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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274607/understanding-the-magnitude-of-occupational-exposure-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-uptake-of-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-among-healthcare-workers-in-a-rural-district-in-tanzania
#1
P Mabwe, A T Kessy, I Semali
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to blood or other body fluids in healthcare settings puts healthcare workers (HCWs) at risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is estimated that between 200 and 5000 HIV infections are transmitted annually to HCWs worldwide. Use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been documented to reduce the rate of HIV infection from workplace exposures by 81%. AIM: To investigate the extent of occupational exposure to HIV infection during the period of 12 months before the survey and to identify factors associated with uptake of PEP services among HCWs...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173785/hcv-screening-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-homeless-and-marginally-housed-women-in-san-francisco-california
#2
Kimberly Page, Michelle Yu, Jennifer Cohen, Jennifer Evans, Martha Shumway, Elise D Riley
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening has taken on new importance as a result of updated guidelines and new curative therapies. Relatively few studies have assessed HCV infection in homeless populations, and a minority include women. We assessed prevalence and correlates of HCV exposure in a cohort of homeless and unstably housed women in San Francisco, and estimated the proportion undiagnosed. METHODS: A probability sample of 246 women were recruited at free meal programs, homeless shelters, and low-cost single room occupancy hotels in San Francisco; women with HIV were oversampled...
February 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170304/hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-postexposure-prophylaxis-in-japan-context-of-use-and-directions-for-future-research-and-action
#3
Anthony S DiStefano, Makiko Takeda
Biomedical HIV prevention strategies are playing an increasingly prominent role in addressing HIV epidemics globally, but little is known about their use in Japan, where persistent HIV disparities and a recently stable, but not declining, national epidemic indicate the need for evolving approaches. We conducted an ethnographic study to determine the context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) use and to identify directions for future research and action in Japan. We used data from observational fieldwork in the Kansai region and Tokyo Metropolitan Area (n = 178 persons observed), qualitative interviews (n = 32), documents and web-based data sources (n = 321), and email correspondences (n = 9) in the period 2013-2016...
February 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141592/exposure-incidents-among-medical-students-in-a-high-prevalence-hiv-setting
#4
Theresa Marié Rossouw, Marietjie Van Rooyen, Karin Louise Richter
INTRODUCTION: Occupational injuries in medical students are concerning, especially in countries with a high prevalence of bloodborne infections. With more HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment, appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) depends on knowledge of source patients' infection status and treatment response. This study determined the number and type of exposure incidents, reporting practices, and PEP use among medical students at the University of Pretoria, South Africa...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134071/everyday-dangers-the-impact-infectious-disease-has-on-the-health-of-paramedics-a-scoping-review
#5
Brodie Thomas, Peter O'Meara, Evelien Spelten
BACKGROUND: Paramedics respond to emergency scenes in often uncontrolled settings without being aware of potential risks. This makes paramedicine one of the most dangerous occupations. One of these dangers is the risk of contracting infectious diseases. Research in this area is predominantly focused on compliance in the use of protective equipment, attitudes and perceptions of paramedics, infectious disease policy, and exposure rates to blood and body fluids. The purpose of this scoping review was to determine what is known about the impact of infectious disease on the health of paramedics...
January 30, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097434/work-related-infections-in-dentistry-risk-perception-and-preventive-measures
#6
Tatjana Ramich, Peter Eickholz, Sabine Wicker
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of (1) the risk perception of work-related infections in dentistry, (2) the vaccination status, (3) knowledge of the blood-borne pathogens and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as well as (4) use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (gloves, goggles, mask) among the staff and students of the Center of Dentistry and Oral Medicine (ZZMK [Carolinum]) of the Goethe University Frankfurt/Main. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All staff (dentists, dental assistants) and students of the ZZMK with direct contact to patients were asked to anonymously complete a questionnaire...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042212/occurrence-of-needlestick-and-injuries-among-health-care-workers-of-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-north-india
#7
Varun Goel, Dinesh Kumar, Raghavendra Lingaiah, Sarman Singh
INTRODUCTION: Occupational hazards such as accidental exposure to sharp, cuts, and splashes are common among health-care workers (HCWs). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence of self-reported occupational exposures to these hazards and to know the prevalent practices following the exposure. The second aim was to know the baseline antibody levels against hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immediately after these accidents...
January 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930472/risks-associated-with-lentiviral-vector-exposures-and-prevention-strategies
#8
Ryan Schlimgen, John Howard, Dawn Wooley, Maureen Thompson, Lindsey R Baden, Otto O Yang, David C Christiani, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, David V Diamond, Elizabeth Gilman Duane, Karen Byers, Thomas Winters, Jeffrey A Gelfand, Gary Fujimoto, T Warner Hudson, Jatin M Vyas
Lentiviral vectors (LVVs) are powerful genetic tools that are being used with greater frequency in biomedical laboratories and clinical trials. Adverse events reported from initial clinical studies provide a basis for risk assessment of occupational exposures, yet many questions remain about the potential harm that LVVs may cause. We review those risks and provide a framework for principal investigators, Institutional Biosafety Committees, and occupational health professionals to assess and communicate the risks of exposure to staff...
December 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#9
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
February 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914484/comparing-non-occupational-post-exposure-prophylaxis-drug-regimens-for-hiv-insights-from-a-linked-hiv-surveillance-system
#10
Anna B Pierce, Carol El-Hayek, Damien McCarthy, Jude Armishaw, Kerrie Watson, Anna Wilkinson, Brian Price, Edwina J Wright, Jennifer F Hoy, Mark A Stoové
Background: International non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) guidelines recommend routine use of three drug NPEP regimens, despite absence of evidence for greater prevention efficacy compared with two drug regimens. This study examines the potential for excess HIV seroconversions among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting receptive anal intercourse with a source of unknown HIV serostatus (RAIU) following a two-drug versus a three-drug NPEP regimen. Methods: Data for MSM in the Victorian NPEP service database between 10 August 2005 and 31 December 2012 were linked with all Victorian HIV notifications up to 31 December 2013...
December 5, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881646/activation-and-inactivation-of-primary-human-immunodeficiency-virus-envelope-glycoprotein-trimers-by-cd4-mimetic-compounds
#11
Navid Madani, Amy M Princiotto, Connie Zhao, Fatemeh Jahanbakhshsefidi, Max Mertens, Alon Herschhorn, Bruno Melillo, Amos B Smith, Joseph Sodroski
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins (Env), a trimer of three gp120 exterior glycoproteins, and three gp41 transmembrane glycoproteins. The metastable Env is triggered to undergo entry-related conformational changes when gp120 binds sequentially to the receptors, CD4 and CCR5, on the target cell. Small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds (CD4mc) bind gp120 and act as competitive inhibitors of gp120-CD4 engagement. Some CD4mc have been shown to trigger Env prematurely, initially activating Env function, followed by rapid and irreversible inactivation...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880833/prioritizing-risk-in-preparation-for-a-demonstration-project-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-study-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-female-sex-workers-in-south-india
#12
Sushena Reza-Paul, Lisa Lazarus, Monika Doshi, Syed Hafeez Ur Rahman, Manjula Ramaiah, Raviprakash Maiya, Venugopal Ms, K T Venukumar, Sundar Sundararaman, Marissa Becker, Stephen Moses, Robert Lorway
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837497/the-changing-epidemiology-of-invasive-fungal-infections
#13
David A Enoch, Huina Yang, Sani H Aliyu, Christianne Micallef
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an emerging problem worldwide with invasive candidiasis and candidemia responsible for the majority of cases. This is predominantly driven by the widespread adoption of aggressive immunosuppressive therapy among certain patient populations (e.g., chemotherapy, transplants) and the increasing use of invasive devices such as central venous catheters (CVCs). The use of new immune modifying drugs has also opened up an entirely new spectrum of patients at risk of IFIs. While the epidemiology of candida infections has changed in the last decade, with a gradual shift from C...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828002/an-integrated-intervention-for-increasing-clinical-nurses-knowledge-of-hiv-aids-related-occupational-safety
#14
Liping He, Zhiyan Lu, Jing Huang, Yiping Zhou, Jian Huang, Yongyi Bi, Jun Li
Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807954/-documented-and-suspected-risk-factors-for-childhood-cancer-aetiology
#15
Corrado Magnani, Lucia Miligi, Stefano Parodi
We present an updated summary on risk factors for childhood malignancies, following to previous reviews published on Epidemiologia&Prevenzione and largely based on the monographs of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Ionizing radiations are certain carcinogens, with evidence in humans, from studies both on children and on adults. Evidence specifically regarding childhood cancers is available also for other carcinogens, such as tobacco smoking, some solvents, some occupational activities of parents, and some viruses (HIV and EBV)...
September 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806545/occupational-exposure-to-positive-blood-and-body-fluids-among-health-care-workers-in-a-chinese-university-hospital-a-three-years-retrospective-study
#16
Xiubin Tao, Hui Peng, Lihua Qian, Yan Li, Qun Wu, Jingjing Ruan, Dongzhen Cai
Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to blood and body fluids (BBF) due to occupational accidents. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of occupational exposure in Chinese HCWs thus far. There is a clearly a critical need to characterize its epidemiology more fully in China so that effective prevention programs can be implemented. We conducted a retrospective study at a university hospital in China, giving an epidemiological analysis on these exposed HCWs whose pathogens of BBF from patients were positive [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) / hepatitis B (HBV) / hepatitis C (HCV)]...
August 11, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719827/a-66-year-old-man-with-mediastinal-mass-and-dyspnea
#17
Narendra Kumar Narahari, Paramjyothi K Gongati, Shantveer G Uppin, Anu Kapoor, Bhaskar Kakarla, Ramakrishna Dev Tella
A 66-year-old man presented with dry cough and shortness of breath on exertion of 6 months' duration. There were no complaints of fever and hemoptysis. His history was significant for recurrent episodes of respiratory tract infections over the previous 4 years. He had also had episodes of recurrent otitis media and pus discharge from the left ear for 3 years, with progressive loss of hearing. There was no history of recurrent skin infections or diarrhea. He was treated symptomatically with antibiotics by local general practitioners...
October 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718116/assessing-of-policies-and-practices-for-occupational-exposure-to-blood-borne-viral-infections-in-tanta-university-hospitals-egypt
#18
Asmaa Mohammad Ahmed, Ibrahim Ali Kabbash, Nadira Mansour Hassan, Nashwa Mohammad Radwan
One of the best ways to investigate and improve the effectiveness of polices for prevention and control of infections is through systematic and rigorous evaluation of the structural, functional, and practical elements of these polices. To assess the policies for managing occupational exposure to blood-borne viral infections in Tanta University Hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was carried out. A checklist was used to collect data related to the hospital policy regarding occupational exposure to blood-borne viral infections which was filled by direct personal interviews with the members of infection control (IC) committee of Tanta University Hospitals where the percentage of those in compliance with specific occupational management policies were reported...
October 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714903/risk-factors-for-ocular-surface-squamous-neoplasia-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#19
Stephen Gichuhi, Ephantus Macharia, Joy Kabiru, Alain M'bongo Zindamoyen, Hillary Rono, Ernest Ollando, Joseph Wachira, Rhoda Munene, Timothy Onyuma, Walter G Jaoko, Mandeep S Sagoo, Helen A Weiss, Matthew J Burton
OBJECTIVE: To determine modifiable risk factors of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Kenya using disease-free controls. METHODS: Adults with conjunctival lesions were recruited at four eye care centres in Kenya and underwent excision biopsy. An equal number of controls having surgery for conditions not affecting the conjunctiva and unrelated to ultraviolet light were group-matched to cases by age group, sex and eye care centre. Associations of risk factors with OSSN were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)...
December 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682067/hepatitis-c-virus-postexposure-prophylaxis-in-the-healthcare-worker-why-direct-acting-antivirals-don-t-change-a-thing
#20
Susanna Naggie, David P Holland, Mark S Sulkowski, David L Thomas
Currently, 380 000-400 000 occupational exposures to blood-borne pathogens occur annually in the United States. The management for occupational HIV or hepatitis B virus exposures includes postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) when necessary; however, PEP is not recommended for hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposures. Recent approval of HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has renewed discussions as to whether these therapies could be used to prevent infection after exposure. There are no published studies addressing this question, but the prescribing of DAAs for PEP has been reported...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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