no modification of BACE1 activity and expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107173/electronic-cigarettes-and-indoor-air-quality-a-review-of-studies-using-human-volunteers
#8
Najihah Zainol Abidin, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Aziemah Zulkifli, Karmegam Karuppiah, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, Amer Siddiq Amer Nordin
OBJECTIVE: This paper is primarily aimed to review articles on electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) focusing on indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment that were conducted using human volunteers under natural settings that mimic actual vaping scenarios. Such studies may give a better representation of the actual potential exposure towards e-cigarettes emissions in indoor settings. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed search engine database...
January 20, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107056/selfing-local-mate-competition-and-reinforcement
#9
Mark D Rausher
Reinforcement can contribute to speciation by increasing the strength of prezygotic isolating mechanisms. Theoretical analyses over the past two decades have demonstrated that conditions for reinforcement are not unduly restrictive, and empirical investigations have documented over a dozen likely cases, indicating that it may be a reasonably common phenomenon in nature. Largely uncharacterized, however, is the diversity of biological scenarios that can create the reduced hybrid fitness that drives reinforcement...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107021/synthesis-of-an-uncharged-tetra-cyclopeptide-acting-as-a-transmembrane-carrier-enhanced-cellular-and-nuclear-uptake
#10
Flaviane Francisco Hilário, Mohamed Dit Mady Traoré, Vincent Zwick, Laurence Berry, Claudia A Simões-Pires, Muriel Cuendet, Nicolas Fantozzi, Rossimiriam Pereira de Freitas, Marjorie Maynadier, Sharon Wein, Henri Vial, Yung-Sing Wong
A small uncharged cyclopeptide scaffold inspired by a natural product and designed to undergo postfunctionalizations was used as a new transmembrane vector. A bioactive and fluorescent triazole aminocoumarin was bound to this carrier to facilitate its moving across cell and subcellular membranes, and this led to an increase in its cell toxicity.
January 20, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107007/chlorophyll-catalyzed-visible-light-mediated-synthesis-of-tetrahydroquinolines-from-n-n-dimethylanilines-and-maleimides
#11
Jun-Tao Guo, Da-Cheng Yang, Zhi Guan, Yan-Hong He
Natural pigment chlorophyll was used as a green photosensitizer for the first time in a visible light photoredox catalysis for the efficient synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines from N,N-dimethylanilines and maleimides in an air atmosphere. The reaction involves direct cyclization via sp3 C-H bond functionalization process to afford products in moderate to high yields (61-98%) from a wide range of substrates with a low loading of chlorophyll under mild conditions. This work demonstrates the potential benefits of chlorophyll as photosensitizer in visible light catalysis...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106939/maximizing-output-in-rna-programmed-peptidyl-transfer-reactions
#12
Margherita Di Pisa, Anett Hauser, Oliver Seitz
A chemical reaction that is triggered by specific RNA molecules may provide opportunities for the design of artificial feedback loops. We envision a peptidyl transfer reaction, in which mRNA encoding for antiapoptotic protein would instruct the synthesis of apoptosis-inducing peptides. In this study, we tackled the RNA-programmed synthesis of a 16mer peptide derived from the Bak-BH3 protein which inhibits the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL. The reaction involves the transfer of a thioester-linked donor peptide fragment from one PNA conjugate onto an acceptor peptide-PNA conjugate...
January 20, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106740/chemical-composition-and-antioxidant-properties-of-powders-obtained-from-different-plum-juice-formulations
#13
Anna Michalska, Aneta Wojdyło, Grzegorz P Łysiak, Adam Figiel
Among popular crops, plum (Prunus domestica L.) has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar "Valor") juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C) drying techniques...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106512/endoglucanase-and-xylanase-production-by-bacillus-sp-ar03-in-co-culture-glycosyl-hydrolases-by-bacillus-sp-ar03-in-co-culture
#14
Johan S Hero, José H Pisa, Nora I Perotti, Cintia M Romero, María A Martínez
The behaviour of three isolates retrieved from different cellulolytic consortia, Bacillus sp. AR03, Paenibacillus sp. AR247 and Achromobacter sp. AR476-2, were examined individually and as co-cultures in order evaluate their ability to produce extracellular cellulases and xylanases. Utilizing a peptone-based medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), an increase estimated of 1.30 and 1.50 times was obtained by the co-culture containing the strains AR03 and AR247, with respect to enzyme titles registered by their individual cultivation...
January 20, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106210/multi-step-continuous-flow-synthesis
#15
Joshua Britton, Colin L Raston
Organic chemistry is continually evolving to improve the syntheses of value added and bioactive compounds. Through this progression, a concomitant advancement in laboratory technology has occurred. Many researchers now choose to mediate transformations in continuous-flow systems given the many benefits over round bottom flasks. Furthermore, reaction scale up is often less problematic as this is addressed at the inception of the science. Although single-step transformations in continuous-flow systems are common, multi-step transformations are more valuable...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106107/development-of-a-nested-pcr-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-pilidiella-granati-in-pomegranate-fruit
#16
Xue Yang, Uzma Hameed, Ai-Fang Zhang, Hao-Yu Zang, Chun-Yan Gu, Yu Chen, Yi-Liu Xu
Pilidiella granati, a causal agent of twig blight and crown rot of pomegranate, is an emerging threat that may cause severe risk to the pomegranate industry in the future. Development of a rapid assay for the timely and accurate detection of P. granati will be helpful in the active surveillance and management of the disease caused by this pathogen. In this study, a nested PCR method was established for the detection of P. granati. Comparative analysis of genetic diversity within 5.8S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of P...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106097/lancl-proteins-are-not-involved-in-lanthionine-synthesis-in-mammals
#17
Chang He, Min Zeng, Debapriya Dutta, Tong Hee Koh, Jie Chen, Wilfred A van der Donk
LanC-like (LanCL) proteins are mammalian homologs of bacterial LanC enzymes, which catalyze the addition of the thiol of Cys to dehydrated Ser residues during the biosynthesis of lanthipeptides, a class of natural products formed by post-translational modification of precursor peptides. The functions of LanCL proteins are currently unclear. A recent proposal suggested that LanCL1 catalyzes the addition of the Cys of glutathione to protein- or peptide-bound dehydroalanine (Dha) to form lanthionine, analogous to the reaction catalyzed by LanC in bacteria...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106083/the-association-of-bacterial-c9-based-ttx-like-compounds-with-prorocentrum-minimum-opens-new-uncertainties-about-shellfish-seafood-safety
#18
Inés Rodríguez, Amparo Alfonso, Eva Alonso, Juan A Rubiolo, María Roel, Aristidis Vlamis, Panagiota Katikou, Stephen A Jackson, Margassery Lekha Menon, Alan Dobson, Luis M Botana
In 2012, Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was identified in mussels and linked to the presence of Prorocentrum minimum (P. minimum) in Greece. The connexion between TTX and P. minimum was further studied in this paper. First, the presence of TTX-producer bacteria, Vibrio and Pseudomonas spp, was confirmed in Greek mussels. In addition these samples showed high activity as inhibitors of sodium currents (INa). P. minimum was before associated with neurotoxic symptoms, however, the nature and structure of toxins produced by this dinoflagellate remains unknown...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105843/adaptive-pcr-based-on-hybridization-sensing-of-mirror-image-l-dna
#19
Nicholas M Adams, William E Gabella, Austin N Hardcastle, Frederick R Haselton
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is dependent on two key hybridization events during each cycle of amplification, primer annealing and product melting. To ensure that these hybridization events occur, current PCR approaches rely on temperature set points and reaction contents that are optimized and maintained using rigid thermal cycling programs and stringent sample preparation procedures. This report describes a fundamentally simpler and more robust PCR design that dynamically controls thermal cycling by more directly monitoring the two key hybridization events during the reaction...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105772/reversing-the-regioselectivity-of-halofunctionalization-reactions-through-cooperative-photoredox-and-copper-catalysis
#20
Jeremy D Griffin, Cortney L Cavanaugh, David A Nicewicz
Halofunctionalization of alkenes is a classical method for olefin difunctionalization. It gives rise to adducts which are found in many natural products and biologically active molecules, and offers a synthetic handle for further manipulation. Classically, this reaction is performed with an electrophilic halogen source and leads to regioselective formation of the halofunctionalized adducts. Herein, we demonstrate a reversal of the native regioselectivity for alkene halofunctionalization through the use of an acridinium photooxidant in conjunction with a copper cocatalyst...
January 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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