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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351326/increased-natural-reproduction-and-genetic-diversity-one-generation-after-cessation-of-a-steelhead-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-conservation-hatchery-program
#1
Barry A Berejikian, Donald M Van Doornik
Spatial and temporal fluctuations in productivity and abundance confound assessments of captive propagation programs aimed at recovery of Threatened and Endangered populations. We conducted a 17 year before-after-control-impact experiment to determine the effects of a captive rearing program for anadromous steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on a key indicator of natural spawner abundance (naturally produced nests or 'redds'). The supplemented population exhibited a significant (2.6-fold) increase in redd abundance in the generation following supplementation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351322/influence-of-multiplicative-stochastic-variation-on-translational-elongation-rates
#2
Sandip Datta, Brian Seed
Experimental data indicate that stochastic effects exerted at the level of translation contribute substantially to the variation in abundance of proteins expressed at moderate to high levels. This study analyzes the theoretical consequences of fluctuations in residue-specific elongation rates during translation. A simple analytical framework shows that rate variation during elongation gives rise to protein production rates that consist of sums of products of random variables. Simulations show that because the contribution to total variation of products of random variables greatly exceeds that of sums of random variables, the overall distribution exhibits approximately log-normal behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351285/wine-yeast-phenomics-a-standardized-fermentation-method-for-assessing-quantitative-traits-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-in-enological-conditions
#3
Emilien Peltier, Margaux Bernard, Marine Trujillo, Duyên Prodhomme, Jean-Christophe Barbe, Yves Gibon, Philippe Marullo
This work describes the set up of a small scale fermentation methodology for measuring quantitative traits of hundreds of samples in an enological context. By using standardized screw cap vessels, the alcoholic fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were measured by following their weight loss over the time. This dispositive was coupled with robotized enzymatic assays for measuring metabolites of enological interest in natural grape juices. Despite the small volume used, kinetic parameters and fermentation end products measured are similar with those observed in larger scale vats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350874/diversification-of-human-nk-cells-lessons-from-deep-profiling
#4
REVIEW
Aaron J Wilk, Catherine A Blish
NK cells are innate lymphocytes with important roles in immunoregulation, immunosurveillance, and cytokine production. Originally defined on the functional basis of their "natural" ability to lyse tumor targets and thought to be a relatively homogeneous group of lymphocytes, NK cells possess a remarkable degree of phenotypic and functional diversity due to the combinatorial expression of an array of activating and inhibitory receptors. Diversification of NK cells is multifaceted: mechanisms of NK cell education that promote self-tolerance result in a heterogeneous repertoire that further diversifies upon encounters with viral pathogens...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350822/resveratrol-suppresses-rotenone-induced-neurotoxicity-through-activation-of-sirt1-akt1-signaling-pathway
#5
Hui Wang, Xiaoguang Dong, Zengxun Liu, Shaowei Zhu, Haili Liu, Wenchuang Fan, Yanlai Hu, Tao Hu, Yonghui Yu, Yizhao Li, Tianwei Liu, Chengjia Xie, Qing Gao, Guibao Li, Jing Zhang, Zhaoxi Ding, Jinhao Sun
Rotenone is a common pesticide and has been reported as one of the risk factors for Parkinson disease. Rotenone can cause neuronal death or apoptosis through inducing oxidative injury and inhibiting mitochondrial function. As a natural polyphenolic compound, resveratrol possesses the anti-oxidant capacity and neuroprotective effect. However, the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity remains elusive. Here, we treated PC12 cells with rotenone to induce neurotoxicity, and the neurotoxic cells were subjected to resveratrol treatment...
January 19, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350748/protective-effect-of-chitosan-oligosaccharides-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-immunosuppression-and-irradiation-injury-in-mice
#6
Xingchen Zhai, Xin Yang, Pan Zou, Yong Shao, Shoujun Yuan, A M Abd El-Aty, Jing Wang
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), hydrolyzed products of chitosan, was found to display various biological activities. Herein, we assessed the immunostimulatory activity of COS both in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro cytotoxicity studies to murine macrophage RAW264.7 revealed that COS is safe even at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 μg/mL. It also stimulates the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and enhances the phagocytosis in COS-stimulated RAW264.7. We have shown that the COS could significantly (P < 0...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350723/hot-off-the-press
#7
Robert A Hill, Andrew Sutherland
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as illisimonin A from Illicium simonsii.
January 19, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350529/a-colorimetric-dnazyme-biosensor-for-convenience-detection-of-enterotoxin-b-harbouring-staphylococcus-aureus-from-food-samples
#8
Bhairab Mondal, Bhavanashri N, Shylaja Ramlal, Joseph Kingston
In the present study, a colorimetric DNAzymes biosensor strategy was devised in combination with immunomagnetic separation for rapid and easy detection of enterotoxin B harbouring Staphylococcus aureus from food and clinical samples. The method employs immunocapture of S. aureus and amplification of seb gene by DNAzyme complementary sequence integrated forward primer and with specific reverse primer. The DNAzyme sequence integrated dsDNA PCR products when treated with hemin and TMB (3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine) in the presence of H2O2 produce colorimetric signal...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350521/facile-and-highly-effective-synthesis-of-controllable-lattice-sulfur-doped-graphene-quantum-dots-via-hydrothermal-treatment-of-durian
#9
Gang Wang, Qinglei Guo, Da Chen, Zhiduo Liu, Xiaohu Zheng, Anli Xu, Siwei Yang, Guqiao Ding
Recently, the biomass "bottom-up" approach for the synthesis of graphene quantum dots have attracted broad interest because of the outstanding features, including low-cost, rapid and environmentally friendly nature. However, the low crystalline quality of products, substitutional doping with heteroatoms in lattice and ambiguous reaction mechanism strongly challenge the further development of this technique. Herein, we proposed a facile and effective strategy to prepare controllable sulfur (S) doping in graphene quantum dots, occurring in a lattice substitution manner, by hydrothermal treatment of durian with platinum catalyst...
January 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350407/recent-progress-in-the-antiviral-activity-and-mechanism-study-of-pentacyclic-triterpenoids-and-their-derivatives
#10
REVIEW
Sulong Xiao, Zhenyu Tian, Yufei Wang, Longlong Si, Lihe Zhang, Demin Zhou
Viral infections cause many serious human diseases with high mortality rates. New drug-resistant strains are continually emerging due to the high viral mutation rate, which makes it necessary to develop new antiviral agents. Compounds of plant origin are particularly interesting. The pentacyclic triterpenoids (PTs) are a diverse class of natural products from plants composed of three terpene units. They exhibit antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. Oleanolic, betulinic, and ursolic acids are representative PTs widely present in nature with a broad antiviral spectrum...
January 19, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350316/influence-of-personality-and-motivation-on-oral-presentation-performance
#11
Hsin-Yi Liang, Brent Kelsen
Personality and motivation have been identified as influential variables associated with foreign language learning; however, few studies have investigated their effect on oral presentations. This study addresses the importance of both personality and motivation in students' collaborative oral presentation performance. A Big Five personality trait questionnaire measuring Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness to Experience, together with the Collaborative Inquiry-based Project Questionnaire measuring Task, Project Work, Reinforcement, Social Learning and Social Pressure motivational constructs were employed to evaluate 257 university students...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350313/immobilization-of-methylosinus-trichosporium-ob3b-for-methanol-production
#12
Anne Taylor, Paige Molzahn, Tanner Bushnell, Clint Cheney, Monique LaJeunesse, Mohamad Azizian, Lewis Semprini
Due to the natural gas boom in North America, there is renewed interest in the production of other chemical products from methane. We investigated the feasibility of immobilizing the obligate methanotrophic bacterium Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b in alginate beads, and selectively inactivating methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) with cyclopropane to produce methanol. In batch cultures and in semi-continuous flow columns, the exposure of alginate-immobilized cells to cyclopropane or cyclopropanol resulted in the loss of the majority of MDH activity (> 80%), allowing methanol to accumulate to significant concentrations while retaining all of M...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350294/biocatalysis-of-aromatic-benzyl-propionate-ester-by-different-immobilized-lipases
#13
Amanda Gomes Almeida Sá, Alessandra Cristina de Meneses, Lindomar Alberto Lerin, Pedro Henrique Hermes de Araújo, Cláudia Sayer, Débora de Oliveira
Benzyl propionate is an aromatic ester that possesses a fruity odor and is usually found in nature in the composition of some fruits such as plums and melons. This work aimed for the benzyl propionate synthesis by esterification using a new immobilized enzyme preparation with low-cost material from Candida antarctica (NS 88011) and three commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme TL-IM and Lipozyme RM-IM). Novozym 435 had the best performance even when the solvent tert-butanol was absent of the reaction medium...
January 19, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350255/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-techniques-for-the-characterization-of-bioactive-compounds-from-humulus-lupulus-l-hop
#14
Davide Bertelli, Virginia Brighenti, Lucia Marchetti, Anna Reik, Federica Pellati
Humulus lupulus L. (hop) represents one of the most cultivated crops, it being a key ingredient in the brewing process. Many health-related properties have been described for hop extracts, making this plant gain more interest in the field of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical research. Among the analytical tools available for the phytochemical characterization of plant extracts, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) represents a new and powerful technique. In this ambit, the present study was aimed at the development of a new, simple, and efficient qNMR method for the metabolite fingerprinting of bioactive compounds in hop cones, taking advantage of the novel ERETIC 2 tool...
January 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350221/assessing-the-social-and-environmental-costs-of-institution-nitrogen-footprints
#15
Jana E Compton, Allison M Leach, Elizabeth A Castner, James N Galloway
This article estimates the damage costs associated with the institutional nitrogen (N) footprint and explores how this information could be used to create more sustainable institutions. Potential damages associated with the release of nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous oxide (N2O) to air and release of nitrogen to water were estimated using existing values and a cost per unit of nitrogen approach. These damage cost values were then applied to two universities. Annual potential damage costs to human health, agriculture, and natural ecosystems associated with the N footprint of institutions were $11...
April 1, 2017: Sustainability (New Rochelle)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350024/rapid-sample-pretreatment-and-accurate-quantification-of-radiosulfur-in-chemically-complex-atmospheric-samples
#16
Mang Lin, Mark H Thiemens
An ultra-low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) technique has been used in measuring radiosulfur (cosmogenic 35S) in natural samples. The ideal half-life of 35S (~87 d) renders it a new way to examine various biogeochemical problems. A major limit of the technique is that complex chemical compositions in atmospheric samples may lead to color quenching of LSC cocktails, a serious problem prolonging the pretreatment time (>1 week) and hampering the accurate determination of 35S. For application of the technique where many of the most important atmospheric chemical processes are examined, significant interferences arise and accurate analysis in small samples is not possible...
January 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349923/magnetic-macroporous-hydrogels-as-a-novel-approach-for-perfused-stem-cell-culture-in-3d-scaffolds-via-contactless-motion-control
#17
Lisa Rödling, Esther Magano Volz, Annamarija Raic, Katharina Brändle, Matthias Franzreb, Cornelia Lee-Thedieck
There is an urgent need for 3D cell culture systems that avoid the oversimplifications and artifacts of conventional culture in 2D. However, 3D culture within the cavities of porous biomaterials or large 3D structures harboring high cell numbers is limited by the needs to nurture cells and to remove growth-limiting metabolites. To overcome the diffusion-limited transport of such soluble factors in 3D culture, mixing can be improved by pumping, stirring or shaking, but this in turn can lead to other problems...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349898/helenalin-analogues-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-thiol-reactivity-and-cellular-potency-studies-of-varied-electrophiles
#18
John C Widen, Aaron M Kempema, Jordan W Baur, Hannah M Skopec, Jacob T Edwards, Tenley J Brown, Dennis A Brown, Frederick A Meece, Daniel A Harki
Helenalin is a pseudoguaianolide natural product that targets Cys38 within the DNA binding domain of NF-κB transcription factor p65 (RelA). Helenalin contains two Michael acceptors that covalently modify cysteines: a α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone and a cyclopentenone. We recently reported two simplified helenalin analogues that mimic the biological activity of helenalin and contain both electrophilic moieties. To determine the individual contributions of the Michael acceptors toward NF-κB inhibition, we synthesized a small library of helenalin-based analogues containing various combinations of α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones and cyclopentenones...
January 19, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349877/engineered-and-laser-processed-chitosan-biopolymers-for-sustainable-and-biodegradable-triboelectric-power-generation
#19
Ruoxing Wang, Shengjie Gao, Zhen Yang, Yule Li, Weinong Chen, Benxin Wu, Wenzhuo Wu
Recent advances achieved in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) focus on boosting power generation and conversion efficiency. Nevertheless, obstacles concerning economical and biocompatible utilization of TENGs continue to prevail. Being an abundant natural biopolymer from marine crustacean shells, chitosan enables exciting opportunities for low-cost, biodegradable TENG applications in related fields. Here, the development of biodegradable and flexible TENGs based on chitosan is presented for the first time...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349741/degradation-behavior-of-triclosan-by-co-exposure-to-chlorine-dioxide-and-uv-irradiation-influencing-factors-and-toxicity-changes
#20
Qing-Song Li, Hui-Wen Cai, Guo-Xin Li, Guo-Yuan Chen, Xiao-Yan Ma, Wen-Long He
This study investigated the transformation of triclosan (TCS) following co-exposure to UV irradiation and ClO2. Special attention was given to understand the influencing of water quality parameters and toxicity changes during the co-exposure process. The results show that the co-exposure process prompted TCS elimination quickly and effectively, with more than 99% of TCS degraded under the experimental conditions. The molar yield ratios of 2,4-dichlorophenol/TCS (2,4-DCP/TCS) were calculated to be 35.81-74.49%; however, the by-product of 2,8-dichlorodibenzop-dioxin (2,8-Cl2DD) was not detected...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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