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Rose Mary Xavier, Jennifer R Dungan, Richard S E Keefe, Allison Vorderstrasse
Genetic etiology of psychopathology symptoms and cognitive performance in schizophrenia is supported by candidate gene and polygenic risk score (PRS) association studies. Such associations are reported to be dependent on several factors - sample characteristics, illness phase, illness severity etc. We aimed to examine if schizophrenia PRS predicted psychopathology symptoms and cognitive performance in patients with chronic schizophrenia. We also examined if schizophrenia associated autosomal loci were associated with specific symptoms or cognitive domains...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
K A Honn, J M Hinson, P Whitney, H P A Van Dongen
In around-the-clock operations, reduced alertness due to circadian misalignment and sleep loss causes performance impairment, which can lead to catastrophic errors and accidents. There is mounting evidence that performance on different tasks is differentially affected, but the general principles underlying this differentiation are not well understood. One factor that may be particularly relevant is the degree to which tasks require executive control, that is, control over the initiation, monitoring, and termination of actions in order to achieve goals...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Maryam Falahpour, Catie Chang, Chi Wah Wong, Thomas T Liu
Changes in vigilance or alertness during a typical resting state fMRI scan are inevitable and have been found to affect measures of functional brain connectivity. Since it is not often feasible to monitor vigilance with EEG during fMRI scans, it would be of great value to have methods for estimating vigilance levels from fMRI data alone. A recent study, conducted in macaque monkeys, proposed a template-based approach for fMRI-based estimation of vigilance fluctuations. Here, we use simultaneously acquired EEG/fMRI data to investigate whether the same template-based approach can be employed to estimate vigilance fluctuations of awake humans across different resting-state conditions...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Kian F Wong, James Teng, Michael W L Chee, Kinjal Doshi, Julian Lim
Mindfulness based training (MBT) is becoming increasingly popular as a means to improve general wellbeing through developing enhanced control over metacognitive processes. In this preliminary study, we tested a cohort of 36 nurses (mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.52; 2 male) who participated in an 8-week MBT intervention to examine the improvements in sustained attention and its energetic costs that may result from MBT. Changes in sustained attention were measured using the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and electroencephalography (EEG) was collected both during PVT performance, and during a brief period of meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xiayun Zuo, Chaohua Lou, Ersheng Gao, Qiguo Lian, Iqbal H Shah
BACKGROUND: Non-consensual sex (NCS) among young people, an important subject with public health and human rights implications, was less studied in China. This study is to investigate the NCS awareness and victimization of university students in Shanghai, China and whether they were associated with adolescent gender-role attitudes. METHODS: Gender-role attitudes, awareness and victimization of different forms of NCS were examined among 1099 undergraduates (430 males and 669 females) in four universities in Shanghai using computer-assisted self-interview approach...
March 15, 2018: Reproductive Health
Lisa M Sharkey, Sarah Peacock, Neil K Russell, Stephen J Middleton, Andrew J Butler
Graft versus host disease (GVHD) following transplantation of an intestine-containing graft occurs more frequently than with other solid organ transplants and is known to have a poor outcome. The presentation differs from other solid organ transplants, as the gastrointestinal tract is not involved following intestinal transplant. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms arising due to native tissue damage and the detection of donor T lymphocytes in circulating blood (T cell chimerism). The ideal treatment strategy has not been defined, with advocates for both increased or decreased immunosuppression...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Dawn M Holman, Helen Ding, Gery P Guy, Meg Watson, Anne M Hartman, Frank M Perna
Importance: Monitoring sun protection and sunburn over time at the population level can provide valuable information about progress toward skin cancer prevention goals and inform future intervention efforts. Objective: To examine the prevalence of sun protection use (shade, sunscreen, and clothing) and sunburn and the association between sunburn and individual characteristics and health behaviors in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of 31 162 US adults from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey-Cancer Control Supplement, household interviews of civilian, noninstitutionalized US adults were conducted throughout 2015 in person and completed on the telephone when necessary...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Sarah Sims, Mary Leamy, Nigel Davies, Katy Schnitzler, Ros Levenson, Felicity Mayer, Robert Grant, Sally Brearley, Stephen Gourlay, Fiona Ross, Ruth Harris
BACKGROUND: Intentional rounding (IR) is a structured process whereby nurses conduct one to two hourly checks with every patient using a standardised protocol. OBJECTIVE: A realist synthesis of the evidence on IR was undertaken to develop IR programme theories of what works, for whom, in what circumstances and why. METHODS: A three-stage literature search and a stakeholder consultation event was completed. A variety of sources were searched, including AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, HMIC, Google and Google Scholar, for published and unpublished literature...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Agraharam Devendra, M Avinash, Dinesh Chidambaram, Jayaramaraju Dheenadhayalan, S Rajasekaran
PURPOSE: The cerclage passer instrument was introduced for aiding percutaneous reduction in spiral femur fractures, thereby overcoming the risk of devascularization of the fracture ends commonly associated with traditional open cerclage wiring techniques. This may, however, predispose to iatrogenic vascular injuries owing to the proximity of the vessels and several other factors. We report four cases with femoral artery (superficial and deep) injuries caused by the cerclage passer in proximal femur and distal femur shaft fractures and incidence of these injuries in our institution...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Jamie L Fleet, Stephanie N Dixon, Paul John Kuwornu, Varun K Dev, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Jorge Burneo, Amit X Garg
Gabapentin is an effective treatment for chronic neuropathic pain but may cause dizziness, drowsiness, and confusion in some older adults. The goal of this study was to assess the association between gabapentin dosing and adverse outcomes by obtaining estimates of the 30-day risk of hospitalization with altered mental status and mortality in older adults (mean age 76 years) in Ontario, Canada initiated on high dose (>600 mg/day; n = 34,159) compared to low dose (≤600 mg/day; n = 76,025) oral gabapentin in routine outpatient care...
2018: PloS One
George A Taylor
Perceptual errors are common contributors to missed diagnoses in the clinical practice of radiology. While the physical attributes of an image such as image resolution, signal-to-noise characteristics, and anatomic complexity are major causes of poor conspicuity of pathologic lesions, there are major interrelated cognitive contributors to visual errors. The first is satisfaction of search (SOS), where the detection of an abnormality results in premature termination of further search. Another form of incomplete search pattern is visual isolation, where a radiologist's search pattern is truncated to the main areas of an image, while little or no attention is given to peripheral areas...
September 26, 2017: Diagnosis
Antoine Haddad, Tarek Bou Assi, Olivier Garraud
Unlike their Western counterparts, some of the Eastern/Southern Mediterranean countries lack centralized coordinated blood transfusion services leading to an unequal blood safety level. This was recently highlighted by a recent World Health Organization (WHO) regional committee report in which WHO urges these countries to establish and implement a national blood system with well-coordinated blood transfusion activities and to make attempts to reach 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. The objective is thus to meet the same levels or standards as Western countries in term of self-sufficiency and blood safety...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
David W Morris, Subroto Ghose, Ella Williams, Kevin Brown, Fuad Khan
Introduction: Hospital emergency departments (EDs) around the country are being challenged by an ever-increasing volume of patients seeking psychiatric services. This manuscript describes a study performed to identify internal and external factors contributing to repeated psychiatric patient admissions to the hospital main ED. Methods: Data from ED visits of patients who were admitted to the Parkland Memorial Hospital ED (the community hospital for Dallas County, TX, USA) with a psychiatric complaint more than once within a 30-day period were evaluated (n=202)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Charles N Bernstein
Corticosteroids and antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) are mainstays of treatment of acutely active IBD and while anti-TNF therapy is indicated for maintenance therapy, chronic corticosteroid therapy is associated with known significant risks. Nonetheless, chronic or recurrent corticosteroid treatment in IBD is common. In this edition of the journal Lewis et al. use Medicaid and Medicare databases to contrast adverse outcomes in persons with IBD and either corticosteroid or anti-TNF use. Compared to high dose corticosteroid use, anti TNF therapy is associated with less risk for death in Crohn's disease but no statistical difference in death outcomes in ulcerative colitis...
March 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Sutapa Mukhopadhyay, Annie Hirsch, Suze Etienne, Natalia Melnikova, Jennifer Wu, Kanta Sircar, Maureen Orr
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an insidious gas responsible for approximately 21,000 emergency department visits, 2300 hospitalizations, and 500 deaths in the United States annually. We analyzed 10 combined years of data from two Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry acute hazardous substance release surveillance programs to evaluate CO incident-related injuries. METHODS: Seventeen states participated in these programs during 2005-2014. RESULTS: In those 10years, the states identified 1795 CO incidents...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Stacey L Vigil, Mark G Ruder, David Shaw, John Wlodkowski, Kayla Garrett, Matthew Walter, Joseph L Corn
Haematophagous biting midges of the genus Culicoides are pests of humans, livestock, and wildlife, and some also serve as vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) worldwide. In North America, there are only two Culicoides spp. proven to transmit BTV and/or EHDV-Culicoides (Hoffmania) insignis Lutz (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and Culicoides (Monoculicoides) sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Culicoides sonorensis is considered the primary vector due to its wide distribution across much of North America, whereas C...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Malhar P Patel, Priscille Schettini, Colin P O'Leary, Hayden B Bosworth, John B Anderson, Kevin P Shah
PURPOSE: Ideally, a referral from a primary care physician (PCP) to a specialist results in a completed specialty appointment with results available to the PCP. This is defined as "closing the referral loop." As health systems grow more complex, regulatory bodies increase vigilance, and reimbursement shifts towards value, closing the referral loop becomes a patient safety, regulatory, and financial imperative. OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: To assess the ability of a large health system to close the referral loop, we used electronic medical record (EMR)-generated data to analyze referrals from a large primary care network to 20 high-volume specialties between July 1, 2015 and June 30, 2016...
March 12, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Nina Sørensen, Paw Jensen, Erik Clasen-Linde, Jacob Moesgaard Larsen, Tarec El-Galaly
Tumor lysis syndrome is rare in diffuse large cell lymphoma, but it is important to recognize the risk in patients with massive tumor burden and reduced kidney function. Very intense vigilance can be necessary despite adequate prophylactic measures and certain drugs may exacerbate electrolyte derangements.
March 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Youl-Ri Kim, Jin-Sup Eom, Jennie Leppanen, Monica Leslie, Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by binge eating and emotional dysregulation including increased negative affectivity (anger, anxiety). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of oxytocin on attentional processes towards anger in patients with BN. METHOD: The study design consisted of a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject crossover, single dose experiment. Sixty-four women (31 patients with BN and 33 healthy comparisons) completed self-reported measures to evaluate emotional difficulties and were administered a single dose of intranasal oxytocin (40IU) or placebo followed by a visual probe detection task to examine attentional orienting to angry or happy faces...
March 3, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
William D S Killgore, Haley C Kent, Sara A Knight, Anna Alkozei
Humans demonstrate a circadian rhythm of melatonin production that closely tracks the daily light/dark cycle, with profound increases in circulating levels during the night-time and nearly nonexistent levels during daylight hours. Although melatonin is known to play a role in preparing the brain and body for sleep, its effects on cognition and brain function are not well understood. We hypothesized that declines in morning melatonin would be associated with increased functional activation within cortical regions involved in alertness, attention, and executive function...
March 9, 2018: Neuroreport
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