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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224162/methylation-specific-multiplex-ligation-dependent-probe-amplification-ms-mlpa
#1
Cathy B Moelans, Lilit Atanesyan, Suvi P Savola, Paul J van Diest
This chapter describes a method for the rapid assessment of promoter hypermethylation levels or methylation of imprinted regions in human genomic DNA extracted from various sources using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a powerful and easy-to-perform PCR-based technique that can identify gains, amplifications, losses, deletions, methylation and mutations of up to 55 targets in a single reaction, while requiring only minute quantities of DNA (about 50 ng) extracted from blood, fresh frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224147/comprehensive-whole-dna-methylome-analysis-by-integrating-medip-seq-and-mre-seq
#2
Xiaoyun Xing, Bo Zhang, Daofeng Li, Ting Wang
Understanding the role of DNA methylation often requires accurate assessment and comparison of these modifications in a genome-wide fashion. Sequencing-based DNA methylation profiling provides an unprecedented opportunity to map and compare complete DNA CpG methylomes. These include whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS), Reduced-Representation Bisulfite-Sequencing (RRBS), and enrichment-based methods such as MeDIP-seq, MBD-seq, and MRE-seq. An investigator needs a method that is flexible with the quantity of input DNA, provides the appropriate balance among genomic CpG coverage, resolution, quantitative accuracy, and cost, and comes with robust bioinformatics software for analyzing the data...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224102/brain-estrogens-and-feeding-behavior
#3
Yong Xu
Estrogens play essential roles in suppressing food intake and preventing body weight gain. Tremendous research efforts have been focused on estrogen physiology in the context of feeding control. Estrogen receptors and the related signals have been attractive targets for development of new obesity therapies. This chapter focuses on the functional interactions between brain estrogens and other appetite-regulatory signals, the critical estrogen receptor isoforms and distinct brain regions that mediate effects of estrogens on feeding, and the intracellular signals that are involved...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224096/origins-and-functions-of-the-ventrolateral-vmh-a-complex-neuronal-cluster-orchestrating-sex-differences-in-metabolism-and-behavior
#4
William C Krause, Holly A Ingraham
The neuroendocrine brain or hypothalamus has emerged as one of the most highly sexually dimorphic brain regions in mammals, and specifically in rodents. It is not surprising that hypothalamic nuclei play a pivotal role in controlling sex-dependent physiology. This brain region functions as a chief executive officer or master regulator of homeostatic physiological systems to integrate both external and internal signals. In this review, we describe sex differences in energy homeostasis that arise in one area of the hypothalamus, the ventrolateral subregion of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) with a focus on how male and female neurons function in metabolic and behavioral aspects...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222751/reconstruction-and-analysis-of-central-metabolism-in-microbes
#5
Janaka N Edirisinghe, José P Faria, Nomi L Harris, Benjamin H Allen, Christopher S Henry
Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) generated from automated reconstruction pipelines often lack accuracy due to the need for extensive gapfilling and the inference of periphery metabolic pathways based on lower-confidence annotations. The central carbon pathways and electron transport chains are among the most well-understood regions of microbial metabolism, and these pathways contribute significantly toward defining cellular behavior and growth conditions. Thus, it is often useful to construct a simplified core metabolic model (CMM) that is comprised of only the high-confidence central pathways...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218531/glut2-expressing-neurons-as-glucose-sensors-in-the-brain-electrophysiological-analysis
#6
Gwenaël Labouèbe, Bernard Thorens, Christophe Lamy
Brain glucose sensing plays an essential role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recent publications report that neurons expressing glucose transporter GLUT2 act as glucose sensors in different regions of the brain and contribute to the control of glucose homeostasis and feeding behavior. In this chapter we describe the methods used to explore glucose sensing in genetically tagged GLUT2-expressing neurons with slice electrophysiology.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214587/rare-neurodegenerative-diseases-clinical-and-genetic-update
#7
Antoni Matilla-Dueñas, Marc Corral-Juan, Agustí Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma, Dolores Vilas, Lourdes Ispierto, Sara Morais, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Víctor Volpini, Carmen Serrano-Munuera, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Ramiro Álvarez, Ivelisse Sánchez
More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, genetic brain disorders, head and brain malformations, hydrocephalus, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease), Huntington's disease, and Prion diseases, among others...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214387/dealing-with-difference-a-scoping-review-of-psychotherapeutic-interventions-with-unaccompanied-refugee-minors
#8
REVIEW
Gwladys Demazure, Sydney Gaultier, Nicolas Pinsault
Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are a population at risk for developing mental problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and/or depression. Therapists working with URMs often have to overcome language and cultural barriers, while taking into account these young people's specific needs. A growing literature describes a wide range of interventions designed to reduce psychopathologies and improve well-being. We summarized the different interventions used with URMs to get an overview of techniques used for reducing psychopathologies and difficulties of URMs and to give recommendations to help professionals...
December 6, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191519/opisthorchis-felineus-infection-prevalence-in-western-siberia-a-review-of-russian-literature
#9
REVIEW
Olga S Fedorova, Marina M Fedotova, Tatiana S Sokolova, Ekaterina A Golovach, Yulia V Kovshirina, Tatiana S Ageeva, Anna E Kovshirina, Olga S Kobyakova, Ludmila M Ogorodova, Peter Odermatt
In this study we reviewed Russian scientific literature (scientific publications, book chapters, monographs) published between 1 January 1979 and 31 August 2015 from two sources: Main database of the Russian Scientific Electronic Library (eLIBRARY, http://elibrary.ru/), and the Scientific Medical Library of Siberian State Medical University (http://medlib.tomsk.ru/). Specifically, the review details the infection prevalence of Opisthorchis felineus (O. felineus) in Western Siberia, Russian Federation. From the primary key words screening, 1591 records were identified from which 32 Russian-language publications were relevant...
November 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190030/visualizing-astrocytes-of-the-optic-nerve
#10
Daniel Sun
Astrocytes make up approximately 30% of all the cells in the mammalian central nervous system. They are not passive, as once thought, but are integral to brain physiology and perform many functions that are important for normal neuronal development and metabolism, synapse formation, synaptic transmission, and in repair following injury/disease. Astrocytes also communicate with neurons, blood vessels, and other types of glial cells. Astrocytes within the optic nerve head region play a key role in glaucomatous axon degeneration...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156486/-update-in-obstetric-anesthesia-tried-and-trusted-methods-controversies-and-new-perspectives
#11
Peter Kranke, Thorsten Annecke, Dorothee H Bremerich, Daniel Chappell, Thierry Girard, Wiebke Gogarten, Robert Hanß, Lutz Kaufner, Sophie Neuhaus, Tobias Ninke, Thomas Standl, Stefan Weber, Yvonne Jelting, Thomas Volk
Since 1975, a plethora of lectures within the context of annual meetings relevant for the clinical care has been summarized in "what's new in obstetric anesthesia" by the society for Obstetric anesthesia and Perinatology which can be recommended to everyone interested in anaesthesiology in the delivery room. After the death of Gerard W. Ostheimer, Professor of Anaesthesiology at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, it became renamed the Gerard W. Ostheimer "what's new in obstetric anesthesia" lecture to honor his contributions to regional anesthesia and obstetric anaesthesia...
November 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145188/brueghel-syndrome-or-meige-syndrome-two-sides-of-a-same-disease
#12
M Béreau, L Tatu
Different eponyms such as "Wood syndrome," Meige syndrome, "Brueghel syndrome," "Blepharospasm plus syndrome" have been used to describe segmental craniocervical dystonias. These facial and/or oromandibular movement disorders are characterized by muscle contractions and spasms involving eyes, facial region, and sometimes pharynx, jaw, floor of the mouth, and tongue. The pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia is poorly understood, but abnormal plasticity and impaired inhibition are suspected. Injection of botulinum toxin appears to be the best therapeutic option for treating segmental craniocervical dystonia...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145185/hypersexuality-in-neurological-disorders-from-disinhibition-to-impulsivity
#13
M Béreau
Little is known about the neurological control of human sexual behavior. Investigating and measuring this behavior by using quantitative and objective methods is difficult. Insights from lesion studies contribute to analyze the effects of neurological disorders on human sexual behavior. In this chapter, we focus on frontal lobe lesions, brain injuries, epilepsia, dementia, and Parkinson disease to describe human sexual behavior disorders, in order to highlight cortical and subcortical brain regions and neural networks involved in human sexual behavior...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134600/visualization-of-phage-genomic-data-comparative-genomics-and-publication-quality-diagrams
#14
Dann Turner, J Mark Sutton, Darren M Reynolds, Eby M Sim, Nicola K Petty
The presentation of bacteriophage genomes as diagrams allows the location and organization of features to be communicated in a clear and effective manner. A wide range of software applications are available for the clear and accurate visualization of genomic data. Several of these applications incorporate comparative analysis tools, allowing for insertions, deletions, rearrangements and variations in syntenic regions to be visualized. In this chapter, freely available software and resources for the generation of high-quality graphical maps of bacteriophage genomes are listed and discussed...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134591/sequencing-assembling-and-finishing-complete-bacteriophage-genomes
#15
Daniel A Russell
Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies have made generating genomic sequence for organisms of interest affordable and commonplace. However, NGS platforms and analysis software are generally tuned to be used on large and complex genomes or metagenomic samples. Determining the complete genome sequence of a single bacteriophage requires a somewhat different perspective, workflow, and sensitivity to the nature of phages. Because phage genomes consist of mostly coding regions (see Pope/Jacobs-Sera chapter), a very high standard should be adopted when completing these genomes so that the subsequent steps of annotation and analysis are not sabotaged by sequencing errors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124711/from-uv-protection-to-protection-in-the-whole-spectral-range-of-the-solar-radiation-new-aspects-of-sunscreen-development
#16
Leonhard Zastrow, Martina C Meinke, Stephanie Albrecht, Alexa Patzelt, Juergen Lademann
Sunscreens have been constantly improving in the past few years. Today, they provide an efficient protection not only in the UVB but also in the UVA spectral region of the solar radiation. Recently it could be demonstrated that 50% of all free radicals induced in the skin due to solar radiation are formed in the visible and infrared spectral region. The good protective efficacy of sunscreens in the UV region prompts people to stay much longer in the sun than if they had left their skin unprotected. However, as no protection in the visible and infrared spectral region is provided, high amounts of free radicals are induced here that could easily exceed the critical radical concentration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116632/the-biology-and-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-africanum
#17
Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Bouke C de Jong, Florian Gehre
West Africa is the only region in the world where six out of seven mycobacterial lineages of human importance are endemic. In particular, two evolutionary ancient lineages, Mycobacterium africanum West Africa 1 (MTBC Lineage 5) and M. africanum West Africa 2 (MTBC Lineage 6) are of interest as they cause up to 40% of all pulmonary TB cases in some West African countries. Although these M. africanum lineages are closely related to M. tuberculosis sensu stricto lineages, they differ significantly in respect to biology, epidemiology and in their potential to cause disease in humans...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116520/next-generation-dna-sequencing-of-vh-vl-repertoires-a-primer-and-guide-to-applications-in-single-domain-antibody-discovery
#18
Kevin A Henry
Immunogenetic analyses of expressed antibody repertoires are becoming increasingly common experimental investigations and are critical to furthering our understanding of autoimmunity, infectious disease, and cancer. Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies have now made it possible to interrogate antibody repertoires to unprecedented depths, typically by sequencing of cDNAs encoding immunoglobulin variable domains. In this chapter, we describe simple, fast, and reliable methods for producing and sequencing multiplex PCR amplicons derived from the variable regions (VH, VHH or VL) of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes using the Illumina MiSeq platform...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116453/the-role-of-the-pulvinar-in-spatial-visual-attention
#19
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
This chapter deals with the role of the pulvinar in spatial visual attention. There are at least two aspects in which the pulvinar seems to be instrumental for selective visual processes. The first aspect concerns pulvinar connectivity pattern. The pulvinar is connected with brain regions known to be playing a role in attentional mechanisms, such as area V4, the superior colliculus (SC), and the inferior parietal cortex (IP). Additionally, the pulvinar is richly interconnected with multiple cortical areas. This enables the pulvinar to serve as a hub for brain communication, potentially gating the flow of information across different regions...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116452/gaba-inactivation-of-the-pulvinar
#20
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we discuss the effects of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) inactivation of the pulvinar on the electrophysiological responses to visual stimuli. A direct way to access the pulvinar-cortical interaction is to pharmacologically inactivate the pulvinar and measure the impact on cortical activity. To this aim, we have focused our efforts on recording in cortical visual area V2 while inactivating the topographically corresponding region of the pulvinar.
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
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