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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770060/setting-the-stage-for-expanding-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-use-in-canada
#1
EDITORIAL
M Hull, Dhs Tan
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to disproportionately affect vulnerable populations in Canada; particularly men who have sex with men (MSM). Novel HIV prevention strategies have recently expanded from the use of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) after high risk exposures to the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in which individuals reduce risk of HIV infection through use of combination antiretrovirals taken prior to risk exposure. With approval of tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for use as PrEP only in early 2016, and with limited public funding to date, uptake in Canada is in its preliminary stages...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765441/suspected-unexpected-and-other-adverse-reactions-to-antiretroviral-drugs-used-as-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-hiv-infection-five-year-experience-from-clinical-practice
#2
Justyna D Kowalska, Ewa Pietraszkiewicz, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Andrzej Horban
Introduction: With increased use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in HIV uninfected persons, proper reporting on suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions (SUSARs) and continued insight into adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are needed for adequate information on safety of ARVs in such populations. Material and methods: Medical documentation of persons receiving ARVs after non-occupational HIV exposure (non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis - nPEP) during 5 successive years (2009-2013) was evaluated by two HIV physicians...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664893/occupational-exposure-during-emergency-department-thoracotomy-a-prospective-multi-institution-study
#3
Andrew Nunn, Priya Prakash, Kenji Inaba, Alvarez Escalante, Zoë Maher, Seiji Yamaguchi, Dennis Y Kim, James Maciel, William C Chiu, Byron Drumheller, Joshua P Hazelton, Kaushik Mukherjee, Xian Luo-Owen, Rachel M Nygaard, Ashley P Marek, Bryan C Morse, Caitlin A Fitzgerald, Patrick L Bosarge, Randeep S Jawa, Susan E Rowell, Louis J Magnotti, Adrian W Ong, Tejal S Brahmbhatt, Michael D Grossman, Mark J Seamon
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure is an important consideration during emergency department thoracotomy (EDT). While HIV/hepatitis prevalence in trauma patients (0-16.8%) and occupational exposure rates during operative trauma procedures (1.9-18.0%) have been reported, exposure risk during EDT is unknown. We hypothesized that occupational exposure risk during EDT would be greater than other operative trauma procedures. METHODS: A prospective, observational study at 16 US trauma centers was performed (2015-2016)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649980/patterns-of-caesarean-section-in-hiv-infected-and-non-infected-women-in-malawi-is-caesarean-section-used-for-pmtct
#4
Lyson Tenthani, Joep J van Oosterhout, Andreas D Haas, Malango Msukwa, Nozgechi Phiri, Frank Chimbwandira, Kali Tal, Karoline Aebi-Popp, Janne Estill, Olivia Keiser
BACKGROUND: Caesarean section (CS) is not recommended for PMTCT in Malawi HIV Guidelines, contrary to most high-income countries where CS is indicated if viral suppression is sub-optimal pre-delivery. We describe patterns of CS in HIV-infected and uninfected women in Malawi and explored if insight into the use of Elective CS (ECS) for PMTCT could be obtained. METHODS: We used routinely collected data from individual medical records from 17 large health facilities in the central and southern regions of Malawi, from January 2010 to December 2013...
April 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604196/occupational-exposure-to-blood-and-bodily-fluids-among-healthcare-workers-in-serbian-general-hospitals
#5
Bojana Mandić, Stefan Mandić-Rajčević, Ljiljana Marković-Denić, Petar Bulat
The risk of occupational bloodborne infections (HBV, HCV, and HIV) among healthcare workers remains a serious issue in developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate occupational exposure to bloodborne infections among general hospital workers in Serbia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the spring of 2013 and included 5,247 healthcare workers from 17 general hospitals. The questionnaire was anonymous, self-completed, and included sociodemographic information with details of blood and bodily fluid exposure over the career and in the previous year (2012)...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562982/high-rates-of-exposure-to-tuberculosis-patients-among-hiv-infected-health-care-workers-in-botswana
#6
S S Shin, C Modongo, N M Zetola, Q Wang, T Phologolo, M Kestler, A Ho-Foster
OBJECTIVE: To compare daily exposure to tuberculosis (TB) patients between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected health care workers (HCWs), and examine the uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among HIV-infected HCWs in Botswana. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study among HCWs in 30 hospitals and clinics. We determined self-reported exposure frequency to TB patients and HIV status through in-person interviews. HCWs with unknown or negative HIV status were offered rapid HIV testing...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562006/quality-of-life-of-elderly-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-outpatient-follow-up
#7
Juliano de Souza Caliari, Lilian Andreia Fleck Reinato, Daiana Patrícia Marchetti Pio, Letícia Pimenta Lopes, Renata Karina Reis, Elucir Gir
OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors related to the quality of life of elderly people living with HIV/AIDS. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out with people aged 50 years or more in a specialized outpatient clinic. The data collection was by means of an interview. For the analysis of data and characterization of the sample, descriptive statistics and comparison tests were used. The project met the ethical requirements. RESULTS: Participants were 81 users aged 50 to 75 years, mean age was 57...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448948/occupational-exposure-to-hiv-in-a-developing-country-assessing-knowledge-and-attitude-of-healthcare-professional-before-and-after-an-awareness-symposium
#8
Samina Ismail, Safia Awan, Rubaba Naeem, Sarfraz Siddiqui, Badar Afzal, Bushra Jamil, Uzma Rahim Khan
OBJECTIVE: Health care providers (HCPs) are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV infection. In developing world these exposure occur due to general lack of awareness, education and structured training of HCPs. The objective of the study was to asses if continuing medical education symposium can be used as an effective educational tool to improve attitude, awareness and knowledge regarding occupational exposure to HIV infection. This quasi-experimental study was conducted among HCPs from Karachi, Pakistan...
February 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429390/belgian-guidelines-for-non-occupational-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-2017
#9
Agnès Libois, Eric Florence, Inge Derdelinckx, Jean Cyr Yombi, Sophie Henrard, Françoise Uurlings, Stefaan Vandecasteele, Sabine D Allard, Rémy Demeester, Filip Van Wanzeele, Nathalie Ausselet, Stéphane De Wit
We present the updated Belgian guidelines for the use of non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (NONOPEP). This document is inspired by UK guidelines 2015, adapted to the Belgian situation and approved by all AIDS reference centers in Belgium. When recommended, NONOPEP should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably within 24 h of exposure but can be offered up to 72 h. The duration of NONOPEP should be 28 days. These current guidelines include epidemiologic estimations, which can be used to calculate the risk of infection after a potential exposure and help to decide whether or not to start prophylaxis...
February 12, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298918/bloodborne-pathogens-a-review-and-update
#10
Kathryn Faguy
Although the likelihood of contracting a bloodborne infection such as HIV or hepatitis B or C on the job is small, health care professionals must be aware of the risks and consistently take steps to protect themselves. This article discusses key bloodborne pathogens and the standard precautions health care workers can take to minimize the risk of occupational transmission. Employer requirements for protecting health care workers also are described, along with steps workers can take when possible exposure to a bloodborne pathogen occurs on the job...
November 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298106/the-complications-of-treating-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-low-income-countries-of-sub-saharan-africa
#11
Frederik A van Gemert, Bruce J Kirenga, Tewodros Haile Gebremariam, George Nyale, Corina de Jong, Thys van der Molen
In most low and middle-income countries, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is on the rise. Areas covered: Unfortunately, COPD is a neglected disease in these countries. Taking sub-Saharan Africa as an example, in rural areas, COPD is even unknown regarding public awareness and public health planning. Programs for the management of COPD are poorly developed, and the quality of care is often of a low standard. Inhaled medication is often not available or not affordable. Tobacco smoking is the most common encountered risk factor for COPD...
March 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163865/associations-between-neurocognitive-functioning-and-social-and-occupational-resilience-among-south-african-women-exposed-to-childhood-trauma
#12
C A Denckla, N S Consedine, G Spies, M Cherner, D C Henderson, K C Koenen, S Seedat
Background : Prior research on adaptation after early trauma among black South African women typically assessed resilience in ways that lacked contextual specificity. In addition, the neurocognitive correlates of social and occupational resilience have not been investigated. Objective : The primary aim of this exploratory study was to identify domains of neurocognitive functioning associated with social and occupational resilience, defined as functioning at a level beyond what would be expected given exposure to childhood trauma...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132270/occupational-exposure-attitude-to-hiv-positive-patients-and-uptake-of-hiv-counselling-and-testing-among-health-care-workers-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-nigeria
#13
Modupe O Onadeko, Mary O Balogun, Olanrewaju O Onigbogi, Folashade O Omokhodion
Health care workers (HCWs) are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV. Their attitude to HIV-positive patients influences patients' willingness and ability to access quality care. HIV counselling and testing (HCT) services are available to inform HCWs and patients about their status. There is little information about HCT uptake and attitude to HIV-positive patients among HCWs in tertiary health facilities in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine occupational exposure and attitude to HIV-positive patients and level of uptake of HCT services among HCWs in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria...
December 2017: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047340/occupational-blood-exposures-in-health-care-workers-incidence-characteristics-and-transmission-of-bloodborne-pathogens-in-south-korea
#14
Ju Hyun Lee, Junhyeon Cho, Yung Jung Kim, Sang Hyuk Im, Eun Sun Jang, Jin-Wook Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Sook-Hyang Jeong
BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk for occupational blood exposures (OBEs) and transmission of bloodborne pathogens. This study elucidated the incidence rate and epidemiological characteristics of OBEs among HCWs and investigated the pathogen transmission rate for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Self-reported OBEs from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015 were obtained from the electronic recording system...
October 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963103/the-role-of-routine-screening-in-blood-borne-pathogens-in-chinese-patients-undergoing-joint-arthroplasty
#15
T Cheng, X-L Zhang, J-J Hu, B Li, Q Wang
OBJECTIVES: Surgeons face a substantial risk of infection because of the occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens (BBPs) from patients undergoing high-risk orthopaedic procedures. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four BBPs among patients undergoing joint arthroplasty in Shanghai, China. In addition, we evaluated the significance of pre-operative screening by calculating a cost-to-benefit ratio. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of pre-operative screening for BBPs, including hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum (TP), was conducted for sequential patients in the orthopaedic department of a large urban teaching hospital between 01 January 2009 and 30 May 2016...
September 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885693/epidemiological-and-molecular-analysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-manicurists-in-central-brazil
#16
Larissa Cavaretto, Ana R C Motta-Castro, Sheila A Teles, Fernanda Q Souza, Wesley M Cardoso, Grazielli R de Rezende, Tayana S O Tanaka, Larissa M Bandeira, Gabriela A Cesar, Marco A M Puga, Bruna B Nepomuceno, Bárbara V Lago, Sonia M Fernandes-Fitts
The aim of this study was to investigate the serological and molecular prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 514 manicurists/pedicurists and identify the risk factors related with this infection. Samples were tested for HBV serological markers, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-HBc-positive samples were tested to investigate occult hepatitis B by PCR. HBsAg-positive samples were genotyped and the viral loads of HBV-DNA positive samples were quantified...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865865/managing-sharps-injuries-and-other-occupational-exposures-to-hiv-hbv-and-hcv-in-the-dermatology-office
#17
REVIEW
Jerry D Brewer, Dirk M Elston, Allison T Vidimos, Stacey A Rizza, Stanley J Miller
Dermatologists and their staff are at risk for needlestick injuries and exposures to body fluids. Despite the availability of treatment to reduce the risk of blood-borne infection, many exposures go unreported. This paper identifies current recommendations and the specific details for response to occupational exposures to HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in the dermatology office. Issues surrounding each virus are discussed individually, and a summary step-by-step algorithm of how to proceed in the event of an occupational exposure is presented...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758020/factors-associated-with-intention-to-take-non-occupational-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-among-thai-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#18
EDITORIAL
Nitiya Chomchey, Thira Woratanarat, Narin Hiransuthikul, Somrat Lertmaharit, Vitool Lohsoonthorn, Nipat Teeratakulpisarn, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, James Lk Fletcher, Duanghathai Suttichom, Praphan Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Nittaya Phanuphak
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately infected with HIV in Thailand. Factors affecting their intention to take non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) are not well understood. This study sought to determine factors associated with an intention to take nPEP in this population. METHOD: This is a two-phase mixed-method study. Phase I was a cross-sectional survey of intention to take nPEP in 450 MSM attending for HIV testing, using a self-administered questionnaire...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741133/african-and-caribbean-nurses-decisions-about-hiv-testing-a-mixed-methods-study
#19
Jean N Harrowing, Nancy Edwards, Solina Richter, Karin Minnie, Tania Rae
Nurses in Jamaica, Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda are at risk for occupational exposure to HIV. Little is known about the experiences and policy supports related to nurses having themselves tested for the virus. This article reports a mixed-methods study about contextual influences on nurses' decision-making about HIV testing. Individual and focus group interviews, as well as a questionnaire on workplace polices and quality assurance and a human resource management assessment tool provided data. Fear of a positive diagnosis and stigma and lack of confidentiality along with gaps in the policy environment contributed to indecision about testing...
February 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705204/delay-along-the-care-seeking-journey-of-patients-with-ocular-surface-squamous-neoplasia-in-kenya
#20
Stephen Gichuhi, Joy Kabiru, Alain M'bongo Zindamoyen, Hillary Rono, Ernest Ollando, Joseph Wachira, Rhoda Munene, Timothy Onyuma, Mandeep S Sagoo, David Macleod, Helen A Weiss, Matthew J Burton
BACKGROUND: In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya. METHODS: Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step...
July 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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