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Immunogenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325503/immunogenetics-of-prostate-cancer-a-still-unexplored-field-of-study
#1
Eva Dreussi, Fabrizio Ecca, Lucia Scarabel, Sara Gagno, Giuseppe Toffoli
The immune system is a double-edged sword with regard to the prostate cancer (PCa) battle. Immunogenetics, the study of the potential role of immune-related polymorphisms, is taking its first steps in the treatment of this malignancy. This review summarizes the most recent papers addressing the potential of immunogenetics in PCa, reporting immune-related polymorphisms associated with tumor aggressiveness, treatment toxicity and patients' prognosis. With some peculiarities, RNASEL, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β and MMP7 have arisen as the most significant biomarkers in PCa treatment and management, having a potential clinical role...
January 12, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321894/development-of-a-genotype-by-sequencing-immunogenetic-assay-as-exemplified-by-screening-for-variation-in-red-fox-with-and-without-endemic-rabies-exposure
#2
Michael E Donaldson, Yessica Rico, Karsten Hueffer, Halie M Rando, Anna V Kukekova, Christopher J Kyle
Pathogens are recognized as major drivers of local adaptation in wildlife systems. By determining which gene variants are favored in local interactions among populations with and without disease, spatially explicit adaptive responses to pathogens can be elucidated. Much of our current understanding of host responses to disease comes from a small number of genes associated with an immune response. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, such as genotype-by-sequencing (GBS), facilitate expanded explorations of genomic variation among populations...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315611/isolation-of-a-high-affinity-bet-v-1-specific-igg-derived-scfv-from-a-subject-vaccinated-with-hypoallergenic-bet-v-1-fragments
#3
Elisabeth Gadermaier, Katharina Marth, Christian Lupinek, Raffaela Campana, Gerhard Hofer, Katharina Blatt, Dubravka Smiljkovic, Uwe Roder, Margarete Focke-Tejkl, Susanne Vrtala, Walter Keller, Peter Valent, Rudolf Valenta, Sabine Flicker
BACKGROUND: Recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives have been used in clinical immunotherapy studies and clinical efficacy seems to be related to the induction of blocking IgG antibodies recognizing the wild type allergens. However, so far no treatment-induced IgG antibodies have been characterized. OBJECTIVE: To clone, express and characterize IgG antibodies induced by vaccination with two hypoallergenic recombinant fragments of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1 in a non-allergic subject...
January 9, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313220/pemphigus-a-comprehensive-review-on-pathogenesis-clinical-presentation-and-novel-therapeutic-approaches
#4
REVIEW
Robert Pollmann, Thomas Schmidt, Rüdiger Eming, Michael Hertl
Pemphigus is a group of rare, potentially devastating autoimmune diseases of the skin and mucous membranes with high morbidity and potentially lethal outcome. The major clinical variant, pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is caused by a loss of intercellular adhesion of epidermal keratinocytes which is induced by IgG autoantibodies against components of desmosomes. Specifically, IgG against the desmosomal adhesion proteins, desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) and desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), preferentially target their ectodomains which are presumably critical for the transinteraction and signalling function of these adhesion molecules...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289742/immunogenetic-factors-in-early-immune-control-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-hiv-1-infection-evaluation-of-hla-class-i-amino-acid-variants-in-two-african-populations
#5
Howard W Wiener, Sadeep Shrestha, Hailin Lu, Etienne Karita, William Kilembe, Susan Allen, Eric Hunter, Paul A Goepfert, Jianming Tang
Immune control of HIV-1 infection depends heavily on cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses restricted by diverse HLA class I molecules. Recent work has uncovered specific amino acid residues (AARs) that seem to dictate the extent of immune control in African Americans, which prompted us to test these emerging hypotheses in seroconverters (SCs) from southern and eastern Africa. Based on data from 196 Zambians and 76 Rwandans with fully resolved HLA alleles and pre-therapy HIV-1 viral loads (VL) in the first 3- to 36-month of infection (>2,300 person-visits), four AARs of primary interest (positions 63, 97, 116 and 245 in the mature HLA-B protein) were found to explain 8...
December 28, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283291/structural-insights-into-humanization-of-anti-tissue-factor-antibody-10h10
#6
Alexey Teplyakov, Galina Obmolova, Thomas J Malia, Gopalan Raghunathan, Christian Martinez, Johan Fransson, Wilson Edwards, Judith Connor, Matthew Husovsky, Heena Beck, Ellen Chi, Sandra Fenton, Hong Zhou, Juan Carlos Almagro, Gary L Gilliland
Murine antibody 10H10 raised against human tissue factor is unique in that it blocks the signaling pathway, and thus inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth without interfering with coagulation. As a potential therapeutic, the antibody was humanized in a two-step procedure. Antigen-binding loops were grafted onto selected human frameworks and the resulting chimeric antibody was subjected to affinity maturation by using phage display libraries. The results of humanization were analyzed from the structural perspective through comparison of the structure of a humanized variant with the parental mouse antibody...
December 28, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281968/transcriptome-analyses-of-immune-tissues-from-three-japanese-frogs-genus-rana-reveals-their-utility-in-characterizing-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-ii
#7
Quintin Lau, Takeshi Igawa, Ryuhei Minei, Tiffany A Kosch, Yoko Satta
BACKGROUND: In Japan and East Asia, endemic frogs appear to be tolerant or not susceptible to chytridiomycosis, a deadly amphibian disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytridium dendrobatidis (Bd). Japanese frogs may have evolved mechanisms of immune resistance to pathogens such as Bd. This study characterizes immune genes expressed in various tissues of healthy Japanese Rana frogs. RESULTS: We generated transcriptome data sets of skin, spleen and blood from three adult Japanese Ranidae frogs (Japanese brown frog Rana japonica, the montane brown frog Rana ornativentris, and Tago's brown frog Rana tagoi tagoi) as well as whole body of R...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247682/collection-and-storage-of-hla-ngs-genotyping-data-for-the-17th-international-hla-and-immunogenetics-workshop
#8
Chia-Jung Chang, Kazutoyo Osoegawa, Robert P Milius, Martin Maiers, Wenzhong Xiao, Marcelo Fernandez-Viňa, Steven J Mack
For over 50 years, the International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshops (IHIW) have advanced the fields of histocompatibility and immunogenetics (H&I) via community sharing of technology, experience and reagents, and the establishment of ongoing collaborative projects. Held in the fall of 2017, the 17th IHIW focused on the application of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies for clinical and research goals in the H&I fields. NGS technologies have the potential to allow dramatic insights and advances in these fields, but the scope and sheer quantity of data associated with NGS raise challenges for their analysis, collection, exchange and storage...
December 13, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209322/camelid-single-domain-antibodies-historical-perspective-and-future-outlook
#9
Mehdi Arbabi-Ghahroudi
Tremendous effort has been expended over the past two and a half decades to understand many aspects of camelid heavy chain antibodies, from their biology, evolution, and immunogenetics to their potential applications in various fields of research and medicine. In this article, I present a historical perspective on the development of camelid single-domain antibodies (sdAbs or VHHs, also widely known as nanobodies) since their discovery and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these unique molecules in various areas of research, industry, and medicine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200193/immunogenetic-factors-driving-formation-of-ultralong-vh-cdr3-in-bos-taurus-antibodies
#10
Thaddeus C Deiss, Melissa Vadnais, Feng Wang, Patricia L Chen, Ali Torkamani, Waithaka Mwangi, Marie-Paule Lefranc, Michael F Criscitiello, Vaughn V Smider
The antibody repertoire of Bos taurus is characterized by a subset of variable heavy (VH) chain regions with ultralong third complementarity determining regions (CDR3) which, compared to other species, can provide a potent response to challenging antigens like HIV env. These unusual CDR3 can range to over seventy highly diverse amino acids in length and form unique β-ribbon 'stalk' and disulfide bonded 'knob' structures, far from the typical antigen binding site. The genetic components and processes for forming these unusual cattle antibody VH CDR3 are not well understood...
December 4, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183295/vdj-gene-usage-among-b-cell-receptors-in-abo-incompatible-kidney-transplantation-determined-by-rna-seq-transcriptomic-analysis
#11
Hee Jung Jeon, Kwangsoo Kim, Jae-Ghi Lee, Joon Young Jang, Seongmin Choi, Taishi Fang, Ji-Jing Yan, Miyeun Han, Jong Cheol Jeong, Kyoung-Bun Lee, Tae Jin Kim, Curie Ahn, Jaeseok Yang
BACKGROUND: Studies on B-cell subtypes and V(D)J gene usage of B-cell receptors in kidney transplants are scarce. This study aimed to investigate V(D)J gene segment usage in ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplant (KT) patients compared to that in ABO-compatible (ABOc) KT patients. METHODS: We selected 16 ABOi KT patients with accommodation (ABOiA), 6 ABOc stable KT patients (ABOcS), and 6 ABOi KT patients with biopsy-proven acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABOiR) at day 10, whose graft tissue samples had been stored in the biorepository between 2010 and 2014...
November 28, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171940/human-leukocyte-antigens-key-regulators-of-t-cell-mediated-drug-hypersensitivity
#12
REVIEW
A J Redwood, R K Pavlos, K D White, E J Phillips
Adverse drug reactions (ADR) can be broadly categorised as either on-target or off-target. On-target ADRs arise as a direct consequence of the pharmacological properties of the drug and are therefore predictable and dose dependant. On-target ADRs comprise the majority (>80%) of ADRs, relate to the drug's interaction with its known pharmacological target and are a result of a complex interplay of genetic and ecologic factors. In contrast off-target ADRs, including immune mediated ADRs (IM-ADRs), are due to unintended pharmacological interactions such as inadvertent ligation of host cell receptors or non-pharmacological interactions mediated through an adaptive immune response...
November 24, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171935/single-molecule-real-time-smrt%C3%A2-dna-sequencing-of-hla-genes-at-ultra-high-resolution-from-126-international-hla-and-immunogenetics-workshop-cell-lines
#13
T R Turner, J D Hayhurst, D R Hayward, W P Bultitude, D J Barker, J Robinson, J Alejandro Madrigal, N P Mayor, S G E Marsh
The hyperpolymorphic HLA genes play important roles in disease and transplantation and act as genetic markers of migration and evolution. A panel of 107 B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs) was established in 1987 at the 10(th) International Histocompatibility Workshop as a resource for the immunogenetics community. These B-LCLs are well characterised and represent diverse ethnicities and HLA haplotypes. Here we have applied Pacific Biosciences' Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) DNA sequencing to HLA type 126 B-LCL, including the 107 IHIW cells, to ultra-high resolution...
November 24, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169317/hashclone-a-new-tool-to-quantify-the-minimal-residual-disease-in-b-cell-lymphoma-from-deep-sequencing-data
#14
Marco Beccuti, Elisa Genuardi, Greta Romano, Luigia Monitillo, Daniela Barbero, Mario Boccadoro, Marco Ladetto, Raffaele Calogero, Simone Ferrero, Francesca Cordero
BACKGROUND: Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) is a B cell aggressive neoplasia accounting for about the 6% of all lymphomas. The most common molecular marker of clonality in MCL, as in other B lymphoproliferative disorders, is the ImmunoGlobulin Heavy chain (IGH) rearrangement, occurring in B-lymphocytes. The patient-specific IGH rearrangement is extensively used to monitor the Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) after treatment through the standardized Allele-Specific Oligonucleotides Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction based technique...
November 23, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160623/saddlebags-a-software-interface-for-submitting-full-length-hla-allele-sequences-to-the-embl-ena-nucleotide-database
#15
B M Matern, M Groeneweg, C E M Voorter, M G J Tilanus
Submission of full-length HLA allele sequences presents a unique challenge, both for high-throughput sequencing laboratories, and smaller diagnostic laboratories. HLA's extensive polymorphism means that accurate representation and annotation of allele sequence is of critical importance, and curators of nucleotide databases must establish submission formats to ensure high-quality data, and prevent ambiguities. The IPD-IMGT/HLA database is established as the standard repository for HLA sequences, and it is a major goal of the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop to fill the IPD-IMGT/HLA database with full-length HLA sequences...
November 21, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159928/the-immunogenetics-of-neurological-disease
#16
REVIEW
Maneesh K Misra, Vincent Damotte, Jill A Hollenbach
Genes encoding antigen-presenting molecules within the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) account for the highest component of genetic risk for many neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, myasthenia gravis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Myriad genetic, immunological and environmental factors may contribute to an individual's susceptibility to neurological disease. Here, we review and discuss the decades long research on the influence of genetic variation at the MHC locus and the role of immunogenetic killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) loci in neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, myasthenia gravis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
November 21, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151862/profiling-the-immunome-of-little-brown-myotis-provides-a-yardstick-for-measuring-the-genetic-response-to-white-nose-syndrome
#17
Michael E Donaldson, Christina M Davy, Craig K R Willis, Scott McBurney, Allysia Park, Christopher J Kyle
White-nose syndrome (WNS) has devastated populations of hibernating bats in eastern North America, leading to emergency conservation listings for several species including the previously ubiquitous little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). However, some bat populations near the epicenter of the WNS panzootic appear to be stabilizing after initial precipitous declines, which could reflect a selective immunogenetic sweep. To investigate the hypothesis that WNS exerts significant selection on the immunome of affected bat populations, we developed a novel, high-throughput sequence capture assay targeting 138 adaptive, intrinsic, and innate immunity genes of putative adaptive significance, as well as their respective regulatory regions (~370 kbp of genomic sequence/individual)...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132441/early-screening-for-chlamydia-trachomatis-in-young-women-for-primary-prevention-of-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-i-predict-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Jeanne Tamarelle, Anne C M Thiébaut, Bénédicte Sabin, Cécile Bébéar, Philippe Judlin, Arnaud Fauconnier, Delphine Rahib, Layidé Méaude-Roufai, Jacques Ravel, Servaas A Morré, Bertille de Barbeyrac, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau
BACKGROUND: Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection, especially among young women. Mostly asymptomatic, it can lead, if untreated, to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Recent data suggest that Ct infections are not controlled in France and in Europe. The effectiveness of a systematic strategy for Ct screening in under-25 women remains controversial. The main objective of the i-Predict trial (Prevention of Diseases Induced by Chlamydia trachomatis) is to determine whether early screening and treatment of 18- to-24-year-old women for genital Ct infection reduces the incidence of PID over 24 months...
November 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116520/next-generation-dna-sequencing-of-vh-vl-repertoires-a-primer-and-guide-to-applications-in-single-domain-antibody-discovery
#19
Kevin A Henry
Immunogenetic analyses of expressed antibody repertoires are becoming increasingly common experimental investigations and are critical to furthering our understanding of autoimmunity, infectious disease, and cancer. Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies have now made it possible to interrogate antibody repertoires to unprecedented depths, typically by sequencing of cDNAs encoding immunoglobulin variable domains. In this chapter, we describe simple, fast, and reliable methods for producing and sequencing multiplex PCR amplicons derived from the variable regions (VH, VHH or VL) of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes using the Illumina MiSeq platform...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099018/hla-typing-and-celiac-disease-in-moroccans
#20
Daniela Piancatelli, Imane Ben El Barhdadi, Khadija Oumhani, Pierluigi Sebastiani, Alessia Colanardi, Abdellah Essaid
Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for differences in the prevalence of some diseases across countries. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequencies in North African populations show some differences in their distribution compared to Europeans, Mediterraneans, and sub-Saharans, and some specific alleles and haplotypes could be clinically relevant. Celiac disease (CD) has been fast increasing in prevalence in North Africa; but few immunogenetic data are available for this area, in which a high prevalence of the disease has been described...
January 6, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
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