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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938792/gastrointestinal-microbial-population-of-turkey-meleagris-gallopavo-affected-by-hemorrhagic-enteritis-virus
#1
Sara D'Andreano, Armand Sànchez Bonastre, Olga Francino, Anna Cuscó Martí, Cristina Lecchi, Guido Grilli, Davide Giovanardi, Fabrizio Ceciliani
Hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) is an acute viral disease that affects avian species, particularly turkeys, compromising their commercial production and having a negative effect on animal welfare. Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), is the main causal agent of the disease. In this study, we considered 3 groups of turkeys to achieve 2 purposes: 1) A preliminary investigation on the microbiota content in the 4 parts of healthy turkey's intestine (group A), namely duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca was done; 2) an investigation on the relationship between natural infections with TAdV-3 and the intestinal microbiota in the jejunum, where HE mostly develops, comparing group A with animals with molecular positivity for the virus and with clinical signs of HE (group B) and animals with molecular positivity for the virus but without clinical signs (group C)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938769/recent-advances-in-avian-egg-science-a-review
#2
Philippe B Wilson
Eggs and egg products form an integral part of the food chain. As such, research into egg structure, function, and production has made an important contribution to the field of poultry science. The past decade has seen significant advances in avian egg science research, with work supplementing our understanding of the nature of the avian egg, and its biological, chemical, and physical properties. Eggshell color, strength, and chemical composition, poultry nutrition, and genetics have all been intensively studied recently, with significant progress being made in a number of these areas...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938516/naturally-occurring-anthocyanin-cyanidin-3-rutinoside-possesses-inherent-vasorelaxant-actions-and-prevents-methylglyoxal-induced-vascular-dysfunction-in-rat-aorta-and-mesenteric-arterial-bed
#3
Thavaree Thilavech, Mahinda Y Abeywardena, Michael Adams, Julie Dallimore, Sirichai Adisakwattana
Cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-glycation properties. Methylglyoxal (MG), a highly reactive dicarbonyl aldehyde by-product of glycolysis, is a precursor of advanced glycation end products and contributes to vascular dysfunction, particularly during hyperglycemia. We investigated the possible inherent vasoactivity of C3R, and its effectiveness against MG-induced vascular abnormalities in isolated blood vessel preparations from male Wistar Kyoto rat. C3R induced vasorelaxation concentration-dependently in aortic rings (92% maximum relaxation; EC50: 2...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938494/supercritical-fluid-chromatography-in-natural-product-analysis-an-update
#4
Nora Gibitz Eisath, Sonja Sturm, Hermann Stuppner
The wide chemical diversity of natural products has challenged analysts all over the world and has been a driving force for the development of innovative technologies since decades. In the last years, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has finally emerged from the shadow of liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) and has become a powerful tool in modern natural product analysis. Whereas in the past the technique had mainly been restricted to a small group of nonpolar compounds, it has largely expanded its suitability in the last years and has demonstrated possibilities without boundaries...
September 22, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938195/understanding-public-perception-of-hydraulic-fracturing-a-case-study-in-spain
#5
D Costa, V Pereira, J Góis, A Danko, A Fiúza
Public acceptance is crucial for the implementation of energy technologies. Hydraulic fracturing is a technology widely used in the USA for natural gas production from shale formations, but currently finds strong public opposition worldwide, especially in Europe. Shale gas exploitation and exploration have the potential to significantly reduce import dependency in several countries, including Spain. To better understand public opinion on this issue, this article reports a survey targeting both the entire Spanish population and the inhabitants of the province of Burgos, the location where shale gas exploration permits have already been issued...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938190/phytobeds-with-fimbristylis-dichotoma-and-ammannia-baccifera-for-treatment-of-real-textile-effluent-an-in-situ-treatment-anatomical-studies-and-toxicity-evaluation
#6
Suhas K Kadam, Vishal V Chandanshive, Niraj R Rane, Swapnil M Patil, Avinash R Gholave, Rahul V Khandare, Amrut R Bhosale, Byong-Hun Jeon, Sanjay P Govindwar
Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera and their co-plantation consortium FA independently degraded Methyl Orange, simulated dye mixture and real textile effluent. Wild plants of F. dichotoma and A. baccifera with equal biomass showed 91% and 89% decolorization of Methyl Orange within 60h at a concentration of 50ppm, while 95% dye removal was achieved by consortium FA within 48h. Floating phyto-beds with co-plantation (F. dichotoma and A. baccifera) for the treatment of real textile effluent in a constructed wetland was observed to be more efficient and achieved 79%, 72%, 77%, 66% and 56% reductions in ADMI color value, COD, BOD, TDS and TSS of textile effluent, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938026/hiv-exposed-seronegative-hesn-compared-to-hiv-infected-individuals-have-higher-frequencies-of-telomeric-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-kir-b-motifs-contribution-of-kir-b-motif-encoded-genes-to-nk-cell-responsiveness
#7
Elise Jackson, Cindy Xinyu Zhang, Zahra Kiani, Irene Lisovsky, Benjamin Tallon, Alexa Del Corpo, Louise Gilbert, Julie Bruneau, Réjean Thomas, Pierre Côté, Benoit Trottier, Roger LeBlanc, Danielle Rouleau, Cécile Tremblay, Christos M Tsoukas, Jean-Pierre Routy, Xiaoyan Ni, Tsoarello Mabanga, Nicole F Bernard
Previously, we showed that Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR)3DS1 homozygotes (hmz) are more frequent in HIV exposed seronegative (HESN) than in recently HIV infected (HIV+) individuals. KIR3DS1 encodes an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKR). The link between KIR genotype and HIV outcomes likely arises from the function that NK cells acquire through expression of particular NKRs. An initial screen of 97 HESN and 123 HIV+ subjects for the frequency of KIR region gene carriage observed between-group differences for several telomeric KIR region loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937739/applications-of-iridium-catalyzed-asymmetric-allylic-substitution-reactions-in-target-oriented-synthesis
#8
Jianping Qu, Günter Helmchen
Metal catalyzed allylic substitution is a cornerstone of organometallic and synthetic chemistry. Enantioselective versions have been developed with catalysts derived from transition metals, most notably molybdenum, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, palladium, and copper. The palladium- and the iridium-catalyzed versions have turned out to be particularly versatile in organic synthesis because of the very broad scope of the nucleophile and great functional group compatibility. Assets of the iridium-catalyzed reaction are the formation of branched, chiral products from simple monosubstituted allylic substrates, high degrees of regio- and enantioselectivity, and use of modular, readily available chiral ligands...
September 22, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937735/whole-genome-shotgun-sequencing-and-comparison-of-two-%C3%AE-proteobacterial-species-in-search-of-the-bulgecin-biosynthetic-cluster
#9
Mark E Horsman, Daniel R Marous, Rongfeng Li, Ryan A Oliver, Byungjin Byun, Scott J Emrich, Bill Boggess, Craig A Townsend, Shahriar Mobashery
We have produced draft whole-genome sequences for two bacterial strains reported to produce the bulgecins as well as NRPS-derived monobactam β-lactam antibiotics. We propose reclassification of ATCC 31363 from the original Pseudomonas genus to Paraburkholderia acidophila. We further reaffirm that ATCC 31433 (Burkholderia mesoacidophila) is a taxonomically distinct producer of bulgecins with notable gene regions shared with Paraburkholderia acidophila. We use RAST multiple gene comparison and MASH distancing with published genomes to order the draft contigs and identify unique gene regions for characterization...
September 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937679/total-synthesis-of-tubingensin-b-enabled-by-the-strategic-use-of-an-aryne-cyclization
#10
Michael A Corsello, Junyong Kim, Neil K Garg
Tubingensin B is an indole diterpenoid that bears a daunting chemical structure featuring a disubstituted carbazole unit, five stereogenic centres-three of which are quaternary-and a decorated [3.2.2]-bridged bicycle. We describe our synthetic design toward a concise and enantiospecific total synthesis of tubingensin B, which hinges on the strategic use of a transient aryne intermediate. Although initial studies led to unexpected reaction outcomes, we ultimately implemented a sequence of carbazolyne cyclization followed by Rh-catalysed fragmentation to install the seven-membered ring and vicinal quaternary stereocentres of the natural product...
October 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937585/phytochemicals-extraction-isolation-and-identification-of-bioactive-compounds-from-plant-extracts
#11
REVIEW
Ammar Altemimi, Naoufal Lakhssassi, Azam Baharlouei, Dennis G Watson, David A Lightfoot
There are concerns about using synthetic phenolic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as food additives because of the reported negative effects on human health. Thus, a replacement of these synthetics by antioxidant extractions from various foods has been proposed. More than 8000 different phenolic compounds have been characterized; fruits and vegetables are the prime sources of natural antioxidants. In order to extract, measure, and identify bioactive compounds from a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, researchers use multiple techniques and methods...
September 22, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937305/core-vocabulary-in-the-narratives-of-bilingual-children-with-and-without-language-impairment
#12
Prarthana Shivabasappa, Elizabeth D Peña, Lisa M Bedore
PURPOSE: Children with primary language impairment (PLI) demonstrate deficits in morphosyntax and vocabulary. We studied how these deficits may manifest in the core vocabulary use of bilingual children with PLI. METHOD: Thirty bilingual children with and without PLI who were matched pairwise (experimental group) narrated two Spanish and two English stories in kindergarten and first grade. Core vocabulary was derived from the 30 most frequently used words in the stories of 65 and 37 typically developing (TD) first graders (normative group) for Spanish and English, respectively...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937301/attentional-modulation-and-individual-differences-in-explaining-the-changing-role-of-fundamental-frequency-in-korean-laryngeal-stop-perception
#13
Eun Jong Kong, Hyunjung Lee
Previous research has shown differential degrees of attention in processing hierarchical linguistic information where higher order cues require greater attention in speech processing. The current study investigated the influence of attentional resources on acoustic cue weightings in speech perception by examining Korean listeners' identifications of the three-way laryngeal stops (tense vs. lax vs. aspirated). Using a dual-task paradigm, we presented 28 adult Korean listeners with identification tasks blocked by no-distractor versus distractor conditions where arithmetic calculations distracted the listeners' speech processing...
September 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937231/pulmonary-surfactant-and-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-the-interaction-and-its-functional-consequences
#14
M Kolomaznik, Z Nova, A Calkovska
The respiratory system is constantly exposed to pathogens which enter the lungs by inhalation or via blood stream. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also named endotoxin, can reach the airspaces as the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and lead to local inflammation and systemic toxicity. LPS affects alveolar type II (ATII) cells and pulmonary surfactant and although surfactant molecule has the effective protective mechanisms, excessive amount of LPS interacts with surfactant film and leads to its inactivation...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937210/multivariate-analysis-of-2d-1-h-13-c-methyl-nmr-spectra-of-monoclonal-antibody-therapeutics-to-facilitate-assessment-of-higher-order-structure
#15
Luke Arbogast, Frank Delaglio, John E Schiel, John P Marino
Two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13C methyl NMR provides a powerful tool to probe the higher order structure (HOS) of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), since spectra can readily be acquired on intact mAbs at natural isotopic abundance, and small changes in chemical environment and structure give rise to observable changes in corresponding spectra, which can be interpreted at atomic resolution. This makes it possible to apply 2D NMR spectral fingerprinting approaches directly to drug products in order to systematically characterize structure and excipient effects...
September 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937176/mesenchymal-stem-cell-mediated-endochondral-ossification-utilising-micropellets-and-brief-chondrogenic-priming
#16
C A Knuth, J Witte-Bouma, Y Ridwan, E B Wolvius, E Farrell
With limited autologous and donor bone graft availability, there is an increasing need for alternative graft substitutes. We have previously shown that chondrogenically priming mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) pellets for 28 d in vitro will reproducibly result in endochondral bone formation after in vivo implantation. However, pellet priming time for clinical applications is quite extensive. A micropellet (μpellet)-fibrin construct was developed and coupled, with a shorter priming period, determined by an in vitro time course experiment...
September 22, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936877/botryococcus-as-an-alternative-source-of-carotenoids-and-its-possible-applications-an-overview
#17
Ranga Rao Ambati, Deepika Gogisetty, Ravishankar Aswathnarayana Gokare, Sarada Ravi, Panduranga Narasimharao Bikkina, Yuepeng Su, Bo Lei
The enhanced interest in carotenoid research arises partly because of their application in the food and health industries and partly because of the necessity to find a commercially viable natural source for their mass production. The bottlenecks in finding a natural source of carotenoids which can compete with the synthetic products is the mass production of the organism that produces carotenoids, cell harvesting and extraction methods of carotenoids. The microalga Botryococcus braunii is an interesting organism for its commercial value as a rich source of carotenoids...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936793/restricted-female-function-of-hermaphrodites-in-a-gynodioecious-shrub-daphne-jezoensis-thymelaeaceae
#18
Akari Shibata, Yoshiaki Kameyama, Gaku Kudo
Gynodioecy is the coexistence of hermaphrodites and females in a population. It is supposed to be an intermediate stage in the evolutionary pathway from hermaphroditism to dioecy in angiosperm. Hermaphrodites gain fitness through both seed and pollen production whereas females gain fitness only through seed production. As females spread in a gynodioecious population, sexual selection prompts hermaphrodites to invest in male function and male-biased hermaphrodites prevail. In the gynodioecious shrub Daphne jezoensis (Thymelaeaceae), female frequency is stably around 50% in most populations, and fruit-set rate of hermaphrodites is commonly low...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936777/phytosphingosine-enhances-moisture-level-in-human-skin-barrier-through-stimulation-of-the-filaggrin-biosynthesis-and-degradation-leading-to-nmf-formation
#19
Hyun Kyung Choi, Young Hoon Cho, Eun Ok Lee, Jin Wook Kim, Chang Seo Park
Phytosphingosine (PHS) is a sphingoid that is a key component of phytoceramides NP, AP and EOP. PHS has been known to have anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities and to stimulate epidermal differentiation. In addition, it is reported that PHS treatment notably increased phytoceramide content in keratinocytes. In this study, we tried to investigate whether PHS has any effect on the maturation of corneocytes such as formation of cornified envelope and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) that is also an essential event during the formation of skin barrier, stratum corneum...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936646/apomixis-engineering-the-ability-to-harness-hybrid-vigor-in-crop-plants
#20
Joann A Conner, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Apomixis, commonly defined as asexual reproduction through seed, is a reproductive trait that occurs in only a few minor crops, but would be highly valuable in major crops. Apomixis results in seed-derived progenies that are genetically identical to their maternal parent. The advantage of apomixis would lie in seed propagation of elite food, feed, and biofuel crops that are heterozygous such as hybrid corn and switchgrass or self-pollinating crops for which no commercial-scale hybrid production system is available...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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