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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141192/impact-of-the-cultivation-strategy-on-resveratrol-production-from-glucose-in-engineered-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#1
Adelaide Braga, Joana Oliveira, Rita Silva, Patricia Ferreira, Isabel Rocha, Nicolai Kallscheuer, Jan Marienhagen, Nuno Faria
The health benefits of polyphenols such as stilbenes and flavonoids for humans are increasingly attracting attention. Resveratrol is a well-characterized naturally-occurring stilbene and potent anti-oxidant, which is used as food supplement and cosmetic ingredient. Several microorganisms including Corynebacterium glutamicum were engineered for resveratrol production from glucose. Based on the cultivation of a resveratrol-producing C. glutamicum strain in shake flasks, different strategies for improving production under controlled conditions at bioreactor scale were tested...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141129/recent-trends-in-salmonella-outbreaks-and-emerging-technology-for-biocontrol-of-salmonella-using-phages-in-foods-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Jun-Hyun Oh, Mi-Kyung Park
Salmonella is one of the principal causes of foodborne outbreaks. As traditional control methods have shown efficacy against emerging Salmonella serotypes or antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella, new approaches have been attempted. The use of lytic phages for the biocontrol of Salmonella in food industry has become an attractive method owing to the many advantages offered by the use of phages as biocontrol agents. Phages are natural alternatives to traditional antimicrobial agents; they have proven effective in the control of bacterial pathogens in food industry, which has led to the development of different phage products...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140999/variation-in-the-diversity-productivity-relationship-in-young-forests-of-the-eastern-united-states
#3
Santosh Ojha, Luben Dimov
The diversity-productivity relationship has not been studied as extensively in forests as in other ecosystems. We address this gap in our knowledge by examining the relationship of productivity (primarily the periodic annual increment in aboveground biomass, but also the mean annual increment) with five species diversity indices, stand, and environmental factors. We used 967 naturally regenerated Forest Inventory and Analysis plots with stand age ≤30 years, located in the conterminous thirty-one eastern states, and satisfying strict selection requirements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140957/beneficial-effects-of-angiotensin-1-7-on-cd34-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#4
Colleen T Cole-Jeffrey, Carl J Pepine, Michael J Katovich, Maria B Grant, Mohan K Raizada, Sugata Hazra
The dysfunctional nature of CD34 cells from heart failure (HF) patients makes them unsuitable for autologous stem cell therapy. In view of evidence that the vasoprotective axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) improves CD34 cell functions, we hypothesized that CD34 cells from HF patients will be dysfunctional and that Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] would improve their function. Peripheral blood was collected from NYHA class II-IV HF patients (n=31) and reference subjects (n=16). CD34 cell numbers from HF patients were reduced by 47% (p<0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140661/an-international-model-for-antibiotics-regulation
#5
Emilie Aguirre
We face a global antibiotics resistance crisis. Antibiotic drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness, potentially propelling us toward a post-antibiotic world. The largest use of antibiotics in the world is in food-producing animals. Food producers administer these drugs in routine, low doses—the types of doses that are incidentally the most conducive to breeding antibiotic resistance. In general, individual countries have been too slow to act in regulating misuse and overuse of antibiotics in foodproducing animals...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140656/an-analysis-of-%C3%A2-natural%C3%A2-food-litigation-to-build-a-sesame-allergy-consumer-class-action
#6
Dana Shaker
In a world where food allergy is still an incurable disease, law and regulation stand as necessary mechanisms to provide food-allergic consumers with the information they need to protect their health. The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 provided specific labeling requirements for the “Top Eight” allergens in the U.S.: milk, soy, gluten, egg, tree nut, peanut, fish, and Crustacean shellfish. Since then, sesame has become more prevalent as an allergen and remains just as dangerous, inducing anaphylactic shock in some sesame-allergic individuals...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140655/the-%C3%A2-natural%C3%A2-vs-%C3%A2-natural-flavors%C3%A2-conflict-in-food-labeling-a-regulatory-viewpoint
#7
Matthew J Goodman
Food branded with a Natural label can be found in any grocery store across the United States. Consumers consider this label to be an important attribute when making a purchasing decision and billions of dollars are spent annually on these products. While many consumers believe Natural foods are healthier, heavy reliance on that assumption is misguided as “Natural” has no formal legal definition—it’s merely defined pursuant to an FDA approved informal policy. Another important health attribute in a consumer’s purchasing decision is the presence of natural flavors in food...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140564/%C3%AE-catenin-and-il-1%C3%AE-dependent-cxcl10-production-drives-progression-of-disease-in-a-mouse-model-of-congenital-hepatic-fibrosis
#8
Eleanna Kaffe, Romina Fiorotto, Francesca Pellegrino, Valeria Mariotti, Mariangela Amenduni, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Luca Fabris, Mario Strazzabosco, Carlo Spirli
Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis (CHF), a genetic disease caused by mutations in the PKHD1 gene, encoding for the protein fibrocystin (FPC), is characterized by biliary dysgenesis, progressive portal fibrosis, and by a PKA-mediated activating phosphorylation of β-Catenin at Ser675. Biliary structures of Pkhd1(del4/del4) mice, a mouse model of CHF, secrete CXCL10 a chemokine able to recruit macrophages. The aim of this study is to clarify whether CXCL10 plays a pathogenetic role in disease progression in CHF/CD and to understand the mechanisms leading to increased CXCL10 secretion...
November 15, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140539/cross-regulation-among-arabinose-xylose-and-rhamnose-utilization-systems-in-e-coli
#9
Debika Choudhury, Supreet Saini
Bacteria frequently encounter multiple sugars in their natural surroundings. While the dynamics of utilization of glucose containing sugar mixtures have been well investigated, there are few reports addressing regulation of utilization of glucose-free mixtures particularly pentoses. These sugars comprise a considerable fraction in hemicellulose which can be converted by suitable biocatalysts to biofuels and other value-added products. Hence understanding of transcriptional cross-regulation among different pentose sugar utilization systems is essential for successful development of industrial strains...
November 15, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140505/the-nrpi-multi-purpose-on-line-monitoring-station-for-measurement-of-natural-radioactivity-in-the-ambient-atmosphere-and-in-the-soil
#10
K Jílek, M Slezáková, A Fronka, T Prokop, L Neubauer
During years 2010-12 an automated, on-line and wireless outdoor measurement station of atmospheric radon, gamma dose rate and meteorological parameters was realised at the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. At the turn of the year 2013 an expansion of the existing station was completed. Under the project funded by the Czech Technological Agency a new updated station was established, additionally equipped with modules for measurement of atmospheric radon/thoron short-lived decay products, radon in water and soil and radon exhalation rate from soil...
November 13, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140493/a-comprehensive-definition-for-integrative-oncology
#11
Claudia M Witt, Lynda G Balneaves, Maria J Cardoso, Lorenzo Cohen, Heather Greenlee, Peter Johnstone, Ömer Kücük, Josh Mailman, Jun J Mao
Background: Integrative oncology, which is generally understood to refer to the use of a combination of complementary medicine therapies in conjunction with conventional cancer treatments, has been defined in different ways, but there is no widely accepted definition. We sought to develop and establish a consensus for a comprehensive definition of the field of integrative oncology. Methods: We used a mixed-methods approach that included a literature analysis and a consensus procedure, including an interdisciplinary expert panel and surveys, to develop a comprehensive and acceptable definition for the term "integrative oncology...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140277/enantioselective-biosynthesis-of-l-phenyllactic-acid-by-whole-cells-of-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#12
Yibo Zhu, Ying Wang, Jiayuzi Xu, Jiahao Chen, Limei Wang, Bin Qi
BACKGROUND: l-Phenyllactic acid (l-PLA)-a valuable building block in the pharmaceutical and chemical industry-has recently emerged as an important monomer in the composition of the novel degradable biocompatible material of polyphenyllactic acid. However, both normally chemically synthesized and naturally occurring phenyllactic acid are racemic, and the product yields of reported l-PLA synthesis processes remain unsatisfactory. METHODS: We developed a novel recombinant Escherichia coli strain, co-expressing l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH) from Lactobacillus plantarum subsp...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140270/the-oxepane-motif-in-marine-drugs
#13
REVIEW
Héctor Barbero, Carlos Díez-Poza, Asunción Barbero
Oceans have shown to be a remarkable source of natural products. The biological properties of many of these compounds have helped to produce great advances in medicinal chemistry. Within them, marine natural products containing an oxepanyl ring are present in a great variety of algae, sponges, fungus and corals and show very important biological activities, many of them possessing remarkable cytotoxic properties against a wide range of cancer cell lines. Their rich chemical structures have attracted the attention of many researchers who have reported interesting synthetic approaches to these targets...
November 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140086/applications-of-oxygenases-in-the-chemoenzymatic-total-synthesis-of-complex-natural-products
#14
Emma King-Smith, Christian R Zwick, Hans Renata
Nature has evolved a diverse range of oxygenases for the modification of secondary metabolites with selectivity profiles that are unmatched by conventional man-made catalysts. In the past two decades, organic chemists have begun to harness the synthetic potential of these biocatalysts to develop efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of complex natural products. Judicious combination of synthetic and enzymatic transformations in multi-step synthesis can often result in powerful disconnections that compare favorably with contemporary chemical strategies to access the target natural products, while at the same time, presenting opportunities to innovate...
November 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139568/biomimetic-syntheses-of-racemic-natural-products
#15
REVIEW
Arie Zask, George Ellestad
Racemic natural products are rarely produced in plants and microorganisms and are thought to be the result of nonenzymatic, spontaneous reactions. These compounds are often highly complex with multiple contiguous chiral centers that present a challenge to organic synthesis. Formation of these racemates often occurs by cyclization reactions that can generate multiple stereocenters from achiral precursors. Biomimetic synthesis of these racemic natural products provides support for their proposed nonenzymatic spontaneous biosynthesis...
November 15, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139494/discovery-of-nicoyamycin-a-an-inhibitor-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-growth-in-low-iron-environments
#16
Laura A Mike, Ashootosh Tripathi, Connor M Blankenship, Alyssa Saluk, Pamela J Schultz, Giselle Tamayo-Castillo, David H Sherman, Harry L T Mobley
High-throughput screening and activity-guided purification identified nicoyamycin A, a natural product comprised of an uncommon 3-methyl-1,4-dioxane ring incorporated into a desferrioxamine-like backbone via a spiroaminal linkage. Nicoyamycin A potently inhibits uropathogenic Escherichia coli growth in low iron medium, a promising step toward developing novel antibiotics to treat recalcitrant bacterial infections.
November 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139291/an-integrative-approach-to-decipher-the-chemical-antagonism-between-the-competing-endophytes-paraconiothyrium-variabile-and-bacillus-subtilis
#17
Marine Vallet, Quentin P Vanbellingen, Tingting Fu, Jean-Pierre Le Caer, Serge Della-Negra, David Touboul, Katherine R Duncan, Bastien Nay, Alain Brunelle, Soizic Prado
An integrative approach combining traditional natural products chemistry, molecular networking, and mass spectrometry imaging has been undertaken to decipher the molecular dialogue between the fungus Paraconiothyrium variabile and the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which were isolated as endophytes from the conifer Cephalotaxus harringtonia and are characterized by a strong and mutual antibiosis. From this study, we highlight that bacterial surfactins and a fungal tetronic acid are involved in such competition and that the fungus is able to hydrolyze surfactins to fight against the bacterial partner...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139111/a-retrotransposon-in-an-hkt1-family-sodium-transporter-causes-variation-of-leaf-na-exclusion-and-salt-tolerance-in-maize
#18
Ming Zhang, Yibo Cao, Zhiping Wang, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Junpeng Shi, Xiaoyan Liang, Weibin Song, Qijun Chen, Jinsheng Lai, Caifu Jiang
Soil salinity is one of several major abiotic stresses that constrain maize productivity worldwide. An improved understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms will thus enhance the breeding of salt-tolerant maize and boost productivity. Previous studies have indicated that the maintenance of leaf Na(+) concentration is essential for maize salt tolerance, and the difference in leaf Na(+) exclusion has previously been associated with variation in salt tolerance between maize varieties. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a maize salt-tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL), Zea mays Na(+) Content1 (ZmNC1), which encodes an HKT-type transporter (designated as ZmHKT1)...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138998/crafting-socialist-embryology-dialectics-aquaculture-and-the-diverging-discipline-in-maoist-china-1950-1965
#19
Lijing Jiang
In the 1950s, embryology in socialist China underwent a series of changes that adjusted the disciplinary apparatus to suit socialism and the national goal of self-reliance. As the Communist state called on scientists to learn from the Soviets, embryologists' comprehensive view on heredity, which did not contradict Trofim Lysenko (1898-1976)'s doctrines, provided a space for them to advance their discipline. Leading scientists, often trained abroad in the tradition of experimental embryology, rode on the tides of Maoist ideology and repositioned their research...
November 7, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138909/improvement-of-biosynthesis-and-accumulation-of-bioactive-compounds-by-elicitation-in-adventitious-root-cultures-of-polygonum-multiflorum
#20
Thanh-Tam Ho, Jong-Du Lee, Cheol-Seung Jeong, Kee-Yoeup Paek, So-Young Park
We examined the effects of abiotic (methyl jasmonate [MeJA] and salicylic acid [SA]) and biotic (yeast extract and chitosan) elicitors for improvement of bioactive compounds production on adventitious root cultures in Polygonum multiflorum. The application of yeast extract resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher dry root biomass (9.98 g/L) and relative growth rate versus the control. Cultures treated with abiotic elicitors showed higher percentage of dry weight than the other samples. Low concentrations of all elicitors (50 μM MeJA and SA, and 50 mg/L yeast extract) improved secondary metabolite production except for chitosan, whose performance was worse than that of the control...
November 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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