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Infection diseases and pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326845/the-use-of-biologics-in-pregnant-patients-with-rheumatic-disease
#1
Monika Østensen
An increasing number of female patients with autoimmune diseases are treated with biologic drugs. Concerns in regard to safety of biologics during pregnancy arise in patients who have not completed their families. Areas covered: A review of the literature dealing with child outcomes of pregnancies exposed to biologics shows that TNF inhibitors (TNFi) are the best studied in regard to human pregnancy. In studies comparing exposed pregnancies to disease-matched controls no increased risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, prematurity or congenital malformations has been observed...
March 22, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321847/antenatal-corticosteroids-for-accelerating-fetal-lung-maturation-for-women-at-risk-of-preterm-birth
#2
REVIEW
Devender Roberts, Julie Brown, Nancy Medley, Stuart R Dalziel
BACKGROUND: Respiratory morbidity including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality and disability. While researching the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on premature parturition in fetal sheep in 1969, Liggins found that there was some inflation of the lungs of lambs born at gestations at which the lungs would be expected to be airless. Liggins and Howie published the first randomised controlled trial in humans in 1972 and many others followed...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319995/clinical-trials-of-therapeutics-for-the-prevention-of-congenital-zika-virus-disease-challenges-and-potential-solutions
#3
Alex P Salam, Amanda Rojek, Jake Dunning, Peter W Horby
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes, such as microcephaly and other congenital malformations. No therapeutic options are available to pregnant women with ZIKV infection to prevent these effects. Drug trials in pregnancy raise several scientific, ethical, and logistical challenges, which are compounded further in ZIKV because of limited knowledge of the disease pathophysiology and a product development pipeline in its infancy. We evaluate the major challenges in choosing therapeutics to prevent congenital ZIKV disease and conducting clinical trials of these treatments, with a focus on preventing congenital central nervous system malformations...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319246/estimated-perinatal-hiv-infection-among-infants-born-in-the-united-states-2002-2013
#4
Allan W Taylor, Steven R Nesheim, Xinjian Zhang, Ruiguang Song, Lauren F FitzHarris, Margaret A Lampe, Paul J Weidle, Patricia Sweeney
Importance: Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be reduced through services including antiretroviral treatment and prophylaxis. Data on the national incidence of perinatal HIV transmission and missed prevention opportunities are needed to monitor progress toward elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Objective: To estimate the number of perinatal HIV cases among infants born in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were obtained from the National HIV Surveillance System on infants with HIV born in the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their mothers between 2002 and 2013 (reported through December 31, 2015)...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318706/special-situations-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-first-latin-american-consensus-of-the-pan-american-crohn-s-and-colitis-organisation-pancco
#5
J K Yamamoto-Furusho, F Bosques-Padilla, P Daffra, J De-Paula, J Etchevers, M T Galiano, P Ibañez, F Juliao, P Kotze, J M Marroquín de la Garza, R Monreal Robles, J L Rocha, F Steinwurz, R Vázquez-Frías, G Veitia, C Zaltman
This is the first Latin American Consensus of the Pan American Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (PANCCO) regarding special situations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this consensus is to raise awareness in the medical community in all Latin American countries with respect to pregnancy, vaccinations, infections, neoplasms, including colorectal cancer, and pediatric issues in patients with IBD.
March 16, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318080/hepatitis-e-and-pregnancy-current-state
#6
REVIEW
María Teresa Pérez-Gracia, Beatriz Suay-García, María Luisa Mateos-Lindemann
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for more than 50% of acute viral hepatitis cases in endemic countries. Approximately 2 billion individuals live in hepatitis E-endemic areas and, therefore, are at risk of infection. According to World Health Organization, HEV causes about 20.1 million infections and 70 000 deaths every year. In developing countries with poor sanitation, this disease is transmitted through contaminated water and is associated with large outbreaks, affecting hundreds or thousands of people...
March 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315889/patterns-of-growth-in-early-childhood-and-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-determinants
#7
Robert E Black
The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306346/risk-factors-for-central-serous-chorioretinopathy-multivariate-approach-in-a-case-control-study
#8
Irini Chatziralli, Stamatina A Kabanarou, Efstratios Parikakis, Alexandros Chatzirallis, Tina Xirou, Panagiotis Mitropoulos
PURPOSE: The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated independently with central serous retinopathy (CSR) in a Greek population, using multivariate approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants in the study were 183 consecutive patients diagnosed with CSR and 183 controls, matched for age. All participants underwent complete ophthalmological examination and information regarding their sociodemographic, clinical, medical and ophthalmological history were recorded, so as to assess potential risk factors for CSR...
March 17, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303335/treatment-selection-for-urolithiasis-percutaneous-nephrolithomy-ureteroscopy-shock-wave-lithotripsy-and-active-monitoring
#9
Mahesh Desai, Yinghao Sun, Noor Buchholz, Andrew Fuller, Tadashi Matsuda, Brian Matlaga, Nicole Miller, Damien Bolton, Mohammad Alomar, Arvind Ganpule
Urolithiasis is a significant worldwide source of morbidity, constituting a common urological disease that affects between 10 and 15% of the world population. Recent technological and surgical advances have replaced the need for open surgery with less invasive procedures. The factors which determine the indications for percutaneous nephrolithotomy include stone factors (stone size, stone composition, and stone location), patient factors (habitus and renal anomalies), and failure of other treatment modalities (ESWL and flexible ureteroscopy)...
March 16, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303006/short-course-high-dose-rifampicin-achieves-wolbachia-depletion-predictive-of-curative-outcomes-in-preclinical-models-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-onchocerciasis
#10
Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Hayley E Tyrer, Louise Ford, Hanna Sjoberg, Nicolas Pionnier, David Waterhouse, Jill Davies, Joanne Gamble, Haelly Metugene, Darren A N Cook, Andrew Steven, Raman Sharma, Ana F Guimaraes, Rachel H Clare, Andrew Cassidy, Kelly L Johnston, Laura Myhill, Laura Hayward, Samuel Wanji, Joseph D Turner, Mark J Taylor, Stephen A Ward
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are priority neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination. The only safe drug treatment with substantial curative activity against the filarial nematodes responsible for LF (Brugia malayi, Wuchereria bancrofti) or onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus) is doxycycline. The target of doxycycline is the essential endosymbiont, Wolbachia. Four to six weeks doxycycline therapy achieves >90% depletion of Wolbachia in worm tissues leading to blockade of embryogenesis, adult sterility and premature death 18-24 months post-treatment...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301842/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-health-and-disease-in-the-gambia
#11
Sophie E Moore
BACKGROUND: Exposures during early life are increasingly being recognised as factors that play an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis asserts that adverse early-life exposures - most notably unbalanced nutrition - leads to an increased risk for a range of NCDs and that disease risk is highest when there is a "mismatch" between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in settings undergoing a rapid nutrition transition...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300447/sweet-syndrome
#12
Jose Ricardo Casarin Costa, Anangelica Rodrigues Virgens, Luisa de Oliveira Mestre, Natasha Favoretto Dias, Luciana Paula Samorano, Neusa Yuriko Sakai Valente, Cyro Festa Neto
BACKGROUND: Sweet syndrome (SS) is an infrequent skin disease characterised by sudden onset of fever, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and tender erythematous plaques infiltrated by neutrophils. Multiple conditions have been associated with this syndrome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and histopathological findings and associations of patients with SS. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 83 patients with SS followed between January 1, 2006, and January 31, 2015...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299191/cytomegalovirus-in-pregnancy-and-the-neonate
#13
REVIEW
Vincent C Emery, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a leading cause of disability in children. Understanding the pathogenesis of infection from the mother via the placenta to the neonate is crucial if we are to produce new interventions and provide supportive mechanisms to improve the outcome of congenitally infected children. In recent years, some major goals have been achieved, including the diagnosis of primary maternal CMV infection in pregnant women by using the anti-CMV IgG avidity test and the diagnosis and prognosis of foetal CMV infection by using polymerase chain reaction real-time tests to detect and quantify the virus in amniotic fluid...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279344/pregnancy-related-immune-adaptation-promotes-the-emergence-of-highly-virulent-h1n1-influenza-virus-strains-in-allogenically-pregnant-mice
#14
Géraldine Engels, Alexandra Maximiliane Hierweger, Julia Hoffmann, René Thieme, Swantje Thiele, Stephanie Bertram, Carola Dreier, Patricia Resa-Infante, Henning Jacobsen, Kristin Thiele, Malik Alawi, Daniela Indenbirken, Adam Grundhoff, Svenja Siebels, Nicole Fischer, Violeta Stojanovska, Damián Muzzio, Federico Jensen, Khalil Karimi, Hans-Willi Mittrücker, Petra Clara Arck, Gülsah Gabriel
Pregnant women are at high risk for severe influenza disease outcomes, yet insights into the underlying mechanisms are limited. Here, we present models of H1N1 infection in syngenic and allogenic pregnant mice; infection in the latter mirrors the severe course of 2009 pandemic influenza in pregnant women. We found that the anti-viral immune response in the pregnant host was significantly restricted as compared to the non-pregnant host. This included a reduced type I interferon response as well as impaired migration of CD8(+) T cells into the lung...
March 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274003/comparative-study-on-antenatal-and-perinatal-outcome-of-vivax-and-falciparum-malaria-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-kolkata-india
#15
Mousumi Datta, Jhuma Biswas, Shyamal Dasgupta, Kaushik Banerjee, Subhendu Choudhury, Sandip Kumar Sengupta, Prakash Das
INTRODUCTION: Malaria occurring in pregnancy is associated with considerable maternal and perinatal morbidity. In India, the problem is compounded by dual parasitological aetiology of Plasmodiumvivax (P.vivax) and Plasmodium falciparum (P.falciparum). AIM: To compare the outcome of infections by P. vivax and P.falciparum species among pregnant women in a hospital setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant women who tested positive for malaria either by microscopy of peripheral blood smear or ELISA test for double antigen were enrolled in the study...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272924/imprinting-of-maternal-thyroid-hormones-in-the-offspring
#16
María Cecilia Opazo, Henny Haensgen, Karen Bohmwald, Luis F Venegas, Helene Boudin, Alvaro A Elorza, Felipe Simon, Carlos Fardella, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis, Claudia A Riedel
Thyroid hormones (THs) during pregnancy contribute significantly to cellular differentiation and development in several tissues of the offspring, principally the central nervous system (CNS). TH deficiencies, such as hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia, are highly frequent during pregnancy worldwide and known to be detrimental for the development of the fetus. The function of CNS in the offspring gestated under TH deficiency will be irreversible impaired, causing low intellectual quotient, attention deficit, and mental retardation...
March 8, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272734/safety-and-benefits-of-antenatal-oral-iron-supplementation-in-low-income-countries-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Martin N Mwangi, Andrew M Prentice, Hans Verhoef
The World Health Organization recommends universal iron supplementation of 30-60 mg/day in pregnancy but coverage is low in most countries. Its efficacy is uncertain, however, and there has been a vigorous debate in the last decade about its safety, particularly in areas with a high burden of malaria and other infectious diseases. We reviewed the evidence on the safety and efficacy of antenatal iron supplementation in low-income countries. We found no evidence that daily supplementation at a dose of 60 mg leads to increased maternal Plasmodium infection risk...
March 8, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270873/predictors-of-fetal-and-maternal-outcome-in-the-crucible-of-hepatic-dysfunction-during-pregnancy
#18
Indrajit Suresh, Vijaykumar Tr, Nandeesh Hp
BACKGROUND: Hepatic dysfunction during pregnancy places both the mother and the fetus at risk. Investigations which are efficient, cost effective and easily available for prognostication are required to tackle this global problem. We studied the etiologies and evaluated investigations for predictive efficiency. METHODS: One hundred ninety-seven pregnant women with hepatic dysfunction during pregnancy were identified. All patients were followed up till 8 weeks after termination of pregnancy or death...
February 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264814/risk-of-serious-infections-associated-with-use-of-immunosuppressive-agents-in-pregnant-women-with-autoimmune-inflammatory-conditions-cohort-study
#19
Rishi J Desai, Brian T Bateman, Krista F Huybrechts, Elisabetta Patorno, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Yoonyoung Park, Sara Z Dejene, Jacqueline Cohen, Helen Mogun, Seoyoung C Kim
Objective To compare the risk of serious infections associated with use of systemic steroids, non-biologic agents, or tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) inhibitors in pregnancy.Design Observational cohort study.Setting Public (Medicaid, 2001-10) or private (Optum Clinformatics, 2004-15) health insurance programs in the US.Participants 4961 pregnant women treated with immunosuppressive drugs for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease...
March 6, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264655/screening-in-maternity-to-ascertain-tuberculosis-status-smats-study
#20
Edward Broughton, Samson Haumba, Marianne Calnan, Sandile Ginindsa, Rosanna Jeffries, Gugu Maphalala, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Munamato Mirara, Surbhi Modi, Pasipamire Munyaradzi, Peter Preko, Batsabile Simelane
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of tuberculosis is difficult among pregnant women because the signs and symptoms of the disease, such as fatigue, shortness of breath, sweating, cough, and mild fever are similar to some manifestations of pregnancy. It is particularly challenging among HIV-infected women as symptoms are often masked or atypical. Currently, WHO recommends a standard four-symptom screening tool for pregnant and lactating women. There is evidence from South Africa that this screening tool (which, despite complex symptomology in this population, recommends identification of patients with weight loss, fever, current cough and night sweats), may be missing true active TB cases...
March 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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