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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166481/-prep-forum-an-on-line-debate-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-brazil
#1
Artur Acelino Francisco Luz Nunes Queiroz, Alvaro Francisco Lopes de Sousa
This study aimed to identify health-promoting contents focused on HIV/Aids prevention in messages posted in a Facebook group for debates on the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). This was a prospective observational study using systematic non-participant observation. From July 2015 to June 2016, all the posts in the group were catalogued and formed a corpus. Everything was processed in IRaMuTeQ and analyzed by descending hierarchical classification. The collected data were grouped in three classes: (1) HIV/Aids prevention: discussing prophylaxis, treatment, target public, and side effects; (2) universal access to PrEP in Brazil: discussing government responsibilities; (3) on-line purchase of truvada: exposing a situation of vulnerability...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135651/comparison-of-the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-single-dose-tenofovir-vaginal-film-and-gel-formulation-fame-05
#2
Jennifer A Robinson, Mark A Marzinke, Edward J Fuchs, Rahul P Bakshi, Hans M L Spiegel, Jenell S Coleman, Lisa C Rohan, Craig W Hendrix
OBJECTIVE: While pre-exposure prophylaxis with oral tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine reduces HIV acquisition rates, poor adherence to and acceptability of daily vaginal gels has led to development of vaginal film formulations to improve adherence and, potentially, enable episodic use. STUDY DESIGN: In this two-arm, cross-over study of a fast-dissolving tenofovir film (40 mg) compared to a previously studied semisolid tenofovir 1% gel (40 mg), 10 healthy women received a single vaginal dose of each study product...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127409/frequency-of-human-cd45-target-cells-is-a-key-determinant-of-intravaginal-hiv-1-infection-in-humanized-mice
#3
Philip V Nguyen, Jocelyn M Wessels, Kristen Mueller, Fatemeh Vahedi, Varun Anipindi, Chris P Verschoor, Marianne Chew, Alexandre Deshiere, Uladzimir Karniychuk, Tony Mazzulli, Michel J Tremblay, Ali A Ashkar, Charu Kaushic
Approximately 40% of HIV-1 infections occur in the female genital tract (FGT), primarily through heterosexual transmission. FGT factors determining outcome of HIV-1 exposure are incompletely understood, limiting prevention strategies. Here, humanized NOD-Rag1(-/-) γc(-/-) mice differentially reconstituted with human CD34+ -enriched hematopoietic stem cells (Hu-mice), were used to assess target cell frequency and viral inoculation dose as determinants of HIV-1 infection following intravaginal (IVAG) challenge...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108450/comparing-provider-and-client-preferences-for-hiv-prevention-services-in-south-africa-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#4
John Shaver, Patrick Sullivan, Aaron Siegler, Alex de Voux, Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya, Linda-Gail Bekker, Stefan D Baral, Andrea L Wirtz, Chris Beyrer, Ben Brown, Rob Stephenson
Combination prevention efforts are now recommended toward reducing HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM). Understanding the perceptions of both MSM and service providers is critical to informing the development of prevention packages and ultimately improving intervention effectiveness. This study assessed the preferences of MSM and health service providers in the administration of HIV-prevention efforts. Qualitative data were gathered from a series of separate MSM and health care provider focus groups in 2 South African cities...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091217/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-plus-ritonavir-boosted-lopinavir-or-cobicistat-boosted-elvitegravir-as-a-single-tablet-regimen-for-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#5
A Inciarte, L Leal, E González, A León, C Lucero, J Mallolas, B Torres, M Laguno, J Rojas, M Martínez-Rebollar, A González-Cordón, A Cruceta, J A Arnaiz, J M Gatell, F García
Objectives: To assess HIV-1 post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) non-completion at day 28, comparing ritonavir-boosted lopinavir versus cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir as a single-tablet regimen (STR), using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine with both of these therapies. Methods: A prospective, open, randomized clinical trial was performed. Individuals attending the emergency room due to potential sexual exposure to HIV and who met criteria for PEP were randomized 1:3 into two groups receiving either 400/100 mg of lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 38) or 150/150 mg of elvitegravir/cobicistat (n = 119), with both groups also receiving 245/200 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082767/design-and-evaluation-of-mucoadhesive-vaginal-tablets-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-of-hiv
#6
Arshad Bashir Khan, Ram Sharnagat Thakur
OBJECTIVE: To design and evaluate novel, feasible, safe, mucoadhesive intravaginal tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). SIGNIFICANCE: It may provide pre-exposure prophylaxis for women against HIV. METHODS: TDF intravaginal tablets were formulated employing poylvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the matrix forming polymer and various mucoadhesive polymers such as carbopol 934, 940, chitosan, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC). Wet granulation was used...
October 30, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074102/adherence-to-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-a-multivariate-regression-analysis-of-a-5-years-prospective-cohort
#7
Stefano Malinverni, Anne-Françoise Gennotte, Monica Schuster, Stéphane De Wit, Pierre Mols, Agnès Libois
BACKGROUND: Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is a recommended public health intervention after a sexual or percutaneous exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study recording consultations for nPEP at a reference HIV center in Brussels, Belgium from January 2011 to December 2015. We recorded attendance to follow-up, reported completion of nPEP and pharmacy records to measure adherence. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify independent risk factors for adherence to nPEP and attendance to first follow-up visit at the STI clinic...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056740/the-use-of-recombinant-feline-interferon-omega-therapy-as-an-immune-modulator-in-cats-naturally-infected-with-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-new-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, Solange Gil
Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) was the first interferon licensed for use in cats...
October 27, 2016: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023141/sexual-identity-disclosure-and-awareness-of-hiv-prevention-methods-among-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#9
Ryan J Watson, Jessica N Fish, Aerielle Allen, Lisa Eaton
Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, yet we know little about how HIV-negative BMSM of different sexual orientations access HIV prevention strategies. Identity development, minority stress, and disclosure theories suggest that for people of different sexual orientations, disclosure of sexual identity may be related to health behaviors. We performed a latent class analysis on a sample of 650 BMSM (Mage = 33.78, SD = 11...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986029/daily-and-non-daily-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-african-women-hptn-067-adapt-cape-town-trial-a-randomised-open-label-phase-2-trial
#10
Linda-Gail Bekker, Surita Roux, Elaine Sebastien, Ntando Yola, K Rivet Amico, James P Hughes, Mark A Marzinke, Craig W Hendrix, Peter L Anderson, Vanessa Elharrar, Michael Stirratt, James F Rooney, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Susan H Eshleman, Laura McKinstry, Maoji Li, Bonnie J Dye, Robert M Grant
BACKGROUND: The relative feasibility and acceptability of daily versus non-daily dosing of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among women are unknown. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of non-daily PrEP regimens in adult women. METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, phase 2 clinical trial (HPTN 067/ADAPT) of oral PrEP with emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate at a research centre in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were adult women (age ≥18 years) who received directly observed dosing once a week for 5 weeks followed by random assignment (1:1:1) at week 6 to one of three unblinded PrEP regimens for self-administered dosing over 24 weeks: daily; time-driven (twice a week plus a post-sex dose); or event-driven (one tablet both before and after sex)...
October 3, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975484/intentional-and-unintentional-condom-breakage-and-slippage-in-the-sexual-interactions-of-female-and-male-sex-workers-and-clients-in-mombasa-kenya
#11
Tsitsi B Masvawure, Joanne E Mantell, Jack Ume Tocco, Peter Gichangi, Arjee Restar, Sophie Vusha Chabeda, Yves Lafort, Theo G M Sandfort
We examined why male condoms broke or slipped off during commercial sex and the actions taken in response among 75 female and male sex workers and male clients recruited from 18 bars/nightclubs in Mombasa, Kenya. Most participants (61/75, 81%) had experienced at least one breakage or slippage during commercial sex. Many breakages were attributed to the direct actions of clients. Breakages and slippages fell into two main groups: those that were intentionally caused by clients and unintentional ones caused by inebriation, forceful thrusting during sex and incorrect or non-lubricant use...
October 3, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940154/elsulfavirine-first-global-approval
#12
Zaina T Al-Salama
Elsulfavirine (Elpida(®)) is a new-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) being developed by Viriom for the treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. It is the prodrug of the active compound VM-1500A, a small molecule selective NNRTI, which prevents HIV replication. In June 2017, elsulfavirine received its first global approval in Russia for the treatment of HIV-1 infections in combination with other antiretroviral medicines. Other formulations of this drug are also being evaluated in preclinical and phase II studies for the treatment of HIV infections and/or pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis...
October 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893602/raltegravir-blocks-the-infectivity-of-red-fluorescent-protein-mcherry-labeled-hiv-1jr-fl-in-the-setting-of-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-nod-scid-jak3-mice-transplanted-with-human-pbmcs
#13
Hiromi Ogata-Aoki, Nobuyo Higashi-Kuwata, Shin-Ichiro Hattori, Hironori Hayashi, Matthew Danish, Manabu Aoki, Chiemi Shiotsu, Yumi Hashiguchi, Akinobu Hamada, Hisataka Kobayashi, Hironobu Ihn, Seiji Okada, Hiroaki Mitsuya
Employing NOD/SCID/Jak3(-/-) mice transplanted with human PBMCs (hNOJ mice) and replication-competent, red-fluorescent-protein (mCherry; mC)-labeled HIV-1JR-FL (HIVmC), we examined whether early antiretroviral treatment blocked the establishment of HIV-1 infection. The use of hNOJ mice and HIVmC enabled us to visually locate infection foci and to examine the early dynamics of HIVmC infection without using a large amount of antiretroviral unlike in non-human primate models. Although when raltegravir (RAL) administration was begun 1 day after intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of HIVmC, no plasma p24 or plasma HIV-1-RNA (pRNA) were detected in 10 of 12 hNOJ (hNOJmC(RAL+)) mice over 14-day observation, all 10 untreated hNOJmC (hNOJmC(RAL-)) mice became positive for p24 and pRNA and had significantly swollen lymph nodes in peritoneal cavity and abundant p24(+)/mC(+)/CD3(+)/CD4(+) T cells and p24(+)/mC(+)/CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages were identified in their omenta and mesenteric lymphoid tissues/lymph nodes...
September 8, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859613/clinical-care-given-to-victims-of-sexual-assault-at-kadoma-general-hospital-zimbabwe-a-secondary-data-analysis-2016
#14
Stanley Tapesana, Daniel Chirundu, Gerald Shambira, Notion Tafara Gombe, Tsitsi Patience Juru, Tshimanga Mufuta
BACKGROUND: Despite the guidelines for managing sexual assault being in place, victims of sexual assault attended to at Kadoma General Hospital consistently raised complaints related to the quality of care offered. Medicolegal data for sexual assault has been collected at the hospital since 2012. However, no analysis had been done regardless of complaints having been raised. We analysed the dataset to determine the quality of clinical care offered to sexual assault victims. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study based on secondary data was conducted...
August 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858725/focus-on-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-3bnc117-against-hiv-1-in-vitro-studies-in-vivo-studies-clinical-trials-and-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Zhi-Jun Liu, Jing Bai, Feng-Li Liu, Xiang-Yang Zhang, Jing-Zhang Wang
3BNC117, which was discovered in 2011, is a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) and specifically neutralizes the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) by targeting the CD4-binding site. This is the first comprehensive review that focuses on the role of 3BNC117 in the prevention of HIV-1 and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Briefly, 3BNC117 neutralizes many HIV/SHIV strains in vitro, blocks HIV-1 acquisition in animal models via a pre-exposure prophylaxis, alleviates HIV-1-associated viremia via a post-exposure therapeutic effect, prevents the establishment of latent HIV-1 reservoirs, and induces both humoral and cellular anti-HIV immune responses in vivo...
November 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797020/brief-report-selection-of-hiv-1-variants-with-higher-transmission-potential-by-1-tenofovir-gel-microbicide
#16
Nobubelo K Ngandu, Jonathan M Carlson, Denis R Chopera, Nonkululeko Ndabambi, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim Abdool Karim, Carolyn Williamson
BACKGROUND: Women in the CAPRISA 004 trial assigned to use 1% tenofovir (TFV) microbicide gel, who became HIV-1 infected, had higher viral load set-point and slower antibody avidity maturation compared with placebo participants. We investigated whether TFV gel was selected for viruses with altered genetic characteristics. SETTING: The participants of the CAPRISA 004 trial (n = 28 TFV and 43 placebo) were from KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa and were infected with HIV-1 subtype C...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758020/factors-associated-with-intention-to-take-non-occupational-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-among-thai-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#17
EDITORIAL
Nitiya Chomchey, Thira Woratanarat, Narin Hiransuthikul, Somrat Lertmaharit, Vitool Lohsoonthorn, Nipat Teeratakulpisarn, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, James Lk Fletcher, Duanghathai Suttichom, Praphan Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Nittaya Phanuphak
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately infected with HIV in Thailand. Factors affecting their intention to take non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) are not well understood. This study sought to determine factors associated with an intention to take nPEP in this population. METHOD: This is a two-phase mixed-method study. Phase I was a cross-sectional survey of intention to take nPEP in 450 MSM attending for HIV testing, using a self-administered questionnaire...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741417/syndemics-of-stigma-minority-stress-maladaptive-coping-risk-environments-and-littoral-spaces-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-using-chemsex
#18
Alex Pollard, Tom Nadarzynski, Carrie Llewellyn
There has been a steep rise in the use of drugs during sex (chemsex) by some men who have sex with men in economically developed countries, with associated increases in sexual risk for HIV and other STIs. This paper presents data from telephone interviews with 15 men attending sexual health clinics for post-exposure prophylaxis following a chemsex-related risk for HIV and discusses some of the theoretical approaches that have been employed to understand chemsex and inform interventions. Interviews were conducted as part of a larger intervention study, which used an adapted version of motivational Interviewing to explore risk behaviour and support change...
July 25, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732773/efficacy-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-hiv-among-women-with-abnormal-vaginal-microbiota-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-randomised-placebo-controlled-partners-prep-study
#19
Renee Heffron, R Scott McClelland, Jennifer E Balkus, Connie Celum, Craig R Cohen, Nelly Mugo, Elizabeth Bukusi, Deborah Donnell, Jairam Lingappa, James Kiarie, Tina Fiedler, Matthew Munch, David N Fredricks, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Daily oral tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is high efficacious for HIV prevention among women with high adherence. However, the effect of abnormal vaginal microbiota on PrEP efficacy is of concern. We investigated whether bacterial vaginosis modified the efficacy of oral PrEP. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data from women in the Partners PrEP Study, a placebo-controlled trial of daily oral PrEP (either tenofovir monotherapy or a combination of tenofovir and emtricitabine) in HIV serodiscordant couples aged 18 years or older in Kenya and Uganda that showed high efficacy in women...
October 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720021/ricky-and-lucy-gender-stereotyping-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-us-deep-south-and-the-implications-for-hiv-risk-in-a-severely-affected-population
#20
Bronwen Lichtenstein, Emma Sophia Kay, Ian Klinger, Matt G Mutchler
HIV disproportionately affects young Black men who have sex with men in the USA, with especially high rates in the Deep South. In this Alabama study, we interviewed 24 pairs of young Black men who have sex with men aged 19-24 and their close friends (n = 48) about sexual scripts, dating men and condom use. Three main themes emerged from the study: the power dynamics of 'top' and 'bottom' sexual positions for condom use; gender stereotyping in the iconic style of the 'I Love Lucy' show of the 1950s; and the sexual dominance of 'trade' men...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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