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post exposure prophylaxis of hiv

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431556/factors-associated-with-loss-to-follow-up-after-occupational-hiv-exposure-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Nectarios Sophocles Papavarnavas, Kathryn Manning, Fahd Conrad, Milah Govender, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: There is limited data on factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU) of health care workers (HCWs) following occupational exposure to HIV, and most studies were conducted in an era when poorly tolerated antiretrovirals like zidovudine were used. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of HCWs attending a referral hospital's Occupational Health Clinic in Cape Town, South Africa for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) during a period when tenofovir was available...
April 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419277/prevention-of-tb-using-rifampicin-plus-isoniazid-reduces-nevirapine-concentrations-in-hiv-exposed-infants
#2
Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Jennifer D Hoffmann, Saba Shembe, Regina Msandiwa, Lubbe Wiesner, Sithembiso Velaphi, Sanjay G Lala, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson, Kelly E Dooley
Background: Newborns of HIV-infected mothers are given daily doses of nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Infants born to mothers with TB should also receive TB preventive therapy. TB preventive regimens include isoniazid for 6 months or rifampicin plus isoniazid for 3 months (RH preventive therapy). The effect of concomitant RH preventive therapy on nevirapine concentrations in infants is unknown. Patients and methods: Tshepiso was a prospective case-control cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women with and without TB whose newborn infants received standard doses of nevirapine for HIV prophylaxis...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392419/early-phase-dynamics-of-traceable-mcherry-fluorescent-protein-carrying-hiv-1-infection-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-transplanted-nod-scid-jak3-mice
#3
Nobuyo Higashi-Kuwata, Hiromi Ogata-Aoki, Shin-Ichiro Hattori, Hironori Hayashi, Matthew Danish, Manabu Aoki, Chiemi Shiotsu, Tatsuyoshi Kawamura, Hironobu Ihn, Hisataka Kobayashi, Seiji Okada, Hiroaki Mitsuya
We attempted to elucidate early-phase dynamics of HIV-1 infection using replication-competent, red-fluorescent-protein (mCherry)-labeled HIV-1JR-FL (HIVJR-FL(mC)) and NOD/SCID/Jak3(-/-) mice transplanted with Individual-A's human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC)(hNOJ mice). On day 7 following HIVJR-FL(mC) inoculation, mCherry-signal-emitting infection foci were readily identified in the subserosa of 10 of 10 HIVJR-FL(mC)-inoculated hNOJ mice, although infection foci were not located without the mCherry signal in unlabeled HIV-1JR-FL-inoculated mice (n = 6)...
April 6, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369381/randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-tolerability-and-completion-of-maraviroc-compared-with-kaletra%C3%A2-in-combination-with-truvada%C3%A2-for-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-mipep-trial
#4
Ana Milinkovic, Paul Benn, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Nataliya Brima, Andrew Copas, Amanda Clarke, Martin Fisher, Gabriel Schembri, David Hawkins, Andy Williams, Richard Gilson
Objectives: Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV is often poorly tolerated and not completed. Alternative PEP regimens may improve adherence and completion, aiding HIV prevention. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a maraviroc-based PEP regimen compared with a standard-of-care regimen using ritonavir-boosted lopinavir. Methods: Patients meeting criteria for PEP were randomized to tenofovir disoproxil/emtricitabine (200/245 mg) once daily plus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (Kaletra ® 400/100 mg) or maraviroc 300 mg twice daily...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362062/a-novel-online-to-offline-o2o-model-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-hiv-testing-scale-up
#5
Tarandeep Anand, Chattiya Nitpolprasert, Deondara Trachunthong, Stephen J Kerr, Surang Janyam, Danai Linjongrat, Lisa B Hightow-Weidman, Praphan Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Nittaya Phanuphak
INTRODUCTION: PrEP awareness and uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TG) in Thailand remains low. Finding ways to increase HIV testing and PrEP uptake among high-risk groups is a critical priority. This study evaluates the effect of a novel Adam's Love Online-to-Offline (O2O) model on PrEP and HIV testing uptake among Thai MSM and TG and identifies factors associated with PrEP uptake. METHODS: The O2O model was piloted by Adam's Love (www...
March 10, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350554/high-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cepheid-xpert%C3%A2-hiv-1-qualitative-point-of-care-test-among-newborns-in-botswana
#6
Maryanne Ibrahim, Sikhulile Moyo, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Kenneth Maswabi, Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Gelman, Oganne Batlang, Maureen Sakoi, Chloe Auletta-Young, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Roger L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: HIV point-of-care (POC) testing allows for early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment, but POC accuracy at birth and in the setting of antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 Qual POC test against the Roche Taqman HIV-1 PCR platform using dried blood spots from 15 HIV-infected and 75 HIV-exposed uninfected newborns. These infants were screened for HIV at <96 hours of life at 5 hospital maternity wards in Botswana; all infants received post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis (PEP) and most mothers received 3-drug antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and at delivery...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301425/dolutegravir-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-as-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-gay-and-bisexual-men
#7
John Mcallister, Janet M Towns, Anna Mcnulty, Anna B Pierce, Rosalind Foster, Robyn Richardson, Andrew Carr
OBJECTIVES: Completion rates for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) are often low. We investigated the adherence and safety of dolutegravir (DTG 50 mg daily) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg (TDF-FTC) as 3-drug PEP in gay and bisexual men (GBM). DESIGN: Open-label, single-arm study at 3 sexual health clinics and 2 emergency departments in Australia. METHODS: One hundred HIV-uninfected GBM requiring PEP received DTG plus TDF-FTC for 28 days...
March 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274607/understanding-the-magnitude-of-occupational-exposure-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-uptake-of-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-among-healthcare-workers-in-a-rural-district-in-tanzania
#8
P Mabwe, A T Kessy, I Semali
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to blood or other body fluids in healthcare settings puts healthcare workers (HCWs) at risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is estimated that between 200 and 5000 HIV infections are transmitted annually to HCWs worldwide. Use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been documented to reduce the rate of HIV infection from workplace exposures by 81%. AIM: To investigate the extent of occupational exposure to HIV infection during the period of 12 months before the survey and to identify factors associated with uptake of PEP services among HCWs...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257475/awareness-and-attitudes-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-among-physicians-in-guatemala-implications-for-country-wide-implementation
#9
Ian Ross, Carlos Mejia, Johanna Melendez, Philip A Chan, Amy C Nunn, William Powderly, Katherine Goodenberger, Jingxia Liu, Kenneth H Mayer, Rupa R Patel
INTRODUCTION: HIV continues to be a major health concern with approximately 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015. In Central America, Guatemala had the highest incident number of HIV infections (3,700) in 2015. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was recently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an efficacious intervention to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP implementation efforts are underway in Guatemala and success will require providers that are knowledgeable and willing to prescribe PrEP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157463/use-of-antiretrovirals-in-hiv-infected-children-in-a-tuberculosis-prevention-trial-impaact-p1041
#10
B Zeldow, S Kim, G McSherry, M F Cotton, P Jean-Philippe, A Violari, R Bobat, S Nachman, L M Mofenson, S A Madhi, C Mitchell
SETTING: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1041, a tuberculosis (TB) prevention trial conducted among children enrolled from 2004 to 2008 during South Africa's roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: To estimate TB incidence and mortality and the effect of ART. DESIGN: Children were pre-screened to exclude TB disease and exposure, actively screened 3-monthly for TB exposure and symptoms, and provided post-exposure isoniazid prophylaxis therapy (IPT)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155774/-barriers-and-levers-to-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#11
Nicolas Charpentier, Guillemette Quatremère, Xavier Mabire, Sabrina Roduit, Vanessa Laguette, Didier Spittler, Elodie Guillois, Cyril Martin, Daniela Rojas Castro, Marie Préau
Two challenges were identified to improve the place of PEP in combined prevention: (1) improvement of healthcare professionals’ knowledge, practices and attitudes; and (2) revision of the guidelines concerning first-line prescription, the conditions for access to PEP, and sexual health support.</ce:para>.
December 19, 2016: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141592/exposure-incidents-among-medical-students-in-a-high-prevalence-hiv-setting
#12
Theresa Marié Rossouw, Marietjie Van Rooyen, Karin Louise Richter
INTRODUCTION: Occupational injuries in medical students are concerning, especially in countries with a high prevalence of bloodborne infections. With more HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment, appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) depends on knowledge of source patients' infection status and treatment response. This study determined the number and type of exposure incidents, reporting practices, and PEP use among medical students at the University of Pretoria, South Africa...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130774/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-safety-concerns
#13
REVIEW
Raymond A Tetteh, Barbara A Yankey, Edmund T Nartey, Margaret Lartey, Hubert G M Leufkens, Alexander N O Dodoo
Available evidence supports the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in decreasing the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among high-risk individuals, especially when used in combination with other behavioural preventive methods. Safety concerns about PrEP present challenges in the implementation and use of PrEP. The aim of this review is to discuss safety concerns observed in completed clinical trials on the use of PrEP. We performed a literature search on PrEP in PubMed, global advocacy for HIV prevention (Aids Vaccine Advocacy Coalition) database, clinical trials registry " http://www...
April 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110176/the-management-of-hiv-in-pregnancy-a-10-year-experience
#14
Sonia F Raffe, Charlotte Savage, Louisa A Perry, Amie Patel, Tricia Keith, Richard Howell, Robert Bradley, Rob Bomont, Katy Fidler, Yvonne Gilleece
OBJECTIVE: The package of care to reduce HIV mother to child transmission (MTCT) has evolved significantly since trials of ante and intrapartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1994. In the UK MTCT rate has fallen from 25.6% in the 1990s to 0.46%. We review the management of HIV in pregnancy in Brighton in the context of evolving guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: HIV, obstetric and neonatal notes of all HIV positive women, pregnant between 2003 and 2014, were reviewed. RESULTS: 97 pregnancies in 75 women were identified, resulting in 79 live births...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097434/work-related-infections-in-dentistry-risk-perception-and-preventive-measures
#15
Tatjana Ramich, Peter Eickholz, Sabine Wicker
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of (1) the risk perception of work-related infections in dentistry, (2) the vaccination status, (3) knowledge of the blood-borne pathogens and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as well as (4) use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (gloves, goggles, mask) among the staff and students of the Center of Dentistry and Oral Medicine (ZZMK [Carolinum]) of the Goethe University Frankfurt/Main. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All staff (dentists, dental assistants) and students of the ZZMK with direct contact to patients were asked to anonymously complete a questionnaire...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061753/treatment-efficacy-of-azithromycin-1%C3%A2-g-single-dose-versus-doxycycline-100%C3%A2-mg-twice-daily-for-7%C3%A2-days-for-the-treatment-of-rectal-chlamydia-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#16
Andrew Lau, Fabian Kong, Christopher K Fairley, Basil Donovan, Marcus Chen, Catriona Bradshaw, Mark Boyd, Janaki Amin, Peter Timms, Sepehr Tabrizi, David G Regan, David A Lewis, Anna McNulty, Jane S Hocking
BACKGROUND: Rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmissible infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) with diagnosis rates continuing to rise. Current treatment guidelines recommend either azithromycin 1 g single dose or doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 7 days. However, there are increasing concerns about treatment failure with azithromycin. We are conducting the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare treatment efficacy of azithromycin versus doxycycline for the treatment of rectal chlamydia in MSM...
January 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974330/post-exposure-prophylaxis-guidelines-for-children-and-adolescents-potentially-exposed-to-hiv
#17
REVIEW
Alasdair Bamford, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Caroline Foster
UK guidelines for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in adults have recently been updated. Indications for PEP have been modified and there has been a change in the recommended antiretroviral therapy for adults to a combination of raltegravir with tenofovir and emtricitabine (Truvada). Raltegravir and tenofovir are now available in paediatric formulations and offer improved safety and tolerability over previously recommended ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with zidovudine. This guideline provides recommendations for those caring for children potentially exposed to HIV and other bloodborne viruses in primary care, emergency departments, secondary care and specialist paediatric HIV centres...
January 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914484/comparing-non-occupational-post-exposure-prophylaxis-drug-regimens-for-hiv-insights-from-a-linked-hiv-surveillance-system
#18
Anna B Pierce, Carol El-Hayek, Damien McCarthy, Jude Armishaw, Kerrie Watson, Anna Wilkinson, Brian Price, Edwina J Wright, Jennifer F Hoy, Mark A Stoové
Background: International non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) guidelines recommend routine use of three drug NPEP regimens, despite absence of evidence for greater prevention efficacy compared with two drug regimens. This study examines the potential for excess HIV seroconversions among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting receptive anal intercourse with a source of unknown HIV serostatus (RAIU) following a two-drug versus a three-drug NPEP regimen. Methods: Data for MSM in the Victorian NPEP service database between 10 August 2005 and 31 December 2012 were linked with all Victorian HIV notifications up to 31 December 2013...
December 5, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910722/post-exposure-prophylaxis-awareness-and-use-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-london-who-use-geosocial-networking-smartphone-applications
#19
William C Goedel, Daniel Hagen, Perry N Halkitis, Richard E Greene, Marybec Griffin-Tomas, Forrest A Brooks, DeMarc Hickson, Dustin T Duncan
The number of new HIV infections continues to be on the rise in many high-income countries, most notably among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite recent attention to the use of antiretroviral medications as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM, considerably less research has been devoted to examining the awareness and use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Based on a convenience sample of 179 self-reported HIV-uninfected MSM using a geosocial-networking smartphone application, this study is among the first to examine the awareness and use of PEP and their demographic and behavioral correlates among MSM in London...
May 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906766/prescription-of-post-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-1-in-the-emergency-room-correct-transmission-risk-assessment-remains-challenging
#20
Alex Marzel, Henriette Heinrich, Lukas Schilliger, Jan S Fehr, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger Kouyos, Silvana K Rampini
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available about the accuracy of PEP prescription in the emergency rooms. Here, we evaluated PEP prescription decision-making with respect to the risk of sexual HIV transmission and the exposed person`s fear vis-à-vis HIV. METHODS: Using a risk-assessment algorithm, we retrospectively evaluated the adequacy of PEP prescription for all persons presenting at the emergency room of the University Hospital Zurich after consensual sex from 2007 to 2013...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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