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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822130/exploiting-natural-variation-to-discover-candidate-genes-involved-in-photosynthesis-related-traits
#1
Franklin Magnum de Oliveira Silva, Lucas de Ávila Silva, Wagner L Araújo, Agustin Zsögön, Adriano Nunes-Nesi
Naturally occurring genetic variation in plants can be very useful to dissect the complex regulation of primary metabolism as well as of physiological traits such as photosynthesis and photorespiration. The physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying natural variation in closely related species or accessions may provide important information that can be used to improve crop yield. In this chapter we describe in detail the use of a population of introgression lines (ILs), with the Solanum pennellii IL population as a study case, as a tool for the identification of genomic regions involved in the control of photosynthetic efficiency...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815540/long-noncoding-rnas-in-mammalian-development-and-diseases
#2
Parna Saha, Shreekant Verma, Rashmi U Pathak, Rakesh K Mishra
Following analysis of sequenced genomes and transcriptome of many eukaryotes, it is evident that virtually all protein-coding genes have already been discovered. These advances have highlighted an intriguing paradox whereby the relative amount of protein-coding sequences remain constant but nonprotein-coding sequences increase consistently in parallel to increasing evolutionary complexity. It is established that differences between species map to nonprotein-coding regions of the genome that surprisingly is transcribed extensively...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815522/ceramide-transport-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-the-trans-golgi-region-at-organelle-membrane-contact-sites
#3
Kentaro Hanada
Lipids are the major constituents of all cell membranes and play dynamic roles in organelle structure and function. Although the spontaneous transfer of lipids between different membranes rarely occurs, lipids are appropriately transported between different organelles for their metabolism and to exert their functions in living cells. Proteins that have the biochemical capability to catalyze the intermembrane transfer of lipids are called lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). All organisms possess many types of LTPs...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809022/enhancer-analyses-using-chicken-embryo-electroporation
#4
Masanori Uchikawa, Naoko Nishimura, Makiko Iwafuchi-Doi, Hisato Kondoh
Chicken embryo electroporation is a powerful tool used to identify and analyze enhancers involved in developmental gene regulation. In this chapter, the basic procedures and underlying principles of enhancer analysis using chicken embryo electroporation are described in the following steps: (1) identification of enhancers in a wide genomic region, (2) determination of the full enhancer region, (3) definition of the core enhancer regions, and (4) analysis of a functional transcription factor binding sequences in the core region...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809016/application-of-a-cage-method-to-an-avian-development-study
#5
Ruslan Deviatiiarov, Marina Lizio, Oleg Gusev
Cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) is a convenient approach for genome-wide identification of promoter regions at single base-pair resolution level and accurate expression estimation of the corresponding transcripts. Depending on the initial biomaterial amount and sequencing technology, different computational pipelines for data processing are available, as well as variations of the CAGE protocol that improve sensitivity and accuracy. Therefore, this chapter elucidates the key steps of sample preparation, sequencing, and data analysis via an example of a promoter expression estimation study in chicken development...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809012/comparative-genomics-as-a-foundation-for-evo-devo-studies-in-birds
#6
Phil Grayson, Simon Y W Sin, Timothy B Sackton, Scott V Edwards
Developmental genomics is a rapidly growing field, and high-quality genomes are a useful foundation for comparative developmental studies. A high-quality genome forms an essential reference onto which the data from numerous assays and experiments, including ChIP-seq, ATAC-seq, and RNA-seq, can be mapped. A genome also streamlines and simplifies the development of primers used to amplify putative regulatory regions for enhancer screens, cDNA probes for in situ hybridization, microRNAs (miRNAs) or short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) for RNA interference (RNAi) knockdowns, mRNAs for misexpression studies, and even guide RNAs (gRNAs) for CRISPR knockouts...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793086/complex-chronic-conditions-in-children-and-adolescents-hospitalizations-in-brazil-2013
#7
Erly Catarina de Moura, Martha Cristina Nunes Moreira, Lívia Almeida Menezes, Isadora Almeida Ferreira, Romeu Gomes
This article aims to estimate the extent of hospitalizations for complex chronic conditions in Brazil. Data from the Hospital Information System for 2013 were compiled according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision. Hospitalization rates were estimated according to region, sex, age and disease chapter, taking into account the 2012 population as a reference, as well the percentage of highly complex procedures and mortality rates. Public hospitals treated 190,000 inpatients in 2013. The rate was highest among the population in the South of Brazil, those who were male and children under the age of one...
August 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758117/neurocardiology-cardiovascular-changes-and-specific-brain-region-infarcts
#8
REVIEW
Rongjun Zou, Wanting Shi, Jun Tao, Hongmu Li, Xifeng Lin, Songran Yang, Ping Hua
There are complex and dynamic reflex control networks between the heart and the brain, including cardiac and intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brainstem, and central nucleus. Recent literature based on animal model and clinical trials indicates a close link between cardiac function and nervous systems. It is noteworthy that the autonomic nervous-based therapeutics has shown great potential in the management of atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmia, and myocardial remodeling. However, the potential mechanisms of postoperative brain injury and cardiovascular changes, particularly heart rate variability and the presence of arrhythmias, are not understood...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755357/in-vitro-assessment-of-abiotic-stress-in-date-palm-salinity-and-drought
#9
Jameel M Al-Khayri, Poornananda M Naik, Hussain A Alwael
Date palm is one of the major crops growing in regions where abiotic stress conditions are extreme. Abiotic stress affects plant growth, development, physiology, and biochemical processes. This chapter describes a protocol to evaluate the response of date palm cultures to abiotic stresses. Tolerance to salinity stress is assessed using calcium chloride (CaCl2), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl) at 11.96, 12.06, and 9.45 g/L, respectively (equivalent to 0.8 MPa osmotic potential), with different exposure durations (1-12 days)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755226/gender-identification-in-date-palm-using-molecular-markers
#10
Faisal Saeed Awan, Maryam, Muhammad J Jaskani, Bushra Sadia
Breeding of date palm is complicated because of its long life cycle and heterozygous nature. Sexual propagation of date palm does not produce true-to-type plants. Sex of date palms cannot be identified until the first flowering stage. Molecular markers such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) have successfully been used to identify the sex-linked loci in the plant genome and to isolate the corresponding genes. This chapter highlights the use of three molecular markers including RAPD, SCAR, and SSR to identify the gender of date palm seedlings...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755225/early-sex-identification-in-date-palm-by-male-specific-sequence-characterized-amplified-region-scar-markers
#11
Pushpa Kharb, Charu Mitra
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a dioecious plant, and sex of the seedlings can be determined only at the time of first flowering which takes 4-5 years. Female date palm plants are of economic importance as they bear the fruit. Therefore, sex identification at an early stage is highly desirable. DNA-based markers are useful for early sex detection. In this chapter, we describe male-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers to identify sex in date palm at the seedling stage. Genomic DNA is isolated separately from both male and female date palm genotypes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755223/genotyping-and-molecular-identification-of-date-palm-cultivars-using-inter-simple-sequence-repeat-issr-markers
#12
Basim M Ayesh
Molecular markers are credible for the discrimination of genotypes and estimation of the extent of genetic diversity and relatedness in a set of genotypes. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers rapidly reveal high polymorphic fingerprints and have been used frequently to determine the genetic diversity among date palm cultivars. This chapter describes the application of ISSR markers for genotyping of date palm cultivars. The application involves extraction of genomic DNA from the target cultivars with reliable quality and quantity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755219/date-palm-genetic-diversity-analysis-using-microsatellite-polymorphism
#13
Hussam S M Khierallah, Saleh M Bader, Alladin Hamwieh, Michael Baum
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is considered one of the great socioeconomic resources in the Middle East and the Arab regions. The tree has been and still is at the center of the comprehensive agricultural development. The number of known date palm cultivars, distributed worldwide, is approximately 3000. The success of genetic diversity conservation or any breeding program depends on an understanding of the amount and distribution of the genetic variation already in existence in the genetic pool. Development of suitable DNA molecular markers for this tree may allow researchers to estimate genetic diversity, which will ultimately lead to the genetic conservation of date palm...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742585/genetics-of-endometriosis
#14
Kavitha Krishnamoorthy, Alan H Decherney
Endometriosis is a complex, puzzling disease in women of reproductive age. The exact cause of the disease is unknown; however, different genetic and environmental factors contribute to the evolution of the disorder. Further investigation has led to the discovery of inheritance as a complex genetic trait. Candidate genes were identified to isolate regions of genes that affect disease risk. Additional linkage studies have been performed to map specific genes along the entire genome. Recent advances to determine the genetic component of endometriosis include genome-wide association studies...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738332/neuroprogression-and-immune-activation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#15
Jeffrey H Meyer
Traditionally, the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been largely considered from the perspective of the state of major depressive episodes (MDE) versus being in remission, but the current accumulation of disease markers, largely acquired cross-sectionally, is strongly suggestive of neuroprogressive aspects of MDD. This chapter focuses on the changes in disease markers involved in the reorganization of the nervous system in MDD, including the translocator protein (TSPO; an index of microglial activation), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; an index of astroglial activation), [11C]harmine (a marker of monoamine oxidase A; MAO-A), and several other indices (metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 [mGluR5], excitatory amino acid transporters, and magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy measurements) of glutamate dysregulation...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730433/computational-prediction-of-the-immunomodulatory-potential-of-rna-sequences
#16
Gandharva Nagpal, Kumardeep Chaudhary, Sandeep Kumar Dhanda, Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava
Advances in the knowledge of various roles played by non-coding RNAs have stimulated the application of RNA molecules as therapeutics. Among these molecules, miRNA, siRNA, and CRISPR-Cas9 associated gRNA have been identified as the most potent RNA molecule classes with diverse therapeutic applications. One of the major limitations of RNA-based therapeutics is immunotoxicity of RNA molecules as it may induce the innate immune system. In contrast, RNA molecules that are potent immunostimulators are strong candidates for use in vaccine adjuvants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682454/developing-a-national-colorectal-educational-agenda-a-survey-of-the-acpgbi
#17
N K Francis, N J Curtis, C Weegenaar, P A Boorman, A Brook, G Thorpe, K Keogh, J Grainger, J Davies, J Wheeler, S R Brown, R J Steele, P Dawson
AIM: In order to develop its education agenda, the ACPGBI sought the opinion of its members on current coloproctology training needs. The aims of this study were to canvass multi-disciplinary needs and explore the perceived gaps and barriers to meeting them. METHOD: A learner needs analysis was performed between July 2015 and October 2016. A bespoke electronic survey was sent to 1,453 colorectal health care professionals (ACPGBI membership (1,173), colorectal nurse specialists and allied health professionals (NAHP) (261) and regional chapter-leads (19)) seeking their needs, experiences and barriers to training across the coloproctology disciplines...
July 6, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676924/the-p2x7-receptor
#18
Ronald Sluyter
The P2X7 receptor is a trimeric ion channel gated by extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate. The receptor is present on an increasing number of different cells types including stem, blood, glial, neural, ocular, bone, dental, exocrine, endothelial, muscle, renal and skin cells. The P2X7 receptor induces various downstream events in a cell-specific manner, including inflammatory molecule release, cell proliferation and death, metabolic events, and phagocytosis. As such this receptor plays important roles in heath and disease...
July 5, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639193/mirna-mediated-rna-activation-in-mammalian-cells
#19
Ramani Ramchandran, Pradeep Chaluvally-Raghavan
MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) is a small noncoding RNA molecule ~22 nucleotides in size, which is found in plants, animals, and some viruses. miRNAs are thought to primarily down regulate gene expression by binding to 3' untranslated regions of target transcripts, thereby triggering mRNA cleavage or repression of translation. Recently, evidence has emerged that miRNAs can interact with the promoter and activate gene expression. This mechanism, called RNA activation (RNAa), is a process of transcriptional activation where the direct interaction of miRNA on the promoter triggers the recruitment of transcription factors and RNA-Polymerase-II on the promoter to activate gene transcription...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639190/target-recognition-mechanism-and-specificity-of-rna-activation
#20
Huiqing Cao, Xing Meng, Xiaoxia Wang, Zicai Liang
Small activating RNA (saRNA)-mediated gene activation has opened a new avenue for upregulating the expression of target genes by promoting endogenous transcription, a phenomenon known as RNA activation (RNAa). RNAa is distinct from the established RNAi mechanistic framework, although AGO2 is required by both. The precise mechanism of RNAa is currently disputable and has become a bottleneck in the development of this new technology. saRNA may achieve activation of target genes by directly binding to DNA targets in promoter, or interacting with antisense transcripts transcribed from overlapping promoter sequences, or by silencing other genes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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