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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822008/label-free-sensing-and-classification-of-old-stored-blood
#1
Jun Hong Park, Taesik Go, Sang Joon Lee
Transfusion is crucial in surgical operation and anemia treatment. However, several hemorheological properties of blood are adversely altered during blood storage. After transfusion, these adverse alterations are related with decrease of oxygen and ion transport in blood circulation, which increase the mortality of transfused patients. Therefore, accurate sensing of whether a blood supply is still viable for transfusion or not is extremely important. In this study, a H-shaped microfluidic device and digital in-line holographic microscopy were employed to measure temporal variations of blood viscosity and the optical focusing property of erythrocytes during blood storage...
August 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819844/fourier-ptychographic-microscopy-for-rapid-high-resolution-imaging-of-circulating-tumor-cells-enriched-by-microfiltration
#2
Anthony Williams, Jaebum Chung, Changhuei Yang, Richard J Cote
Examining the hematogenous compartment for evidence of metastasis has increased significantly within the oncology research community in recent years, due to the development of technologies aimed at the enrichment of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), the subpopulation of primary tumor cells that gain access to the circulatory system and are responsible for colonization at distant sites. In contrast to other technologies, filtration-based CTC enrichment, which exploits differences in size between larger tumor cells and surrounding smaller, non-tumor blood cells, has the potential to improve CTC characterization through isolation of tumor cell populations with greater molecular heterogeneity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819645/3d-imaging-of-optically-cleared-tissue-using-a-simplified-clarity-method-and-on-chip-microscopy
#3
Yibo Zhang, Yoonjung Shin, Kevin Sung, Sam Yang, Harrison Chen, Hongda Wang, Da Teng, Yair Rivenson, Rajan P Kulkarni, Aydogan Ozcan
High-throughput sectioning and optical imaging of tissue samples using traditional immunohistochemical techniques can be costly and inaccessible in resource-limited areas. We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) imaging and phenotyping in optically transparent tissue using lens-free holographic on-chip microscopy as a low-cost, simple, and high-throughput alternative to conventional approaches. The tissue sample is passively cleared using a simplified CLARITY method and stained using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine to target cells of interest, enabling bright-field optical imaging and 3D sectioning of thick samples...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816097/meltblown-polymer-fabrics-as-candidate-scaffolds-for-rotator-cuff-tendon-tissue-engineering
#4
Thomas Jenkins, Sean Meehan, Behnam Pourdeyhimi, Dianne Little
Various biomaterial technologies are promising for tissue engineering, including electrospinning, but commercial scale-up of throughput is difficult. The goal of the study was to evaluate meltblown fabrics as candidate scaffolds for rotator cuff tendon tissue engineering. Meltblown poly(lactic acid) fabrics were produced with several polymer crystallinities and airflow velocities (500(low), 900(medium) or 1400(high) m<sup>3</sup>air/hour/m fabric). Fiber diameter, alignment, and baseline bi-directional tensile mechanical properties were evaluated...
August 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810907/schr%C3%A3-dinger-s-microbes-tools-for-distinguishing-the-living-from-the-dead-in-microbial-ecosystems
#5
REVIEW
Joanne B Emerson, Rachel I Adams, Clarisse M Betancourt Román, Brandon Brooks, David A Coil, Katherine Dahlhausen, Holly H Ganz, Erica M Hartmann, Tiffany Hsu, Nicholas B Justice, Ivan G Paulino-Lima, Julia C Luongo, Despoina S Lymperopoulou, Cinta Gomez-Silvan, Brooke Rothschild-Mancinelli, Melike Balk, Curtis Huttenhower, Andreas Nocker, Parag Vaishampayan, Lynn J Rothschild
While often obvious for macroscopic organisms, determining whether a microbe is dead or alive is fraught with complications. Fields such as microbial ecology, environmental health, and medical microbiology each determine how best to assess which members of the microbial community are alive, according to their respective scientific and/or regulatory needs. Many of these fields have gone from studying communities on a bulk level to the fine-scale resolution of microbial populations within consortia. For example, advances in nucleic acid sequencing technologies and downstream bioinformatic analyses have allowed for high-resolution insight into microbial community composition and metabolic potential, yet we know very little about whether such community DNA sequences represent viable microorganisms...
August 16, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800553/effects-of-different-biofilm-carriers-on-biogas-production-during-anaerobic-digestion-of-corn-straw
#6
Yongdi Liu, Yingdong Zhu, Honghua Jia, Xiaoyu Yong, Lijuan Zhang, Jun Zhou, Zebin Cao, Andrea Kruse, Ping Wei
This study investigated the performance of anaerobic digestion systems using four types of fibrous biofilm carriers, a polypropylene, a polyester, a polyamide, and a polyurethane fiber material. The biogas and methane production, pH, chemical oxygen demand, total solids content, volatile solids content, residual coenzyme F420, and microbial community compositions were determined during the experimental runs. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy was employed to identify the microbial consortium and examine their attachment onto the surface of the four fibrous biofilm carriers...
July 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795734/single-gold-bipyramids-with-sharp-tips-as-sensitive-single-particle-orientation-sensors-in-biological-studies
#7
So Young Lee, Yeji Han, Jong Wook Hong, Ji Won Ha
Plasmonic gold bipyramids (AuBPs) with sharp tips are promising orientation probes in biological studies because of their anisotropic shape, strong electric field enhancement at the tips, and convenient manipulation into other shapes. Herein, we elucidate the optical properties of single AuBPs at their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelengths using dark-field (DF) microscopy and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and test their use as orientation probes in a dynamic biological environment...
August 10, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795554/parallel-compression-is-a-fast-low-cost-assay-for-the-high-throughput-screening-of-mechanosensory-cytoskeletal-proteins-in-cells
#8
Chunguang Miao, Eric S Schiffhauer, Evelyn I Okeke, Douglas N Robinson, Tianzhi Luo
Cellular mechanosensing is critical for many biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and tissue morphogenesis. The actin cytoskeletal proteins play important roles in cellular mechanosensing. Many techniques have been used to investigate the mechanosensory behaviors of these proteins. However, a fast, low-cost assay for the quantitative characterization of these proteins is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate that compression assay using agarose overlay is suitable for the high throughput screening of mechanosensory proteins in live cells while requiring minimal experimental setup...
August 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792758/profiling-of-microbial-colonies-for-high-throughput-engineering-of-multi-step-enzymatic-reactions-via-optically-guided-maldi-ms
#9
Tong Si, Bin Li, Troy J Comi, Yuwei Wu, Pingfan Hu, Yuying Wu, Yuhao Min, Douglas A Mitchell, Huimin Zhao, Jonathan V Sweedler
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS) imaging has been used for rapid phenotyping of enzymatic activities, but is mainly limited to single-step conversions. Herein we report a label-free method for high-throughput engineering of multi-step biochemical reactions based on optically guided MALDI-ToF MS analysis of bacterial colonies. The bacterial cells provide containment of multiple enzymes and access to substrates and cofactors via metabolism. Automated MALDI-ToF MS acquisition from randomly distributed colonies simplifies procedures to prepare strain libraries without liquid handling...
August 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776530/rapid-laboratory-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#10
Prasanna Bhirud, Ameeta Joshi, Nilma Hirani, Abhay Chowdhary
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples becomes important in the control of TB both for the treatment of patients and for curbing of disease transmission to the others in the community. The study objective was to perform Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, fluorochrome staining, line probe assay (LPA), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of pulmonary TB (PTB) and to compare the results of LPA and LAMP in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and turnaround time...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772204/automated-patterning-and-probing-with-multiple-nanoscale-tools-for-single-cell-analysis
#11
Jiayao Li, Yeonuk Kim, Boyin Liu, Ruwen Qin, Jian Li, Jing Fu
The nano-manipulation approach that combines Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and various imaging and probing techniques enables researchers to investigate the cellular structures in three dimensions. Such fusion approach, however, requires extensive effort on locating and examining randomly-distributed targets due to limited Field of View (FOV) when high magnification is desired. In the present study, we present the development that automates 'pattern and probe' particularly for single-cell analysis, achieved by computer aided tools including feature recognition and geometric planning algorithms...
July 31, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771722/co-administration-of-a-tumor-penetrating-peptide-improves-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-paclitaxel-in-a-novel-air-grown-lung-cancer-3d-spheroid-model
#12
Sweta K Gupta, Elisa A Torrico Guzmán, Samantha A Meenach
Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture platforms are increasingly being used in cancer research and drug development since they mimic avascular tumors in vitro. In the present study, we focused on the development of a novel air-grown multicellular spheroid (MCS) model to mimic in vivo tumors for understanding lung cancer biology and improvement in the evaluation of aerosol anticancer therapeutics. 3D MCS were formed using A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, comprising cellular heterogeneity with respect to different proliferative and metabolic gradients...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768827/ubiquitin-orchestrates-proteasome-dynamics-between-proliferation-and-quiescence-in-yeast
#13
Zhu Chao Gu, Edwin Wu, Carolin Sailer, Julia Jando, Erin Styles, Ina Eisenkolb, Maike Kuschel, Katharina Bitschar, Xiaorong Wang, Lan Huang, Adriano Vissa, Christopher M Yip, Ravikiran Yedidi, Helena Friesen, Cordula Enenkel
Proteasomes are essential for protein degradation in proliferating cells. Little is known about proteasome functions in quiescent cells. In non-dividing yeast, a eukaryotic model of quiescence, proteasomes are depleted from the nucleus and accumulate in motile cytosolic granules termed proteasome storage granules (PSG). PSG enhance resistance to genotoxic stress and confer fitness during aging. Upon exit from quiescence PSG dissolve and proteasomes are rapidly delivered into the nucleus. To identify key players in PSG organization, we performed high-throughput imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled proteasomes in the yeast null mutant collection...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767092/molecular-identification-of-gambierdiscus-and-fukuyoa-dinophyceae-from-environmental-samples
#14
Kirsty F Smith, Laura Biessy, Phoebe A Argyle, Tom Trnski, Tuikolongahau Halafihi, Lesley L Rhodes
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is increasing across the Pacific and the distribution of the causative dinoflagellates appears to be expanding. Subtle differences in thecal plate morphology are used to distinguish dinoflagellate species, which are difficult to determine using light microscopy. For these reasons we sought to develop a Quantitative PCR assay that would detect all species from both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa genera in order to rapidly screen environmental samples for potentially toxic species. Additionally, a specific assay for F...
August 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757289/workflows-for-microscopy-image-analysis-and-cellular-phenotyping
#15
Thomas Wollmann, Holger Erfle, Roland Eils, Karl Rohr, Manuel Gunkel
In large scale biological experiments, like high-throughput or high-content cellular screening, the amount and the complexity of images to be analyzed is steadily increasing. To handle and process these images, well defined image processing and analysis steps need to be performed by applying dedicated workflows. Multiple software tools have emerged with the aim to facilitate creation of such workflows by integrating existing methods, tools, and routines, and by adapting them to different applications and questions, as well as making them reusable and interchangeable...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754704/metagenomic-analysis-of-dairy-bacteriophages-extraction-method-and-pilot-study-on-whey-samples-derived-from-using-undefined-and-defined-mesophilic-starter-cultures
#16
Musemma K Muhammed, Witold Kot, Horst Neve, Jennifer Mahony, Josué L Castro-Mejía, Lukasz Krych, Lars H Hansen, Dennis S Nielsen, Søren J Sørensen, Knut J Heller, Douwe van Sinderen, Finn K Vogensen
Despite their huge potential for characterizing the biodiversity of phages, metagenomic studies are currently not available for dairy bacteriophages, partly due to the lack of a standard procedure for phage extraction. We optimized an extraction method that allows to remove the bulk protein from whey and milk samples with losses of less than 50% of spiked phages. The protocol was applied to extract phages from whey in order to test the notion that members of Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis 936 (now Sk1virus), P335, c2 (now C2virus) and Leuconostoc phage groups are the most frequently encountered in the dairy environment...
July 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751733/-high-throughput-characterization-of-region-specific-mitochondrial-function-and-morphology
#17
Joseph R Daniele, Daniel J Esping, Gilbert Garcia, Lee S Parsons, Edgar A Arriaga, Andrew Dillin
The tissue-specific etiology of aging and stress has been elusive due to limitations in data processing of current techniques. Despite that many techniques are high-throughput, they usually use singular features of the data (e.g. whole fluorescence). One technology at the nexus of fluorescence-based screens is large particle flow cytometry ("biosorter"), capable of recording positional fluorescence and object granularity information from many individual live animals. Current processing of biosorter data, however, do not integrate positional information into their analysis and data visualization...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747710/a-high-content-image-analysis-approach-for-quantitative-measurements-of-chemosensitivity-in-patient-derived-tumor-microtissues
#18
Ilmari Ahonen, Malin Åkerfelt, Mervi Toriseva, Eva Oswald, Julia Schüler, Matthias Nees
Organotypic, three-dimensional (3D) cancer models have enabled investigations of complex microtissues in increasingly realistic conditions. However, a drawback of these advanced models remains the poor biological relevance of cancer cell lines, while higher clinical significance would be obtainable with patient-derived cell cultures. Here, we describe the generation and data analysis of 3D microtissue models from patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Standard of care anti-cancer drugs were applied and the altered multicellular morphologies were captured by confocal microscopy, followed by automated image analyses to quantitatively measure phenotypic features for high-content chemosensitivity tests...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746386/tracmit-an-effective-pipeline-for-tracking-and-analyzing-cells-on-micropatterns-through-mitosis
#19
Olivier Burri, Benita Wolf, Arne Seitz, Pierre Gönczy
The use of micropatterns has transformed investigations of dynamic biological processes by enabling the reproducible analysis of live cells using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. With micropatterns, thousands of individual cells can be efficiently imaged in parallel, rendering the approach well suited for screening projects. Despite being powerful, such screens remain challenging in terms of data handling and analysis. Typically, only a fraction of micropatterns is occupied in a manner suitable to monitor a given phenotypic output...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745623/a-standardized-approach-for-multispecies-purification-of-mammalian-male-germ-cells-by-mechanical-tissue-dissociation-and-flow-cytometry
#20
Ana C Lima, Min Jung, Jannette Rusch, Abul Usmani, Alexandra M Lopes, Donald F Conrad
Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) has been one of the methods of choice to isolate enriched populations of mammalian testicular germ cells. Currently, it allows the discrimination of up to 9 murine germ cell populations with high yield and purity. This high-resolution in discrimination and purification is possible due to unique changes in chromatin structure and quantity throughout spermatogenesis. These patterns can be captured by flow cytometry of male germ cells stained with fluorescent DNA-binding dyes such as Hoechst-33342 (Hoechst)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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