Read by QxMD icon Read

occupational exposure hiv

Narendra Kumar Narahari, Paramjyothi K Gongati, Shantveer G Uppin, Anu Kapoor, Bhaskar Kakarla, Ramakrishna Dev Tella
A 66-year-old man presented with dry cough and shortness of breath on exertion of 6 months' duration. There were no complaints of fever and hemoptysis. His history was significant for recurrent episodes of respiratory tract infections over the previous 4 years. He had also had episodes of recurrent otitis media and pus discharge from the left ear for 3 years, with progressive loss of hearing. There was no history of recurrent skin infections or diarrhea. He was treated symptomatically with antibiotics by local general practitioners...
October 2016: Chest
Asmaa Mohammad Ahmed, Ibrahim Ali Kabbash, Nadira Mansour Hassan, Nashwa Mohammad Radwan
One of the best ways to investigate and improve the effectiveness of polices for prevention and control of infections is through systematic and rigorous evaluation of the structural, functional, and practical elements of these polices. To assess the policies for managing occupational exposure to blood-borne viral infections in Tanta University Hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was carried out. A checklist was used to collect data related to the hospital policy regarding occupational exposure to blood-borne viral infections which was filled by direct personal interviews with the members of infection control (IC) committee of Tanta University Hospitals where the percentage of those in compliance with specific occupational management policies were reported...
October 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Stephen Gichuhi, Ephantus Macharia, Joy Kabiru, Alain M'bongo Zindamoyen, Hillary Rono, Ernest Ollando, Joseph Wachira, Rhoda Munene, Timothy Onyuma, Walter G Jaoko, Mandeep S Sagoo, Helen A Weiss, Matthew J Burton
OBJECTIVE: To determine modifiable risk factors of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Kenya using disease-free controls. METHODS: Adults with conjunctival lesions were recruited at four eye care centres in Kenya and underwent excision biopsy. An equal number of controls having surgery for conditions not affecting the conjunctiva and unrelated to ultraviolet light were group-matched to cases by age group, sex and eye care centre. Associations of risk factors with OSSN were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)...
October 7, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Susanna Naggie, David Holland, Mark S Sulkowski, David L Thomas
Currently, 380,000-400,000 occupational exposures to blood borne pathogens occur annually in the United States. The management for occupational HIV or HBV exposures includes post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) when necessary; however, PEP is not recommended for HCV exposures. Recent approval of HCV direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has renewed discussions as to whether these therapies could be used to prevent infection after exposure. There are no published studies addressing this question but the prescribing of DAA for PEP has been reported...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Carolyn M Audet, José Salato, Meridith Blevins, Wilson Silva, Lázaro González-Calvo, Sten H Vermund, Felisbela Gaspar
OBJECTIVE: Healers provide support for acute and chronic illnesses in rural Mozambique, such as socially acceptable traditional "vaccinations" (subcutaneous cuts in the skin to rub herbs directly into the bloody lesion). We aimed to document the frequency of blood exposure by traditional practitioners in Mozambique. METHODS: We conducted surveys with a simple random sample of 236 traditional healers in Zambézia province. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare "injection" behaviors across districts...
August 31, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
W Wy Sin, A Wc Lin, K Cw Chan, K H Wong
INTRODUCTION: Needlestick injury or mucosal contact with blood or body fluids is well recognised in the health care setting. This study aimed to describe the post-exposure management and outcome in health care workers following exposure to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during needlestick injury or mucosal contact. METHODS: This case series study was conducted in a public clinic in Hong Kong. All health care workers with a needlestick injury or mucosal contact with blood or body fluids who were referred to the Therapeutic Prevention Clinic of Department of Health from 1999 to 2013 were included...
October 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Jason J Ong, Andre Landika, Christopher K Fairley, Catriona Bradshaw, Marcus Chen, Tim R H Read, Eric P F Chow
Background: Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) is available to people with a potential risk for HIV exposure within the preceding 72h. We sought to determine if men who have sex with men (MSM) and receive NPEP had a significantly different risk profile (before the preceding 72h) from MSM not receiving NPEP. If this is the case, NPEP consultations may act as a cue for also discussing pre-exposure prophylaxis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis to compare the demographic characteristics, sexual practices and clinical diagnoses of MSM who were NPEP users and those who were non-NPEP users attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre from January 2008 to December 2014...
August 19, 2016: Sexual Health
Maryam Dafei, Shiv K Sarin, Anjur T Kannan, Kamal Agrawal, Suneela Garg, Kieert Agrawal, Ali Dehghani
BACKGROUND & AIM: Occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens, mainly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV), poses a serious risk to healthcare workers (HCWs), especially in developing countries, due to the high prevalence of these pathogens and fewer safety precautions. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections and to measure the vaccination practices in HCWs at three tertiary care hospitals in Delhi, India...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
David J Weber, William A Rutala
Health care personnel are commonly exposed to infectious agents via sharp injuries (eg, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus), direct patient care (eg, pertussis and meningococcus), and the contaminated environment (eg, Clostridium difficile). An effective occupational program is a key aspect of preventing acquisition of an infection by offering the following: (1) education of health care personnel regarding proper handling of sharps, early identification and isolation of potentially infectious patients, and hand hygiene; (2) assuring immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases; and, (3) immediate availability of a medical evaluation after a nonprotected exposure to an infectious disease...
September 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Yu Liang, Miklos Guttman, James A Williams, Hans Verkerke, Daniel Alvarado, Shiu-Lok Hu, Kelly K Lee
UNLABELLED: The envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the major target for HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). One of the mechanisms that HIV has evolved to escape the host's immune response is to mask conserved epitopes on Env with dense glycosylation. Previous studies have shown that the removal of a particular conserved glycan at N197 increases the neutralization sensitivity of the virus to antibodies targeting the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), making it a site of significant interest from the perspective of vaccine design...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Juan C Díaz, Lucas A Johnson
A retrospective cohort study was conducted examining health care worker (HCW) compliance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations following occupational bloodborne pathogen (BBP) exposure. HCWs with a BBP exposure from a known HIV- or hepatitis C virus-seropositive individual were less likely to complete recommended follow-up compared with HCWs with seronegative source patient exposures (adjusted odds ratio, 0.02 and 0.09, respectively). Continued targeted education and extra vigilance in performing postexposure surveillance are warranted in this higher-risk population...
July 19, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
T Alemayehu, A Worku, N Assefa
BACKGROUND: Health care workers are facing certain occupational hazards because of sharp injury and exposure to human blood and body fluids as a result of handling wastes. Though much attention is paid for the protection of these workers, the number of exposures and injuries do not show a sign of decline from time to time. OBJECTIVE: To examine the occurrence of sharp injury and exposure to blood and body fluids in health care workers in health care centers in Ethiopia...
July 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Shireen A Samargandy, Lujain M Bukhari, Shaza A Samargandy, Rawiah S Bahlas, Eman K Aldigs, Maha A Alawi, Nabeela A Al-Abdullah, Tariq A Madani
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological characteristics, clinical impact, and adequacy of post-exposure management of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (BBFs).  METHODS: Retrospective chart review of individuals reporting exposure to BBFs from 2007 to 2013 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  RESULTS: The total number of exposures reported was 326 exposures, of which 302 (92.6%) exposures were percutaneous, 21 (6...
July 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Przemysław Wyżgowski, Anna Rosiek, Tomasz Grzela, Krzysztof Leksowski
Virtually created panic among health care workers about pandemic acquired immune deficiency syndrome prompted us to review the scientific literature to investigate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in the daily works of health care workers, especially surgeons and anesthesiologists. In this review, we report worldwide valuations of the number of HIV infections that may occur from unsafe daily work in health care. We also present how to minimize the risk of infection by taking precautions and how to utilize postexposure prophylaxis in accordance with the latest reports of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Lufuno Makhado, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
BACKGROUND: Nurses caring for people living with HIV (PLWH) are at higher risk of exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by needle sticks, cuts, getting body fluids in their eyes or mouth and skin when bruised or affected by dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: To determine knowledge, insight and uptake of occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (OPEP) amongst nurses caring for PLWH. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used in this study...
2016: Curationis
Anthony Chauvin, Alice Hutin, Thomas Leredu, Patrick Plaisance, Dominique Pateron, Youri Yordanov
The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of blood or fluid exposure (BFE) and occupational infection risk among emergency medicine (EM) residents and young physicians (<35 years old) in France. We led a cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey. 1779 participants were contacted with a response rate of 36 % (n = 633). Among the respondents, 459 (72 %) reported at least one BFE. Among participants with at least one BFE, 35 % (n = 163) never reported the exposure to the relevant medical authorities or support...
May 14, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
G Fätkenheuer, H Jessen, A Stoehr, N Jung, A B Jessen, T Kümmerle, M Berger, J R Bogner, C D Spinner, C Stephan, O Degen, R Vogelmann, P Spornraft-Ragaller, E Schnaitmann, B Jensen, A Ulmer, J M Kittner, G Härter, P Malfertheiner, J Rockstroh, G Knecht, S Scholten, T Harrer, W V Kern, B Salzberger, D Schürmann, B Ranneberg
OBJECTIVES: PEPDar compared the tolerability and safety of ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r)-based post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with the tolerability and safety of standard of care (SOC). The primary endpoint was the early discontinuation rate among the per-protocol population. METHODS: PEPDar was an open-label, randomized, multicentre, prospective, noninferiority safety study. Subjects were stratified by type of event (occupational vs. nonoccupational, i.e...
June 2016: HIV Medicine
Shannon O'Donnell, Tahara D Bhate, Eric Grafstein, William Lau, Robert Stenstrom, Frank X Scheuermeyer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Exposures to HIV are frequently managed in the emergency department (ED) for assessment and potential initiation of HIV postexposure prophylaxis. Despite established guidelines, it is unclear whether patients with a nonoccupational exposure are managed similarly to patients with an occupational exposure. METHODS: This retrospective study used an administrative database to identify consecutive patients at a single ED with a discharge diagnosis of "blood or body fluid exposure" without sexual assault from April 1, 2007 to June 30, 2013...
September 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
P Batra, P Mathur, S Bhoi, B T Thanbuana, S Nair, M Balamurgan, M C Misra
INTRODUCTION: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most common occupationally acquired infections amongst the healthcare workers (HCWs) with critically ill patients attending the emergency department being the most common source of occupationally acquired infections. Therefore, the present study was conducted at a 165 bedded level-1 trauma centre of India to ascertain the seroprevalence rate of HIV, HBV and HCV; and thus the risk associated with the occupational exposure in a busy emergency setting of the developing world...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Stefano Malinverni, Agnès Libois, Anne-Françoise Gennotte, Cécile La Morté, Pierre Mols
We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective nPEP (non-Occupational Post Exposure Prophylaxis) registry based on patients consulting at one academic Emergency department located in Brussels, Belgium. We review here 1,357 cases consulting from January 2011 to December 2013.The objective of the study is to determine whether emergency physicians prescribe nPEP according to national guideline with support from IDS (infectious disease specialists). As this intervention has a high cost we wanted to verify correct allocation of treatment to high risk patients...
2016: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"