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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336061/enzymes-as-sensors
#1
Maria Staiano, Angela Pennacchio, Antonio Varriale, Alessandro Capo, Adelia Majoli, Clotilde Capacchione, Sabato D'Auria
Over the last few decades the development of new technologies, the fabrication of new materials, and the introduction of nanotechnologies created new trends in a series of advances that produced innovations in biological sensing devices with a wide range of application from health, security, defense, food, and medicine, to the environment. Specificity, low cost, rapidity, sensitivity, and multiplicity are some of the reasons for their growth, and their commercial success is expected to increase in the next future...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321815/immune-therapy-for-sarcomas
#2
Peter M Anderson
Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery rapidly occurring at 14 days after start of chemotherapy for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma is a good prognostic factor. Conversely, lymphopenia is associated with significantly decreased sarcoma survival. Clearly, the immune system can contribute towards better survival from sarcoma. This chapter will describe treatment and host factors that influence immune function and how effective local control and systemic interventions of sarcoma therapy can cause inflammation and/or immune suppression but are currently the standard of care...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321812/optimizing-radiotherapy-with-immunotherapeutic-approaches
#3
Jonathan E Schoenhals, Tijana Skrepnik, Ugur Selek, Maria A Cortez, Ailin Li, James W Welsh
Several factors must be considered to successfully integrate immunotherapy with radiation into clinical practice. One such factor is that concepts arising from preclinical work must be tested in combination with radiation in preclinical models to better understand how combination therapy will work in patients; examples include checkpoint inhibitors, tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-β) inhibitors, and natural killer (NK) cell therapy. Also, many radiation fields and fractionation schedules typically used in radiation therapy had been standardized before the introduction of advanced techniques for radiation planning and delivery that account for changes in tumor size, location, and motion during treatment, as well as uncertainties introduced by variations in patient setup between treatment fractions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317602/nanotechnology-approaches-for-increasing-nutrient-bioavailability
#4
S M Jafari, D J McClements
Health-promoting ingredients such as phenolic compounds, vitamins, and minerals are being increasingly introduced into foods and beverages to produce "functional foods" specifically designed to improve human health, well-being, and performance. However, it is often challenging to incorporate these nutraceuticals into foods because they have poor solubility characteristics, impart undesirable flavor profiles, are chemically unstable, or have low bioavailability. This problem can often be overcome by encapsulating the bioactive components in nanoparticle-based delivery systems...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289768/machine-vision-based-measurement-systems-for-fruit-and-vegetable-quality-control-in-postharvest
#5
José Blasco, Sandra Munera, Nuria Aleixos, Sergio Cubero, Enrique Molto
Individual items of any agricultural commodity are different from each other in terms of colour, shape or size. Furthermore, as they are living thing, they change their quality attributes over time, thereby making the development of accurate automatic inspection machines a challenging task. Machine vision-based systems and new optical technologies make it feasible to create non-destructive control and monitoring tools for quality assessment to ensure adequate accomplishment of food standards. Such systems are much faster than any manual non-destructive examination of fruit and vegetable quality, thus allowing the whole production to be inspected with objective and repeatable criteria...
March 14, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271151/wood-processing-residues
#6
Ulrike Saal, Holger Weimar, Udo Mantau
Rising demand for and scarcity of wood - together with cost savings and resource efficiency requirements - have led to a constant increase in the use of wood processing residues, where appropriate, in the production of wood-based products. This chapter presents/reviews the available information and existing knowledge of residues at various regional levels. It describes the segment of wood processing residues as an important wood resource and the availability of data on a national and on a global level for the quantification and the projection of the resource...
March 8, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255871/antibody-mimetics-peptides-and-peptidomimetics
#7
Xiaoying Zhang, Thirumalai Diraviyam
In spite of their widespread applications as therapeutic, diagnostic, and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have enthused scientists to plan for next-generation biomedical agents, the so-called antibody mimetics, which offer many advantages compared to traditional antibodies. Antibody mimetics could be designed through protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions with intervening framework regions. In the recent decade, extensive progress has been made in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae), and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255719/a-protein-expression-toolkit-for-studying-signaling-in-t-cells
#8
Ana Mafalda Santos, Jiandong Huo, Deborah Hatherley, Mami Chirifu, Simon J Davis
Innate and adaptive cellular immunity is dependent on interactions of cell surface receptors that initiate signaling, resulting in the formation of the immunological synapse and targeted delivery of effector functions. There has been considerable interest over the past 30 years in methods for isolating the extracellular regions of these receptors and components of the cytoplasmic signaling networks. This chapter describes our current protein expression toolkit used for structural studies of signaling proteins and the functional reconstitution of model cell surfaces, which comprises both bacterial and mammalian cell-based protein expression methodologies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255703/mathematical-modeling-of-synaptic-patterns
#9
Anastasios Siokis, Philippe A Robert, Michael Meyer-Hermann
During antigen recognition by T cells, a specific spatial structure is formed at the contact face to an antigen-presenting cell (APC), called an immunological synapse (IS). The IS supports bidirectional signaling and release of effector molecules and is widely studied both biologically and numerically, in order to understand the process of T cell activation and signaling. This specialized structure harbors a central area (central supramolecular activation cluster, cSMAC) populated by T cell receptor-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (TCR-pMHC ) interactions, hedged by a peripheral ring (peripheral supramolecular activation cluster, pSMAC) of integrin lymphocyte function associated-1 interactions with its immunoglobulin superfamily ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (LFA-1-ICAM-1)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247231/update-from-the-4th-edition-of-the-world-health-organization-classification-of-head-and-neck-tumours-what-is-new-in-the-2017-who-blue-book-for-tumours-of-the-hypopharynx-larynx-trachea-and-parapharyngeal-space
#10
Nina Gale, Mario Poljak, Nina Zidar
Chapter 3 "Tumours of the hypopharynx, larynx, trachea, and parapharyngeal space" of the World Health Organization (WHO) Blue Book 2017 "Classification of Head and Neck Tumours" shows a shortened list of entities, especially due to reducing the number of benign and malignant soft tissue tumours, malignant melanoma and some others, which are transferred to more frequently affected regions of the head and neck. The basic concept of the new edition is to assimilate all advances concerning the discussed tumours in a shorter framework, appropriate for daily work...
March 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237005/pediatric-epilepsy-neurology-functional-imaging-and-neurosurgery
#11
REVIEW
James M Mountz, Christina M Patterson, Mandeep S Tamber
In this chapter we provide a comprehensive review of the current role that functional imaging can have in the care of the pediatric epilepsy patient from the perspective of the epilepsy neurologist and the epilepsy neurosurgeon. In the neurology section, the diagnosis and classification of epilepsy adapted by the International League Against Epilepsy as well as the etiology and incidence of the disease is presented. The neuroimaging section describes how advanced nuclear medicine imaging methods can be synergized to provide a maximum opportunity to localize an epileptogenic focus...
March 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224495/hidden-markov-models-in-bioinformatics-snv-inference-from-next-generation-sequence
#12
Jiawen Bian, Xiaobo Zhou
The rapid development of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology provides a novel avenue for genomic exploration and research. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have wide applications in pattern recognition as well as Bioinformatics such as transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules detection. An application of HMM is introduced in this chapter with the in-deep developing of NGS. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) inferred from NGS are expected to reveal gene mutations in cancer. However, NGS has lower sequence coverage and poor SNV detection capability in the regulatory regions of the genome...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215329/biotechnological-applications-of-marine-enzymes-from-algae-bacteria-fungi-and-sponges
#13
S Parte, V L Sirisha, J S D'Souza
Diversity is the hallmark of all life forms that inhabit the soil, air, water, and land. All these habitats pose their unique inherent challenges so as to breed the "fittest" creatures. Similarly, the biodiversity from the marine ecosystem has evolved unique properties due to challenging environment. These challenges include permafrost regions to hydrothermal vents, oceanic trenches to abyssal plains, fluctuating saline conditions, pH, temperature, light, atmospheric pressure, and the availability of nutrients...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215307/structural-characterization-of-the-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-a-stranger-in-the-tnfr-superfamily
#14
M Vilar
Although p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) was the founding member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), it is an atypical TNFRSF protein. p75(NTR) like TNF-R1 and Fas-R contain an extracellular domain with four cysteine-rich domains (CRD) and a death domain (DD) in the intracellular region. While TNFRSF proteins are activated by trimeric TNFSF ligands, p75(NTR) forms dimers activated by dimeric neurotrophins that are structurally unrelated to TNFSF proteins. In addition, although p75(NTR) shares with other members the interaction with the TNF receptor-associated factors to activate the NF-κB and cell death pathways, p75(NTR) does not interact with the DD-containing proteins FADD, TRADD, or MyD88...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215297/neurotrophins-role-in-placental-growth-and-development
#15
A S Sahay, D P Sundrani, S R Joshi
Neurotrophins, a family of closely related proteins, were originally identified as growth factors for survival, development, and function of neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Subsequently, neurotrophins have been shown to have functions in immune and reproductive systems. Neurotrophins like nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to play an important role during pregnancy in the process of placental angiogenesis and maturation. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of neurotrophins in the human placenta...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215282/how-does-experience-shape-early-development-considering-the-role-of-top-down-mechanisms
#16
L L Emberson
Perceptual development requires infants to adapt their perceptual systems to the structures and statistical information of their environment. In this way, perceptual development is not only important in its own right, but is a case study for behavioral and neural plasticity-powerful mechanisms that have the potential to support developmental change in numerous domains starting early in life. While it is widely assumed that perceptual development is a bottom-up process, where simple exposure to sensory input modifies perceptual representations starting early in the perceptual system, there are several critical phenomena in this literature that cannot be explained with an exclusively bottom-up model...
2017: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213812/the-neuroscience-of-human-decision-making-through-the-lens-of-learning-and-memory
#17
Lesley K Fellows
We are called upon to make decisions, large and small, many times a day. Whether in the voting booth, the stock exchange, or the cafeteria line, we identify potential options, estimate and compare their subjective values, and make a choice. Decision-making has only recently become a focus for cognitive neuroscience. The last two decades have seen rapid progress in our understanding of the brain basis of at least some aspects of this rather complex aspect of cognition. This work has provided fresh perspectives on poorly understood brain regions, such as orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197920/sumoylation-modulates-the-susceptibility-to-type-1-diabetes
#18
Jing Zhang, Zhishui Chen, Zhiguang Zhou, Ping Yang, Cong-Yi Wang
Susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) is determined by interactions of multiple genes with environmental triggers. Thus far, more than 50 T1D susceptibility regions have been suggested from genetic studies by employing either genome-wide or candidate gene approaches. Because the lack of a linear correlation between the presence of risk genes and the onset of disease, the exact susceptible genes encoded in these regions remain largely elusive. In 2004, we first reported the cloning of a novel small ubiquitin -like modifier (SUMO) gene, SUMO4, in the IDDM5 region on chromosome 6q25, and presented strong genetic and functional evidence suggesting that SUMO4 could be a novel T1D susceptibility gene...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155152/detecting-neuronal-differentiation-markers-in-newborn-cells-of-the-adult-brain
#19
Sara Bonzano, Silvia De Marchis
Adult neurogenesis is the lifelong generation of new neurons that occurs into restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, namely the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. In this chapter, we describe the procedures aimed to investigate adult neurogenesis in the murine brain. Specifically, we explain how to inject into animals exogenous markers of proliferation (i.e., BrdU) and prepare brain tissues to perform immunofluorescence reactions for neuronal markers in combination with BrdU staining...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150197/preparation-and-characterization-of-magnetic-nano-in-microparticles-for-pulmonary-delivery
#20
Amber A McBride, Dominique N Price, Pavan Muttil
The purpose of this chapter is to detail the formulation and characterization of a magnetically-targeted drug delivery vehicle, termed nano-in-microparticles (NIMs), for pulmonary drug delivery. Currently, chemotherapeutics and antibiotics are delivered systemically and result in whole body side-effects. NIMs are formulated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, termed SPIONs, making these particles targetable to specific lung regions using a strong external magnet. Additionally, these particles can be formulated to contain any drug or therapeutic agent, such that a therapeutic dose can be delivered to a specific tissue location using the SPIONs-magnet interaction...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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