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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442324/rodent-zic-genes-in-neural-network-wiring
#1
Eloísa Herrera
The formation of the nervous system is a multistep process that yields a mature brain. Failure in any of the steps of this process may cause brain malfunction. In the early stages of embryonic development, neural progenitors quickly proliferate and then, at a specific moment, differentiate into neurons or glia. Once they become postmitotic neurons, they migrate to their final destinations and begin to extend their axons to connect with other neurons, sometimes located in quite distant regions, to establish different neural circuits...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442321/zic-genes-in-teleosts-their-roles-in-dorsoventral-patterning-in-the-somite
#2
Kota Abe, Toru Kawanishi, Hiroyuki Takeda
The medaka contains seven zic genes, two of which, zic1 and zic4, have been studied extensively. The analyses are mainly based on the double anal fin (Da) mutant, which was isolated from the wild. Da is an enhancer mutant of zic1/zic4, and the expression of zic1/zic4 is specifically lost in the dorsal half of the somites, which leads to a mirror-image duplication of the ventral half across the lateral midline from larva to adult. The studies of medaka Da give us important insights into the function of zic1/zic4 in mesodermal tissues and also the mechanism of dorsoventral patterning in the vertebrate trunk region occurring during late development, which is a long-standing mystery in developmental biology...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435931/in-vitro-methods-for-analyzing-mirna-roles-in-cancer-cell-proliferation-invasion-and-metastasis
#3
Jian Xu, Xuelian Xiao, Daheng Yang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding, single-stranded RNAs consisting of 20-24 nucleotides (Bartel, Cell 116:281-297, 2004), which regulate target genes expression by interacting with 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of target mRNAs, leading to translation repression or mRNA degradation (Filipowicz et al., Nat Rev Genet 9:102-114, 2008; Nilsen, Trends Genet 23:243-249, 2007). Accumulating evidence has elucidated them as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer (Liu et al...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435919/the-microrna
#4
Shao-Yao Ying, Donald C Chang, Shi-Lung Lin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), widely distributed, small regulatory RNA genes, target both messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation and suppression of protein translation based on sequence complementarity between the miRNA and its targeted mRNA. Different names have been used to describe various types of miRNA. During evolution, RNA retroviruses or transgenes invaded the eukaryotic genome and were inserted itself in the noncoding regions of DNA, conceivably acting as transposon-like jumping genes, providing defense from viral invasion and fine-tuning of gene expression as a secondary level of gene modulation in eukaryotes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435840/head-and-neck-reconstructive-surgery
#5
Edward Ray
Head and neck reconstruction following surgical extirpative management of head and neck cancer requires critical assessment and meticulous correction of both aesthetic and functional deficits to optimize the physical and psychological well-being of the patient. Unique to head and neck cancers is the potential alteration of one's senses, breathing, speech, and swallowing functions, as well as overall head and neck aesthetics. When possible, tissue defects are replaced with similar tissues, though donor sites may be anatomically local, regional, or distant...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433132/-the-economic-value-of-vaccinations-a-systematic-review-of-italian-economic-evaluations-and-hta-reports
#6
Francesco Di Nardo, Sara Boccalini, Giovanna Elisa Calabrò, Andrea Marcellusi, Matteo Ruggeri, Paolo Bonanni, Raffaella Vitali, Eleonora Capannini, Francesco Saverio Mennini, Americo Cicchetti, Donatella Panatto, Roberto Gasparini, Walter Ricciardi, Chiara De Waure
INTRODUCTION: Decision-making in healthcare should rely on evidence-based approaches able to make possible a transparent and robust assessment of all the aspects related to health technologies. One of the assessment elements is represented by the efficiency that is the specific objective of economic evaluations and also of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The collection and synthesis of evidence is the first indispensable step in order to foster a proper convey of scientific knowledge to the decision-makers...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427103/spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2
#7
Daniel R Scoles, Stefan M Pulst
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is autosomal dominantly inherited and caused by CAG repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene. Because the CAG repeat expansion is localized to an encoded region of ATXN2, the result is an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the ATXN2 protein. SCA2 is characterized by progressive ataxia, and slow saccades. No treatment for SCA2 exists. ATXN2 mutation causes gains of new or toxic functions for the ATXN2 protein, resulting in abnormally slow Purkinje cell (PC) firing frequency and ultimately PC loss...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423803/mirna-quantification-method-using-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-conjunction-with-c-q-method
#8
Fatjon Leti, Johanna K DiStefano
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that function to regulate gene expression. In general, miRNAs are posttranscriptional regulators that imperfectly bind to the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNAs bearing complementary sequences, and target more than half of all protein-coding genes in the human genome. The dysregulation of miRNA expression and activity has been linked with numerous diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and diabetes. To better understand the relationship between miRNAs and human disease, a variety of techniques have been used to measure and validate miRNA expression in many cells, tissues, body fluids, and organs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423802/methods-for-cpg-methylation-array-profiling-via-bisulfite-conversion
#9
Fatjon Leti, Lorida Llaci, Ivana Malenica, Johanna K DiStefano
DNA methylation is a key factor in epigenetic regulation, and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, including various forms of cancers, and epigenetic events such X inactivation, cellular differentiation and proliferation, and embryonic development. The most conserved epigenetic modification in plants, animals, and fungi is 5-methylcytosine (5mC), which has been well characterized across a diverse range of species. Many technologies have been developed to measure modifications in methylation with respect to biological processes, and the most common method, long considered a gold standard for identifying regions of methylation, is bisulfite conversion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423798/whole-exome-library-construction-for-next-generation-sequencing
#10
Winnie S Liang, Kristi Stephenson, Jonathan Adkins, Austin Christofferson, Adrienne Helland, Lori Cuyugan, Jonathan J Keats
Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a DNA sequencing strategy that provides a survey of base substitutions across coding genomic locations and other regions of interest. As the coding portion of the genome encompasses only 1-2% of the entire genome, this approach represents a more cost-effective strategy to detect DNA alterations that may alter protein function, compared to whole genome sequencing. Although the research community has and is currently delineating the functional implications of sequence changes in noncoding regions of the genome, WES is a currently available assay that provides valuable information for both discovery research and precision medicine applications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423795/the-emerging-role-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-human-disease
#11
Johanna K DiStefano
Only a small fraction of the human genome corresponds to protein-coding genes. Historically, the vast majority of genomic sequence was dismissed as transcriptionally silent, but recent large-scale investigations have instead revealed a rich array of functionally significant elements, including non-protein-coding transcripts, within the noncoding regions of the human genome. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a class of noncoding transcripts with lengths >200 nucleotides, are pervasively transcribed in the genome, and have been shown to bind DNA, RNA, and protein...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392702/evaluation-of-vascularity-blood-perfusion-and-oxygen-tension-in-tumor-xenografts-with-fluorescent-microscopy
#12
N Sumru Bayin, Dimitris G Placantonakis
Histologic heterogeneity in glioblastoma (GBM) is highlighted by regional variability in vascular density. Areas of vascular hyperplasia are interspersed with avascular territories, in which necrosis is surrounded by a zone of hypoxic tumor cells expressing stem cell markers, a phenomenon known as pseudopalisading necrosis. This vascular heterogeneity suggests intratumoral oxygen gradients, which regulate cellular and metabolic adaptations in tumor cells. Quantification of tumor vascularity, blood perfusion and oxygenation is therefore critical...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374839/chronic-alcohol-intrinsic-excitability-and-potassium-channels-neuroadaptations-and-drinking-behavior
#13
Reginald Cannady, Jennifer A Rinker, Sudarat Nimitvilai, John J Woodward, Patrick J Mulholland
Neural mechanisms underlying alcohol use disorder remain elusive, and this lack of understanding has slowed the development of efficacious treatment strategies for reducing relapse rates and prolonging abstinence. While synaptic adaptations produced by chronic alcohol exposure have been extensively characterized in a variety of brain regions, changes in intrinsic excitability of critical projection neurons are understudied. Accumulating evidence suggests that prolonged alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence produce plasticity of intrinsic excitability as measured by changes in evoked action potential firing and after-hyperpolarization amplitude...
January 28, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349760/advancements-and-personalization-of-breast-cancer-treatment-strategies-in-radiation-therapy
#14
Meena S Moran
Significant technologic advances in radiation treatment delivery now allow for more personalized delivery considerations which incorporate individual patient characteristics (such as tumor location and patient anatomy) and more precise delivery in the breast conservation or post-mastectomy setting. The combined advancements with other treatment modalities (i.e., systemic therapy, surgical management) have had direct effects on local-regional management and outcomes such that currently, local-regional relapses after definitive treatment for localized disease are now rarely experienced...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344868/laser-capture-microdissection-for-the-analysis-of-rat-and-human-spinal-cord-ependyma-by-qpcr
#15
Daniel Garcia-Ovejero, Beatriz Paniagua-Torija, Angel Arevalo-Martin, Beatriz Navarro-Galve, Eduardo Molina-Holgado
In the last few decades many efforts have been dedicated to decipher the nature and regenerative potential of neurogenic niches and endogenous stem cells after damage of the central nervous system. In the spinal cord, it has been largely focused on the ependymal region, which hosts neural precursors/stem cells (NSC) in rodents but differs between species and ages. In the current chapter, we detail our protocol to study the gene expression profile of this region using fresh frozen blocks of rat and human post-mortem spinal cords...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344857/adaptation-of-laser-microdissection-technique-to-nanostring-rna-analysis-in-the-study-of-a-spontaneous-metastatic-mammary-carcinoma-mouse-model
#16
Nadia P Castro, Yelena G Golubeva
The mouse model characterized by spontaneous lung metastasis from JygMC (A) cells closely resembles the human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype. The primary tumors morphologically present both epithelial and spindle-like cells, but metastases in lung parenchyma display only adenocarcinoma properties. In the study of molecular signatures, laser capture microdissection (LCM) on frozen tissue sections was used to separate the following regions of interest: the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), carcinoma, lung metastases, normal mammary gland and normal lung parenchyma...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341020/mri-in-the-study-of-animal-models-of-stroke
#17
Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Daniel Padro
Stroke consists of the loss of cerebral functions resulting from the interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, and represents the second cause of death and the leading cause of major disability in adults in Europe. Stroke is a very active field of research at preclinical and clinical levels, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful tools that scientist and clinicians have for the study of the onset, evolution and consequences of this devastating disease, as well as for the monitoring of the success of available treatments, or for the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330835/international-guidelines-for-groin-hernia-management
#18
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
February 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322419/analysis-of-dna-methylation-in-tissues-exposed-to-inflammation
#19
Naoko Hattori, Toshikazu Ushijima
Induction of aberrant DNA methylation is one of the most important mechanisms mediating the effect of inflammation on cancer development. Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands of tumor suppressor genes can silence their downstream genes, and that in cancer tissues is associated with prognosis or therapeutic effects. In addition, aberrant methylation can occur in tissues exposed to specific types of inflammation, producing a so-called "epigenetic field for cancerization," and its accumulation is correlated with cancer risk...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295910/range-expansion-and-the-origin-of-usa300-north-american-epidemic-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Lavanya Challagundla, Xiao Luo, Isabella A Tickler, Xavier Didelot, David C Coleman, Anna C Shore, Geoffrey W Coombs, Daniel O Sordelli, Eric L Brown, Robert Skov, Anders Rhod Larsen, Jinnethe Reyes, Iraida E Robledo, Guillermo J Vazquez, Raul Rivera, Paul D Fey, Kurt Stevenson, Shu-Hua Wang, Barry N Kreiswirth, Jose R Mediavilla, Cesar A Arias, Paul J Planet, Rathel L Nolan, Fred C Tenover, Richard V Goering, D Ashley Robinson
The USA300 North American epidemic (USA300-NAE) clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has caused a wave of severe skin and soft tissue infections in the United States since it emerged in the early 2000s, but its geographic origin is obscure. Here we use the population genomic signatures expected from the serial founder effects of a geographic range expansion to infer the origin of USA300-NAE and identify polymorphisms associated with its spread. Genome sequences from 357 isolates from 22 U.S...
January 2, 2018: MBio
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