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Infection diseases and pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046308/progress-toward-development-of-a-vaccine-against-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#1
Mark R Schleiss, Sallie R Permar, Stanley A Plotkin
A vaccine against congenital human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major public health priority. Congenital CMV causes substantial long-term morbidity in newborns, particularly sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and the public health impact of this infection on maternal and child health is under-recognized. Although progress toward development of a vaccine has been limited by an incomplete understanding of the correlates of protective immunity for the fetus, knowledge about some of the key components of the maternal immune response necessary for preventing trans-placental transmission is accumulating...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042497/a-single-dual-function-enzyme-controls-the-production-of-inflammatory-nod-agonist-peptidoglycan-fragments-by-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#2
Jonathan D Lenz, Kathleen T Hackett, Joseph P Dillard
Neisseria gonorrhoeae gonococcus (GC) is a Gram-negative betaproteobacterium and causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. During growth, GC releases lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and peptidoglycan (PG) fragments, which contribute significantly to the inflammatory damage observed during human infection. In ascending infection of human Fallopian tubes, inflammation leads to increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and sterility. Of the PG fragments released by GC, most are disaccharide peptide monomers, and of those, 80% have tripeptide stems despite the observation that tetrapeptide stems make up 80% of the assembled cell wall...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042485/maternal-stress-during-pregnancy-and-allergic-diseases-in-children-during-the-first-year-of-life
#3
Katarzyna Smejda, Kinga Polanska, Dorota Merecz-Kot, Anna Krol, Wojciech Hanke, Joanna Jerzynska, Wlodzimierz Stelmach, Paweł Majak, Iwona Stelmach
BACKGROUND: Many recent studies indicate that prenatal maternal distress increases the risk of allergic diseases in children. The mechanisms that favor it are still unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between exposure to different kinds of prenatal stress and the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, food allergy, wheezing, and recurrent respiratory tract infections in children. METHODS: The study population consisted of 370 mother-child pairs from a Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)...
October 17, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040569/antiretroviral-therapy-use-during-pregnancy-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-in-south-african-women
#4
Thokozile R Malaba, Tamsin Phillips, Stanzi Le Roux, Kirsty Brittain, Allison Zerbe, Greg Petro, Agnes Ronan, James A McIntyre, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
Background: Studies of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use during pregnancy in HIV-infected women have suggested that ART exposure may be associated with adverse birth outcomes. However, there are few data from sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is most common, and few studies involving the World Health Organization's (WHO's) recommended first-line regimens. Methods: We enrolled consecutive HIV-infected pregnant women and a comparator cohort of uninfected women at a primary-level antenatal care facility in Cape Town, South Africa...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037576/pertussis-seroepidemiology-in-women-and-their-infants-in-sarlahi-district-nepal
#5
Michelle M Hughes, Janet A Englund, Kathryn Edwards, Sandra Yoder, James M Tielsch, Mark Steinhoff, Subarna K Khatry, Steven C LeClerq, Joanne Katz
BACKGROUND: Infants are at greatest risk for pertussis morbidity and mortality. Maternal vaccination during pregnancy has been shown to prevent pertussis in young infants in high- and middle-income countries. However, data on the levels of maternal pertussis antibodies and the efficiency of transplacental transfer in low-income South Asian settings are limited. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of maternal pertussis antibodies and the efficiency of transplacental transfer in rural southern Nepal...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037188/epidemiology-of-cervical-human-papillomavirus-hpv-infection-and-squamous-intraepithelial-lesions-sil-among-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-ghanaian-women
#6
Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Patrick K Akakpo, Mohamed Mutocheluh, Emmanuel Adjei-Danso, Gloria Allornuvor, Daniel Amoako-Sakyi, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Philippe Mayaud
BACKGROUND: There is limited data in Ghana on the epidemiology of HPV and cervical neoplasia and their associations with HIV. This study aimed to compare among HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-seronegative Ghanaian women: (1) the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with cervical HPV infection; and (2) the prevalence and risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology. METHODS: A comparative frequency-matched study was conducted in a systematic sample of women aged ≥18 years attending HIV and general outpatient clinics in Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana...
October 16, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032059/is-the-adaptive-immune-response-in-murine-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-influenced-by-zinc-supplementation
#7
Cássia Mariana Bronzon da Costa, Marina Del Vecchio Filipin, Fabrícia Helena Santello, Luiz Miguel Pereira, Miriam Paula Alonso Toldo, José Clóvis do Prado Júnior, Ana Amélia Carraro Abrahão
Chagas disease afflicts 7 to 8 million people worldwide and congenital Chagas' disease usually leads to changes in the maternal environment, culminating in fetal adaptations. Several articles have described the importance of micronutrients on pregnancy, which is sensitive to infections. In Trypanosoma cruzi endemic regions, the Chagas disease is aggravated by the lack of micronutrients in an average diet, to which pregnant women are more susceptible. The aim of this study was to evaluate distinct T cells phenotypes and intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry in pregnant Wistar rats under zinc therapy during experimental Chagas' disease...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029270/does-active-oral-sex-contribute-to-female-infertility
#8
Patrik M Bavoil, Patricia X Marques, Rebecca Brotman, Jacques Ravel
Based on recent, historical, and circumstantial evidence, we present a multifactorial hypothesis that has potential direct implications on the epidemiology and management of chlamydial infection and disease in humans. We propose that (1) like its veterinary relatives, the oculogenital pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis evolved as a commensal organism of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract primarily transmissible via the fecal-oral route; (2) in the modern era, C. trachomatis causes "opportunistic" infection at non-GI sites under conditions driven by improved sanitation/hygiene and reduced fecal-oral transmission; and (3) the rise in the practice of oral sex is contributing to the increased prevalence of C...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028827/p-falciparum-infection-and-maternofetal-antibody-transfer-in-malaria-endemic-settings-of-varying-transmission
#9
Alistair R D McLean, Danielle Stanisic, Rose McGready, Kesinee Chotivanich, Caroline Clapham, Francesca Baiwog, Mupawjay Pimanpanarak, Peter Siba, Ivo Mueller, Christopher L King, François Nosten, James G Beeson, Stephen Rogerson, Julie A Simpson, Freya J I Fowkes
INTRODUCTION: During pregnancy, immunoglobulin G (IgG) is transferred from the mother to the fetus, providing protection from disease in early infancy. Plasmodium falciparum infections may reduce maternofetal antibody transfer efficiency, but mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: Mother-cord paired serum samples collected at delivery from Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Thailand-Myanmar Border Area (TMBA) were tested for IgG1 and IgG3 to four P. falciparum antigens and measles antigen, as well as total serum IgG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026637/a-review-of-selected-arboviruses-during-pregnancy
#10
REVIEW
Penélope Saldanha Marinho, Antonio José Cunha, Joffre Amim Junior, Arnaldo Prata-Barbosa
Arboviruses are emerging infectious diseases with the ability to expand geographically and rapidly affect large populations. The recent epidemic caused by the Zika virus in the Americas and congenital Zika syndrome associated with maternal infection has called out attention to the importance of studying arboviruses during pregnancy. This is a review on selected arboviruses infections during gestation, including Zika, Chikungunya, Dengue and Yellow Fever viruses. Issues such as historical overview, pathogenesis, transmission, clinical conditions, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are addressed...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024971/early-predictors-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-the-life-course-of-women
#11
Nathalie Auger, Caroline Quach, Jessica Healy-Profitós, Trish Dinh, Michaël Chassé
Background: We sought to determine if immune disorders early in life were associated with the later risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder thought to be infection-related. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study with 16 108 819 person-years of follow-up for a population of 1 108 541 parous women in Quebec, Canada (1989-2014). The outcome was Guillain-Barré syndrome. We identified women with potential risk factors for future Guillain-Barré syndrome, including immune-mediated and rheumatological diseases, cancer, transfusion, surgical procedures and pregnancy-specific disorders...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022924/listeriosis-in-pregnancy-under-diagnosis-despite-over-treatment
#12
Y Fouks, S Amit, A Many, A Haham, D Mandel, S Shinar
OBJECTIVE: To compare the symptomatology of pregnant women with suspected listeriosis to culture confirmed listeriosis. STUDY DESIGN: All cases of suspected and culture confirmed pregnancy-associated listeriosis from a single center were retrospectively reviewed assessing demographics, clinical, laboratory and pathological findings, and maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: Listeriosis was identified in seven patients, none of whom belonged to the 117 women with suspected listeriosis...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022569/syphilis
#13
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, David Mabey, Mary L Kamb, Xiang-Sheng Chen, Justin D Radolf, Adele S Benzaken
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) causes syphilis via sexual exposure or via vertical transmission during pregnancy. T. pallidum is renowned for its invasiveness and immune-evasiveness; its clinical manifestations result from local inflammatory responses to replicating spirochaetes and often imitate those of other diseases. The spirochaete has a long latent period during which individuals have no signs or symptoms but can remain infectious. Despite the availability of simple diagnostic tests and the effectiveness of treatment with a single dose of long-acting penicillin, syphilis is re-emerging as a global public health problem, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income and middle-income countries...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022077/no-association-between-periodontitis-and-preterm-low-birth-weight-a-case-control-study
#14
Mariana Fampa Fogacci, Elaine de O C Cardoso, Davi da S Barbirato, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Carmelo Sansone
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between periodontitis in pregnant women and adverse pregnancy outcomes by heeding confounding risk factors for preterm low birth weight infants. METHODS: This study was reported according to The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement. A case-control study was conducted. Medical records of all pregnant women attending a prenatal care clinic were screened. Those between 21 and 34 years and gestational age of 28-32 weeks were initially enrolled in the study...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021404/sex-differences-in-the-significance-of-isolated-reactive-treponemal-chemiluminescence-immunoassay-results
#15
Rohan I Bopage, Ute Vollmer-Conna, Antonia W Shand, Jeffrey John Post
OBJECTIVES: The significance of sera with isolated reactive treponemal chemiluminescence immunoassay (IRTCIA) results is unclear. Women have this phenotype more commonly than men. Most cohorts examining this phenotype have included predominantly men and have demonstrated evidence of past or subsequently confirmed syphilis infection in a significant proportion of cases. We hypothesised that a proportion of sera with IRTCIA results would be positive on immunoblot testing and that sera from women with IRTCIA would have different results in immunoblot testing than men...
October 11, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021363/novel-and-unexpected-functions-of-sglts
#16
REVIEW
Ernest M Wright, Chiara Ghezzi, Donald D F Loo
It has been 30 years since the intestinal sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 was cloned, and, in the intervening years, there have been many advances that have influenced physiology and medicine. Among the first was that SGLT1 is the founding member of the human gene family SLC5, containing 11 diverse transporters and a glucose sensor. Equally surprising was that SGLTs are members of a structural family of cotransporters and exchangers in different gene families. This led to the conclusion that these proteins operate by a mechanism where transport involves the opening and closing of external and internal gates...
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020789/-the-role-of-maternal-imunity-and-woman%C3%A2-s-microbiome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-preterm-labor
#17
M Koucký, K Malíčková, J Hrdý, A Černý, H Hrbáčková, P Šimják, A Pařízek
OBJECTIVE: To summarize available data concerning the role of maternal imunity and woman´s microbiome in the pathogenesis of preterm labor and their use in clinical practice. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology od the First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, and General Teaching Hospital. DESIGN: Review article. METHODS: Compilation od published data from scientific literature. CONCLUSION: Preterm labor complicates approximately 10% of all pregnancies and represents a serious medical, social and economic problem...
2017: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016383/pathogenesis-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-neutrophilic-host-response-sustained-infection-and-clinical-sequelae
#18
Jacqueline S Stevens, Alison K Criss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gonorrhea is a major global health concern, caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The main clinical feature of acute gonorrhea is neutrophilic influx that is unable to clear infection. Women of reproductive age are predominantly at risk for serious sequelae of gonorrhea, including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. This review will highlight how neutrophils are recruited to the female reproductive tract (FRT) in response to N. gonorrhoeae, how N...
October 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989510/managing-screening-and-diagnosis-of-zika-in-the-emergency-department
#19
Lila de Tantillo, Juan M Gonzalez, Johis Ortega
Zika has emerged as a rapidly spreading infection worldwide. Clinicians in many parts of the world must be prepared to screen for symptoms and diagnose patients with this disease. In particular, pregnant women who may have experienced exposure to Zika must be treated with care and sensitivity due to serious risk for pregnancy complications among those who contract the infection. In response to the outbreak, patient management guidelines have been established for all who may be symptomatic or potentially at risk of infection with Zika...
March 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988681/pathophysiology-of-leishmania-infection-during-pregnancy
#20
REVIEW
Brandon A Berger, Allison H Bartlett, Nancy Gore Saravia, Norma Galindo Sevilla
The pathological processes resulting from parasitic infection are known to have important impacts on the mother child dyad during pregnancy. The roles of parasite transmission and the maternal immune response have been described in diseases such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, and trypanosomiasis. However, the impact of parasites of the genus Leishmania, etiological agents of the neglected tropical diseases tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is comparatively less well known, though it is an increasingly recognized concern for infected mothers and their fetuses...
October 4, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
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