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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783196/activity-concentrations-of-238-u-and-226-ra-in-two-european-black-shales-and-their-experimentally-derived-leachates
#1
Franziska D H Wilke, Georg Schettler, Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand, Michael Kühn, Heike Rothe
The production of gas from unconventional resources became an important position in the world energy economics. In 2012, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre estimate 16 trillion cubic meters (Tcm) of technically recoverable shale gas in Europe. Taking into account that the exploitation of unconventional gas can be accompanied by serious health risks due to the release of toxic chemical components and natural occurring radionuclides into the return flow water and their near-surface accumulation in secondary precipitates, we investigated the release of U, Th and Ra from black shales by interaction with drilling fluids containing additives that are commonly employed for shale gas exploitation...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783154/enhanced-removal-of-p-nitrophenol-from-aqueous-media-by-montmorillonite-clay-modified-with-a-cationic-surfactant
#2
A Dos Santos, M F Viante, D J Pochapski, A J Downs, C A P Almeida
Montmorillonite clay (MC) yields after modification of the interlamellar spacing and the chemical character of its surface by treatment with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) a solid product (MCCTA). This has been used as an adsorbent for the removal of p-nitrophenol (PNP) from aqueous solutions. The MCCTA samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA), FT-IR spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and specific surface area...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783146/gas-chromatographic-mass-spectrometric-characterization-of-thebaol-an-opium-constituent-and-its-structural-analogs
#3
Levan Megutnishvili, Nino Todua, Stephen Stein, Anzor Mikaia
A GC-MS method is described for the characterization of thebaol, a component of opium poppy. The method includes preliminary sample derivatization to TMS, TBDMS, TFA, PFP and HFB substituted products. Fragmentation of resulting derivatives is unique under electron ionization, and proceeds via consecutive loss of two radicals that violate the "even-electron rule". Peaks of [M-2CH3 ]+. and [M-C4 H9 -CH3 ]+. ions show maximum intensities in the spectra of trimethyl- and tert-butyldimethylsilyl-thebaols...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782987/chitin-silk-fibroin-tio-2-bio-nanocomposite-as-a-biocompatible-wound-dressing-bandage-with-strong-antimicrobial-activity
#4
Mojtaba Ghanbari Mehrabani, Ramin Karimian, Rasul Rakhshaei, Farzaneh Pakdel, Hosein Eslami, Vahid Fakhrzadeh, Mahdi Rahimi, Roya Salehi, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Interconnected microporous biodegradable and biocompatible chitin/silk fibroin/TiO2 nanocomposite wound dressing with high antibacterial, blood clotting and mechanical strength properties were synthesized using freeze-drying method. The prepared nanocomposite dressings were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and XRD analysis. The prepared nanocomposite dressings showed high porosity above 90% with well-defined interconnected porous construction. Swelling and water uptake of the dressing were 93%, which is great for wound dressing applications...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782967/deficient-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-il-2-activated-nk-cells-correlates-with-impaired-pgc1-%C3%AE-upregulation-in-elderly-humans
#5
Dante Miranda, Claudia Jara, Sophia Mejias, Viviana Ahumada, Marcelo Cortez-San Martin, Jorge Ibañez, Sandra Hirsch, Margarita Montoya
Immunosenescence has been described as age-associated changes in the immune function which are thought to be responsible for the increased morbidity with age. Human Natural Killer (NK) cells are a specialized heterogeneous subpopulation of lymphocytes involved in immune defense against tumor and microbial diseases. Interestingly, aging-related NK cell dysfunction is associated with features of aging such as tumor incidence, reduced vaccination efficacy, and short survival due to infection. It is known that NK cell effector functions are critically dependent on cytokines and metabolic activity...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782830/toxoplasma-gondii-infections-in-chickens-performance-of-various-antibody-detection-techniques-in-serum-and-meat-juice-relative-to-bioassay-and-dna-detection-methods
#6
G Schares, M Koethe, B Bangoura, A-C Geuthner, F Randau, M Ludewig, P Maksimov, M Sens, A Bärwald, F J Conraths, I Villena, D Aubert, M Opsteegh, J Van der Giessen
Chickens, especially if free-range, are frequently exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, and may represent an important reservoir for T. gondii. Poultry products may pose a risk to humans, when consumed undercooked. In addition, chickens are regarded as sensitive indicators for environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts and have been used as sentinels. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitability of commonly used antibody detection methods, i.e. the modified agglutination test (MAT), IFAT and ELISA to detect T...
May 18, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782697/fewer-defects-in-the-surface-slows-the-hydrolysis-rate-decreases-the-ros-generation-potential-and-improves-the-non-ros-antimicrobial-activity-of-mgo
#7
Nemanja Anicˇić, Marija Vukomanović, Tilen Koklicˇ, Danilo Suvorov
Magnesium oxide (MgO) is recognised as exhibiting a contact-based antibacterial activity. However, a comprehensive study of the impact of atomic-scale surface features on MgO's antibacterial activity is lacking. In this study, the nature and abundance of the native surface defects on different MgO powders are thoroughly investigated. Their impacts on the hydrolysis kinetics, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 47076), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation potential are determined and explained...
May 21, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782674/molecularly-imprinted-porous-aromatic-frameworks-serving-as-porous-artificial-enzymes
#8
Ye Yuan, Yajie Yang, Muhammad Faheem, Xiaoqin Zou, Xujiao Ma, Zeyu Wang, Qinghao Meng, Lili Wang, Shuai Zhao, Guangshan Zhu
Artificially designed enzymes are in demand as ideal catalysts for industrial production but their dense structure conceals most of their functional fragments, thus detracting from performance. Here, molecularly imprinted porous aromatic frameworks (MIPAFs) which are exploited to incorporate full host-guest interactions of porous materials within the artificial enzymes are presented. By decorating a porous skeleton with molecularly imprinted complexes, it is demonstrated that MIPAFs are porous artificial enzymes possessing excellent kinetics for guest molecules...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782586/reflective-practices-at-the-security-council-children-and-armed-conflict-and-the-three-united-nations
#9
Ingvild Bode
The United Nations Security Council passed its first resolution on children in armed conflict in 1999, making it one of the oldest examples of Security Council engagement with a thematic mandate and leading to the creation of a dedicated working group in 2005. Existing theoretical accounts of the Security Council cannot account for the developing substance of the children and armed conflict agenda as they are macro-oriented and focus exclusively on states. I argue that Security Council decision-making on thematic mandates is a productive process whose outcomes are created by and through practices of actors across the three United Nations: member states (the first United Nations), United Nations officials (the second United Nations) and non-governmental organizations (the third United Nations)...
June 2018: European journal of international relations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782339/transcription-factors-foxo-in-the-regulation-of-homeostatic-hematopoiesis
#10
Vijay Menon, Saghi Ghaffari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work in the past decade has revealed key functions of the evolutionary conserved transcription factors Forkhead box O (FOXO) in the maintenance of homeostatic hematopoiesis. Here the diverse array of FOXO functions in normal and diseased hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is reviewed and the main findings in the past decade are highlighted. Future work should reveal FOXO-regulated networks whose alterations contribute to hematological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified unanticipated FOXO functions in hematopoiesis including in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), erythroid cells, and immune cells...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782305/tatami-mats-a-source-of-pitted-keratolysis-in-a-martial-arts-athlete
#11
Anamaria Balić, Zrinka Bukvić Mokos, Branka Marinović, Daniela Ledić Drvar
Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateriform ''pits'' and erosions in the thickly keratinized skin of the weight-bearing regions of the soles of the feet (1). The disease often goes unnoticed by the patient, but when it is noticed it is because of the unbearable malodor and hyperhidrosis of the feet, which are socially unacceptable and cause great anxiety to many of the patients...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781173/discourse-and-cognition-in-speakers-with-acquired-brain-injury-abi-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth Hill, Mary Claessen, Anne Whitworth, Mark Boyes, Roslyn Ward
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment, particularly of executive functioning, has been implicated in deficits in spoken discourse production following acquired brain injury (ABI). However, due to variation in the methodologies and heterogeneity of findings across studies, the nature and extent of this association is not well understood. AIMS: This review aims to synthesize the literature investigating associations between cognitive deficits and discourse impairment after ABI...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781126/versatile-nanostructures-from-rice-husk-biomass-for-energy-applications
#13
Zhaofeng Wang, Andrew T Smith, Weixing Wang, Luyi Sun
Converting biomass into valuable products has great benefits in terms of both economy and environment, which has attracted considerable attention in recent years. The mass generation of rice husks (RHs) as well as their rich and unique chemical components enable them to be one of the most widely investigated biomasses. RH biomass was initially utilized to produce bulk materials for conventional applications, while a variety of advanced nanostructures (NSs) have been fabricated during the past few years. In addition to their low-cost and environmentally friendly nature, the RH derived NSs (RH-NSs) exhibit versatile properties, promising for broad applications in various fields...
May 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780985/the-correlation-between-gelatin-macroscale-differences-and-nanoparticle-properties-providing-insight-into-biopolymer-variability
#14
André T Stevenson, Danny J Jankus, Max A Tarshis, Abby R Whittington
From therapeutic delivery to sustainable packaging, manipulation of biopolymers into nanostructures imparts biocompatibility to numerous materials with minimal environmental pollution during processing. While biopolymers are appealing natural based materials, the lack of nanoparticle (NP) physicochemical consistency has decreased their nanoscale translation into actual products. Insights regarding the macroscale and nanoscale property variation of gelatin, one of the most common biopolymers already utilized in its bulk form, are presented...
May 21, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780691/understanding-d-ribose-and-mitochondrial-function
#15
Diane E Mahoney, John B Hiebert, Amanda Thimmesch, John T Pierce, James L Vacek, Richard L Clancy, Andrew J Sauer, Janet D Pierce
Mitochondria are important organelles referred to as cellular powerhouses for their unique properties of cellular energy production. With many pathologic conditions and aging, mitochondrial function declines, and there is a reduction in the production of adenosine triphosphate. The energy carrying molecule generated by cellular respiration and by pentose phosphate pathway, an alternative pathway of glucose metabolism. D-ribose is a naturally occurring monosaccharide found in the cells and particularly in the mitochondria is essential in energy production...
2018: Advances in bioscience and clinical medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780550/c4-h-indole-functionalisation-precedent-and-prospects
#16
REVIEW
Jagadeesh Kalepu, Parthasarathy Gandeepan, Lutz Ackermann, Lukasz T Pilarski
C4-decorated indoles feature in a plethora of bioactive and functional compounds of importance to natural product synthesis, material sciences, as well as crop protection and pharmaceutical industries. Traditionally, their syntheses largely involved harsh stoichiometric metalations and radical reactions. However, transition metal catalysed C-H activation has recently evolved into a powerful strategy for the late-stage diversification of indoles at the C4-H position. Modern photoredox, enzymatic and precious transition metal catalysis represent the key stimuli for developing challenging C-C and C-Het bond forming transformations under mild reaction conditions...
May 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780434/engineered-sulfur-resistant-catalyst-system-with-an-assisted-regeneration-strategy-for-lean-burn-methane-combustion
#17
Niko M Kinnunen, Matthew Keenan, Kauko Kallinen, Teuvo Maunula, Mika Suvanto
Catalytic combustion of methane, the main component of natural gas, is a challenge under lean-burn conditions and at low temperatures owing to sulfur poisoning of the Pd-rich catalyst. This paper introduces a more sulfur-resistant catalyst system that can be regenerated during operation. The developed catalyst system lowers the barrier that has restrained the use of liquefied natural gas as a fuel in energy production.
April 9, 2018: ChemCatChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780393/immunomodulatory-drugs-exert-anti-leukemia-effects-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-by-direct-and-immunostimulatory-activities
#18
Aude Le Roy, Thomas Prébet, Rémy Castellano, Armelle Goubard, Florence Riccardi, Cyril Fauriat, Samuel Granjeaud, Audrey Benyamine, Céline Castanier, Florence Orlanducci, Amira Ben Amara, Frédéric Pont, Jean-Jacques Fournié, Yves Collette, Jean-Louis Mege, Norbert Vey, Daniel Olive
Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are anticancer drugs with immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenesis, anti-proliferative, and pro-apoptotic properties. IMiDs are currently used for the treatment of multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, and B-cell lymphoma; however, little is known about efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We proposed in this study to investigate the relevance of IMiDs therapy for AML treatment. We evaluated the effect of IMiDs on primary AML blasts ( n  = 24), and the impact in natural killer (NK) cell-mediated immunosurveillance of AML...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780366/biological-control-of-mango-dieback-disease-caused-by-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-using-streptomycete-and-non-streptomycete-actinobacteria-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#19
Fatima H Kamil, Esam E Saeed, Khaled A El-Tarabily, Synan F AbuQamar
Dieback caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae is an important disease on mango plantations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, 53 actinobacterial isolates were obtained from mango rhizosphere soil in the UAE, of which 35 (66%) were classified as streptomycetes (SA) and 18 (34%) as non-streptomycetes (NSA). Among these isolates, 19 (12 SA and 7 NSA) showed antagonistic activities against L. theobromae associated with either the production of diffusible antifungal metabolites, extracellular cell-wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), or both...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779940/encoding-of-articulatory-kinematic-trajectories-in-human-speech-sensorimotor-cortex
#20
Josh Chartier, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Keith Johnson, Edward F Chang
When speaking, we dynamically coordinate movements of our jaw, tongue, lips, and larynx. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying articulation, we used direct cortical recordings from human sensorimotor cortex while participants spoke natural sentences that included sounds spanning the entire English phonetic inventory. We used deep neural networks to infer speakers' articulator movements from produced speech acoustics. Individual electrodes encoded a diversity of articulatory kinematic trajectories (AKTs), each revealing coordinated articulator movements toward specific vocal tract shapes...
May 8, 2018: Neuron
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