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post exposure prophylaxis of hiv

Richard A Crosby, Leandro Mena, Rachel Vickers Smith
The aim of this study is to determine, among young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM), the 12-month efficacy of a single-session, clinic-based intervention promoting condom use to enhance sexual pleasure (purpose 1) and the use of condoms from the start-to-finish of anal sex (purpose 2). A pre-test, post-test randomized controlled trial was conducted, using a 12-month period of follow-up observation, in STI clinics. Data from 394 YBMSM completing baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments were analyzed...
March 9, 2018: Health Education Research
Dvora Joseph Davey, Elise Farley, Yolanda Gomba, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: HIV acquisition in pregnancy and breastfeeding contributes significantly toward pediatric HIV infection. However, little is known about how sexual behavior changes during pregnancy and postpartum periods which will help develop targeted HIV prevention and transmission interventions, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS: Cross-sectional study in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant and postpartum women in Cape Town, South Africa. Interviewers collected survey data on demographic, sexual behaviors, and alcohol use among pregnant and post-partum women...
2018: PloS One
Hanh Thi Pham, Thibault Mesplède
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a major health issue worldwide. In developed countries, antiretroviral therapy has extended its reach from treatment of people living with HIV-1 to post-exposure prophylaxis, treatment as prevention, and, more recently, pre-exposure prophylaxis. These healthcare strategies offer the epidemiological tools to curve the epidemic in rich settings and will be concomitantly implemented in developing countries. One of the remaining challenges is to identify an efficacious curative strategy...
2018: Drugs in Context
Janice Du Mont, Lily Van, Daisy Kosa, Sheila Macdonald
Among 136 women sexually assaulted by a current or former male intimate partner presenting to hospital-based violence treatment centers, 58 (42.6%) received HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) counseling by a specially trained sexual assault nurse. We identified factors that were associated with receipt of HIV PEP counseling. Those who received counseling were more likely to have been younger than 25 years of age, single, a student, vaginally penetrated, and have received various other services ( e.g ., STI prophylaxis)...
2018: Open AIDS Journal
Clarence S Yah
Background: Despite the shift in antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) eligibility cascade from CD4 ≤ 200 to CD4 ≤ 350 to CD4 ≤ 500 mm3 , HIV related morbidity and mortality continue to escalate annually, as do HIV infections. The new paradigm of treatment for all HIV positives individual irrespective of CD4 count may significantly reduce HIV and related illnesses. The author assumes that all HIV infected partners should be eligible for HIV treatment and care, irrespective of CD4 count...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Lyle R McKinnon, Lenine J Liebenberg, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Derseree Archary, Sinaye Ngcapu, Aida Sivro, Nico Nagelkerke, Jose Gerardo Garcia Lerma, Angela D Kashuba, Lindi Masson, Leila E Mansoor, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim, Jo-Ann S Passmore
Several clinical trials have demonstrated that antiretroviral (ARV) drugs taken as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV infection, with the magnitude of protection ranging from -49 to 86% (refs. ). Although these divergent outcomes are thought to be due primarily to differences in product adherence, biological factors likely contribute. Despite selective recruitment of higher-risk participants for prevention trials, HIV risk is heterogeneous even within higher-risk groups. To determine whether this heterogeneity could influence patient outcomes following PrEP, we undertook a post hoc prospective analysis of results from the CAPRISA 004 trial for 1% tenofovir gel (n = 774 patients), one of the first trials to demonstrate protection against HIV infection...
February 26, 2018: Nature Medicine
Janneke P Bil, Elske Hoornenborg, Maria Prins, Arjan Hogewoning, Fernando Dias Goncalves Lima, Henry J C de Vries, Udi Davidovich
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for preventing HIV infections, but is not yet implemented in the Netherlands. As the attitudes of health-care professionals toward PrEP can influence future PrEP implementation, we studied PrEP knowledge and beliefs and their association with PrEP acceptability among professionals in clinics for sexually transmitted infection (STI professionals) and HIV treatment centers (HIV specialists). In addition, we examined preferred regimens, attitudes toward providing PrEP to key populations and to reimbursement of PrEP costs...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Faisal Kordy, Astrid Petrich, Stanley E Read, Ari Bitnun
Background: Exposure to discarded needles or other objects put children at risk for infection with blood-borne pathogens (BBP), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C. Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the epidemiology, management and outcome of children following such exposures in the greater Toronto community setting. Methods: A retrospective study of children <19 years of age who had community-based exposure to objects that could contain BBP between January 2001 and December 2014...
October 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Samina Ismail, Safia Awan, Rubaba Naeem, Sarfraz Siddiqui, Badar Afzal, Bushra Jamil, Uzma Rahim Khan
OBJECTIVE: Health care providers (HCPs) are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV infection. In developing world these exposure occur due to general lack of awareness, education and structured training of HCPs. The objective of the study was to asses if continuing medical education symposium can be used as an effective educational tool to improve attitude, awareness and knowledge regarding occupational exposure to HIV infection. This quasi-experimental study was conducted among HCPs from Karachi, Pakistan...
February 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
M Siguier, J-M Molina
Preexposure prophylaxis of HIV with antiretroviral drugs is a prevention tool available in France since 2016, combined with the prevention methods already used (condoms, post-exposure treatment, rapid treatment of diagnosed HIV infections, etc.). It is targeted at populations at high risk of HIV infection, especially men who have sex with men, for whom traditional prevention methods are insufficient. We collected clinical research data, which resulted in the launch of preexposure prophylaxis in the United States and then elsewhere in the world, safety, tolerability and cost data, as well as ongoing research data (new molecules/methods of administration)...
February 9, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Agnès Libois, Eric Florence, Inge Derdelinckx, Jean Cyr Yombi, Sophie Henrard, Françoise Uurlings, Stefaan Vandecasteele, Sabine D Allard, Rémy Demeester, Filip Van Wanzeele, Nathalie Ausselet, Stéphane De Wit
We present the updated Belgian guidelines for the use of non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (NONOPEP). This document is inspired by UK guidelines 2015, adapted to the Belgian situation and approved by all AIDS reference centers in Belgium. When recommended, NONOPEP should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably within 24 h of exposure but can be offered up to 72 h. The duration of NONOPEP should be 28 days. These current guidelines include epidemiologic estimations, which can be used to calculate the risk of infection after a potential exposure and help to decide whether or not to start prophylaxis...
February 12, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Ethan Tumarkin, Amila Heendeniya, Pauline Murphy, Tania Placido, Darrell H S Tan, Isaac I Bogoch
BACKGROUND: On-demand PrEP may reduce one's risk of HIV acquisition, however it is unclear if individuals with a very low frequency of HIV exposures are conferred adequate protection. We evaluated a novel approach dubbed HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis-in-Pocket ('PIP'), for individuals with a low frequency of high risk HIV exposures. SETTING: Two HIV clinics in Toronto, Canada, managing HIV prevention cases. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of patients referred to HIV clinics for PrEP between January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2017, inclusive...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Henk-Jan van den Ham, Jason D Cooper, Jakub Tomasik, Sabine Bahn, Joeri L Aerts, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Rob A Gruters, Arno C Andeweg
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the host response to dendritic cell-based immunotherapy and subsequent combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) interruption in HIV-1-infected individuals at the plasma protein level. DESIGN: An autologous dendritic cell (DC) therapeutic vaccine was administered to HIV-infected individuals, stable on cART. The effect of vaccination was evaluated at the plasma protein level during the period preceding cART interruption, during analytical therapy interruption and at viral reactivation...
2018: PloS One
Angelo Brandelli Costa, Anna Martha Vaitses Fontanari, Ramiro Figueiredo Catelan, Karine Schwarz, Juliana Ledur Stucky, Heitor Tome da Rosa Filho, Paola Fagundes Pase, Daniel Augusto Mori Gagliotti, Alexandre Saadeh, Maria Inês Rodrigues Lobato, Henrique Caetano Nardi, Silvia Helena Koller
The aim of this study is to investigate HIV-related healthcare needs and access barriers for Brazilian transgender and gender diverse people. Data were collected from gender identity clinics and the questionnaire was also made available on the Internet. Out of the 543 participants-62.1% (n = 337) transgender women, 28.7 (n = 156) transgender men and 9.2% (n = 50) gender diverse people, 63.7% had been tested at least once in their lives. The prevalence of self-reported HIV-positive status among transgender women was 16...
January 3, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Carolyne Ajema, Charity Mbugua, Peter Memiah, Camille Wood, Courtney Cook, Ronald Kotut, Lina Digolo
Purpose: Child sexual abuse and HIV are key health challenges in Kenya. In 2015, LVCT Health conducted a study aimed at assessing the quality of HIV-related services offered to child survivors of sexual violence in public health facilities. Materials and methods: A qualitative data collection approach was utilized. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with 31 providers. Quantitative methods included a retrospective review of 164 records of child survivors of rape who had accessed services 6 months prior to the commencement of the study...
2018: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Alisse Hannaford, Madeleine Lipshie-Williams, Joanna L Starrels, Julia H Arnsten, Jessica Rizzuto, Phillip Cohen, Damon Jacobs, Viraj V Patel
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains an under-utilized HIV prevention tool among men who have sex with men (MSM). To more comprehensively elucidate barriers and facilitators to PrEP use among US MSM, we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed published articles and content analysis of online posts about PrEP. We searched peer-reviewed databases (Medline, Web of Science, Google Scholar) using MESH headings and keywords about PrEP and/or HIV prevention from 2005 to 2015. We included original studies among MSM in the US that reported on barriers, facilitators, or other factors related to PrEP use...
December 28, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Antonio J Carrion, Jovan D Miles, Juan F Mosley, Lillian L Smith, April S Prather, Marcus M Gurley, Linh D Phan, Emily C Everton
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has now transformed into a manageable chronic condition. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proven efficacious at controlling the disease progression. Based on compelling evidence, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV. However, there are approximately 50 000 new cases of HIV in the United States each year. In this article, we review proactive methods to reduce the transmission of HIV, which include reinforcing patient education, gel-coated condoms that destroy HIV, HIV vaccinations, and adequately utilizing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)...
February 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Zoë R Greenwald, Helen Trottier, Martha Cadieux, Alexandre Goyette, Mariève Beauchemin, Louise Charest, Danièle Longpré, Stéphane Lavoie, Hermione Gbego Tossa, Réjean Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV raises concerns about sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence due to decreased condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study examines whether PrEP is associated with STIs in the 12-months following PrEP prescription relative to the 12-months prior to PrEP and if STI rates are higher among PrEP users relative to individuals receiving Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study including PrEP users with >12 months of follow-up before PrEP prescription and individuals receiving PEP from 2010-2015 at Clinique l'Actuel (Montréal, Canada)...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
Jean-Michel Molina, Isabelle Charreau, Christian Chidiac, Gilles Pialoux, Eric Cua, Constance Delaugerre, Catherine Capitant, Daniela Rojas-Castro, Julien Fonsart, Béatrice Bercot, Cécile Bébéar, Laurent Cotte, Olivier Robineau, François Raffi, Pierre Charbonneau, Alexandre Aslan, Julie Chas, Laurence Niedbalski, Bruno Spire, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Diane Carette, Soizic Le Mestre, Veronique Doré, Laurence Meyer
BACKGROUND: Increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been reported among men who have sex with men. We aimed to assess whether post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with doxycycline could reduce the incidence of STIs. METHODS: All participants attending their scheduled visit in the open-label extension of the ANRS IPERGAY trial in France (men aged 18 years or older having condomless sex with men and using pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine) were eligible for inclusion in this open-label randomised study...
March 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Viktor Mravčík, Michal Pitoňák, Robert Hejzák, Barbara Janíková, Ivo Procházka
Reported incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Czech Republic increased steeply over the past decade from 90 new cases in 2005 to 266 in 2015. This increase is almost exclusively attributed to sexual transmissions between men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2015, there were 79% (n=210) newly diagnosed cases among MSM, 17% (n=45) were attributed to heterosexual transmission and 1% (n=3) to people who inject drugs. Interventions targeted at MSM have not yet been prioritised in the broadly focused national HIV prevention strategy which this is envisaged to change in the programme set out for 2018 to 2022...
November 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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