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K S Rock, R J Quinnell, G F Medley, O Courtenay
The leishmaniases comprise a complex of diseases characterized by clinical outcomes that range from self-limiting to chronic, and disfiguring and stigmatizing to life threatening. Diagnostic methods, treatments, and vector and reservoir control options exist, but deciding the most effective interventions requires a quantitative understanding of the population level infection and disease dynamics. The effectiveness of any set of interventions has to be determined within the context of operational conditions, including economic and political commitment...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
R M Anderson, H C Turner, S H Farrell, J E Truscott
Schistosomiasis is global in extent within developing countries, but more than 90% of the at-risk population lives in sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 261 million people are estimated to require preventive treatment. However, with increasing drug availability through donation, the World Health Organization has set a goal of increasing coverage to 75% of at-risk children in endemic countries and elimination in some regions. In this chapter, we discuss key biological and epidemiological processes involved in the schistosome transmission cycle and review the history of modelling schistosomiasis and the impact of mass drug administration, including both deterministic and stochastic approaches...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Judith Pérez-Velázquez, Jana L Gevertz, Aleksandra Karolak, Katarzyna A Rejniak
A tumor vasculature that is functionally abnormal results in irregular gradients of metabolites and drugs within the tumor tissue. Recently, significant efforts have been committed to experimentally examine how cellular response to anti-cancer treatments varies based on the environment in which the cells are grown. In vitro studies point to specific conditions in which tumor cells can remain dormant and survive the treatment. In vivo results suggest that cells can escape the effects of drug therapy in tissue regions that are poorly penetrated by the drugs...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sarah L Crittenden, Hannah S Seidel, Judith Kimble
The Caenorhabditis elegans germline is an excellent model for studying the regulation of a pool of stem cells and progression of cells from a stem cell state to a differentiated state. At the tissue level, the germline is organized in an assembly line with the germline stem cell (GSC) pool at one end and differentiated cells at the other. A simple mesenchymal niche caps the GSC region of the germline and maintains GSCs in an undifferentiated state by signaling through the conserved Notch pathway. Downstream of Notch signaling, key regulators include novel LST-1 and SYGL-1 proteins and a network of RNA regulatory proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sujata Chakraborty, Matteo Vatta, Linda L Bachinski, Ralf Krahe, Stephen Dlouhy, Shaochun Bai
Myotonic dystrophy types 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2) are autosomal dominant, microsatellite repeat expansion disorders that affect muscle function. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is caused by CTG repeat expansion in the 3' UTR region of the DMPK gene. Patients with DM2 have expansion of CCTG repeats in intron 1 of the CNBP gene. In this unit, we review and discuss the clinical phenotypes, genetic mutations causing the diseases, and the molecular diagnostic approaches and tools that are used to determine repeat sizes in DM1/2...
October 11, 2016: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
Maninder Ahuja
INTRODUCTION: Age of menopause is a very important biomarker of not only the loss of fertility but also an increased risk for various mid-life diseases and problems. Many of these diseases can be prevented by timely intervention of lifestyle modification, menopausal hormone therapy, or other supplementations such as calcium, Vitamin D, and micronutrients. In India age of menopause is less than our counterparts in the Western world. This means that the fertility potential of Indian women starts compromising early, so we need to start with the preventive measures much early...
July 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
Gaurav Majumdar, Rendani Mbau, Vinayak Singh, Digby F Warner, Marte Singsås Dragset, Raju Mukherjee
TnSeq, or transposon (Tn) insertion sequencing, is a powerful method for identifying the essential-as well as conditionally essential-regions in a genome, both coding and noncoding. The advent of accessible massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies in particular has resulted in the increased use of TnSeq-based approaches to elucidate various aspects of bacterial physiology and metabolism. Moreover, the availability of detailed protocols has enabled even nonspecialist laboratories to adapt and develop TnSeq approaches to address specific research questions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Damian T Rieke, Ulrich Keilholz
Recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer describes tumor deposits that arise locally, regionally, or at distant sites after treatment or distant metastases at the time of primary diagnosis. Prognosis for R/M squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) is poor and treatment options are limited in this situation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important risk factor for HNSCC. About 40 % of all HNSCC have been attributed to HPV in Europe. HPV positivity at initial diagnosis is the single best prognostic factor for survival...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Xavier Castellsagué, Marisa Mena, Laia Alemany
Strong evidence has accumulated in the last 15 years showing that infection by certain human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is etiologically involved in a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). In this chapter, epidemiologic-related topics on HNCs are reviewed: (i) HPV-attributable fractions and HPV-type distributions by different anatomical HNC sites, using not only HPV DNA but other more specific markers of causality; (ii) an update of the HPV-related HNCs burden worldwide and by regions; and finally, (iii) the determinants for HPV positivity in HNCs, focussing on gender, age, smoking habits, sexual behavior, and other related factors such as tonsillectomy performance...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Ivo de Sena Oliveira, Ming Bai, Henry Jahn, Vladimir Gross, Christine Martin, Jörg U Hammel, Weiwei Zhang, Georg Mayer
The anomalous occurrence of supposedly Gondwanan taxa in Laurasian-derived regions remains an intriguing chapter of paleobiogeographical history. Representatives of Peripatidae, a major subgroup of velvet worms (Onychophora), show a disjointed distribution in the neotropics, tropical Africa, and Southeast Asia, the latter being the only landmass previously associated with Laurasia [1, 2]. The arrival of these animals in Southeast Asia is explained by two alternative, albeit not mutually exclusive, hypotheses: an early migration via Europe before continental drift (Eurogondwana hypothesis) or transportation via insular India during the Cretaceous and Paleogene ("out-of-India" hypothesis) [3-6]...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Adam J O Dede, Christine N Smith
It is well established that patients with memory impairment have more difficulty retrieving memories from the recent past relative to the remote past and that damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a key role in this pattern of impairment. The precise role of the MTL and how it may interact with other brain regions remains an area of active research. We investigated the role of structures in a memory network that supports remembering. Our chapter focuses on two types of memory: episodic memory and semantic memory...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
João Barroso, Il Young Ahn, Cristiane Caldeira, Paul L Carmichael, Warren Casey, Sandra Coecke, Rodger Curren, Bertrand Desprez, Chantra Eskes, Claudius Griesinger, Jiabin Guo, Erin Hill, Annett Janusch Roi, Hajime Kojima, Jin Li, Chae Hyung Lim, Wlamir Moura, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, HyeKyung Park, Shuangqing Peng, Octavio Presgrave, Tim Singer, Soo Jung Sohn, Carl Westmoreland, Maurice Whelan, Xingfen Yang, Ying Yang, Valérie Zuang
The development and validation of scientific alternatives to animal testing is important not only from an ethical perspective (implementation of 3Rs), but also to improve safety assessment decision making with the use of mechanistic information of higher relevance to humans. To be effective in these efforts, it is however imperative that validation centres, industry, regulatory bodies, academia and other interested parties ensure a strong international cooperation, cross-sector collaboration and intense communication in the design, execution, and peer review of validation studies...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Rebecca A Clewell, Patrick D McMullen, Yeyejide Adeleye, Paul L Carmichael, Melvin E Andersen
The field of toxicity testing for non-pharmaceutical chemicals is in flux with multiple initiatives in North America and the EU to move away from animal testing to mode-of-action based in vitro assays. In this arena, there are still obstacles to overcome, such as developing appropriate cellular assays, creating pathway-based dose-response models and refining in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) tools. Overall, it is necessary to provide assurances that these new approaches are adequately protective of human and ecological health...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Pawel Piatkowski, Joanna M Kasprzak, Deepak Kumar, Marcin Magnus, Grzegorz Chojnowski, Janusz M Bujnicki
RNA encompasses an essential part of all known forms of life. The functions of many RNA molecules are dependent on their ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is laborious and challenging, and therefore, the majority of known RNAs remain structurally uncharacterized. To address this problem, computational structure prediction methods were developed that either utilize information derived from known structures of other RNA molecules (by way of template-based modeling) or attempt to simulate the physical process of RNA structure formation (by way of template-free modeling)...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Benjamin Leblanc, Itys Comet, Frédéric Bantignies, Giacomo Cavalli
4C methods are useful to investigate dependencies between regulatory mechanisms and chromatin structures by revealing the frequency of chromatin contacts between a locus of interest and remote sequences on the chromosome. In this chapter we describe a protocol for the data analysis of microarray-based 4C experiments, presenting updated versions of the methods we used in a previous study of the large-scale chromatin interaction profile of a Polycomb response element in Drosophila. The protocol covers data preparation, normalization, microarray probe selection, and the multi-resolution detection of regions with enriched chromatin contacts...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Laura Wiehle, Achim Breiling
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a valuable method to investigate protein-DNA interactions in vivo. Since its discovery it has been indispensable to identify binding sites and patterns of a variety of DNA-interacting proteins, such as transcription factors and regulators, modified histones, and epigenetic modifiers. The Polycomb repressors were the first proteins that have been mapped using this technique, which provided the mechanistic basis for the understanding of their biological function. Cross-linked (XChIP) or native (NChIP) chromatin from tissues or cultured cells is fragmented and the protein of interest is immunoprecipitated using a specific antibody...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Vishal Jain
Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Eri Yuasa, Hisato Saitoh
This chapter deals with the fluorescence detection of SUMOylation and deSUMOylation in semi-intact cultured human cells, the so-called "in situ SUMOylation assay" and the "in situ deSUMOylation assay," respectively. In the in situ SUMOylation assay, the recombinant green-fluorescence protein fused to the SUMO1 (GFP-SUMO1) protein is used to visualize the nuclear rim, nucleolus, and nuclear bodies. These GFP signals represent cellular regions where SUMOylation efficiently takes place. If the recombinant SUMO-specific protease SENP1-catalytic domain is added after in situ SUMOylation, GFP signals can be erased...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
L Ma
Noncoding RNAs are important regulatory molecules of cellular processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that bind to complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated region of target mRNAs, leading to degradation of the target mRNAs and/or inhibition of their translation. Some miRNAs are essential for normal animal development; however, many other miRNAs are dispensable for development but play a critical role in pathological conditions, including tumorigenesis and metastasis. miRNA genes often reside at fragile chromosome sites and are deregulated in cancer...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
Mark D Whiting, Olga N Kokiko-Cochran
Animal models play a critical role in understanding the biomechanical, pathophysiological, and behavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In preclinical studies, cognitive impairment induced by TBI is often assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM). Frequently described as a hippocampally dependent spatial navigation task, the MWM is a highly integrative behavioral task that requires intact functioning in numerous brain regions and involves an interdependent set of mnemonic and non-mnemonic processes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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