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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945025/-dna-marker-assisted-selection-of-medicinal-plants-%C3%A2-breeding-research-of-disease-resistant-cultivars-of-panax-notoginseng
#1
Lin-Lin Dong, Zhong-Jian Chen, Yong Wang, Fu-Gang Wei, Lian-Juan Zhang, Jiang Xu, Guang-Fei Wei, Rui Wang, Juan Yang, Wei-Lin Liu, Xi-Wen Li, Yu-Qi Yu, Shi-Lin Chen
DNA marker-assisted selection of medicinal plants is based on the DNA polymorphism, selects the DNA sequences related to the phenotypes such as high yields, superior quality, stress-resistance and so on according to the technologies of molecular hybridization, polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput sequencing, and assists the breeding of new cultivars. This study bred the first disease-resistant cultivar of notoginseng "Miaoxiang Kangqi 1" using the technology of DNA marker-assisted selection of medicinal plants and systematic breeding...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945013/pro-regenerative-hydrogel-restores-scarless-skin-during-cutaneous-wound-healing
#2
Guoming Sun
The transformation of fibrotic healing process to regenerative one has great potential to fully restore wounded skin. The M2 macrophage phenotype promotes constructive tissue remodeling and instructs tissue repair in a regenerative manner. It is hypothesized that hydrogels that can establish robustness of endogenous cells to regulate M2 phenotype will promote constructive dermal remodeling. Toward this end, a series of dextran-based bioabsorbable hydrogels are developed and self-crosslinkable dextran-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-ethylamine (DexIEME) is identified as the potential scaffold...
September 25, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944857/a-novel-fbn1-mutation-causes-autosomal-dominant-marfan-syndrome
#3
Ying Xiao, Xiaoqi Liu, Xiaoxin Guo, Liping Liu, Linxin Jiang, Qi Wang, Bo Gong
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an inherited and systemic disorder. It has been reported that mutations in the fibrillin‑1 gene (FBN1) account for ~90% of autosomal dominant cases of MFS. This study was conducted to screen mutations of FBN1 in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant MFS; four individuals including two patients with MFS were recruited. The family members underwent complete physical, cardiovascular and ophthalmologic examinations. Genomic DNA samples were collected from the family along with 383 unrelated healthy subjects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944843/microarray-and-bioinformatics-analyses-of-gene-expression-profiles-in-balb-c-murine-macrophage-polarization
#4
Li Jiang, Xueqin Li, Yingying Zhang, Mengying Zhang, Zongsheng Tang, Kun Lv
Macrophages possess the hallmark feature of plasticity, allowing them to undergo a dynamic transition between M1 and M2 polarized phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to screen for differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) that were associated with BALB/c murine macrophage polarization. The transcription profiles of three M1 and three M2 samples were obtained using microarray analysis. Based on the threshold of fold‑change >2.0 and P‑value <0.05, a total of 1,253 DEGs were identified, of which 696 were upregulated and 557 downregulated in M1 macrophages compared with M2 macrophages...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944242/autosomal-recessive-long-qt-syndrome-type-1-in-eight-families-from-saudi-arabia
#5
Amnah Y Bdier, Saleh Al-Ghamdi, Prashant K Verma, Khalid Dagriri, Bandar Alshehri, Omamah A Jiman, Sherif E Ahmed, Arthur A M Wilde, Zahurul A Bhuiyan, Jumana Y Al-Aama
BACKGROUND: One of the most common primary cardiac arrhythmia syndromes is autosomal dominant long QT syndrome, type 1 (LQT1), chiefly caused by mono-allelic mutations in the KCNQ1 gene. Bi-allelic mutations in the KCNQ1 gene are causal to Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS), characterized by severe and early-onset arrhythmias with prolonged QTc interval on surface ECG and sensorineural deafness. Occasionally, bi-allelic mutations in KCNQ1 are also found in patients without any deafness, referred to as autosomal recessive long QT syndrome, type 1 (AR LQT1)...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943871/global-screening-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-genes-for-desiccation-survival
#6
Rabindra K Mandal, Young M Kwon
Salmonella spp., one of the most common foodborne bacterial pathogens, has the ability to survive under desiccation conditions in foods and food processing facilities for years. This raises the concerns of Salmonella infection in humans associated with low water activity foods. Salmonella responds to desiccation stress via complex pathways involving immediate physiological actions as well as coordinated genetic responses. However, the exact mechanisms of Salmonella to resist desiccation stress remain to be fully elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943383/identification-of-fabry-disease-in-a-tertiary-referral-cohort-of-patients-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#7
Martin S Maron, Winnie Xin, Katherine B Sims, Rita Butler, Tammy S Haas, Ethan J Rowin, Robert J Desnick, Barry J Maron
BACKGROUND: Fabry Disease is a X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficient activity of α-galactosidase A due to mutations in the GLA gene, which may be associated with increased left ventricular wall thickness, and mimic the morphologic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Management strategies for these two diseases diverge, with Fabry disease-specific treatment utilizing recombinant α-galactosidase A enzyme replacement therapy. METHODS: We studied a prospectively assembled consecutive cohort of 585 patients (71% male) from two hypertrophic cardiomyopathy tertiary referral centers by screening for low α-galactosidase A activity in dried blood spots...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942923/transcriptional-architecture-of-synaptic-communication-delineates-gabaergic-neuron-identity
#8
Anirban Paul, Megan Crow, Ricardo Raudales, Miao He, Jesse Gillis, Z Josh Huang
Understanding the organizational logic of neural circuits requires deciphering the biological basis of neuronal diversity and identity, but there is no consensus on how neuron types should be defined. We analyzed single-cell transcriptomes of a set of anatomically and physiologically characterized cortical GABAergic neurons and conducted a computational genomic screen for transcriptional profiles that distinguish them from one another. We discovered that cardinal GABAergic neuron types are delineated by a transcriptional architecture that encodes their synaptic communication patterns...
September 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941083/from-model-to-crop-functional-characterization-of-spl8-in-m-truncatula-led-to-genetic-improvement-of-biomass-yield-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-alfalfa
#9
Jiqing Gou, Smriti Debnath, Liang Sun, Amy Flanagan, Yuhong Tang, Qingzhen Jiang, Jiangqi Wen, Zeng-Yu Wang
Biomass yield, salt tolerance and drought tolerance are important targets for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) improvement. Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model plant for alfalfa and other legumes. By screening a Tnt1 retrotransposon-tagged M. truncatula mutant population, we identified three mutants with enhanced branching. Branch development determines shoot architecture which affects important plant functions like light acquisition, resource use and ultimately impacts biomass production. Molecular analyses revealed that the mutations were caused by Tnt1 insertions in the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 8 (SPL8) gene...
September 21, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939912/genetic-screening-confirms-heterozygous-mutations-in-acan-as-a-major-cause-of-idiopathic-short-stature
#10
Nadine N Hauer, Heinrich Sticht, Sangamitra Boppudi, Christian Büttner, Cornelia Kraus, Udo Trautmann, Martin Zenker, Christiane Zweier, Antje Wiesener, Rami Abou Jamra, Dagmar Wieczorek, Jaqueline Kelkel, Anna-Maria Jung, Steffen Uebe, Arif B Ekici, Tilman Rohrer, André Reis, Helmuth-Günther Dörr, Christian T Thiel
Short stature is a common pediatric disorder affecting 3% of the population. However, the clinical variability and genetic heterogeneity prevents the identification of the underlying cause in about 80% of the patients. Recently, heterozygous mutations in the ACAN gene coding for the proteoglycan aggrecan, a main component of the cartilage matrix, were associated with idiopathic short stature. To ascertain the prevalence of ACAN mutations and broaden the phenotypic spectrum in patients with idiopathic short stature we performed sequence analyses in 428 families...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939507/toxicological-profile-and-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-potential-of-palicourea-deflexa-a-source-of-%C3%AE-carboline-alkaloids
#11
Pablo Ricardo Bertelli, Renata Biegelmeyer, Eduardo Pacheco Rico, Luiz Carlos Klein-Junior, Natally S B Toson, Luciane Minetto, Sergio A L Bordignon, André L Gasper, Sidnei Moura, Diogo L de Oliveira, Amélia T Henriques
Palicourea genus is chemically and taxonomically close to Psychotria genus, a well-known source of neuroactive alkaloids. It has been previously reported the pharmacological potential of these alkaloids in some targets related to the neurodegenerative process. In this context, this study was carried out in order to evaluate the toxic effects and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory potential of Palicourea deflexa fraction of total alkaloids (FTA). P. deflexa FTA was analyzed by means of HPLC-DAD and HRMS-ESI...
September 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939108/differential-response-to-doxorubicin-in-breast-cancer-subtypes-simulated-by-a-microfluidic-tumor-model
#12
Altug Ozcelikkale, Kyeonggon Shin, Victoria Noe-Kim, Bennett D Elzey, Zizheng Dong, Jian-Ting Zhang, Kwangmeyung Kim, Ick Chan Kwon, Kinam Park, Bumsoo Han
Successful drug delivery and overcoming drug resistance are the primary clinical challenges for management and treatment of cancer. The ability to rapidly screen drugs and delivery systems within physiologically relevant environments is critically important; yet is currently limited due to lack of appropriate tumor models. To address this problem, we developed the Tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC), a new microfluidic tumor model simulating the interstitial flow, plasma clearance, and transport of the drug within the tumor...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939060/familial-aggregation-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-in-taiwan
#13
Shiang-Fu Huang, Jen-Hao Hsiao, Chi-Kuan Young, Hui-Tzu Chien, Chang-Fu Kuo, Lai-Chu See, Shue-Fen Luo, Lu-Hsiang Huang, Chun-Ta Liao, Tung-Chieh Joseph Chang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is higher in Chinese than in Caucasian populations. Genetic, viral, and lifestyle factors may explain these ethnic differences in the incidence of NPC. In the present study, we examined the familial aggregation, heritability, and relative risks (RRs) of NPC using a nationwide database in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based family study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
October 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938863/identification-of-potential-isoform-selective-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-for-cancer-therapy-a-combined-approach-of-structure-based-virtual-screening-admet-prediction-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-assay
#14
Abdullahi Ibrahim Uba, Kemal Yelekçi
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have gained increased attention as targets for anticancer drug design and development. HDAC inhibitors have proven to be effective for reversing the malignant phenotype in HDAC-dependent cancer cases. However, lack of selectivity of the many HDAC inhibitors in clinical use and trials contributes to toxicities to healthy cells. It is believed that, the continued identification of isoform-selective inhibitors will eliminate these undesirable adverse effects - a task that remains a major challenge to HDAC inhibitor designs...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938745/a-closer-look-at-expanded-carrier-screening-from-a-pgd-perspective
#15
Carolina Vaz-de-Macedo, Joyce Harper
Conventionally, the search for carrier status was based on ethnicity and/or family history and targeted to a restricted number of genetic conditions and mutations. This is now being replaced by extended panels testing for hundreds of genetic disorders with a broad range of phenotypes, in what is called 'expanded carrier screening'. While the ultimate aim of these panels is to increase the reproductive autonomy of the individuals and couples by providing preconception knowledge that could lead to the broadest range of available options, including PGD, we argue that: (i) Given the number and heterogeneity of the conditions included in panels, it cannot be guaranteed that a couple who tests positive for one of those conditions will be eligible for PGD; patients should be informed of this potential limitation before undertaking screening...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938471/low-vitamin-b12-in-pregnancy-is-associated-with-adipose-derived-circulating-mirs-targeting-ppar%C3%AE-and-insulin-resistance
#16
Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari, Manu Vatish, Mohammad Tauqeer Alam, Sascha Ott, Sudhesh Kumar, Ponnusamy Saravanan
Context: Low vitamin B12 (B12) during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal obesity, insulin resistance(IR) and gestational diabetes(GDM). B12 is a key co-factor in 1-carbon metabolism. Objective: We hypothesize that B12 plays a role in epigenetic regulation by altering circulating miRNAs(miRs) during adipocyte differentiation and results in an adverse metabolic phenotype. Design, settings and main-outcome measure: Human pre-adipocyte cell-line(Chub-S7) were differentiated in various B12 concentrations: Control(500nM), LowB12(0...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938432/mitochondrial-function-regulated-by-mitoguardin-1-2-is-crucial-for-ovarian-endocrine-functions-and-ovulation
#17
Xiao-Man Liu, Yin-Li Zhang, Shu-Yan Ji, Long-Wen Zhao, Wei-Na Shang, Dali Li, Zijiang Chen, Chao Tong, Heng-Yu Fan
The balances of mitochondrial dynamic changes, mitochondrial morphology, and mitochondrial number are critical in cell metabolism. Once disturbed, disorders in these processes generally cause diseases or even death in animals. We performed large-scale genetic screenings in fruit flies and discovered the new gene mitoguardin (miga) that encodes for a mitochondrial outer membrane protein. In order to examine the physiological functions of its mammalian homologs Miga1 and 2, we generated Miga1 and Miga2 single- and double-knockout mouse strains and found that the knockout mice were viable, but the females were subfertile...
August 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937031/a-novel-agrn-mutation-leads-to-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome-only-affecting-limb-girdle-muscle
#18
Ying Zhang, Yi Dai, Jing-Na Han, Zhao-Hui Chen, Li Ling, Chuan-Qiang Pu, Li-Ying Cui, Xu-Sheng Huang
BACKGROUND: Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders caused by impaired neuromuscular transmission. The defect of AGRN was one of the causes of CMS through influencing the development and maintenance of neuromuscular transmission. However, CMS reports about this gene mutation were rare. Here, we report a novel homozygous missense mutation (c.5302G>C) of AGRN in a Chinese CMS pedigree. METHODS: We performed a detailed clinical assessment of a Chinese family with three affected members...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935977/zebrafish-in-vivo-screening-for-compounds-amplifying-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-preclinical-validation-in-human-cd34-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#19
Guruchandar Arulmozhivarman, Martin Kräter, Manja Wobus, Jens Friedrichs, Elham Pishali Bejestani, Katrin Müller, Katrin Lambert, Dimitra Alexopoulou, Andreas Dahl, Martin Stöter, Marc Bickle, Nona Shayegi, Jochen Hampe, Friedrich Stölzel, Michael Brand, Malte von Bonin, Martin Bornhäuser
The identification of small molecules that either increase the number and/or enhance the activity of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (hHSPCs) during ex vivo expansion remains challenging. We used an unbiased in vivo chemical screen in a transgenic (c-myb:EGFP) zebrafish embryo model and identified histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), particularly valproic acid (VPA), as significant enhancers of the number of phenotypic HSPCs, both in vivo and during ex vivo expansion. The long-term functionality of these expanded hHSPCs was verified in a xenotransplantation model with NSG mice...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935606/calcimycin-mediates-mycobacterial-killing-by-inducing-intracellular-calcium-regulated-autophagy-in-a-p2rx7-dependent-manner
#20
Shradha Mawatwal, Assirbad Behura, Abhirupa Ghosh, Saqib Kidwai, Abtar Mishra, Amar Deep, Sakshi Agarwal, Sudipto Saha, Ramandeep Singh, Rohan Dhiman
Phenotypic screening led to the identification of calcimycin as a potent inhibitor of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (M. bovis BCG) growth in vitro and in THP-1 cells. In the present study, we aim to decipher the mechanism of antimycobacterial activity of calcimycin. We noticed that treatment with calcimycin led to up-regulation of different autophagy markers like Beclin-1, autophagy-related gene (Atg) 7, Atg 3 and enhanced microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II conversion in macrophages...
September 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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