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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421499/chapter-15-development-of-a-nationwide-network-for-ovarian-tissue-cryopreservation
#1
Jana Liebenthron, Markus Montag
Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is gaining much interest since the publication of the first live birth after retransplantation of frozen-thawed tissue in 2004 (Donnez et al., Lancet 364:1405-1410, 2004). In contrast to cryopreservation of gametes and embryos, ovarian tissue freezing is a complex requiring a proper approach in order to make this a viable option for fertility preservation of cancer patients. Due to the need in terms of laboratory space, equipment, personnel, and adequate logistics, an ovarian tissue cryobank is most economic if managed as a centralized service unit that interacts with numerous clinics covering the surgical part...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409309/asymmetric-and-unequal-cell-divisions-in-ascidian-embryos
#2
Takefumi Negishi, Hiroki Nishida
Asymmetric cell division during embryogenesis contributes to cell diversity by generating daughter cells that adopt distinct developmental fates. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge of three examples of asymmetric cell division occurring in ascidian early embryos: (1) Three successive cell divisions that are asymmetric in terms of cell fate and unequal in cell size in the germline lineage at the embryo posterior pole. A subcellular structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), and maternal PEM mRNAs localized within it control both the positioning of the cell division planes and segregation of the germ cell fates...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400686/convergence-of-minds-for-better-patient-outcome-in-intensive-care-unit-infections
#3
Chand Wattal, Yash Javeri, Neeraj Goel, Debashish Dhar, Sonal Saxena, Sarman Singh, Jaswinder Kaur Oberoi, B K Rao, Purva Mathur, Vikas Manchanda, Vivek Nangia, Arti Kapil, Ashok Rattan, Supradip Ghosh, Omender Singh, Vinod Singh, Iqbal Kaur, Sanghamitra Datta, Sharmila Sen Gupta
BACKGROUND: There is emergence of resistance to the last-line antibiotics such as carbapenems in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), leaving little effective therapeutic options. Since there are no more newer antibiotics in the armamentarium in the near future, it has become imperative that we harness the interdisciplinary knowledge for the best clinical outcome of the patient. AIMS: The aim of the conference was to utilize the synergies between the clinical microbiologists and critical care specialists for better patient care and clinical outcome...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389951/mechanism-of-stator-assembly-and-incorporation-into-the-flagellar-motor
#4
Seiji Kojima
In many cases, conformational changes in proteins are related to their functions, and thereby inhibiting those changes causes functional defects. One way to perturb such conformational changes is to covalently link the regions where the changes are induced. Here, I introduce an example in which an intramolecular disulfide crosslink in the stator protein of PomB, introduced based on its crystal structure, reversibly inhibits the rotation of the flagellar motor, and I detail how we analyzed that phenotype. In this Chapter, first I describe how we monitor the motility inhibition and restoration by controlling disulfide bridge formation, and secondly how we detect intramolecular disulfide crosslinks, which are sometimes difficult to monitor by mobility shifts on SDS-PAGE gels...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389950/structure-of-the-mota-b-proton-channel
#5
Akio Kitao, Yasutaka Nishihara
Flagellar motors utilize the motive force of protons and other ions as an energy source. To elucidate the mechanisms of ion permeation and torque generation, it is essential to investigate the structure of the motor stator complex; however, the atomic structure of the transmembrane region of the stator has not been determined experimentally. We recently constructed an atomic model structure of the transmembrane region of the Escherichia coli MotA/B stator complex based on previously published disulfide cross-linking and tryptophan scanning mutations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389947/design-and-preparation-of-the-fragment-proteins-of-the-flagellar-components-suitable-for-x-ray-crystal-structure-analysis
#6
Katsumi Imada
Terminal disordering in a monomeric state is a common structural property among bacterial flagellar axial proteins. The conformational flexibility of disordered regions of a protein often disturbs its crystallization. Moreover, disordered regions sometimes cause the aggregation problem. Therefore, trimming disordered regions is essential for crystallization of this type of proteins. In this chapter, we describe a simple but powerful method to determine the stable core and metastable fragments of target proteins for crystallization...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389751/heat-shock-protein-a2-hspa2-regulatory-roles-in-germ-cell-development-and-sperm-function
#7
Brett Nixon, Elizabeth G Bromfield, Jinwei Cui, Geoffry N De Iuliis
Among the numerous families of heat shock protein (HSP) that have been implicated in the regulation of reproductive system development and function, those belonging to the 70 kDa HSP family have emerged as being indispensable for male fertility. In particular, the testis-enriched heat shock 70 kDa protein 2 (HSPA2) has been shown to be critical for the progression of germ cell differentiation during spermatogenesis in the mouse model. Beyond this developmentally important window, mounting evidence has also implicated HSPA2 in the functional transformation of the human sperm cell during their ascent of the female reproductive tract...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374244/generating-recombinant-pseudorabies-virus-for-use-as-a-vaccine-platform
#8
Feifei Tan, Xiangdong Li, Kegong Tian
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a promising vaccine vector due to its distinctive features including many nonessential replication regions and a broad host range. Foreign genes of other viruses have been successfully inserted into and expressed in PRV and these recombinant viruses are very likely to induce humoral and/or cellular responses in immunized animals. This chapter offers an overview of methods for generating recombinant pseudorabies virus for use as a vaccine vector.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372963/2016-rad-aid-conference-on-international%C3%A2-radiology-for-developing-countries-gaps-growth-and-united-nations-sustainable-development-goals
#9
Daniel J Mollura, Garshasb Soroosh, Melissa P Culp
The 2016 RAD-AID Conference analyzed the accelerated global activity in the radiology community that is transforming medical imaging into an effective spearhead of health care capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Global health efforts historically emphasized disaster response, crisis zones, and infectious disease outbreaks. However, the projected doubling of cancer and cardiovascular deaths in developing countries in the next 15 years and the need for higher technology screening and diagnostic technologies in low-resource regions, as articulated by the United Nations' new Sustainable Development Goals of 2016, is heightening the role of radiology in global health...
March 29, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353283/regulation-of-lrrk2-by-phosphatases
#10
Jean-Marc Taymans
LRRK2 is a highly phosphorylated protein, and evidence of a physiological role for LRRK2 phosphorylation has accumulated in recent years for cellular phosphosites, many of which are found in the ANK-LRR interdomain region, i.e., the S910/S935/S955/S973 sites as well as recently for autophosphorylation sites, at least one of which has been confirmed in cells, S1292. LRRK2 phosphorylation is modulated in several disease or potential therapy relevant conditions such as in disease mutant variants of LRRK2 or following LRRK2 kinase inhibitor treatment...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336061/enzymes-as-sensors
#11
Maria Staiano, Angela Pennacchio, Antonio Varriale, Alessandro Capo, Adelia Majoli, Clotilde Capacchione, Sabato D'Auria
Over the last few decades the development of new technologies, the fabrication of new materials, and the introduction of nanotechnologies created new trends in a series of advances that produced innovations in biological sensing devices with a wide range of application from health, security, defense, food, and medicine, to the environment. Specificity, low cost, rapidity, sensitivity, and multiplicity are some of the reasons for their growth, and their commercial success is expected to increase in the next future...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321815/immune-therapy-for-sarcomas
#12
Peter M Anderson
Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery rapidly occurring at 14 days after start of chemotherapy for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma is a good prognostic factor. Conversely, lymphopenia is associated with significantly decreased sarcoma survival. Clearly, the immune system can contribute towards better survival from sarcoma. This chapter will describe treatment and host factors that influence immune function and how effective local control and systemic interventions of sarcoma therapy can cause inflammation and/or immune suppression but are currently the standard of care...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321812/optimizing-radiotherapy-with-immunotherapeutic-approaches
#13
Jonathan E Schoenhals, Tijana Skrepnik, Ugur Selek, Maria A Cortez, Ailin Li, James W Welsh
Several factors must be considered to successfully integrate immunotherapy with radiation into clinical practice. One such factor is that concepts arising from preclinical work must be tested in combination with radiation in preclinical models to better understand how combination therapy will work in patients; examples include checkpoint inhibitors, tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-β) inhibitors, and natural killer (NK) cell therapy. Also, many radiation fields and fractionation schedules typically used in radiation therapy had been standardized before the introduction of advanced techniques for radiation planning and delivery that account for changes in tumor size, location, and motion during treatment, as well as uncertainties introduced by variations in patient setup between treatment fractions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317602/nanotechnology-approaches-for-increasing-nutrient-bioavailability
#14
S M Jafari, D J McClements
Health-promoting ingredients such as phenolic compounds, vitamins, and minerals are being increasingly introduced into foods and beverages to produce "functional foods" specifically designed to improve human health, well-being, and performance. However, it is often challenging to incorporate these nutraceuticals into foods because they have poor solubility characteristics, impart undesirable flavor profiles, are chemically unstable, or have low bioavailability. This problem can often be overcome by encapsulating the bioactive components in nanoparticle-based delivery systems...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289768/machine-vision-based-measurement-systems-for-fruit-and-vegetable-quality-control-in-postharvest
#15
José Blasco, Sandra Munera, Nuria Aleixos, Sergio Cubero, Enrique Molto
Individual items of any agricultural commodity are different from each other in terms of colour, shape or size. Furthermore, as they are living thing, they change their quality attributes over time, thereby making the development of accurate automatic inspection machines a challenging task. Machine vision-based systems and new optical technologies make it feasible to create non-destructive control and monitoring tools for quality assessment to ensure adequate accomplishment of food standards. Such systems are much faster than any manual non-destructive examination of fruit and vegetable quality, thus allowing the whole production to be inspected with objective and repeatable criteria...
March 14, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271151/wood-processing-residues
#16
Ulrike Saal, Holger Weimar, Udo Mantau
Rising demand for and scarcity of wood - together with cost savings and resource efficiency requirements - have led to a constant increase in the use of wood processing residues, where appropriate, in the production of wood-based products. This chapter presents/reviews the available information and existing knowledge of residues at various regional levels. It describes the segment of wood processing residues as an important wood resource and the availability of data on a national and on a global level for the quantification and the projection of the resource...
March 8, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255871/antibody-mimetics-peptides-and-peptidomimetics
#17
Xiaoying Zhang, Thirumalai Diraviyam
In spite of their widespread applications as therapeutic, diagnostic, and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have enthused scientists to plan for next-generation biomedical agents, the so-called antibody mimetics, which offer many advantages compared to traditional antibodies. Antibody mimetics could be designed through protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions with intervening framework regions. In the recent decade, extensive progress has been made in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae), and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255719/a-protein-expression-toolkit-for-studying-signaling-in-t-cells
#18
Ana Mafalda Santos, Jiandong Huo, Deborah Hatherley, Mami Chirifu, Simon J Davis
Innate and adaptive cellular immunity is dependent on interactions of cell surface receptors that initiate signaling, resulting in the formation of the immunological synapse and targeted delivery of effector functions. There has been considerable interest over the past 30 years in methods for isolating the extracellular regions of these receptors and components of the cytoplasmic signaling networks. This chapter describes our current protein expression toolkit used for structural studies of signaling proteins and the functional reconstitution of model cell surfaces, which comprises both bacterial and mammalian cell-based protein expression methodologies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255703/mathematical-modeling-of-synaptic-patterns
#19
Anastasios Siokis, Philippe A Robert, Michael Meyer-Hermann
During antigen recognition by T cells, a specific spatial structure is formed at the contact face to an antigen-presenting cell (APC), called an immunological synapse (IS). The IS supports bidirectional signaling and release of effector molecules and is widely studied both biologically and numerically, in order to understand the process of T cell activation and signaling. This specialized structure harbors a central area (central supramolecular activation cluster, cSMAC) populated by T cell receptor-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (TCR-pMHC ) interactions, hedged by a peripheral ring (peripheral supramolecular activation cluster, pSMAC) of integrin lymphocyte function associated-1 interactions with its immunoglobulin superfamily ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (LFA-1-ICAM-1)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247231/update-from-the-4th-edition-of-the-world-health-organization-classification-of-head-and-neck-tumours-what-is-new-in-the-2017-who-blue-book-for-tumours-of-the-hypopharynx-larynx-trachea-and-parapharyngeal-space
#20
Nina Gale, Mario Poljak, Nina Zidar
Chapter 3 "Tumours of the hypopharynx, larynx, trachea, and parapharyngeal space" of the World Health Organization (WHO) Blue Book 2017 "Classification of Head and Neck Tumours" shows a shortened list of entities, especially due to reducing the number of benign and malignant soft tissue tumours, malignant melanoma and some others, which are transferred to more frequently affected regions of the head and neck. The basic concept of the new edition is to assimilate all advances concerning the discussed tumours in a shorter framework, appropriate for daily work...
March 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
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