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Mafalda Pardal
BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS: Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are associations of cannabis users that collectively organize the cultivation and distribution of cannabis. As this middle ground supply model has been active in Belgium for over a decade, this paper aims to examine CSCs' supply practices, noting any shifts from previously reported features of the model. METHODS: We draw on interviews with directors of seven currently active Belgian CSCs (n = 21) and their cannabis growers (n = 23)...
April 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
David M Lydon-Staley, Danielle S Bassett
Psychiatric disorders are disturbances of cognitive and behavioral processes mediated by the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that accurate biomarkers for psychiatric disorders might benefit from incorporating information regarding multiple brain regions and their interactions with one another, rather than considering local perturbations in brain structure and function alone. Recent advances in the field of applied mathematics generally - and network science specifically - provide a language to capture the complexity of interacting brain regions, and the application of this language to fundamental questions in neuroscience forms the emerging field of network neuroscience...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Sylvia Eiler, Nicolas Levy, Benoit Maillot, Julien Batisse, Karine Pradeau Aubreton, Oyindamola Oladosu, Marc Ruff
Purification of proteins containing disordered regions and participating in transient complexes is often challenging because of the small amounts available after purification, their heterogeneity, instability, and/or poor solubility. To circumvent these difficulties, we set up a methodology that enables the production of stable complexes in large amounts for structural and functional studies. In this chapter, we describe the methodology used to establish the best cell culture conditions and buffer compositions to optimize soluble protein production and their stabilization through protein complex formation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Humberto J Ferreira, Manel Esteller
DNA methylation is a dynamic epigenetic mark that characterizes different cellular developmental stages, including tissue-specific profiles. This CpG dinucleotide modification cooperates in the regulation of the output of the cellular genetic content, in both healthy and pathological conditions. According to endogenous and exogenous stimuli, DNA methylation is involved in gene transcription, alternative splicing, imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and control of transposable elements. When these dinucleotides are organized in dense regions are called CpG islands (CGIs), being commonly known as transcriptional regulatory regions frequently associated with the promoter region of several genes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Agnieszka A Kaczor, Damian Bartuzi, Tomasz Maciej Stępniewski, Dariusz Matosiuk, Jana Selent
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are responsible for a number of key physiological processes in the living cells and underlie the pathomechanism of many diseases. Nowadays, along with the concept of so-called "hot spots" in protein-protein interactions, which are well-defined interface regions responsible for most of the binding energy, these interfaces can be targeted with modulators. In order to apply structure-based design techniques to design PPIs modulators, a three-dimensional structure of protein complex has to be available...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Heval Atas, Nurcan Tuncbag, Tunca Doğan
Proteins use their functional regions to exploit various activities, including binding to other proteins, nucleic acids, or drugs. Functional sites of the proteins have a tendency to be more conserved than the rest of the protein surface. Therefore, detection of the conserved residues using phylogenetic analysis is a general approach to predict functionally critical residues. In this chapter, we describe some of the available methods to predict functional sites and demonstrate a complete pipeline with tool alternatives at several steps...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Antonia M Savarese, Amy W Lasek
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing brain disease that currently afflicts over 15 million adults in the United States. Despite its prevalence, there are only three FDA-approved medications for AUD treatment, all of which show limited efficacy. Because of their ability to alter expression of a large number of genes, often with great cell-type and brain-region specificity, transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers serve as promising new targets for the development of AUD treatments aimed at the neural circuitry that underlies chronic alcohol abuse...
March 29, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Jeyalatchagan Sureshkumar, Rajendran Silambarasan, Kumar Avinash Bharati, Jayaraj Krupa, Singamoorthy Amalraj, Muniappan Ayyanar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pteridophytes have been considered an excellent source of medicine since ancient times and remain underexplored in ethnobotanical aspects when compared to other vascular plants. Hence, an attempt has been made to compile medicinally important pteridophytes used by different ethnic minorities and local people in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant information on the uses of pteridophytes was extracted from scientific journals (local, regional, and international), books, book chapters, conference proceedings, M...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper addresses the structure, organization and activities of PRM bodies in Europe. There are four main bodies, the Section of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) very close to the European Union and is committed to define the professional competencies of PRM, the quality management and accreditation and with the Board the educational matters. The European College of PRM is served by the UEMS PRM Board and its main activities are analyzed below in the description of the Board of the UEMS PRM Section...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jian Yang, Bo Liu, Haoyang Cai
Accurate detection of chromothripsis event is important to study the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. CTLPScanner ( ) is a web-based tool for identification and annotation of chromothripsis-like pattern (CTLP) in genomic array data. In this chapter, we illustrate the utility of CTLPScanner for screening chromosome pulverization regions and give interpretation of the results. The web interface offers a set of parameters and thresholds for customized screening. We also provide practical recommendations for effective chromothripsis detection...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andrea J Santamaría, Juan P Solano, Francisco D Benavides, James D Guest
Cell transplant-mediated tissue repair of the damaged spinal cord is being tested in several clinical trials. The current candidates are neural stem cells, stromal cells, and autologous Schwann cells (aSC). Due to their peripheral origin and limited penetration of astrocytic regions, aSC are transplanted intralesionally as compared to neural stem cells that are transplanted into intact spinal cord. Injections into either location can cause iatrogenic injury, and thus technical precision is important in the therapeutic risk-benefit equation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Susana R Cerqueira, Yee-Shuan Lee, Mary Bartlett Bunge
In vitro models using Schwann cell and astrocyte co-cultures have been used to understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of boundaries between these cells in vivo. Schwann cell/astrocyte co-cultures also mimic the in vivo scenario of a transplant in a spinal cord injury site, thereby allowing testing of therapeutic approaches. In this chapter, we describe a triple cell culture system with Schwann cells, astrocytes, and neurons that replicates axon growth from a Schwann cell graft into an astrocyte-rich region...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rachel I Anderson, David E Moorman, Howard C Becker
Understanding the neural systems that drive alcohol motivation and are disrupted in alcohol use disorders is of critical importance in developing novel treatments. The dynorphin and orexin/hypocretin neuropeptide systems are particularly relevant with respect to alcohol use and misuse. Both systems are strongly associated with alcohol-seeking behaviors, particularly in cases of high levels of alcohol use as seen in dependence. Furthermore, both systems also play a role in stress and anxiety, indicating that disruption of these systems may underlie long-term homeostatic dysregulation seen in alcohol use disorders...
March 11, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Riccardo Di Mambro, Sabrina Sabatini
Plant postembryonic development takes place in region called meristems that represent a reserve of undifferentiated cells. In the root meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana, all tissues originate from a stem-cell niche. Stem-cell daughters undergo a finite number of cell divisions until they reach the transition zone where divisions cease and cells start to differentiate. For meristem maintenance, and therefore continuous root growth, the rate of cell differentiation must equal the rate of generation of new cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Daniel Pella, Ján Fedačko, Rastislav Rajnoha, Beáta Gavurová, Samuel Koróny
AIM: Knowledge of the causes of deaths in Slovakia is lacking. This is significant because diet and lifestyle factors are different in central Europe compared to Western, Northern and Southern Europe. This study aims to discern trends of age-adjusted mortality rates caused by various diseases in relation to demographic factors. The aim of our study was to find certain statistical aspects including trends of age-adjusted mortality rates caused by neoplastic (Chapter II) and circulatory diseases (Chapter IX) in the Slovak population in relation to available demographic factors (sex, region and calendar year of death)...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Beáta Gavurová, Samuel Koróny, Michal Šoltés
AIM: The aim of our study was to find statistical associations including trends of standardised rate ratio of age-adjusted mortality rates for the male population as compared to the female population, in relation to available demographic factors (Chapter II - Neoplasms vs. Chapter IX - Diseases of the circulatory system, Slovak region and calendar year of death). METHODS: Dataset of individual cases of death in Slovakia with some demographic factors during 1996-2013 were provided by Slovak National Health Information Center...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Ján Fedačko, Daniel Pella, Beáta Gavurová, Samuel Koróny
OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to evaluate the influence of available demographic determinants on the number of deaths caused by circulatory system diseases as compared to deaths caused by neoplasms in Slovakia in 1996-2014. METHODS: Mortality data were kindly provided by the National Health Information Centre in Slovakia. The first method was trend curve fitting of death ratios caused by circulatory system diseases (Chapter IX) and of deaths caused by neoplasms (Chapter II) as a function of age for both sexes...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Beáta Gavurová, Matúš Kubák, Michal Šoltés, Miroslav Barták, Tatiana Vagašová
AIM: To describe the time trends, age and sex distribution of death from diabetes mellitus (E10-E14) as a significant part of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00-E90), during 1996-2014 in the Slovak regions, and to estimate the influence of social characteristics on mortality. METHODS: Secondary data on deaths during 1996-2014 were gathered from the National Health Information Center in the Slovak Republic. The total crude death rate per 100,000 of the standard Slovak population and age-standardized death rate per 100,000 of the standard European population were calculated by direct standardization...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Matúš Kubák, Beáta Gavurová, Peter Jarčuška, Martin Janičko
AIM: The Slovak Republic consists of eight regions which may dispose a different structure of cause-specific mortality. The aim of this study is to reveal the regions with higher risk of dying from the main categories of diseases selected according to the chapters of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). METHODS: Data were obtained from mortality reports throughout 1996-2014. We applied multinomial logistic regression analysis, where the dependent variable is death categories and the explanatory variables are regions, age, year and gender...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Samuel Harding-Forrester, Daniel E Feldman
Somatosensory areas containing topographic maps of the body surface are a major feature of parietal cortex. In primates, parietal cortex contains four somatosensory areas, each with its own map, with the primary cutaneous map in area 3b. Rodents have at least three parietal somatosensory areas. Maps are not isomorphic to the body surface, but magnify behaviorally important skin regions, which include the hands and face in primates, and the whiskers in rodents. Within each map, intracortical circuits process tactile information, mediate spatial integration, and support active sensation...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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