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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523503/hierarchical-cluster-analysis-to-aid-diagnostic-image-data-visualization-of-ms-and-other-medical-imaging-modalities
#1
Arul N Selvan, Laura M Cole, Lynne Spackman, Sarah Naylor, Chris Wright
Perceiving abnormal regions in the images of different medical modalities plays a crucial role in diagnosis and subsequent treatment planning. In medical images to visually perceive abnormalities' extent and boundaries requires substantial experience. Consequently, manually drawn region of interest (ROI) to outline boundaries of abnormalities suffers from limitations of human perception leading to inter-observer variability. As an alternative to human drawn ROI, it is proposed the use of a computer-based segmentation algorithm to segment digital medical image data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508370/a-proteomic-evaluation-of-sympathetic-activity-biomarkers-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-by-western-blotting-technique-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Hale Zerrin Toklu, Yasemin Sakarya, Nihal Tümer
Endocrine disorders and autonomic dysfunction are common paradigms following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following TBI may result in impaired vasopressor response, energy imbalance, fatigue, depression, or neurological disorders. Autonomic dysfunction is a common disorder following TBI. The sympathetic activity markers on HPA axis can be measured by Western blot protein analysis. Tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine beta hydroxylase are the key enzymes for the synthesis of norepinephrine; and neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the peptide that is co-stored and co-released with norepinephrine...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508367/combined-maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging-and-parafilm-assisted-microdissection-based-lc-ms-ms-workflows-in-the-study-of-the-brain
#3
Jusal Quanico, Julien Franck, Maxence Wisztorski, Michel Salzet, Isabelle Fournier
Proteins and other biomolecules such as lipids are significant players in the central nervous system and are implicated in various neurological disorders. Their identification, quantification, and distribution are thus important not only in understanding the disease but also in developing treatments. A combined workflow allowing the localized microextraction of discrete regions identified by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MSI) imaging experiment for proteomics analysis by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) is described in this chapter...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508315/trpc-channels-and-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Pramod Sukumaran, Yuyang Sun, Anne Schaar, Senthil Selvaraj, Brij B Singh
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, which involves degeneration of dopaminergic neurons that are present in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region. Many factors have been identified that could lead to Parkinson's disease; however, almost all of them are directly or indirectly dependent on Ca(2+) signaling. Importantly, though disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis have been implicated in Parkinson's disease and other neuronal diseases, the identity of the calcium channel remains elusive...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502004/somatic-dna-mutation-analysis
#5
Anthony O'Grady, Robert Cummins
Somatic mutations in patient tumor DNA samples can be readily detected based on mass spectrometry. The MassARRAY system is a high-throughput matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight (MALDI) mass spectrometer for detection of nucleic acids. The technique is based on single-nucleotide base extension. A series of PCR assays amplify specific DNA regions of interest harboring mutations. A third primer is then introduced into the reaction which corresponds to the DNA template immediately in front of the mutation site...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501997/using-laser-capture-microdissection-to-isolate-cortical-laminae-in-nonhuman-primate-brain
#6
Brian A Corgiat, Claudius Mueller
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a technique that allows procurement of an enriched cell population from a heterogeneous tissue sample under direct microscopic visualization. Fundamentally, laser capture microdissection consists of three main steps: (1) visualizing the desired cell population by microscopy, (2) melting a thermolabile polymer onto the desired cell populations using infrared laser energy to form a polymer-cell composite (capture method) or photovolatizing a region of tissue using ultraviolet laser energy (cutting method), and (3) removing the desired cell population from the heterogeneous tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499291/a-survey-of-25-north-carolina-health-departments-districts-on-knowledge-attitudes-and-current-practices-to-seeking-reimbursement-from-third-party-payers-for-sexually-transmitted-disease-services
#7
Cheryl L Kovar, Susan Carter
BACKGROUND: North Carolina Administrative Code 10A Chapter 41A.0204 (a) states "local health departments shall provide diagnosis, testing, treatment, follow-up, and preventive services for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, … These services shall be provided upon request and at no charge to the patient." Although health departments/districts may bill governmental or nongovernmental insurance providers for sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, current billing practices are unknown...
June 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477129/phenotypic-analysis-of-atm-protein-kinase-in-dna-double-strand-break-formation-and-repair
#8
Elisabeth Mian, Lisa Wiesmüller
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is involved in various regulatory processes in mammalian cells. Its best-known role is apical activation of the DNA damage response following generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). When DSBs appear, sensor and mediator proteins are recruited, activating transducers such as ATM, which in turn relay a widespread signal to a multitude of downstream effectors. ATM mutation causes Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), whereby the disease phenotype shows differing characteristics depending on the underlying ATM mutation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456985/detection-of-lysosomal-exocytosis-by-surface-exposure-of-lamp1-luminal-epitopes
#9
Norma W Andrews
Elevation in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration triggers exocytosis of lysosomes in many cell types. This chapter describes a method to detect lysosomal exocytosis in mammalian cells, which takes advantage of the presence of an abundant glycoprotein, Lamp1, on the membrane of lysosomes. Lamp1 is a transmembrane protein with a large, heavily glycosylated region that faces the lumen of lysosomes. When lysosomes fuse with the plasma membrane, epitopes present on the luminal domain of Lamp1 are exposed on the cell surface...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439865/identification-of-protein-dna-interactions-using-enhanced-yeast-one-hybrid-assays-and-a-semiautomated-approach
#10
Allison Gaudinier, Michelle Tang, Anne-Maarit Bågman, Siobhan M Brady
Yeast one-hybrid assays are an in vitro gene-centered approach to map transcription factor-DNA interactions. Here we describe this method and adaptations to screen for interactions between plant transcriptional regulators and their targets. Of particular note, the use of yeast one-hybrid assays fills in an important gap in available methodologies. When one is interested in a specific biological process of interest, the yeast one-hybrid assay is the only method that allows researchers to identify upstream regulators of the biological process of interest...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433109/pathogenesis-of-wilson-disease
#11
Ivo Florin Scheiber, Radan Brůha, Petr Dušek
Wilson disease is an autosomal-recessive disorder originating from a genetic defect in the copper-transporting ATPase ATP7B that is required for biliary copper secretion and loading of ceruloplasmin with copper. Impaired ATP7B function in Wilson disease results in excessive accumulation of copper in liver, brain, and other tissues. Toxic copper deposits may induce oxidative stress, modify expression of genes, directly inhibit proteins, and impair mitochondrial function, leading to hepatic, neuropsychiatric, renal, musculoskeletal, and other symptoms...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433101/wilson-disease-currently-used-anticopper-therapy
#12
Anna Członkowska, Tomasz Litwin
Wilson disease (WD) is a genetic disorder of copper metabolism that can be treated successfully with pharmacologic treatment. Two groups of drugs are currently used: chelators (e.g., d-penicillamine and trientine), which increase urinary copper excretion, and zinc salts, which inhibit copper absorption in the digestive tract. The mechanisms of action lead to a negative copper balance, stopping pathologic accumulation of copper in the tissues and clearing affected organs of copper overload. Due to a lack of prospective clinical trials, the use of drugs depends mainly on center experience and the accessibility in different countries or regions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421499/chapter-15-development-of-a-nationwide-network-for-ovarian-tissue-cryopreservation
#13
Jana Liebenthron, Markus Montag
Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is gaining much interest since the publication of the first live birth after retransplantation of frozen-thawed tissue in 2004 (Donnez et al., Lancet 364:1405-1410, 2004). In contrast to cryopreservation of gametes and embryos, ovarian tissue freezing is a complex requiring a proper approach in order to make this a viable option for fertility preservation of cancer patients. Due to the need in terms of laboratory space, equipment, personnel, and adequate logistics, an ovarian tissue cryobank is most economic if managed as a centralized service unit that interacts with numerous clinics covering the surgical part...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409309/asymmetric-and-unequal-cell-divisions-in-ascidian-embryos
#14
Takefumi Negishi, Hiroki Nishida
Asymmetric cell division during embryogenesis contributes to cell diversity by generating daughter cells that adopt distinct developmental fates. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge of three examples of asymmetric cell division occurring in ascidian early embryos: (1) Three successive cell divisions that are asymmetric in terms of cell fate and unequal in cell size in the germline lineage at the embryo posterior pole. A subcellular structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), and maternal PEM mRNAs localized within it control both the positioning of the cell division planes and segregation of the germ cell fates...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400686/convergence-of-minds-for-better-patient-outcome-in-intensive-care-unit-infections
#15
Chand Wattal, Yash Javeri, Neeraj Goel, Debashish Dhar, Sonal Saxena, Sarman Singh, Jaswinder Kaur Oberoi, B K Rao, Purva Mathur, Vikas Manchanda, Vivek Nangia, Arti Kapil, Ashok Rattan, Supradip Ghosh, Omender Singh, Vinod Singh, Iqbal Kaur, Sanghamitra Datta, Sharmila Sen Gupta
BACKGROUND: There is emergence of resistance to the last-line antibiotics such as carbapenems in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), leaving little effective therapeutic options. Since there are no more newer antibiotics in the armamentarium in the near future, it has become imperative that we harness the interdisciplinary knowledge for the best clinical outcome of the patient. AIMS: The aim of the conference was to utilize the synergies between the clinical microbiologists and critical care specialists for better patient care and clinical outcome...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389951/mechanism-of-stator-assembly-and-incorporation-into-the-flagellar-motor
#16
Seiji Kojima
In many cases, conformational changes in proteins are related to their functions, and thereby inhibiting those changes causes functional defects. One way to perturb such conformational changes is to covalently link the regions where the changes are induced. Here, I introduce an example in which an intramolecular disulfide crosslink in the stator protein of PomB, introduced based on its crystal structure, reversibly inhibits the rotation of the flagellar motor, and I detail how we analyzed that phenotype. In this Chapter, first I describe how we monitor the motility inhibition and restoration by controlling disulfide bridge formation, and secondly how we detect intramolecular disulfide crosslinks, which are sometimes difficult to monitor by mobility shifts on SDS-PAGE gels...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389950/structure-of-the-mota-b-proton-channel
#17
Akio Kitao, Yasutaka Nishihara
Flagellar motors utilize the motive force of protons and other ions as an energy source. To elucidate the mechanisms of ion permeation and torque generation, it is essential to investigate the structure of the motor stator complex; however, the atomic structure of the transmembrane region of the stator has not been determined experimentally. We recently constructed an atomic model structure of the transmembrane region of the Escherichia coli MotA/B stator complex based on previously published disulfide cross-linking and tryptophan scanning mutations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389947/design-and-preparation-of-the-fragment-proteins-of-the-flagellar-components-suitable-for-x-ray-crystal-structure-analysis
#18
Katsumi Imada
Terminal disordering in a monomeric state is a common structural property among bacterial flagellar axial proteins. The conformational flexibility of disordered regions of a protein often disturbs its crystallization. Moreover, disordered regions sometimes cause the aggregation problem. Therefore, trimming disordered regions is essential for crystallization of this type of proteins. In this chapter, we describe a simple but powerful method to determine the stable core and metastable fragments of target proteins for crystallization...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389751/heat-shock-protein-a2-hspa2-regulatory-roles-in-germ-cell-development-and-sperm-function
#19
Brett Nixon, Elizabeth G Bromfield, Jinwei Cui, Geoffry N De Iuliis
Among the numerous families of heat shock protein (HSP) that have been implicated in the regulation of reproductive system development and function, those belonging to the 70 kDa HSP family have emerged as being indispensable for male fertility. In particular, the testis-enriched heat shock 70 kDa protein 2 (HSPA2) has been shown to be critical for the progression of germ cell differentiation during spermatogenesis in the mouse model. Beyond this developmentally important window, mounting evidence has also implicated HSPA2 in the functional transformation of the human sperm cell during their ascent of the female reproductive tract...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374244/generating-recombinant-pseudorabies-virus-for-use-as-a-vaccine-platform
#20
Feifei Tan, Xiangdong Li, Kegong Tian
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a promising vaccine vector due to its distinctive features including many nonessential replication regions and a broad host range. Foreign genes of other viruses have been successfully inserted into and expressed in PRV and these recombinant viruses are very likely to induce humoral and/or cellular responses in immunized animals. This chapter offers an overview of methods for generating recombinant pseudorabies virus for use as a vaccine vector.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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