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Infection diseases and pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920393/treating-pediatric-hydrocephalus-at-the-neurosurgery-education-and-development-institute-the-reality-in-the-zanzibar-archipelago-tanzania
#1
Andreas Leidinger, Jose Piquer, Eliana E Kim, Hadia Nahonda, Mahmood M Qureshi, Paul H Young
BACKGROUND: Pediatric hydrocephalus is a health burden for East African countries with an estimated incidence of 6000 new cases per year. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology and surgical outcomes of patients treated for pediatric hydrocephalus in the single neurosurgical center of Zanzibar. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From December 2016 to December 2017, we prospectively collected data on all patients admitted with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus...
June 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913713/spinal-cord-stimulation-background-and-clinical-application
#2
Kaare Meier
Background Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain refractory to conventional treatment. SCS treatment consists of one or more leads implanted in the epidural space of the spinal canal, connected to an implantable pulse generator (IPG). Each lead carries a number of contacts capable of delivering a weak electrical current to the spinal cord, evoking a feeling of peripheral paresthesia. With correct indication and if implanted by an experienced implanter, success rates generally are in the range of about 50-75%...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913173/diagnostic-accuracy-of-4-th-generation-architect-hiv-ag-ab-combo-assay-and-utility-of-signal-to-cutoff-ratio-to-predict-false-positive-hiv-tests-in-pregnancy
#3
Emily H Adhikari, Devin Macias, Donna Gaffney, Sarah White, Vanessa L Rogers, Donald D McIntire, Scott W Roberts
BACKGROUND: False positive HIV screening tests in pregnancy may lead to unnecessary interventions in labor. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a new algorithm for HIV diagnosis using a 4th generation screening test, which detects antibodies to HIV as well as p24 antigen and has a shorter window period compared with prior generations. A reactive screen requires a differentiation assay, and supplemental qualitative RNA testing is necessary for nonreactive differentiation assay...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912329/can-the-route-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-affect-the-ophthalmic-outcomes
#4
Dalia S Ashour, Abeer E Saad, Reda H El Bakary, Mohamed A El Barody
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of retinochoroiditis worldwide in humans. Some studies highlighted the idea that ocular lesions differ according to the route of infection but none of them mimicked the natural route. The current study aimed to investigate the ophthalmic outcomes in congenital and oral routes of infection with Toxoplasma in experimental animals. Mice were divided into three groups; group I: congenital infection, group II: acquired oral infection and group III: non-infected. We used Me49 chronic low-virulence T...
June 14, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909490/heavy-metals-in-indigenous-preparations-used-for-sex-selection-during-pregnancy-in-india
#5
Abhijit Ganguli, Pragya Rai, Sarala Balachandran, Rakesh Gupta, Rashmi Sharma, Sutapa Bandyopadhyay Neogi
Indigenous preparations (IPs) have evoked a considerable interest in alleviating infections and chronic diseases and improving wellbeing. While such formulations have been a part of traditional practice in several countries and many have been reviewed scientifically for their claims, several of them until date remain to be investigated. A class of IPs for sex selection by Indian pregnant women exists with an aim of begetting a male offspring. In view of the leads obtained from our previous studies on detrimental effects of the newborn, for instance stillbirths and congenital malformations, we attempted to investigate the samples for heavy metal toxicity...
June 16, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902979/topical-imiquimod-treatment-of-residual-or-recurrent-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-topic-2-trial-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
A J M van de Sande, M M Koeneman, C G Gerestein, A J Kruse, F J van Kemenade, H J van Beekhuizen
BACKGROUND: Cervical dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)) is caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and is most common in women of reproductive age. Current treatment of moderate to severe CIN is surgical. This procedure has potential complications, such as haemorrhage, infection and preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies. Moreover, 15% of women treated for high grade CIN develop residual/recurrent CIN or cervical cancer after surgical excision. Finally, 75-100% of patients with a residual and recurrent CIN 2-3 lesion are still HPV positive...
June 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902162/youth-risk-behavior-surveillance-united-states-2017
#7
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896975/maternal-mirna-146a-g-c-rs2910164-variation-hiv-aids-and-nitrogen-oxide-pollution-exposure-collectively-affects-foetal-growth
#8
P Naidoo, R N Naidoo, P Ramkaran, S Muttoo, K Asharam, A A Chuturgoon
OBJECTIVE: Nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollution and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS intensify inflammation during pregnancy and linked with adverse birth outcomes (ABOs). MicroRNA (miRNA)-146a plays a crucial role in regulating inflammation in the NF-κB pathway. The G/C rs2910164 dampens miRNA-146a activity and linked with inflammatory diseases. The present study investigated whether HIV/AIDS and NOx exposure throughout pregnancy further intensifies ABO in Black South African women genotyped for the rs2910164...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895052/tdap-vaccination-during-pregnancy-to-protect-newborns-from-pertussis-infection
#9
S Mazzilli, L Tavoschi, P L Lopalco
BACKGROUND: Nowadays whooping cough (pertussis) represents one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases in Western countries; even more, it is currently on rise. In many countries, the use of acellular pertussis adult vaccine in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Tdap) is recommended for women during pregnancy to protect newborns in the first months of life, when they are too young to be vaccinated. In Italy, vaccination of women during the third trimester of pregnancy is included in the national immunization programme (PNPV 2017-2019), though up to now, this vaccination strategy has not been efficiently implemented...
July 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892274/high-shedding-potential-and-significant-individual-heterogeneity-in-naturally-infected-alpine-ibex-capra-ibex-with-brucella-melitensis
#10
Sébastien Lambert, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Pauline Freycon, Anne Thébault, Yvette Game, Carole Toïgo, Elodie Petit, Marie-Noëlle Barthe, Gaël Reynaud, Maryne Jaÿ, Bruno Garin-Bastuji, Claire Ponsart, Jean Hars, Sophie Rossi
Wildlife reservoirs of infectious diseases raise major management issues. In Europe, brucellosis has been eradicated in domestic ruminants from most countries and wild ruminants have not been considered important reservoirs so far. However, a high prevalence of Brucella melitensis infection has been recently identified in a French population of Alpine ibex ( Capra ibex ), after the emergence of brucellosis was confirmed in a dairy cattle farm and two human cases. This situation raised the need to identify the factors driving the persistence of Brucella infection at high prevalence levels in this ibex population...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891717/glycosylation-dependent-galectin-receptor-interactions-promote-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection
#11
Agustin L Lujan, Diego O Croci, Julián A Gambarte Tudela, Antonella D Losinno, Alejandro J Cagnoni, Karina V Mariño, María T Damiani, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Chlamydia trachomatis ( Ct ) constitutes the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterium worldwide. Chlamydial infections can lead to severe clinical sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal infertility. As an obligate intracellular pathogen, Ct has evolved multiple strategies to promote adhesion and invasion of host cells, including those involving both bacterial and host glycans. Here, we show that galectin-1 (Gal1), an endogenous lectin widely expressed in female and male genital tracts, promotes Ct infection...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891143/risk-factors-associated-with-clinical-signs-of-vesicular-stomatitis-and-seroconversion-without-clinical-disease-in-colorado-horses-during-the-2014-outbreak
#12
N J Urie, J E Lombard, K L Marshall, R Digianantonio, A M Pelzel-McCluskey, B J McCluskey, J L Traub-Dargatz, C A Kopral, S L Swenson, J J Schiltz
Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is caused by a contagious rhabdovirus that affects horses, cattle, and swine. Clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in pigs and cattle are indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), a foreign animal disease and reportable disease in the United States (Rodriguez et al., 2000). A VS epidemic occurred in the Rocky Mountain region in 2014-15. A study was conducted in Colorado to evaluate horse- and management-level factors associated with VS. For a horse to be considered a clinical VS horse, there were two requirements...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888463/t-cell-tolerance-as-a-potential-effect-of-congenital-leishmaniasis-on-offspring-immunity
#13
Norma Galindo-Sevilla, Javier Mancilla-Ramírez
Congenital transmission of Leishmaniasis is recognized in cases detected by passive surveillance. Most cases are from low-resources countries, limiting the study of several important aspects of this route of infection, including the offspring's immune response. Studies on natural and experimentally infected animals suggest that parasites might be transmitted to the embryo or foetus at any time during pregnancy. Since, immune system undergoes sequential stages of development, an infection before the time of self-recognition could lead to central tolerance, making an individual specifically tolerant and susceptible to infection...
June 11, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888019/thoracic-empyema-as-rare-complication-of-an-appendicular-mass-a-case-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
George Vasquez-Rios, Lesly Calixto-Aguilar, Richard Pajuelo, Wilder Alarcon
Introduction: Thoracic empyema is an infrequent complication of appendicitis that has rarely been reported in the literature. Case Presentation and Review of the Literature: The case of a 11-year-old boy who was admitted for medical management of an appendicular mass is presented. His clinical course was complicated by the development of an appendicular abscess and an extensive right-sided empyema. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted including the most representative cases...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886307/innate-immune-responses-to-toll-like-receptor-stimulation-are-altered-during-the-course-of-pregnancy
#15
Susanne Maria Ziegler, Cai Niklaas Feldmann, Sven Hendrik Hagen, Laura Richert, Tanja Barkhausen, Janina Goletzke, Virginija Jazbutyte, Gloria Martrus, Wilhelm Salzberger, Thomas Renné, Kurt Hecher, Anke Diemert, Petra Clara Arck, Marcus Altfeld
During pregnancy the maternal immune system has to develop tolerance towards the developing fetus. These changes in maternal immunity can result in increased severity of certain infections, but also in amelioration of autoimmune diseases. Pregnancy-related hormones have been suggested to play a central role in the adaptation of the maternal immune system, but their specific effects on innate immune function is not well understood. In a longitudinal study of pregnant women, we investigated innate immune cell function in response to toll-like receptors (TLR) 4 and 7 stimulation, two TLR pathways playing a critical role in early innate immune recognition of bacteria and viruses...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879264/association-of-long-term-risk-of-respiratory-allergic-and-infectious-diseases-with-removal-of-adenoids-and-tonsils-in-childhood
#16
Sean G Byars, Stephen C Stearns, Jacobus J Boomsma
Importance: Surgical removal of adenoids and tonsils to treat obstructed breathing or recurrent middle-ear infections remain common pediatric procedures; however, little is known about their long-term health consequences despite the fact that these lymphatic organs play important roles in the development and function of the immune system. Objective: To estimate long-term disease risks associated with adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, and adenotonsillectomy in childhood...
June 7, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879196/close-encounters-between-infants-and-household-members-measured-through-wearable-proximity-sensors
#17
Laura Ozella, Francesco Gesualdo, Michele Tizzoni, Caterina Rizzo, Elisabetta Pandolfi, Ilaria Campagna, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi, Ciro Cattuto
Describing and understanding close proximity interactions between infant and family members can provide key information on transmission opportunities of respiratory infections within households. Among respiratory infections, pertussis represents a public health priority. Pertussis infection can be particularly harmful to young, unvaccinated infants and for these patients, family members represent the main sources of transmission. Here, we report on the use of wearable proximity sensors based on RFID technology to measure face-to-face proximity between family members within 16 households with infants younger than 6 months for 2-5 consecutive days of data collection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879164/the-prevalence-of-risky-sexual-behaviors-among-youth-center-reproductive-health-clinics-users-and-non-users-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#18
Nigusie Fetene, Wubegzier Mekonnen
BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behaviors adversely affect the health of youth and young adults exposing them to sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy to females that in turn lead to deleterious health, social and economic consequences. Youth centers inform their clients on sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, high risk abortion, and other reproductive health problems. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors among youth center reproductive health clinic users and non-users in Addis Ababa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877232/-ovum-collection-following-ovarian-stimulation-in-patients-with-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-infection
#19
Erika Onozawa, Tomonori Ishikawa, Yasuhiro Tomaru, Norio Shimizu, Ayako Arai
The only curative treatment for chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For young female patients, ovulation induction and oocyte cryopreservation may be performed prior to transplantation to provide for future pregnancies. However, the effects of this ovum treatment on CAEBV and EBV infections have not been reported. Attempts were made to collect ova from three female CAEBV patients before transplantation conditioning, but this was only successful in two cases...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866999/kidney-diseases-and-pregnancy-a-multidisciplinary-approach-for-improving-care-by-involving-nephrology-obstetrics-neonatology-urology-diabetology-bioethics-and-internal-medicine
#20
EDITORIAL
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Rossella Attini, Gianfranca Cabiddu
This multidisciplinary series is aimed at offering readers many opportunities to appreciate how a clinical and ethical approach to pregnancy has changed in patients with kidney diseases and with related conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and immunologic diseases. Furthermore, this series aims to focus on the fact that many issues remain unreslved, that there are enormous gaps in knowledge, and that the bioethical approach needs to integrated in the clinical practice, which would allow for a deeper appreciation of different cultural and religious backgrounds...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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