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Vigilance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341884/acute-stress-persistently-alters-locus-coeruleus-function-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#1
Olga Borodovitsyna, Matthew D Flamini, Daniel J Chandler
Stress is a physiological state characterized by altered neuroendocrine signaling, behavioral arousal, and anxiety. Chronic or traumatic stress may predispose individuals for multiple somatic and psychiatric illnesses. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a major node in the stress response that integrates input from multiple stress responsive neural circuits and releases norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system to promote vigilance and anxiety. Many mood disorders associated with prior stress are characterized by chronically altered noradrenergic signaling, yet the long-term impact of an acute stressor on LC function is not clear...
January 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339745/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-asian-honeybee-apis-cerana-provides-novel-insights-into-honeybee-biology
#2
Qingyun Diao, Liangxian Sun, Huajun Zheng, Zhijiang Zeng, Shengyue Wang, Shufa Xu, Huoqing Zheng, Yanping Chen, Yuanyuan Shi, Yuezhu Wang, Fei Meng, Qingliang Sang, Lianfei Cao, Fang Liu, Yongqiang Zhu, Wenfeng Li, Zhiguo Li, Congjie Dai, Minjun Yang, Shenglu Chen, Runsheng Chen, Shaowu Zhang, Jay D Evans, Qiang Huang, Jie Liu, Fuliang Hu, Songkun Su, Jie Wu
The Asian honeybee Apis cerana is one of two bee species that have been commercially kept with immense economic value. Here we present the analysis of genomic sequence and transcriptomic exploration for A. cerana as well as the comparative genomic analysis of the Asian honeybee and the European honeybee A. mellifera. The genome and RNA-seq data yield new insights into the behavioral and physiological resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa the evolution of antimicrobial peptides, and the genetic basis for labor division in A...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337016/tear-instability-importance-mechanisms-validity-and-reliability-of-assessment
#3
Charles W Mcmonnies
PURPOSE: To examine the factors which contribute to tear stability and the validity and reliability of methods used for assessing tear break up time which is a core part of an examination of tear stability in dry eye patients. METHODS: A review of publications which are relevant to tear stability and its assessment. RESULTS: Tear break up time may be more invasive than intended if difficulty avoiding blinking during assessment results in reflex tearing...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334237/safety-of-working-patterns-among-uk-neuroradiologists-what-can-we-learn-from-the-aviation-industry-and-cognitive-science
#4
John Reicher, Stuart Currie, Daniel Birchall
As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to achieve the necessary balance between satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 Neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334038/robotic-assisted-and-image-guided-mri-compatible-stereoelectroencephalography
#5
Jeffery A Hall, Hui Ming Khoo
BACKGROUND: Stereoelectroencephalography has been in regular use at the Montreal Neurological Institute since 1972. The technique has been in constant evolution to incorporate advances in materials, imaging, and robotics technology. MRI-compatible electrodes were introduced in 2007 and robotics in 2011. Here we report on the technique, safety, and advantages of our current method of stereoelectroencephalography implantation. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent stereoelectroencephalography by the senior author...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330579/-initially-undetected-de-novo-psoriasis-triggered-by-nivolumab-for-metastatic-base-of-the-tongue-carcinoma
#6
S Troyanova-Slavkova, L Eickenscheidt, K Dumann, L Kowalzick
Nivolumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to the PD-1 receptor on T cells and inhibits the interaction with the PD-L1 and PD-L2 ligands on cancer cells. Thus, nivolumab has immunostimulatory properties. The known side effects of this therapy include fatigue, skin rash, dysfunction of the thyroid gland and colitis, which are explained by the immunoregulatory mechanisms of the drug. Here we report on the case of a 58-year-old man with metastatic base of tongue carcinoma who developed de novo psoriasis triggered by nivolumab...
January 12, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328747/critical-incident-analysis-equip-to-avoid-failure
#7
Naomi Potts, Daphne Se Martin, Leontia Hoy
This work is set in the context of perioperative practice in difficult airway management. It integrates a root cause analysis and fish bone technique to investigate a critical incident in temporary yet crucial equipment failure. Risk management and incident reporting is analysed alongside human factors in the operating theatre environment. Finally, recommendations for risk reduction, vigilance and checking vital airway equipment are made in anaesthetic practice.
April 2017: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326375/group-b-streptococcus-septic-arthritis-of-the-hip-following-spontaneous-abortion
#8
Madeline Lyons, Elizabeth Zielinski, Jibanananda Satpathy
Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection of the hip in otherwise healthy adults is a rare entity that is previously only reported following peripartum gynaecological procedure and instrumentation. We report a case of infection of the hip with GBS following spontaneous abortion. Delay in identification of infection as the cause of pain ultimately leads to irreversible joint destruction. This case report will heighten the awareness of the first contact providers as well as orthopaedic surgeons to be more vigilant for possible septic complications associated with gynaecological procedures/complications and subsequent painful joints...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325773/how-safe-is-metformin-when-initiated-in-early-pregnancy-a-retrospective-5-year-study-of-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-from-india
#9
Vanlalhruaii, Riddhi Dasgupta, Roshna Ramachandran, Jiji E Mathews, Annie Regi, Niranjan Thomas, Vijay Gupta, P Visalakshi, H S Asha, Thomas Paul, Nihal Thomas
BACKGROUND: The initiation of metformin in early pregnancy in Gestational Diabetes mellitus(GDM) remains controversial. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of Metformin on maternal and fetal outcomes when initiated within the first trimester of pregnancy in GDM. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective analysis of 540 women with diabetes complicating pregnancy (IADPSG criteria) over five years(January 2011 to May 2016)was done. The study population comprised of patients initiated on a)metformin within the first trimester (Group A:n=186),b) metformin after the first trimester(Group B:n=203) and c)insulin at any time during their pregnancy(Group C:n=151)...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325109/estimating-adolescent-sleep-need-using-dose-response-modelling
#10
Michelle A Short, Nathan Weber, Chelsea Reynolds, Scott Coussens, Mary A Carskadon
Study Objectives: This study will, (a) estimate the nightly sleep need of human adolescents, (b) determine the time course and severity of sleep-related deficits when sleep is reduced below this optimal quantity, and (c) determine whether sleep restriction perturbs the circadian system as well as the sleep homeostat. Methods: Thirty-four adolescents aged 15 to 17 years spent 10 days and 9 nights in the sleep laboratory. Between two baseline nights and two recovery nights with 10-hours' time in bed (TIB) per night, participants experienced either severe sleep restriction (5-hr TIB), moderate sleep restriction (7...
January 6, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324565/assessment-of-child-lead-exposure-in-a-philadelphia-community-2014
#11
Timothy Dignam, Ana Pomales, Lora Werner, E Claire Newbern, James Hodge, Jay Nielsen, Aaron Grober, Karen Scruton, Rand Young, Jack Kelly, Mary Jean Brown
INTRODUCTION: Several urban neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, have a history of soil, household lead paint, and potential lead-emitting industry contamination. OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe blood lead levels (BLLs) in target neighborhoods, (2) identify risk factors and sources of lead exposure, (3) describe household environmental lead levels, and (4) compare results with existing data. METHODS: A simple, random, cross-sectional sampling strategy was used to enroll children 8 years or younger living in selected Philadelphia neighborhoods with a history of lead-emitting industry during July 2014...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324083/effects-of-napping-during-shift-work-on-sleepiness-and-performance-in-emergency-medical-services-personnel-and-similar-shift-workers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Christian Martin-Gill, Laura K Barger, Charity G Moore, J Stephen Higgins, Ellen M Teasley, Patricia M Weiss, Joseph P Condle, Katharyn L Flickinger, Patrick J Coppler, Denisse J Sequeira, Ayushi A Divecha, Margaret E Matthews, Eddy S Lang, P Daniel Patterson
BACKGROUND: Scheduled napping during work shifts may be an effective way to mitigate fatigue-related risk. This study aimed to critically review and synthesize existing literature on the impact of scheduled naps on fatigue-related outcomes for EMS personnel and similar shift worker groups. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed of the impact of a scheduled nap during shift work on EMS personnel or similar shift workers. The primary (critical) outcome of interest was EMS personnel safety...
January 11, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324066/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-caffeine-in-fatigued-shift-workers-implications-for-emergency-medical-services-personnel
#13
Jennifer L Temple, David Hostler, Christian Martin-Gill, Charity G Moore, Patricia M Weiss, Denisse J Sequeira, Joseph P Condle, Eddy S Lang, J Stephen Higgins, P Daniel Patterson
BACKGROUND: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers may experience fatigue as a consequence of shift work. We reviewed the literature to determine the impact of caffeine as a countermeasure to fatigue in EMS personnel and related shift workers. METHODS: We employed the GRADE methodology to perform a systematic literature review and search multiple databases for research that examined the impact of caffeine on outcomes of interest, such as patient and EMS personnel safety...
January 11, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321683/dual-function-of-thalamic-low-vigilance-state-oscillations-rhythm-regulation-and-plasticity
#14
REVIEW
Vincenzo Crunelli, Magor L Lőrincz, William M Connelly, François David, Stuart W Hughes, Régis C Lambert, Nathalie Leresche, Adam C Errington
During inattentive wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, the neocortex and thalamus cooperatively engage in rhythmic activities that are exquisitely reflected in the electroencephalogram as distinctive rhythms spanning a range of frequencies from <1 Hz slow waves to 13 Hz alpha waves. In the thalamus, these diverse activities emerge through the interaction of cell-intrinsic mechanisms and local and long-range synaptic inputs. One crucial feature, however, unifies thalamic oscillations of different frequencies: repetitive burst firing driven by voltage-dependent Ca2+ spikes...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320515/vigilant-conservatism-in-evaluating-communicated-information
#15
Emmanuel Trouche, Petter Johansson, Lars Hall, Hugo Mercier
In the absence of other information, people put more weight on their own opinion than on the opinion of others: they are conservative. Several proximal mechanisms have been suggested to account for this finding. One of these mechanisms is that people cannot access reasons for other people's opinions, but they can access the reasons for their own opinions-whether they are the actual reasons that led them to hold the opinions (rational access to reasons), or post-hoc constructions (biased access to reasons). In four experiments, participants were asked to provide an opinion, and then faced with another participant's opinion and asked if they wanted to revise their initial opinion...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319338/vigilance-and-sentinels-in-global-health-security
#16
Chris Lyttleton
Global health security is increasingly reliant on vigilance to provide early warning of transnational health threats. In theory, this approach requires that sentinels, based in communities most affected by new or re-emerging infectious diseases, deliver timely alerts of incipient risk. Medicalizing global safety also implies there are particular forms of insecurity that must be remedied to pre-empt disease spread. I examine vigilance in the context of spreading drug resistant malaria in Southeast Asian border zones and argue that to act as sentinels, marginal groups vulnerable to infection must be able to articulate what social and behavioral factors prompt proliferating disease risks...
January 10, 2018: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318593/optimising-outcomes-for-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-on-ibrutinib-therapy-european-recommendations-for-clinical-practice
#17
John G Gribben, Francesc Bosch, Florence Cymbalista, Christian H Geisler, Paolo Ghia, Peter Hillmen, Carol Moreno, Stephan Stilgenbauer
Ibrutinib is indicated in Europe for the treatment of several B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). However, despite the high efficacy and favourable toxicity profile of ibrutinib, recent data suggest that it is not always administered optimally in clinical practice, with an increased tendency for dose reduction and a higher frequency of discontinuation. An expert panel of European haematologists was convened to identify practical issues pertinent to physicians involved in the therapeutic management of ibrutinib-treated CLL patients and here we outline the findings...
January 9, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316966/hiss-and-snort-call-types-of-wild-living-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis-acoustic-structure-and-context
#18
Elena V Volodina, Ilya A Volodin, Elena V Chelysheva, Roland Frey
OBJECTIVES: Vocalization as part of vigilance behaviour is widespread across animal taxa, including ruminants. Calls of wild-living giraffes have never been recorded and spectrographically investigated. This study reports the acoustic structure of vigilance-related hiss and snort calls of wild-living giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis. RESULTS: The hiss and snort calls were emitted during five recording sessions produced by nine individual giraffes (8 adults and 1 subadult) in their natural environment in Namibia (3 individuals) and Kenya (6 individuals)...
January 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316041/bilateral-tubo-ovarian-abscesses-presenting-with-huge-pelvic-mass-after-repeated-intrauterine-inseminations-in-a-woman-with-severe-endometriosis
#19
Patsama Vichinsartvichai
A 32-year-old woman consulted for an evaluation of pelvic pain following intrauterine insemination (IUI). Vaginal and abdominal sonography, septic workup were performed and laparoscopic surgery was scheduled after failure to respond to a course of antibiotics. During laparoscopic surgery, bilateral tubo-ovarian abscesses arising on the endometriotic cysts of both ovaries were identified with a vast amount of brownish peritoneal fluid under the adhesion of the greater omentum. Bilateral ovarian cystectomy, right salpingectomy and lysis adhesion were performed...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315909/seeking-excellence-an-evaluation-of-235-international-laboratories-conducting-water-isotope-analyses-by-isotope-ratio-and-laser-absorption-spectrometer
#20
L I Wassenaar, S Terzer-Wassmuth, C Douence, L Araguas-Araguas, P K Aggarwal, T B Coplen
RATIONALE: Water stable isotope ratios (δ2 H and δ18 O values) are widely used tracers in environmental studies; hence, accurate and precise assays are required for providing sound scientific information. We tested the analytical performance of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses using dual-inlet and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers and laser spectrometers through a water isotope inter-comparison test. METHODS: Eight test water samples were distributed by the IAEA to international stable isotope laboratories...
January 5, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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