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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914484/comparing-non-occupational-post-exposure-prophylaxis-drug-regimens-for-hiv-insights-from-a-linked-hiv-surveillance-system
#1
Anna B Pierce, Carol El-Hayek, Damien McCarthy, Jude Armishaw, Kerrie Watson, Anna Wilkinson, Brian Price, Edwina J Wright, Jennifer F Hoy, Mark A Stoové
Background: International non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) guidelines recommend routine use of three drug NPEP regimens, despite absence of evidence for greater prevention efficacy compared with two drug regimens. This study examines the potential for excess HIV seroconversions among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting receptive anal intercourse with a source of unknown HIV serostatus (RAIU) following a two-drug versus a three-drug NPEP regimen. Methods: Data for MSM in the Victorian NPEP service database between 10 August 2005 and 31 December 2012 were linked with all Victorian HIV notifications up to 31 December 2013...
December 5, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881646/activation-and-inactivation-of-primary-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-trimers-by-cd4-mimetic-compounds
#2
Navid Madani, Amy M Princiotto, Connie Zhao, Fatemeh Jahanbakhshsefidi, Max Mertens, Alon Herschhorn, Bruno Melillo, Amos B Smith, Joseph Sodroski
: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) entry into cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins (Env), a trimer of three gp120 exterior glycoproteins and three gp41 transmembrane glycoproteins. The metastable Env is triggered to undergo entry-related conformational changes when gp120 binds sequentially to the receptors, CD4 and CCR5, on the target cell. Small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds (CD4mc) bind gp120 and act as competitive inhibitors of gp120-CD4 engagement. Some CD4mc have been shown to trigger Env prematurely, initially activating Env function, followed by rapid and irreversible inactivation...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880833/prioritizing-risk-in-preparation-for-a-demonstration-project-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-study-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-female-sex-workers-in-south-india
#3
Sushena Reza-Paul, Lisa Lazarus, Monika Doshi, Syed Hafeez Ur Rahman, Manjula Ramaiah, Raviprakash Maiya, Venugopal Ms, K T Venukumar, Sundar Sundararaman, Marissa Becker, Stephen Moses, Robert Lorway
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837497/the-changing-epidemiology-of-invasive-fungal-infections
#4
David A Enoch, Huina Yang, Sani H Aliyu, Christianne Micallef
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an emerging problem worldwide with invasive candidiasis and candidemia responsible for the majority of cases. This is predominantly driven by the widespread adoption of aggressive immunosuppressive therapy among certain patient populations (e.g., chemotherapy, transplants) and the increasing use of invasive devices such as central venous catheters (CVCs). The use of new immune modifying drugs has also opened up an entirely new spectrum of patients at risk of IFIs. While the epidemiology of candida infections has changed in the last decade, with a gradual shift from C...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828002/an-integrated-intervention-for-increasing-clinical-nurses-knowledge-of-hiv-aids-related-occupational-safety
#5
Liping He, Zhiyan Lu, Jing Huang, Yiping Zhou, Jian Huang, Yongyi Bi, Jun Li
Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807954/-documented-and-suspected-risk-factors-for-childhood-cancer-aetiology
#6
Corrado Magnani, Lucia Miligi, Stefano Parodi
We present an updated summary on risk factors for childhood malignancies, following to previous reviews published on Epidemiologia&Prevenzione and largely based on the monographs of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Ionizing radiations are certain carcinogens, with evidence in humans, from studies both on children and on adults. Evidence specifically regarding childhood cancers is available also for other carcinogens, such as tobacco smoking, some solvents, some occupational activities of parents, and some viruses (HIV and EBV)...
September 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806545/occupational-exposure-to-positive-blood-and-body-fluids-among-health-care-workers-in-a-chinese-university-hospital-a-three-years-retrospective-study
#7
Xiubin Tao, Hui Peng, Lihua Qian, Yan Li, Qun Wu, Jingjing Ruan, Dongzhen Cai
Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to blood and body fluids (BBF) due to occupational accidents. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of occupational exposure in Chinese HCWs thus far. There is a clearly a critical need to characterize its epidemiology more fully in China so that effective prevention programs can be implemented. We conducted a retrospective study at a university hospital in China, giving an epidemiological analysis on these exposed HCWs whose pathogens of BBF from patients were positive [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) / hepatitis B (HBV) / hepatitis C (HCV)]...
August 11, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719827/a-66-year-old-man-with-mediastinal-mass-and-dyspnea
#8
Narendra Kumar Narahari, Paramjyothi K Gongati, Shantveer G Uppin, Anu Kapoor, Bhaskar Kakarla, Ramakrishna Dev Tella
A 66-year-old man presented with dry cough and shortness of breath on exertion of 6 months' duration. There were no complaints of fever and hemoptysis. His history was significant for recurrent episodes of respiratory tract infections over the previous 4 years. He had also had episodes of recurrent otitis media and pus discharge from the left ear for 3 years, with progressive loss of hearing. There was no history of recurrent skin infections or diarrhea. He was treated symptomatically with antibiotics by local general practitioners...
October 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718116/assessing-of-policies-and-practices-for-occupational-exposure-to-blood-borne-viral-infections-in-tanta-university-hospitals-egypt
#9
Asmaa Mohammad Ahmed, Ibrahim Ali Kabbash, Nadira Mansour Hassan, Nashwa Mohammad Radwan
One of the best ways to investigate and improve the effectiveness of polices for prevention and control of infections is through systematic and rigorous evaluation of the structural, functional, and practical elements of these polices. To assess the policies for managing occupational exposure to blood-borne viral infections in Tanta University Hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was carried out. A checklist was used to collect data related to the hospital policy regarding occupational exposure to blood-borne viral infections which was filled by direct personal interviews with the members of infection control (IC) committee of Tanta University Hospitals where the percentage of those in compliance with specific occupational management policies were reported...
October 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714903/risk-factors-for-ocular-surface-squamous-neoplasia-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#10
Stephen Gichuhi, Ephantus Macharia, Joy Kabiru, Alain M'bongo Zindamoyen, Hillary Rono, Ernest Ollando, Joseph Wachira, Rhoda Munene, Timothy Onyuma, Walter G Jaoko, Mandeep S Sagoo, Helen A Weiss, Matthew J Burton
OBJECTIVE: To determine modifiable risk factors of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Kenya using disease-free controls. METHODS: Adults with conjunctival lesions were recruited at four eye care centres in Kenya and underwent excision biopsy. An equal number of controls having surgery for conditions not affecting the conjunctiva and unrelated to ultraviolet light were group-matched to cases by age group, sex and eye care centre. Associations of risk factors with OSSN were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)...
December 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682067/hepatitis-c-virus-postexposure-prophylaxis-in-the-healthcare-worker-why-direct-acting-antivirals-don-t-change-a-thing
#11
Susanna Naggie, David P Holland, Mark S Sulkowski, David L Thomas
Currently, 380 000-400 000 occupational exposures to blood-borne pathogens occur annually in the United States. The management for occupational HIV or hepatitis B virus exposures includes postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) when necessary; however, PEP is not recommended for hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposures. Recent approval of HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has renewed discussions as to whether these therapies could be used to prevent infection after exposure. There are no published studies addressing this question, but the prescribing of DAAs for PEP has been reported...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580349/occupational-hazards-of-traditional-healers-repeated-unprotected-blood-exposures-risk-infectious-disease-transmission
#12
Carolyn M Audet, José Salato, Meridith Blevins, Wilson Silva, Lázaro González-Calvo, Sten H Vermund, Felisbela Gaspar
OBJECTIVE: Healers provide support for acute and chronic illnesses in rural Mozambique, such as socially acceptable traditional 'vaccinations' (subcutaneous cuts in the skin to rub herbs directly into the bloody lesion). We aimed to document the frequency of blood exposure by traditional practitioners in Mozambique. METHODS: We conducted surveys with a simple random sample of 236 traditional healers in Zambézia province. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare 'injection' behaviours across districts...
November 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562987/management-of-health-care-workers-following-occupational-exposure-to-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#13
W Wy Sin, A Wc Lin, K Cw Chan, K H Wong
INTRODUCTION: Needlestick injury or mucosal contact with blood or body fluids is well recognised in the health care setting. This study aimed to describe the post-exposure management and outcome in health care workers following exposure to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during needlestick injury or mucosal contact. METHODS: This case series study was conducted in a public clinic in Hong Kong. All health care workers with a needlestick injury or mucosal contact with blood or body fluids who were referred to the Therapeutic Prevention Clinic of Department of Health from 1999 to 2013 were included...
October 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537936/characteristics-sexual-practices-and-sexually-transmissible-infections-diagnoses-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-use-non-occupational-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-victoria-australia
#14
Jason J Ong, Andre Landika, Christopher K Fairley, Catriona Bradshaw, Marcus Chen, Tim R H Read, Eric P F Chow
Background: Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) is available to people with a potential risk for HIV exposure within the preceding 72h. We sought to determine if men who have sex with men (MSM) and receive NPEP had a significantly different risk profile (before the preceding 72h) from MSM not receiving NPEP. If this is the case, NPEP consultations may act as a cue for also discussing pre-exposure prophylaxis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis to compare the demographic characteristics, sexual practices and clinical diagnoses of MSM who were NPEP users and those who were non-NPEP users attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre from January 2008 to December 2014...
August 19, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530589/seroprevalence-of-blood-borne-pathogens-among-health-care-workers-and-their-hepatitis-b-vaccination-status-in-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-india
#15
Maryam Dafei, Shiv K Sarin, Anjur T Kannan, Kamal Agrawal, Suneela Garg, Kieert Agrawal, Ali Dehghani
BACKGROUND & AIM: Occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens, mainly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV), poses a serious risk to healthcare workers (HCWs), especially in developing countries, due to the high prevalence of these pathogens and fewer safety precautions. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections and to measure the vaccination practices in HCWs at three tertiary care hospitals in Delhi, India...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515145/occupational-health-update-focus-on-preventing-the-acquisition-of-infections-with-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-postexposure-prophylaxis
#16
REVIEW
David J Weber, William A Rutala
Health care personnel are commonly exposed to infectious agents via sharp injuries (eg, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus), direct patient care (eg, pertussis and meningococcus), and the contaminated environment (eg, Clostridium difficile). An effective occupational program is a key aspect of preventing acquisition of an infection by offering the following: (1) education of health care personnel regarding proper handling of sharps, early identification and isolation of potentially infectious patients, and hand hygiene; (2) assuring immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases; and, (3) immediate availability of a medical evaluation after a nonprotected exposure to an infectious disease...
September 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489265/changes-in-structure-and-antigenicity-of-hiv-1-env-trimers-resulting-from-removal-of-a-conserved-cd4-binding-site-proximal-glycan
#17
Yu Liang, Miklos Guttman, James A Williams, Hans Verkerke, Daniel Alvarado, Shiu-Lok Hu, Kelly K Lee
UNLABELLED: The envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the major target for HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). One of the mechanisms that HIV has evolved to escape the host's immune response is to mask conserved epitopes on Env with dense glycosylation. Previous studies have shown that the removal of a particular conserved glycan at N197 increases the neutralization sensitivity of the virus to antibodies targeting the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), making it a site of significant interest from the perspective of vaccine design...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451313/health-care-worker-follow-up-compliance-after-occupational-bloodborne-pathogens-exposure-a-brief-report
#18
Juan C Díaz, Lucas A Johnson
A retrospective cohort study was conducted examining health care worker (HCW) compliance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations following occupational bloodborne pathogen (BBP) exposure. HCWs with a BBP exposure from a known HIV- or hepatitis C virus-seropositive individual were less likely to complete recommended follow-up compared with HCWs with seronegative source patient exposures (adjusted odds ratio, 0.02 and 0.09, respectively). Continued targeted education and extra vigilance in performing postexposure surveillance are warranted in this higher-risk population...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393324/sharp-injury-and-exposure-to-blood-and-body-fluids-among-health-care-workers-in-health-care-centers-of-eastern-ethiopia
#19
T Alemayehu, A Worku, N Assefa
BACKGROUND: Health care workers are facing certain occupational hazards because of sharp injury and exposure to human blood and body fluids as a result of handling wastes. Though much attention is paid for the protection of these workers, the number of exposures and injuries do not show a sign of decline from time to time. OBJECTIVE: To examine the occurrence of sharp injury and exposure to blood and body fluids in health care workers in health care centers in Ethiopia...
July 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381540/epidemiology-and-clinical-consequences-of-occupational-exposure-to-blood-and-other-body-fluids-in-a-university-hospital-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Shireen A Samargandy, Lujain M Bukhari, Shaza A Samargandy, Rawiah S Bahlas, Eman K Aldigs, Maha A Alawi, Nabeela A Al-Abdullah, Tariq A Madani
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological characteristics, clinical impact, and adequacy of post-exposure management of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (BBFs).  METHODS: Retrospective chart review of individuals reporting exposure to BBFs from 2007 to 2013 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  RESULTS: The total number of exposures reported was 326 exposures, of which 302 (92.6%) exposures were percutaneous, 21 (6...
July 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
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