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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511409/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-healthcare-managers-to-medical-waste-management-and-occupational-safety-practices-findings-from-southeast-nigeria
#1
Okechukwu Bonaventure Anozie, Lucky Osaheni Lawani, Justus Ndulue Eze, Emmanuel Johnbosco Mamah, Robinson Chukwudi Onoh, Emeka Onwe Ogah, Daniel Akuma Umezurike, Rita Onyinyechi Anozie
INTRODUCTION: Awareness of appropriate waste management procedures and occupational safety measures is fundamental to achieving a safe work environment, and ensuring patient and staff safety. AIM: This study was conducted to assess the attitude of healthcare managers to medical waste management and occupational safety practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 54 hospital administrators in Ebonyi state...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449921/seroconversion-rate-among-health-care-workers-exposed-to-hiv-contaminated-body-fluids-the-university-of-pittsburgh-13-year-experience
#2
Chibueze A Nwaiwu, Francesco M Egro, Saundra Smith, Jay D Harper, Alexander M Spiess
BACKGROUND: The studies enumerating the risk of HIV transmission to health care workers (HCWs) as 0.3% after percutaneous exposure to HIV-positive blood, and 0.09% after a mucous membrane exposure, are weakened by dated literature. Our study aims to demonstrate the seroconversion rate after exposure to HIV-contaminated body fluids in a major academic center in the United States. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database of reported occupational injuries occurring between 2002 and 2015 at an academic medical center was analyzed...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449917/seroconversion-rates-among-health-care-workers-exposed-to-hepatitis-c-virus-contaminated-body-fluids-the-university-of-pittsburgh-13-year-experience
#3
Francesco M Egro, Chibueze A Nwaiwu, Saundra Smith, Jay D Harper, Alexander M Spiess
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission to health care personnel (HCP) after exposure to a HCV-positive source has been reported to occur at an average rate of 1.8% (range, 0%-10%). We aimed to determine the seroconversion rate after exposure to HCV-contaminated body fluid in a major U.S. academic medical center. METHODS: A longitudinal analysis of a prospectively maintained database of reported occupational injuries occurring between 2002 and 2015 at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center was performed...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446839/awareness-of-blood-borne-infections-and-burden-of-occupational-exposures-to-blood-and-body-fluids-among-health-care-personnel-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#4
Swetharani, K V Vinod, Abdoul Hamide, Tarun K Dutta, K T Harichandrakumar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposures (OEs) to blood and body fluids (BBFs) pose significant risk of transmission of blood-borne infections (BBIs) to health care personnel (HCP) and are grossly underreported. We aimed to study the awareness of BBIs and their prevention, burden of OEs, assess factors contributing to them and their poor reporting and assess the practices for their prevention among HCP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital located in south India used a self-administered questionnaire to assess the awareness of BBIs, attitude and practice of HCP for prevention of OEs, and to quantify the burden of exposures...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445222/development-of-an-hiv-postexposure-prophylaxis-pep-protocol-for-trainees-engaging-in-academic-global-health-experiences
#5
Gitanjli Arora, Risa M Hoffman
PROBLEM: Global health (GH) education programs have become increasingly common in U.S. medical schools and graduate medical education programs, with growing numbers of medical students, residents, and fellows participating in clinical experiences in settings with high HIV prevalence and limited resources. However, there are no guidelines for provision of HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) to trainees engaging in these academic GH experiences. APPROACH: Faculty of the Global Health Education Programs (GHEP) at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and GH partner institutions recognized the need for PEP access for trainees engaged in GH experiences...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431556/factors-associated-with-loss-to-follow-up-after-occupational-hiv-exposure-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Nectarios Sophocles Papavarnavas, Kathryn Manning, Fahd Conrad, Milah Govender, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: There is limited data on factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU) of health care workers (HCWs) following occupational exposure to HIV, and most studies were conducted in an era when poorly tolerated antiretrovirals like zidovudine were used. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of HCWs attending a referral hospital's Occupational Health Clinic in Cape Town, South Africa for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) during a period when tenofovir was available...
April 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381816/a-consensus-for-occupational-health-management-of-healthcare-workers-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hepatitis-b-virus-and-or-hepatitis-c-virus
#7
Tomohiro Ishimaru, Koji Wada, Derek R Smith
Occupational health management plays an important role in the prevention of provider-to-patient transmission in healthcare workers infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Therefore, the Japan Society for Occupational Health's Scientific Committee of Occupational Health for Health Care Workers has proposed a consensus for the management of healthcare workers infected with HIV, HBV, and/or HCV based on recent evidence for each concerned group...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369381/randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-tolerability-and-completion-of-maraviroc-compared-with-kaletra%C3%A2-in-combination-with-truvada%C3%A2-for-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-mipep-trial
#8
Ana Milinkovic, Paul Benn, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Nataliya Brima, Andrew Copas, Amanda Clarke, Martin Fisher, Gabriel Schembri, David Hawkins, Andy Williams, Richard Gilson
Objectives: Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV is often poorly tolerated and not completed. Alternative PEP regimens may improve adherence and completion, aiding HIV prevention. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a maraviroc-based PEP regimen compared with a standard-of-care regimen using ritonavir-boosted lopinavir. Methods: Patients meeting criteria for PEP were randomized to tenofovir disoproxil/emtricitabine (200/245 mg) once daily plus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (Kaletra ® 400/100 mg) or maraviroc 300 mg twice daily...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347557/hiv-prevention-and-treatment-the-evolving-role-of-the-emergency-department
#9
REVIEW
Kristi Stanley, Meredith Lora, Stephen Merjavy, Jennifer Chang, Sanjay Arora, Michael Menchine, Kathleen R Jacobson
Historically, the role of the emergency physician in HIV care has been constrained to treating sick patients with opportunistic infections and postexposure prophylaxis for occupational exposures. However, advances in HIV care have led to medications that have substantially fewer issues with toxicity and resistance, opening up an exciting new opportunity for emergency physicians to participate in treating the HIV virus itself. With this new role, it is crucial that emergency physicians be familiar with the advances in testing and medications for HIV prevention and treatment...
March 25, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274607/understanding-the-magnitude-of-occupational-exposure-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-uptake-of-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-among-healthcare-workers-in-a-rural-district-in-tanzania
#10
P Mabwe, A T Kessy, I Semali
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to blood or other body fluids in healthcare settings puts healthcare workers (HCWs) at risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is estimated that between 200 and 5000 HIV infections are transmitted annually to HCWs worldwide. Use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been documented to reduce the rate of HIV infection from workplace exposures by 81%. AIM: To investigate the extent of occupational exposure to HIV infection during the period of 12 months before the survey and to identify factors associated with uptake of PEP services among HCWs...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173785/hcv-screening-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-homeless-and-marginally-housed-women-in-san-francisco-california
#11
Kimberly Page, Michelle Yu, Jennifer Cohen, Jennifer Evans, Martha Shumway, Elise D Riley
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening has taken on new importance as a result of updated guidelines and new curative therapies. Relatively few studies have assessed HCV infection in homeless populations, and a minority include women. We assessed prevalence and correlates of HCV exposure in a cohort of homeless and unstably housed women in San Francisco, and estimated the proportion undiagnosed. METHODS: A probability sample of 246 women were recruited at free meal programs, homeless shelters, and low-cost single room occupancy hotels in San Francisco; women with HIV were oversampled...
February 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170304/hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-postexposure-prophylaxis-in-japan-context-of-use-and-directions-for-future-research-and-action
#12
Anthony S DiStefano, Makiko Takeda
Biomedical HIV prevention strategies are playing an increasingly prominent role in addressing HIV epidemics globally, but little is known about their use in Japan, where persistent HIV disparities and a recently stable, but not declining, national epidemic indicate the need for evolving approaches. We conducted an ethnographic study to determine the context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) use and to identify directions for future research and action in Japan. We used data from observational fieldwork in the Kansai region and Tokyo Metropolitan Area (n = 178 persons observed), qualitative interviews (n = 32), documents and web-based data sources (n = 321), and email correspondences (n = 9) in the period 2013-2016...
February 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141592/exposure-incidents-among-medical-students-in-a-high-prevalence-hiv-setting
#13
Theresa Marié Rossouw, Marietjie Van Rooyen, Karin Louise Richter
INTRODUCTION: Occupational injuries in medical students are concerning, especially in countries with a high prevalence of bloodborne infections. With more HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment, appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) depends on knowledge of source patients' infection status and treatment response. This study determined the number and type of exposure incidents, reporting practices, and PEP use among medical students at the University of Pretoria, South Africa...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134071/everyday-dangers-the-impact-infectious-disease-has-on-the-health-of-paramedics-a-scoping-review
#14
Brodie Thomas, Peter O'Meara, Evelien Spelten
BACKGROUND: Paramedics respond to emergency scenes in often uncontrolled settings without being aware of potential risks. This makes paramedicine one of the most dangerous occupations. One of these dangers is the risk of contracting infectious diseases. Research in this area is predominantly focused on compliance in the use of protective equipment, attitudes and perceptions of paramedics, infectious disease policy, and exposure rates to blood and body fluids. The purpose of this scoping review was to determine what is known about the impact of infectious disease on the health of paramedics...
April 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097434/work-related-infections-in-dentistry-risk-perception-and-preventive-measures
#15
Tatjana Ramich, Peter Eickholz, Sabine Wicker
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of (1) the risk perception of work-related infections in dentistry, (2) the vaccination status, (3) knowledge of the blood-borne pathogens and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as well as (4) use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (gloves, goggles, mask) among the staff and students of the Center of Dentistry and Oral Medicine (ZZMK [Carolinum]) of the Goethe University Frankfurt/Main. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All staff (dentists, dental assistants) and students of the ZZMK with direct contact to patients were asked to anonymously complete a questionnaire...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042212/occurrence-of-needlestick-and-injuries-among-health-care-workers-of-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-north-india
#16
Varun Goel, Dinesh Kumar, Raghavendra Lingaiah, Sarman Singh
INTRODUCTION: Occupational hazards such as accidental exposure to sharp, cuts, and splashes are common among health-care workers (HCWs). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence of self-reported occupational exposures to these hazards and to know the prevalent practices following the exposure. The second aim was to know the baseline antibody levels against hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immediately after these accidents...
January 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930472/risks-associated-with-lentiviral-vector-exposures-and-prevention-strategies
#17
Ryan Schlimgen, John Howard, Dawn Wooley, Maureen Thompson, Lindsey R Baden, Otto O Yang, David C Christiani, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, David V Diamond, Elizabeth Gilman Duane, Karen Byers, Thomas Winters, Jeffrey A Gelfand, Gary Fujimoto, T Warner Hudson, Jatin M Vyas
Lentiviral vectors (LVVs) are powerful genetic tools that are being used with greater frequency in biomedical laboratories and clinical trials. Adverse events reported from initial clinical studies provide a basis for risk assessment of occupational exposures, yet many questions remain about the potential harm that LVVs may cause. We review those risks and provide a framework for principal investigators, Institutional Biosafety Committees, and occupational health professionals to assess and communicate the risks of exposure to staff...
December 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#18
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
February 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914484/comparing-non-occupational-post-exposure-prophylaxis-drug-regimens-for-hiv-insights-from-a-linked-hiv-surveillance-system
#19
Anna B Pierce, Carol El-Hayek, Damien McCarthy, Jude Armishaw, Kerrie Watson, Anna Wilkinson, Brian Price, Edwina J Wright, Jennifer F Hoy, Mark A Stoové
Background: International non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) guidelines recommend routine use of three drug NPEP regimens, despite absence of evidence for greater prevention efficacy compared with two drug regimens. This study examines the potential for excess HIV seroconversions among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting receptive anal intercourse with a source of unknown HIV serostatus (RAIU) following a two-drug versus a three-drug NPEP regimen. Methods: Data for MSM in the Victorian NPEP service database between 10 August 2005 and 31 December 2012 were linked with all Victorian HIV notifications up to 31 December 2013...
December 5, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881646/activation-and-inactivation-of-primary-human-immunodeficiency-virus-envelope-glycoprotein-trimers-by-cd4-mimetic-compounds
#20
Navid Madani, Amy M Princiotto, Connie Zhao, Fatemeh Jahanbakhshsefidi, Max Mertens, Alon Herschhorn, Bruno Melillo, Amos B Smith, Joseph Sodroski
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins (Env), a trimer of three gp120 exterior glycoproteins, and three gp41 transmembrane glycoproteins. The metastable Env is triggered to undergo entry-related conformational changes when gp120 binds sequentially to the receptors, CD4 and CCR5, on the target cell. Small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds (CD4mc) bind gp120 and act as competitive inhibitors of gp120-CD4 engagement. Some CD4mc have been shown to trigger Env prematurely, initially activating Env function, followed by rapid and irreversible inactivation...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
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