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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089250/pathology-of-behavior-in-pd-what-is-known-and-what-is-not
#1
REVIEW
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Simon J G Lewis
Abnormal behavior in Parkinson's disease (PD) stems from a complex orchestration of impaired neural networks that result from PD-related neurodegeneration across multiple levels. Typically, cellular and tissue abnormalities generate neurochemical changes and disrupt specific regions of the brain, in turn creating impaired neural circuits and dysfunctional global networks. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of the array of pathological changes that have been linked to different behavioral symptoms of PD such as depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue, impulse control disorders, psychosis, sleep disorders and dementia...
December 29, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063057/quantitative-assessment-of-cerebral-basement-membranes-using-electron-microscopy
#2
Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Anton Page, Alan Morris, Roy O Weller, Roxana O Carare
In this chapter we describe in detail the tissue processing techniques we employ for the study of cerebral tissue by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In particular, we explain a technique that enables quantification of changes in cerebral basement membranes at the ultrastructural level. This is significant, as age related pathological conditions affecting the brain are often accompanied by ultrastructural changes in the cerebral vasculature.Briefly, experimental mice are fixed by perfusion and their brains removed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062042/single-molecule-characterization-of-dna-protein-interactions-using-nanopore-biosensors
#3
A H Squires, T Gilboa, C Torfstein, N Varongchayakul, A Meller
Detection and characterization of nucleic acid-protein interactions, particularly those involving DNA and proteins such as transcription factors, enzymes, and DNA packaging proteins, remain significant barriers to our understanding of genetic regulation. Nanopores are an extremely sensitive and versatile sensing platform for label-free detection of single biomolecules. Analyte molecules are drawn to and through a nanoscale aperture by an electrophoretic force, which acts upon their native charge while in the sensing region of the pore...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060470/perspectives-on-self-advocacy-comparing-perceived-uses-benefits-and-drawbacks-among-survivors-and-providers
#4
Teresa Hagan
Purpose/Objectives: To describe and compare survivors' and providers' views of the uses of and perceived benefits and drawbacks of survivor self-advocacy. Design: A cross-sectional, two-group, mixed-methods survey. Setting: Survivors were recruited from local and national registries and advocacy organizations. Providers were recruited from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Cancer Center and a regional Oncology Nursing Society chapter...
3, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057300/neurotoxicity-pathways-in-drosophila-models-of-the-polyglutamine-disorders
#5
M Krench, J T Littleton
Although polyglutamine expansion diseases are the most common genetically inherited neurodegenerative disorders, the key pathogenic mechanisms that lead to neuronal cell death are unclear. The expansion of a polyglutamine tract in specific proteins is the defining molecular insult, leading to cell-type and region-specific neuronal death. Intraneuronal aggregates of the affected protein can be found in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm and are a hallmark of these disorders. Whether and how aggregation leads to pathology, however, is under debate...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034729/neonatal-and-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-developing-latin-american-countries
#6
Javier Kattan, Álvaro González, Andrés Castillo, Luiz Fernando Caneo
OBJECTIVE: To review the principles of neonatal-pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource-limited countries in Latino America. SOURCES: The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly-indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides "time" for pulmonary and cardiac rest and for recovery...
December 26, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025812/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-eyeblink-classical-conditioning
#7
Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
This chapter reviews the past research toward identifying the brain circuit and its computation underlying the associative memory in eyeblink classical conditioning. In the standard delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm, the conditioned stimulus (CS) and eyeblink-eliciting unconditioned stimulus (US) converge in the cerebellar cortex and interpositus nucleus (IPN) through the pontine nuclei and inferior olivary nucleus. Repeated pairings of CS and US modify synaptic weights in the cerebellar cortex and IPN, enabling IPN neurons to activate the red nucleus and generate the conditioned response (CR)...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982554/regional-anaesthesia-and-antithrombotic-agents-instructions-for-use
#8
Gennaro Scibelli, Lucia Maio, Gennaro Savoia
BACKGROUND: The use of anticoagulant agents represents a serious limitation of regional anesthesia, due to the risk of spinal hematoma. Examining all the principles currently available, it has been possible to notice that published guidelines are very often incomplete or also differ significantly on the rules to be followed relating to a specific drug. METHODS: We have carried out a comparison between the guidelines of major scientific societies in order to take a practical and simple user guide which operators can consult...
December 16, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975273/localization-in-oogenesis-of-maternal-regulators-of-embryonic-development
#9
Matias Escobar-Aguirre, Yaniv M Elkouby, Mary C Mullins
Cell polarity generates intracellular asymmetries and functional regionalization in tissues and morphogenetic processes. Cell polarity in development often relies on mechanisms of RNA localization to specific subcellular domains to define the identity of future developing tissues. The totipotent egg of most animals illustrates in a grand way the importance of cell polarity and RNA localization in regulating multiple crucial developmental events. The polarization of the egg arises during its development in oogenesis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975244/tau-interaction-with-tubulin-and-microtubules-from-purified-proteins-to-cells
#10
Tiphany De Bessa, Gilles Breuzard, Diane Allegro, François Devred, Vincent Peyrot, Pascale Barbier
Microtubules (MTs) play an important role in many cellular processes and are dynamic structures regulated by an important network of microtubules-associated proteins, MAPs, such as Tau. Tau has been discovered as an essential factor for MTs formation in vitro, and its region implicated in binding to MTs has been identified. By contrast, the affinity, the stoichiometry, and the topology of Tau-MTs interaction remain controversial. Indeed, depending on the experiment conditions a wide range of values have been obtained...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975228/protein-structural-analysis-via-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#11
Antonio Artigues, Owen W Nadeau, Mary Ashley Rimmer, Maria T Villar, Xiuxia Du, Aron W Fenton, Gerald M Carlson
Modern mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided a versatile platform that can be combined with a large number of techniques to analyze protein structure and dynamics. These techniques include the three detailed in this chapter: (1) hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX), (2) limited proteolysis, and (3) chemical crosslinking (CX). HDX relies on the change in mass of a protein upon its dilution into deuterated buffer, which results in varied deuterium content within its backbone amides. Structural information on surface exposed, flexible or disordered linker regions of proteins can be achieved through limited proteolysis, using a variety of proteases and only small extents of digestion...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960190/epidemiology
#12
Philip Gorelick, Ka Sing Wong, Liping Liu
Intracranial atherosclerotic occlusive disease is an important and possibly the most common cause of stroke worldwide. Asian, Black and certain Hispanic populations have a high risk of harboring intracranial occlusive disease. In this chapter we review the epidemiology of intracranial occlusive disease by primarily focusing on studies from China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. In addition, we compare and contrast the information from Asian countries with that from North America and related regions...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960174/non-atherosclerotic-intracranial-arterial-diseases
#13
Jong S Kim, Louis R Caplan
Atherosclerosis is not the only cause of intracranial arterial disease. Arterial dissection, moyamoya disease, vascular inflammatory disease, vasospasm and immunologic disorders are important non-atherosclerotic intracranial arterial diseases. Identification of the correct etiology is important in establishing treatment strategies and assessing prognosis. Careful history taking and appropriate laboratory testing are essential. Although catheter angiography is the most important diagnostic tool to examine various intracranial arterial diseases, other diagnostic modalities such as CT angiography and MR angiography are nowadays widely used...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943187/isolation-of-synaptosomes-synaptic-plasma-membranes-and-synaptic-junctional-complexes
#14
Mary L Michaelis, Lei Jiang, Elias K Michaelis
Isolation of synaptic nerve terminals or synaptosomes provides an opportunity to study the process of neurotransmission at many levels and with a variety of approaches. For example, structural features of the synaptic terminals and the organelles within them, such as synaptic vesicles and mitochondria, have been elucidated with electron microscopy. The postsynaptic membranes are joined to the presynaptic "active zone" of transmitter release through cell adhesion molecules and remain attached throughout the isolation of synaptosomes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933519/heterogeneous-stock-populations-for-analysis-of-complex-traits
#15
Leah C Solberg Woods, Richard Mott
Heterogeneous Stock (HS) populations allow for fine-resolution genetic mapping of a variety of complex traits. HS mice and rats were created from breeding together eight inbred strains, followed by maintaining the colony in a manner that minimizes inbreeding. After 50 or more generations of breeding, the resulting animals' chromosomes represent a genetic mosaic of the founders' haplotypes, with the average distance between recombination events in the centiMorgan range. This allows for genetic mapping to only a few Mb, a much smaller region than what can be identified using traditional F2 intercross or backcross mapping strategies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914091/toward-clinical-use-of-the-igg-specific-enzymes-ides-and-endos-against-antibody-mediated-diseases
#16
Mattias Collin, Lars Björck
The endoglycosidase EndoS and the protease IdeS from the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes are immunomodulating enzymes hydrolyzing human IgG. IdeS cleaves IgG in the lower hinge region, while EndoS hydrolyzes the conserved N-linked glycan in the Fc region. Both enzymes are remarkably specific for human IgG that after hydrolysis loses most of its effector functions, such as binding to leukocytes and complement activation, all contributing to bacterial evasion of adaptive immunity. However, taken out of their infectious context, we and others have shown that IdeS and EndoS can alleviate autoimmune disease in a number of animal models of antibody-mediated disorders...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914045/achievements-and-challenges-in-computational-protein-design
#17
Ilan Samish
Computational protein design (CPD), a yet evolving field, includes computer-aided engineering for partial or full de novo designs of proteins of interest. Designs are defined by a requested structure, function, or working environment. This chapter describes the birth and maturation of the field by presenting 101 CPD examples in a chronological order emphasizing achievements and pending challenges. Integrating these aspects presents the plethora of CPD approaches with the hope of providing a "CPD 101". These reflect on the broader structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics field and include: (1) integration of knowledge-based and energy-based methods, (2) hierarchical designated approach towards local, regional, and global motifs and the integration of high- and low-resolution design schemes that fit each such region, (3) systematic differential approaches towards different protein regions, (4) identification of key hot-spot residues and the relative effect of remote regions, (5) assessment of shape-complementarity, electrostatics and solvation effects, (6) integration of thermal plasticity and functional dynamics, (7) negative design, (8) systematic integration of experimental approaches, (9) objective cross-assessment of methods, and (10) successful ranking of potential designs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914044/the-framework-of-computational-protein-design
#18
Ilan Samish
Computational protein design (CPD) has established itself as a leading field in basic and applied science with a strong coupling between the two. Proteins are computationally designed from the level of amino acids to the level of a functional protein complex. Design targets range from increased thermo- (or other) stability to specific requested reactions such as protein-protein binding, enzymatic reactions, or nanotechnology applications. The design scheme may encompass small regions of the proteins or the entire protein...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910043/production-and-characterization-of-vectors-based-on-the-cardiotropic-aav-serotype-9
#19
Erik Kohlbrenner, Thomas Weber
Vectors based on adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) efficiently transduce cardiomyocytes in both rodents and large animal models upon either systemic or regional vector delivery. In this chapter, we describe the most widely used production and purification method of AAV9. This production approach does not depend on the use of a helpervirus but instead on transient transfection of HEK293T cells with a plasmid containing the recombinant AAV genome and a second plasmid encoding the AAV9 capsid proteins, the AAV Rep proteins and the adenoviral helper functions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910015/chromosome-recognition
#20
Thomas S K Wan, Eleanor K C Hui, Margaret H L Ng
Chromosomal analysis of human cells serves to characterize aberrations of chromosome number and structure. Individual chromosome can be identified precisely by recognition of its morphological characteristics and staining patterns according to specific landmarks, regions, and bands as described in the ideogram. Since the quality of metaphases obtained from malignant cells is generally poor for karyotyping, a practical and accurate chromosome recognition training guide is mandatory for a trainee or newly employed cytogenetic technologist in a cancer cytogenetics laboratory...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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