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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197920/sumoylation-modulates-the-susceptibility-to-type-1-diabetes
#1
Jing Zhang, Zhishui Chen, Zhiguang Zhou, Ping Yang, Cong-Yi Wang
Susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) is determined by interactions of multiple genes with environmental triggers. Thus far, more than 50 T1D susceptibility regions have been suggested from genetic studies by employing either genome-wide or candidate gene approaches. Because the lack of a linear correlation between the presence of risk genes and the onset of disease, the exact susceptible genes encoded in these regions remain largely elusive. In 2004, we first reported the cloning of a novel small ubiquitin -like modifier (SUMO) gene, SUMO4, in the IDDM5 region on chromosome 6q25, and presented strong genetic and functional evidence suggesting that SUMO4 could be a novel T1D susceptibility gene...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155152/detecting-neuronal-differentiation-markers-in-newborn-cells-of-the-adult-brain
#2
Sara Bonzano, Silvia De Marchis
Adult neurogenesis is the lifelong generation of new neurons that occurs into restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, namely the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. In this chapter, we describe the procedures aimed to investigate adult neurogenesis in the murine brain. Specifically, we explain how to inject into animals exogenous markers of proliferation (i.e., BrdU) and prepare brain tissues to perform immunofluorescence reactions for neuronal markers in combination with BrdU staining...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150197/preparation-and-characterization-of-magnetic-nano-in-microparticles-for-pulmonary-delivery
#3
Amber A McBride, Dominique N Price, Pavan Muttil
The purpose of this chapter is to detail the formulation and characterization of a magnetically-targeted drug delivery vehicle, termed nano-in-microparticles (NIMs), for pulmonary drug delivery. Currently, chemotherapeutics and antibiotics are delivered systemically and result in whole body side-effects. NIMs are formulated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, termed SPIONs, making these particles targetable to specific lung regions using a strong external magnet. Additionally, these particles can be formulated to contain any drug or therapeutic agent, such that a therapeutic dose can be delivered to a specific tissue location using the SPIONs-magnet interaction...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146282/preparation-of-specific-compartments-of-the-lungs-for-pathologic-and-biochemical-analysis-of-toxicologic-responses
#4
Laura S Van Winkle, Jacklyn S Kelty, Charles G Plopper
This unit focuses on protocols for assessing microenvironment-specific responses in the thoracic lung tissues. Aspects of the entire respiratory system serve as potential targets for candidate toxicants, but each candidate toxicant may impact distinct sites due to differential distribution of either the toxicant or the target cells. Within the conducting airways, the composition of resident cell populations and the metabolic capabilities of the cell populations vary greatly. Thus, studies of this region of the lung require unique, site-selective methods to clearly define the toxic response...
February 1, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131365/global-distribution-of-alveolar-and-cystic-echinococcosis
#5
P Deplazes, L Rinaldi, C A Alvarez Rojas, P R Torgerson, M F Harandi, T Romig, D Antolova, J M Schurer, S Lahmar, G Cringoli, J Magambo, R C A Thompson, E J Jenkins
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) are severe helminthic zoonoses. Echinococcus multilocularis (causative agent of AE) is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere where it is typically maintained in a wild animal cycle including canids as definitive hosts and rodents as intermediate hosts. The species Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus intermedius are the causative agents of CE with a worldwide distribution and a highly variable human disease burden in the different endemic areas depending upon human behavioural risk factors, the diversity and ecology of animal host assemblages and the genetic diversity within Echinococcus species which differ in their zoonotic potential and pathogenicity...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106585/competencies-related-to-informatics-and-information-management-for-practicing-nurses-and-nurses-leaders-in-brazil-and-south-america
#6
Sayonara de Fatima Faria Barbosa
Informatics and information management competency has an important role for nursing. However, these competencies in Brazil and South America lack definition, and are just beginning to develop in these regions with different realities. This chapter presents information related to the development of informatics competencies for nursing in these areas.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106584/international-evolution-of-tiger-informatics-competencies
#7
Joyce Sensmeier, Christel Anderson, Toria Shaw
The TIGER Initiative aims to explain how to equip practicing nurses with informatics competencies. This chapter describes a collaborative effort to identify global informatics requirements in relation to core competencies and to match them with national and regional needs. Recommendations from the TIGER Informatics Competency Synthesis Project, described here, have implications for an international framework of informatics competencies for all types of health care professionals including nurses.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106578/imia-educational-recommendations-and-nursing-informatics
#8
John Mantas, Arie Hasman
The updated version of the IMIA educational recommendations has given an adequate guidelines platform for developing educational programs in Biomedical and Health Informatics at all levels of education, vocational training, and distance learning. This chapter will provide a brief introduction of the recommendations pinpointing aspects for developing and assessing educational programs. We will provide a review of the existing feedback we have acquired during the IMIA site visits of accrediting educational programs at a worldwide level and discuss implementations issues...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089250/pathology-of-behavior-in-pd-what-is-known-and-what-is-not
#9
REVIEW
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Simon J G Lewis
Abnormal behavior in Parkinson's disease (PD) stems from a complex orchestration of impaired neural networks that result from PD-related neurodegeneration across multiple levels. Typically, cellular and tissue abnormalities generate neurochemical changes and disrupt specific regions of the brain, in turn creating impaired neural circuits and dysfunctional global networks. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of the array of pathological changes that have been linked to different behavioral symptoms of PD such as depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue, impulse control disorders, psychosis, sleep disorders and dementia...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063057/quantitative-assessment-of-cerebral-basement-membranes-using-electron-microscopy
#10
Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Anton Page, Alan Morris, Roy O Weller, Roxana O Carare
In this chapter we describe in detail the tissue processing techniques we employ for the study of cerebral tissue by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In particular, we explain a technique that enables quantification of changes in cerebral basement membranes at the ultrastructural level. This is significant, as age related pathological conditions affecting the brain are often accompanied by ultrastructural changes in the cerebral vasculature.Briefly, experimental mice are fixed by perfusion and their brains removed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062042/single-molecule-characterization-of-dna-protein-interactions-using-nanopore-biosensors
#11
A H Squires, T Gilboa, C Torfstein, N Varongchayakul, A Meller
Detection and characterization of nucleic acid-protein interactions, particularly those involving DNA and proteins such as transcription factors, enzymes, and DNA packaging proteins, remain significant barriers to our understanding of genetic regulation. Nanopores are an extremely sensitive and versatile sensing platform for label-free detection of single biomolecules. Analyte molecules are drawn to and through a nanoscale aperture by an electrophoretic force, which acts upon their native charge while in the sensing region of the pore...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060470/perspectives-on-self-advocacy-comparing-perceived-uses-benefits-and-drawbacks-among-survivors-and-providers
#12
Teresa Hagan
Purpose/Objectives: To describe and compare survivors' and providers' views of the uses of and perceived benefits and drawbacks of survivor self-advocacy. Design: A cross-sectional, two-group, mixed-methods survey. Setting: Survivors were recruited from local and national registries and advocacy organizations. Providers were recruited from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Cancer Center and a regional Oncology Nursing Society chapter...
3, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057300/neurotoxicity-pathways-in-drosophila-models-of-the-polyglutamine-disorders
#13
M Krench, J T Littleton
Although polyglutamine expansion diseases are the most common genetically inherited neurodegenerative disorders, the key pathogenic mechanisms that lead to neuronal cell death are unclear. The expansion of a polyglutamine tract in specific proteins is the defining molecular insult, leading to cell-type and region-specific neuronal death. Intraneuronal aggregates of the affected protein can be found in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm and are a hallmark of these disorders. Whether and how aggregation leads to pathology, however, is under debate...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034729/neonatal-and-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-developing-latin-american-countries
#14
Javier Kattan, Álvaro González, Andrés Castillo, Luiz Fernando Caneo
OBJECTIVE: To review the principles of neonatal-pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource-limited countries in Latino America. SOURCES: The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly-indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides "time" for pulmonary and cardiac rest and for recovery...
December 26, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025812/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-eyeblink-classical-conditioning
#15
Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
This chapter reviews the past research toward identifying the brain circuit and its computation underlying the associative memory in eyeblink classical conditioning. In the standard delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm, the conditioned stimulus (CS) and eyeblink-eliciting unconditioned stimulus (US) converge in the cerebellar cortex and interpositus nucleus (IPN) through the pontine nuclei and inferior olivary nucleus. Repeated pairings of CS and US modify synaptic weights in the cerebellar cortex and IPN, enabling IPN neurons to activate the red nucleus and generate the conditioned response (CR)...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982554/regional-anaesthesia-and-antithrombotic-agents-instructions-for-use
#16
Gennaro Scibelli, Lucia Maio, Gennaro Savoia
BACKGROUND: The use of anticoagulant agents represents a serious limitation of regional anesthesia, due to the risk of spinal hematoma. Examining all the principles currently available, it has been possible to notice that published guidelines are very often incomplete or also differ significantly on the rules to be followed relating to a specific drug. METHODS: We have carried out a comparison between the guidelines of major scientific societies in order to take a practical and simple user guide which operators can consult...
December 16, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975273/localization-in-oogenesis-of-maternal-regulators-of-embryonic-development
#17
Matias Escobar-Aguirre, Yaniv M Elkouby, Mary C Mullins
Cell polarity generates intracellular asymmetries and functional regionalization in tissues and morphogenetic processes. Cell polarity in development often relies on mechanisms of RNA localization to specific subcellular domains to define the identity of future developing tissues. The totipotent egg of most animals illustrates in a grand way the importance of cell polarity and RNA localization in regulating multiple crucial developmental events. The polarization of the egg arises during its development in oogenesis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975244/tau-interaction-with-tubulin-and-microtubules-from-purified-proteins-to-cells
#18
Tiphany De Bessa, Gilles Breuzard, Diane Allegro, François Devred, Vincent Peyrot, Pascale Barbier
Microtubules (MTs) play an important role in many cellular processes and are dynamic structures regulated by an important network of microtubules-associated proteins, MAPs, such as Tau. Tau has been discovered as an essential factor for MTs formation in vitro, and its region implicated in binding to MTs has been identified. By contrast, the affinity, the stoichiometry, and the topology of Tau-MTs interaction remain controversial. Indeed, depending on the experiment conditions a wide range of values have been obtained...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975228/protein-structural-analysis-via-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#19
Antonio Artigues, Owen W Nadeau, Mary Ashley Rimmer, Maria T Villar, Xiuxia Du, Aron W Fenton, Gerald M Carlson
Modern mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided a versatile platform that can be combined with a large number of techniques to analyze protein structure and dynamics. These techniques include the three detailed in this chapter: (1) hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX), (2) limited proteolysis, and (3) chemical crosslinking (CX). HDX relies on the change in mass of a protein upon its dilution into deuterated buffer, which results in varied deuterium content within its backbone amides. Structural information on surface exposed, flexible or disordered linker regions of proteins can be achieved through limited proteolysis, using a variety of proteases and only small extents of digestion...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960190/epidemiology
#20
Philip Gorelick, Ka Sing Wong, Liping Liu
Intracranial atherosclerotic occlusive disease is an important and possibly the most common cause of stroke worldwide. Asian, Black and certain Hispanic populations have a high risk of harboring intracranial occlusive disease. In this chapter we review the epidemiology of intracranial occlusive disease by primarily focusing on studies from China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. In addition, we compare and contrast the information from Asian countries with that from North America and related regions...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
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