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Infection diseases and pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243896/diagnostics-and-current-care-of-myasthenia-gravis
#1
Sari Atula, Kathrin Pfau, Tapani Salmi, Eero Sihvo, Mikko Haapio, Mika Saarela, Mari Auranen
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common neuromuscular transmission disorder, causing weakness of skeletal muscles on exertion. The course of the disease is highly variable, symptoms and signs may change rapidly due to infection or pregnancy. MG is classified using serological, electrophysiological and pharmaceutical tools. A precise diagnosis allows for the choice of right treatment, predicts the course of disease and hence helps with the follow-up. In this review we present Finnish guidelines for diagnostics, treatment and follow-up of MG patients...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240704/prevalence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-and-its-association-with-sexual-behaviour-and-alcohol-use-in-the-population-living-in-separated-and-segregated-roma-settlements-in-eastern-slovakia
#2
Ingrid Babinská, Monika Halánová, Zuzana Kalinová, Lenka Čechová, Lýdia Čisláková, Andrea Madarasová Gecková
The aim of the study was to explore sexual behaviour and the occurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in the population living in Roma settlements compared to the majority population in Slovakia and to assess the association between alcohol use and sexual behaviour within both populations. A cross-sectional population-based Hepa-Meta study was conducted in Slovakia in 2011. The final sample comprised 452 Roma and 403 non-Roma respondents. The occurrence of CT was detected by direct proof of the pathogen by PCR...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238270/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#3
REVIEW
Patrick Tang, James Johnston
The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an essential component of tuberculosis (TB) elimination in regions that have a low incidence of TB. However, the decision to treat individuals with LTBI must consider the limitations of current diagnostic tests for LTBI, the risk of developing active TB disease, the potential adverse effects from chemoprophylactic therapy, and the importance of treatment adherence. When an individual has been diagnosed with LTBI and active TB has been ruled out, this is followed by an evaluation of the risks and benefits of LTBI treatment within the context of the regional epidemiology of TB and public health priorities...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233668/expression-of-hmgb1-in-maternal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-air-pollution-induces-lung-injury-in-rat-offspring-assessed-with-micro-ct
#4
Wenting Tang, Suran Huang, Lili Du, Wen Sun, Zhiqiang Yu, Yanmei Zhou, Jingsi Chen, Xiuying Li, Xiaomei Li, Bolan Yu, Dunjin Chen
OBJECTIVES: Maternal particulate matter with less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) is associated with an increased risk for acute lower respiratory infections and allergic airway inflammation; however, its effect on the developing lung remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of maternal PM2.5 during pregnancy on lung development in offspring. METHODS: Timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PM2.5 (0.1, 0.5, 2.5, or 7.5 mg/kg) once every 3 days from day 0-18 of pregnancy and delivered at term...
December 9, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225911/understanding-muscle-immune-interactions-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-feasibility-study
#5
Srikesh Rudrapatna, Devin Peterson, Paul Missiuna, Ishan Aditya, Brian Drew, Nicola Sahar, Lehana Thabane, M Constantine Samaan
Background: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of scoliosis in children, and its cause remains unknown. The Immune-metabolic CONnections to Scoliosis (ICONS) Study was designed to elucidate the potential mechanisms by which immune system-paraspinal muscle crosstalk contributes to the development of AIS. In this report, we document the evaluation of ICONS Study feasibility. Methods: This study was conducted at a tertiary pediatric academic center in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225680/presumed-acute-fatty-liver-of-pregnancy-following-influenza-a-hepatitis
#6
Adam Morton
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is a rare mitochondrial hepatopathy characterised by microvesicular fatty infiltration, and is believed to be due to impaired fatty acid oxidation. Hepatitis following influenza virus infection is uncommon. Rarely influenza virus infection may be complicated by Reye's syndrome, another hepatic microvesicular fat disease. A case of influenza A hepatitis in third trimester of pregnancy, followed by the evelopment of presumed acute fatty liver of pregnancy is described in this report and a potential mechanism why this may have occurred is discussed...
December 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221591/eradicating-bvd-reviewing-irish-programme-data-and-model-predictions-to-support-prospective-decision-making
#7
H-H Thulke, M Lange, J A Tratalos, T A Clegg, G McGrath, L O'Grady, P O'Sullivan, M L Doherty, D A Graham, S J More
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea is an infectious production disease of major importance in many cattle sectors of the world. The infection is predominantly transmitted by animal contact. Postnatal infections are transient, leading to immunologically protected cattle. However, for a certain window of pregnancy, in utero infection of the foetus results in persistently infected (PI) calves being the major risk of BVD spread, but also an efficient target for controlling the infection. There are two acknowledged strategies to identify PI animals for removal: tissue tag testing (direct; also known as the Swiss model) and serological screening (indirect by interpreting the serological status of the herd; the Scandinavian model)...
November 23, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215133/a-five-year-retrospective-study-on-syphilis-in-the-sexual-transmitted-disease-centre-stdc-of-the-teaching-hospital-umberto-i-in-rome
#8
S Pala, C Conti, P Goldoni, D Silvaggio, M Nicolai, E Schiariti, G B Orsi
OBJECTIVES: A retrospective study describing syphilis epidemiological and clinical features in patients referring to an infectious diseases centre in Rome, Italy. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2015 demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected from all adult patients attending the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre of the Teaching Hospital Umberto I in Rome. RESULTS: Overall 723 patients, 495 males and 228 females, with syphilis infection diagnosis were included...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210921/celiac-disease-by-the-age-of-13-years-is-not-associated-with-probiotics-administration-in-infancy
#9
Emma Merike Savilahti, Jorma Ilonen, Anna Kaarina Kukkonen, Erkki Savilahti, Mikael Kuitunen
Probiotics are theoretically promising in primary prevention of celiac disease (CD), but research evidence on the topic is scarce. We used the data and material of a clinical double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on primary allergy prevention (n = 1223) to investigate in an exploratory study whether administration of a mix of pro- and prebiotics during late pregnancy and first 6 months of life was associated with prevalence of CD during 13-year follow-up. Children who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for CD (n = 11) and subjects with a serum sample available for analyzing CD-antibodies (n = 867) were included...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208248/kidney-diseases-associated-with-alternative-complement-pathway-dysregulation-and-potential-treatment-options
#10
REVIEW
Prateek Sanghera, Mythili Ghanta, Fatih Ozay, Venkatesh K Ariyamuthu, Bekir Tanriover
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and C3 glomerulopathy (dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis) are characterized as inappropriate activation of the alternative complement pathway. Genetic mutations affecting the alternative complement pathway regulating proteins (complement factor H, I, membrane cofactor protein and complement factor H-related proteins) and triggers (such as infection, surgery, pregnancy and autoimmune disease flares) result in the clinical manifestation of these diseases. A decade ago, prognosis of these disease states was quite poor, with most patients developing end-stage renal disease...
December 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204197/infantile-tremor-syndrome-in-modern-times
#11
Piyush Gautam, Nivedita Sharma, Sanjeev Chaudhary, Ankush Kaushal
Background: Infantile tremor syndrome (ITS) is a clinical syndrome of acute or gradual onset of mental and psychomotor changes, pigmentary disturbances of hair and skin, pallor, and tremors in malnourished children aged between 5 months and 3 years. It is a well-known entity, but the exact etiopathogenesis is still not known. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Pediatrics at Dr RPGMC Tanda, Kangra in Himachal Pradesh...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202747/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasmosis-and-risk-factors-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-among-pregnant-women-in-sri-lanka-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Devika Iddawela, Sanura Malinda Pallegoda Vithana, Chathura Ratnayake
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan infecting humans and animals. Infection in adults usually causes mild disease but greater importance lies in preventing transplacental transmission which can cause major foetal anomalies and is vital to identify infection in pregnancy. Research on this regard in Sri Lanka is scarce and would be beneficial in developing antenatal care strategies for improved foetal outcome. METHODS: A random sample of 536 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Teaching Hospital Peradeniya from 2010 to 2013 was recruited for this study...
December 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201420/knowledge-acceptance-and-utilisation-of-the-female-condom-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-ghana
#13
Mark Kwame Ananga, Nuworza Kugbey, Jemima Misornu Akporlu, Kwaku Oppong Asante
Background: The female condom (FC) is the only safe and effective female-initiated method that provides simultaneous protection against unintended pregnancy as well as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. Knowledge of FC use among women and the perceptions and attitudes towards condom use can contribute to its uptake as an important public health strategy for HIV prevention in Ghana. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence in this area of public health research to inform interventions...
2017: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193660/preterm-birth-with-placental-evidence-of-malperfusion-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-after-pregnancy-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Janet M Catov, Matthew F Muldoon, Steven E Reis, Roberta B Ness, Lananh N Nguyen, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Hyunsoo Hwang, W Tony Parks
OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth (PTB) is associated with excess maternal cardiovascular disease risk. We considered that women with PTB and placental evidence of maternal malperfusion would be particularly affected. DESIGN: Pregnancy cohort study. SETTING: Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, US. POPULATION: Women with PTB (n=115) and term births (n=210) evaluated 4-12 years after pregnancy. METHODS: Cardiometabolic risk markers were compared in women with prior PTB vs...
November 28, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192419/the-course-of-pregnancy-and-delivery-in-a-patient-with-malaria
#15
Michał Krekora, Katarzyna Zych-Krekora, Maciej Słodki, Mariusz Grzesiak, Maria Respondek-Liberska
Malaria is one of the most common lethal parasitic diseases. Infection is transmitted when an infected female mosquito bites a human introducing the sporozoites into human blood. The article presents the course of pregnancy and delivery in a patient complicated by Plasmodium infection. The patient had repetitive several trips to Tanzania over a short time period before she developed the condition. She had been taking antimalarial medication (proguanil-atovaquone) in a prophylactic dose during and after her first travel to Tanzania...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187254/acute-disseminated-melioidosis-giving-rise-to-pneumonia-and-renal-abscesses-complicated-with-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-in-a-post-partum-woman-a-case-report
#16
Piyumi Sachindra Alwis Wijewickrama, Rohini Weerakoon
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is an established endemic infection in Sri Lanka, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram negative bacterium distributed in saprophytes in soil and surface water. Main mode of transmission is via percutaneous inoculation. Pneumonia is the most common presentation in acute disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 33 year old previously healthy Sinhalese female with an occupational exposure to surface water in paddy fields, who was on postpartum day 6 following an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery via an elective caesarian section...
November 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187036/persistence-of-villous-immaturity-in-term-deliveries-following-intrauterine-transfusion-for-parvovirus-b19-infection-and-rhd-associated-hemolytic-disease-of-the-fetus-and-newborn
#17
Whitney A McCarthy, Edwina J Popek
Common causes of fetal anemia and hydrops include parvovirus B19 infection during the first 2 trimesters of pregnancy, as well as maternal alloimmunization to RhD with subsequent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) in an RhD positive fetus. Although both of these conditions have historically caused significant fetal morbidity and mortality, the advent of intrauterine transfusion (IUT) over the last few decades have dramatically improved outcomes. Prior literature has extensively documented placental changes associated with untreated parvovirus infection and RhD HDFN in intrauterine fetal demises and preterm births; however, histopathologic changes in term placentas from term infants treated with IUT have not been reported...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184005/an-infant-with-congenital-rubella-syndrome-in-developing-india
#18
Ajit Singh, Sharon Narula, Hashir Kareem, Tom Devasia
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), caused by rubella virus infection during pregnancy, remains a public health concern in developing countries. Three to five per cent of all suspected CRS cases in India have been proven to be a rubella infection. Only about 45%-60% of pregnant women and infants in India receive the rubella vaccination. We present a case of a preterm female infant who tested positive for the rubella virus. The baby was born with low birth weight and, on examination, showed pallor and hepatosplenomegaly...
November 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175797/diagnosis-of-hepatitis-c-in-pregnant-mothers-and-its-transfer-pattern-in-neonates
#19
Nosheen Aslam, Abdul Ghaffar, Mohsin Khurshid, Syed Makhdoom Hussain, Muhammad Afzal
Hepatitis is the most common liver diseases in the Pakistan caused by blood-borne infection of HCV. Viral transmission is frequent through blood contact. Vertical transmission is transfer of disease from mother to infant. The women who are infected with hepatitis C virus RNA are at high risk of infecting their babies. Actual transmission occurs during labor and at time of delivery when blood of both mother and neonate is in contact with each other. Vertical transmission rate is lowered when mother is HCV RN A negative...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174520/liver-dysfunction-during-pregnancy-and-its-association-of-with-preterm-birth-in-china-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Xun Zhuang, Ai-Min Cui, Qin Wang, Xiao-Yan Cheng, Yi Shen, Wei-Hua Cai, Hai-Bo Li, Sheng Zhang, Gang Qin
BACKGROUND: Liver dysfunction is common in pregnancy but its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB) remains unclear. METHODS: A prospective cohort of HBV-infected or uninfected pregnant women attending antenatal care was recruited at Nantong Maternal and Child Health Hospital between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2016. Liver function tests (LFTs) were monitored through pregnancy. The primary outcomes were PTB and very PTB (delivery prior 37 and 32weeks' gestation respectively)...
November 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
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