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Regional chapter

Amir A Borhani, Sara E Monaco
Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of cervical lymph nodes is a minimally invasive method performed for the characterization of abnormal lymph nodes, staging, and for the detection of regional tumor recurrence. When performed with proper technique and by a skilled proceduralist, this technique offers a very high diagnostic yield and can potentially save the patient from more invasive procedures. Its diagnostic role in different disease processes and the variations in technique as well as its potential risks and pitfalls will be discussed in this article...
October 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Daniel Thomas Ginat, Anca M Avram
Determining the extent of disease is necessary for guiding the management of thyroid carcinomas. Diagnostic imaging, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine scans, plays an essential role in staging and restaging of thyroid carcinomas. This article reviews the approaches and imaging findings for evaluating the primary tumor, regional lymph node metastases, and distant metastases. In addition, potential pitfalls are discussed and depicted.
October 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Hrishikesh Kale, Tanya J Rath
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is an important cause of cancer morbidity worldwide and has been stratified into human papillomavirus-related and human papillomavirus-unrelated subgroups that affect prognosis and now staging. Conventional anatomical imaging methods are suboptimal for the detection of regional and distant metastases that are important prognosticators associated with poor outcomes. Functional imaging with (F18)-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a useful tool in the management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, providing complementary physiological and anatomical information...
October 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Hillary R Kelly, Hugh D Curtin
The presence of cervical lymph node metastases is a major prognostic factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The presence of a solitary ipsilateral metastatic lymph node reduces expected survival by almost 50%, and the presence of regional metastatic nodes at the time of presentation is the strongest predictor of recurrence or the development of distant metastases or both. Therefore, accurate identification of metastatic cervical lymph nodes is essential for staging and treatment planning. Pretreatment imaging is important for identifying clinically occult pathologic nodes as well as delineating nodal size and morphologic characteristics used in staging...
October 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
How-Ran Guo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Epidemiology
Ines de Santiago, Thomas Carroll
The development of novel high-throughput sequencing methods for ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) has provided a very powerful tool to study gene regulation in multiple conditions at unprecedented resolution and scale. Proactive quality-control and appropriate data analysis techniques are of critical importance to extract the most meaningful results from the data. Over the last years, an array of R/Bioconductor tools has been developed allowing researchers to process and analyze ChIP-seq data. This chapter provides an overview of the methods available to analyze ChIP-seq data based primarily on software packages from the open-source Bioconductor project...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Amarjit Saini, Carl Johan Sundberg
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an invaluable method for studying interactions between histone proteins and genomic DNA regions and transcriptional regulation using antibodies to enrich genomic regions associated with these epitopes. Either to monitor the presence of histones with post-translational modifications at specific genomic locations or to measure transcription factor interactions with a candidate target gene, protein-DNA complexes are most commonly crosslinked using formaldehyde, which stabilizes these transient interactions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mário A F Soares, Diogo S Castro
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is considered the method of choice for characterizing interactions between a protein of interest and specific genomic regions. It is of paramount importance in gene-regulation studies, as it can be used to map the target regions of sequence-specific transcription factors and cofactors, or histone marks that characterize distinct chromatin states. ChIP can be used directly to probe interactions with candidate regions (ChIP-PCR), or coupled to Next-Generation Sequencing (ChIP-seq) to generate genome-wide information...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
David L Denlinger, Daniel A Hahn, Christine Merlin, Christina M Holzapfel, William E Bradshaw
Seasonal change in daylength (photoperiod) is widely used by insects to regulate temporal patterns of development and behaviour, including the timing of diapause (dormancy) and migration. Flexibility of the photoperiodic response is critical for rapid shifts to new hosts, survival in the face of global climate change and to reproductive isolation. At the same time, the daily circadian clock is also essential for development, diapause and multiple behaviours, including correct flight orientation during long-distance migration...
November 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Isidro Ferrer, Noemi Vidal
The chapter describes the epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases, anatomy of the cerebral blood vessels, pathophysiology of ischemia, hypoxia, hypoxemia, anemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, carbon monoxide damage, hyperoxid brain damage and decompression sickness, and selective cell and regional vulnerability; diseases of the blood vessels including atherosclerosis, hypertensive angiopathy, small vessel disease, inflammatory vascular diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathies, CADASIL, CARASIL and other diseases that can lead to cerebrovascular occlusion; intracranial and intraspinal aneurysms and vascular malformations; hematologic disorders that can cause cerebral infarct or hemorrhage; brain ischemic damage; and spontaneous intracranial bleeding...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Nikolaus Deigendesch, Werner Stenzel
Pathogen-induced inflammatory diseases mostly involving, but sometimes exclusively affecting, the central nervous system (CNS) manifest with a plethora of signs and symptoms. The different diseases are still difficult to cure despite modern diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic advances, and this is mainly due to the host inflammatory response, leading to irreversible tissue damage. Knowledge about underlying pathomechanisms is constantly growing, and numerous studies on humans, human material, and animal models as well as in vitro systems have considerably increased our understanding of molecular mechanisms; however, there are still enormous uncertainties with respect to host-pathogen interaction and treatment...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Daniel O Stram
Haplotype analysis forms the basis of much of genetic association analysis using both related and unrelated individuals (we concentrate on unrelated). For example, haplotype analysis indirectly underlies the SNP imputation methods that are used for testing trait associations with known but unmeasured variants and for performing collaborative post-GWAS meta-analysis. This chapter is focused on the direct use of haplotypes in association testing. It reviews the rationale for haplotype-based association testing, discusses statistical issues related to haplotype uncertainty that affect the analysis, then gives practical guidance for testing haplotype-based associations with phenotype or outcome trait, first of candidate gene regions and then for the genome as a whole...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wei Xu, Jin Ma, Celia M T Greenwood, Andrew D Paterson, Shelley B Bull
Genetic linkage analysis aims to detect chromosomal regions containing genetic variants that influence risk of specific inherited diseases. The presence of linkage is indicated when a disease or trait cosegregates through the families with genetic markers at a particular region of the genome. Two main types of genetic linkage analysis are in common use, namely model-based linkage analysis and model-free linkage analysis. In this chapter, we focus solely on the latter type and specifically on binary traits or phenotypes, such as the presence or absence of a specific disease...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fernando E Padovan-Neto, Anthony R West
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis and inactivation of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP/cGMP) in the brain. Several classes of PDE enzymes with distinct tissue distributions, cyclic nucleotide selectivity, and regulatory factors are highly expressed in brain regions subserving cognitive and motor processes known to be disrupted in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, small-molecule inhibitors of several different PDE family members alter cyclic nucleotide levels and favorably enhance motor performance and cognition in animal disease models...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
C Dorner-Ciossek, K S Kroker, H Rosenbrock
Inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) has been demonstrated to enhance performance of animals in various cognition tasks and accordingly PDE inhibitors have been proposed as new approach for treatment of cognitive dysfunction (Reneerkens et al. Psychopharmacology 202:419-443, 2009; Schmidt Curr Top Med Chem 10(2):222-230, 2010). One of the eleven PDE isoforms, showing expression in cognition relevant brain regions across species, is PDE9, which hydrolyzes cGMP only. Furthermore, it is well established that the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway and NMDA receptor signaling has a crucial function in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Alice Conigliaro, Simona Fontana, Stefania Raimondo, Riccardo Alessandro
Cell-cell communication is crucial to maintain homeostasis in multicellular organism. Cells communicate each other by direct contact or by releasing factors that, soluble or packaged in membrane vesicles, can reach different regions of the organism. To date numerous studies highlighted the existence of several types of extracellular vesicles that, differing for dimension, origin and contents, play a role in physiological and/or pathological processes. Among extracellular vesicles, exosomes are emerging as efficient players to modulate target cells phenotype and as new non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic tools in multiple diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andrea Bleckmann, Thomas Dresselhaus
A key element to understand developmental and reproductive processes like germline development, double fertilization, and embryogenesis is the study of cell-specific gene expression patterns which is best analyzed by RNA in situ hybridization. Different visualization techniques have been established to mark either the region of mRNA production (using the classical chromogenic detection system) or the specific localization of mRNAs (using fluorescent labeled probes). In this chapter, we describe and compare whole mount RNA in situ hybridization techniques on ovules and young developing seeds from Arabidopsis thaliana using three different detection systems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Liliana Letra, Daniela Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Functional neuroimaging is beginning to yield valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of the effects of obesity on neural circuits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been used to identify aberrant activation patterns in regions implicated in reward (e.g., striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus), sensory and motor processing (e...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Yuxia Zhang, Bing Huang
Next to T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells are the third largest lymphocyte population. They are recently re-categorized as innate lymphocytes (ILCs), which also include ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, and the lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Both NK cells and ILC1 cells are designated as group 1 ILCs because they secrete interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). However, in contrast to ILC1 and all other ILCs, NK cells possess potent cytolytic functions that resemble cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Eric M Cockman, Donna M Driscoll
This chapter explains the use of RNase-assisted RNA chromatography. RNA affinity chromatography is a powerful technique that is used to isolate and identify proteins that bind to a specific RNA ligand. The RNA of interest is attached to beads before protein lysates are passed over the column. In traditional RNA chromatography, bound proteins are eluted with high salt or harsh detergent, which can also release proteins that are nonspecifically bound to the beads. To avoid this, a new method was developed in which RNases are used to cleave RNA from the beads, releasing only RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and leaving behind proteins that are bound to the beads (Michlewski and Caceres, RNA 16(8):1673-1678, 2010)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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