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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335513/bioactive-potential-of-marine-macroalgae-from-the-central-red-sea-saudi-arabia-assessed-by-high-throughput-imaging-based-phenotypic-profiling
#1
Stephan Kremb, Constanze Müller, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Christian R Voolstra
Marine algae represent an important source of novel natural products. While their bioactive potential has been studied to some extent, limited information is available on marine algae from the Red Sea. This study aimed at the broad discovery of new bioactivities from a collection of twelve macroalgal species from the Central Red Sea. We used imaging-based High-Content Screening (HCS) with a diverse spectrum of cellular markers for detailed cytological profiling of fractionated algal extracts. The cytological profiles for 3 out of 60 algal fractions clustered closely to reference inhibitors and showed strong inhibitory activities on the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in a single-enzyme biochemical assay, validating the suggested biological target...
March 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335497/ginsenoside-ppd-s-antitumor-effect-via-down-regulation-of-mtor-revealed-by-super-resolution-imaging
#2
Bo Teng, Junguang Jiang, Lijing Zhao, Jing Gao, Junyu Chen, Zhe Liu, Hongda Wang, Binfeng Lu
Derived from Panax ginseng, the natural product 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) has been reported for its cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism is, however, not well understood. Here we show that PPD significantly inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in human laryngeal carcinoma cells (Hep-2 cells). PPD also decreases the levels of proteins related to cell proliferation. Moreover, PPD-induced apoptosis is characterized by a dose-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax, and is accompanied by the activation of Caspase-3 as well...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335496/quantitative-analysis-of-the-kshv-transcriptome-following-primary-infection-of-blood-and-lymphatic-endothelial-cells
#3
A Gregory Bruce, Serge Barcy, Terri DiMaio, Emilia Gan, H Jacques Garrigues, Michael Lagunoff, Timothy M Rose
The transcriptome of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) after primary latent infection of human blood (BEC), lymphatic (LEC) and immortalized (TIME) endothelial cells was analyzed using RNAseq, and compared to long-term latency in BCBL-1 lymphoma cells. Naturally expressed transcripts were obtained without artificial induction, and a comprehensive annotation of the KSHV genome was determined. A set of unique coding sequence (UCDS) features and a process to resolve overlapping transcripts were developed to accurately quantitate transcript levels from specific promoters...
March 19, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335414/inhibition-of-listeria-monocytogenes-on-ready-to-eat-meats-using-bacteriocin-mixtures-based-on-mode-of-action
#4
Paul Priyesh Vijayakumar, Peter M Muriana
Bacteriocin-producing (Bac⁺) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising selected strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium and thailandicus were examined for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during hotdog challenge studies. The Bac⁺ strains, or their cell-free supernatants (CFS), were grouped according to mode-of-action (MOA) as determined from prior studies. Making a mixture of as many MOAs as possible is a practical way to obtain a potent natural antimicrobial mixture to address L...
March 14, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335413/chitin-oligosaccharide-cos-reduces-antibiotics-dose-and-prevents-antibiotics-caused-side-effects-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-ais-patients-with-spinal-fusion-surgery
#5
Yang Qu, Jinyu Xu, Haohan Zhou, Rongpeng Dong, Mingyang Kang, Jianwu Zhao
Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily), experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily), and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily)...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335397/emerging-anti-mitotic-activities-and-other-bioactivities-of-sesquiterpene-compounds-upon-human-cells
#6
REVIEW
Alessandra Bosco, Roy M Golsteyn
We review the bio-activities of natural product sesquiterpenes and present the first description of their effects upon mitosis. This type of biological effect upon cells is unexpected because sesquiterpenes are believed to inactivate proteins through Michael-type additions that cause non-specific cytotoxicity. Yet, certain types of sesquiterpenes can arrest cells in mitosis as measured by cell biology, biochemical and imaging techniques. We have listed the sesquiterpenes that arrest cells in mitosis and analyzed the biological data that support those observations...
March 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334650/ultrasensitive-determination-of-dna-oxidation-products-by-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-the-role-of-antioxidants-in-the-prevention-of-oxidative-damage
#7
Sam Dawbaa, Önder Aybastıer, Cevdet Demir
Oxidative stress is considered as one of the significant causes of DNA damage which in turn contributes to cell death through a series of intermediate processes such as cancer formation, mutation, and aging. Natural sources such as plant and fruit products have provided us with interesting substances of antioxidant activity that could be recruited in protecting the genetic materials of the cells. This study is an effort to discover some of those antioxidants effects in their standard and natural forms by performing an ultrasensitive determination of the products of DNA oxidation using GC-MS/MS...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334326/allelopathy-mediated-competition-in-microbial-mats-from-antarctic-lakes
#8
Marc Slattery, Michael P Lesser
Microbial mats are vertically stratified communities that host a complex consortium of microorganisms, dominated by cyanobacteria, that compete for available nutrients and environmental niches, within these extreme habitats. The Antarctic Dry Valleys near McMurdo Sound include a series of lakes within the drainage basin that are bisected by glacial traverses. These lakes are traditionally independent, but recent increases in glacial melting have allowed two lakes (Chad and Hoare) to become connected by a meltwater stream...
February 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334182/evaluation-of-different-applications-of-ethanedinitrile-c2n2-in-various-fumigation-chambers-for-control-of-monochamus-alternatus-coleoptera-cerambycidae-in-naturally-infested-logs
#9
Byung-Ho Lee, Chung-Gyoo Park, Yonglin Ren
Monochamus alternatus Hopeis is an important vector of nematode pests of timber in Korea, particularly Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle. Previously, we reported that ethanedinitrile (C2N2) has the potential to replace methyl bromide and metam sodium to control M. alternatus larvae and B. xylophilus under low-temperature (<5 °C) conditions. Herein, we report on fumigation trials of C2N2 over a 3-yr period (February 2013-October 2015) conducted at higher temperatures. The trials were conducted under 24 different conditions that incorporated varying fumigation chamber types (plastic sheeting-enclosed chambers of differing construction or an ISO shipping container, interior size: 5...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334066/effect-of-drive-row-ground-covers-on-hop-rosales-cannabaceae-yard-arthropod-pests-in-vermont-usa
#10
L Calderwood, J Cubins, D Vesty, H Darby
Alternatives to pesticides are necessary for the management of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) arthropod pests. The three major arthropod pests in northeastern US hop production include two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank), and potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris. This 3-yr study (2012-2014) in Vermont investigated the effect of flowering ground covers on arthropod pest abundance. Hop cultivars 'Nugget' and 'Cascade' were evaluated under a strip-split plot experimental design...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333985/the-role-of-above-ground-competition-and-nitrogen-vs-phosphorus-enrichment-in-seedling-survival-of-common-european-plant-species-of-semi-natural-grasslands
#11
Tobias Ceulemans, Eva Hulsmans, Sigi Berwaers, Kasper Van Acker, Olivier Honnay
Anthropogenic activities have severely altered fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus in ecosystems worldwide. In grasslands, subsequent negative effects are commonly attributed to competitive exclusion of plant species following increased above-ground biomass production. However, some studies have shown that this does not fully account for nutrient enrichment effects, questioning whether lowering competition by reducing grassland productivity through mowing or herbivory can mitigate the environmental impact of nutrient pollution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333829/acute-traumatic-coagulopathy-the-elephant-in-a-room-of-blind-scientists
#12
Michael A Meledeo, Maryanne C Herzig, James A Bynum, Xiaowu Wu, Anand K Ramasubramanian, Daniel N Darlington, Kristin M Reddoch, Andrew P Cap
Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is the failure of coagulation homeostasis that can rapidly arise following traumatic injury, hemorrhage, and shock; it is associated with higher injury severity, coagulation abnormalities, and increased blood transfusions. ATC has historically been defined by a prolonged prothrombin time (PT), although newer, more informative measurements of hemostatic function have been employed to improve diagnosis and support clinical decision making. The underlying biochemical mechanisms of and best practice therapeutics for ATC remain under active investigation because of its significant correlation to poor outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333678/evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-activity-of-green-propolis-extract-and-meadowsweet-extract-against-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteria-importance-in-would-care-compounding-preparations
#13
Nogueira Rodrigo José Lupatini, Panagiota Danopoulos, Rosita Swikidisa, Pinheiro Vanessa Alves
The use of natural products in compounded wound care formulas is an exciting avenue to pursue for compounding pharmacists since these natural products may contain compounds that promote healing on their own. The use of these natural extracts as an alternative therapy for wound care may also provide several benefits, such as decreased inflammation, infection, side effects, and treatment costs. Thus far, several studies have demonstrated antimicrobial activity for various natural product extracts, including green propolis and meadowsweet...
July 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333450/pcr-independent-method-of-transformation-associated-recombination-reveals-the-cosmomycin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-in-an-ocean-streptomycete
#14
Charles B Larson, Max Crüsemann, Bradley S Moore
The transformation-associated recombination cloning methodology facilitates the genomic capture and heterologous expression of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). We have streamlined this procedure by introduction of synthetic DNA gene blocks for the efficient capture of BGCs. We show the successful capture and expression of the aromatic polyketide antitumor agent cosmomycin from streptomycete bacteria and the discovery of new cosmomycin analogues by mass spectral molecular networking.
March 23, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333400/an-improved-model-of-the-trypanosoma-brucei-ctp-synthetase-glutaminase-domain-acivicin-complex
#15
Juliana Oliveira de Souza, Alice Dawson, William Nigel Hunter
The natural product acivicin inhibits the glutaminase activity of CTP synthetase and is a potent lead compound for drug discovery in the area of neglected tropical diseases, specifically trypanosomaisis. A 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of the acivicin adduct with the glutaminase domain from Trypanosoma brucei CTP synthetase has been deposited in the Protein Data Bank and provides a template for structure-based approaches to design new inhibitors. However, our assessment of that data identified deficiencies in the model...
March 23, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333308/fluconazole-treatment-enhances-extracellular-release-of-red-pigments-in-the-fungus-monascus-purpureus
#16
Sunil H Koli, Rahul K Suryawanshi, Chandrashekar D Patil, Satish V Patil
Traditional methods for the production of food grade pigments from fungus Monascus spp. are mostly relying on submerged fermentation. However, cell bound nature and intracellular accumulation of pigments in Monascus spp is the major hurdle in pigment production by submerged fermentation. The present study focused on the investigation of the effect of the antifungal agent, fluconazole on red pigment production from Monascus purpureus (NMCC-PF01). At the optimized concentration of fluconazole (30 μg/ml), pigment production was found to be enhanced by 88% after 96 h and it remained constant even after further incubation up to 168 h...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333237/new-paenibacillus-strain-produces-a-family-of-linear-and-cyclic-antimicrobial-lipopeptides-cyclization-is-not-essential-for-their-antimicrobial-activity
#17
En Huang, Xu Yang, Liwen Zhang, Sun Hee Moon, Ahmed E Yousef
A new bacterial isolate, Paenibacillus sp. OSY-N, showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Antimicrobials produced by this strain were purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Structural analysis, using mass spectrometry (MS), of a single active HPLC fraction revealed two known cyclic lipopeptides, BMY-28160 and permetin A, a new cyclic lipopeptide, and the linear counterparts of these cyclic compounds. The latter were designated as paenipeptin A, B and C, respectively...
February 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#18
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333106/isolation-characterization-and-antiproliferative-activity-of-new-metabolites-from-the-south-african-endemic-red-algal-species-laurencia-alfredensis
#19
Godwin A Dziwornu, Mino R Caira, Jo-Anne de la Mare, Adrienne L Edkins, John J Bolton, Denzil R Beukes, Suthananda N Sunassee
The marine red algae of the genus Laurencia have been widely studied for their structurally diverse and biologically active secondary metabolites. We report here the natural product investigation of the organic extract of a newly identified South African endemic species, Laurencia alfredensis. A sequence of column chromatography, preparative TLC and normal phase HPLC resulted in the isolation of eleven compounds comprising three labdane-type diterpenes (1-3), four polyether triterpenes (4-7), three cholestane-type ecdysteroids (8-10) and a glycolipid (11)...
March 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333084/establishing-the-secondary-metabolite-profile-of-the-marine-fungus-tolypocladium-geodes-sp-mf458-and-subsequent-optimisation-of-bioactive-secondary-metabolite-production
#20
Bethlehem Kebede, Stephen K Wrigley, Anjali Prashar, Janina Rahlff, Markus Wolf, Jeanette Reinshagen, Philip Gribbon, Johannes F Imhoff, Johanna Silber, Antje Labes, Bernhard Ellinger
As part of an international research project, the marine fungal strain collection of the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR) research centre was analysed for secondary metabolite profiles associated with anticancer activity. Strain MF458 was identified as Tolypocladium geodes, by internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence similarity and its natural product production profile. By using five different media in two conditions and two time points, we were able to identify eight natural products produced by MF458...
March 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
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