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Vigilance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792218/sudden-cardiac-arrest-under-spinal-anesthesia-in-a-mission-hospital-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Bamidele Johnson Alegbeleye
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac arrest following spinal anesthesia is relatively uncommon and a matter of grave concern for any anesthesiologist as well as clinicians in general. There have been, however, several reports of such cases in the literature. Careful patient selection, appropriate dosing of the local anesthetic, volume loading, close monitoring, and prompt intervention at the first sign of cardiovascular instability should improve outcomes. The rarity of occurrence and clinical curiosity of this entity suggest reporting of this unusual and possibly avoidable clinical event...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791865/executive-and-arousal-vigilance-decrement-in-the-context-of-the-attentional-networks-the-anti-vea-task
#2
Fernando Gabriel Luna, Julián Marino, Javier Roca, Juan Lupiáñez
BACKGROUND: Vigilance is generally understood as the ability to detect infrequent critical events through long time periods. In tasks like the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART), participants tend to detect fewer events across time, a phenomenon known as "vigilance decrement". However, vigilance might also involve sustaining a tonic arousal level. In the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), the vigilance decrement corresponds to an increment across time in both mean and variability of reaction time...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791042/behavioral-state-specific-neurons-in-the-mouse-medulla-involved-in-sleep-wake-switching
#3
K Sakai
The medullary reticular formation (RF) is involved in the maintenance of several vital physiological functions and level of vigilance. In the present study in non-anesthetized, head-fixed mice, I examined the role of medullary RF neurons in the control of sleep-wake states, i.e. wakefulness (W), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and paradoxical (or rapid eye movement) sleep (PS). I showed, for the first time, that the mouse medullary RF contains presumed SWS-promoting, SWS-on neurons that remain silent during W, display a sharp increase in discharge rate at sleep onset, and discharge tonically and selectively during SWS...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790961/increased-vulnerability-to-attentional-failure-during-acute-sleep-deprivation-in-women-depends-on-menstrual-phase
#4
Parisa Vidafar, Joshua J Gooley, Angus C Burns, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Melanie Rueger, Eliza Van Reen, Charles A Czeisler, Steven W Lockley, Sean W Cain
Study Objectives: Investigate sex differences in the effect of sleep deprivation on performance, accounting for menstrual phase in women. Methods: We examined alertness data from 124 healthy women and men (40 women, 84 men; aged 18 - 30 years) who maintained wakefulness for at least 30 hours in a laboratory setting using a constant routine protocol. Objective alertness was assessed every two hours using a 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Subjective alertness was assessed every hour via the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale...
May 22, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787953/public-perceptions-toward-mental-illness-in-japan
#5
Mami Kasahara-Kiritani, Tomoko Matoba, Saeko Kikuzawa, Junko Sakano, Katsumi Sugiyama, Chikako Yamaki, Mieko Mochizuki, Yoshihiko Yamazaki
AIM: The purpose was to characterize public perceptions in Japan of mental illness and how they related to stigma-related attitudes for the same. METHODS: Data were obtained using a vignette survey conducted as a part of the Stigma in Global Context - Mental Health Study and contained a nationally representative sample (n = 994). The survey was conducted using a multi-mode approach (face-to-face interviews, the drop-off-and-pick-up, postal collection) from September to December 2006, with a multi-stage probability sample of Japanese residents aged 18-64 years...
May 16, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784810/chronic-sleep-curtailment-even-without-extended-16-h-wakefulness-degrades-human-vigilance-performance
#6
Andrew W McHill, Joseph T Hull, Wei Wang, Charles A Czeisler, Elizabeth B Klerman
Millions of individuals routinely remain awake for more than 18 h daily, which causes performance decrements. It is unknown if these functional impairments are the result of that extended wakefulness or from the associated shortened sleep durations. We therefore examined changes in objective reaction time performance and subjective alertness in a 32-d inpatient protocol in which participants were scheduled to wakefulness durations below 16 h while on a 20-h "day," with randomization into standard sleep:wake ratio (1:2) or chronic sleep restriction (CSR) ratio (1:3...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784619/parental-touch-reduces-social-vigilance-in-children
#7
Eddie Brummelman, David Terburg, Miranda Smit, Susan M Bögels, Peter A Bos
The sense of touch develops in utero and enables parent-child communication from the earliest moments of life. Research shows that parental touch (e.g., licking and grooming in rats, skin-to-skin care in humans) has organizing effects on the offspring's stress system. Little is known, however, about the psychological effects of parental touch. Building on findings from ethology and psychology, we propose that parental touch-even as subtle as a touch on the shoulder-tells children that their environment is safe for exploration, thus reducing their social vigilance...
May 9, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784029/giant-honey-bee-apis-dorsata-sting-and-acute-limb-ischemia-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Gowri M Ratnayake, P N Weerathunga, Matharage Shani Apsara Dilrukshi, E W R Amara Witharana, Saroj Jayasinghe
BACKGROUND: Clinically significant manifestations of Hymenopteran envenomation is increasingly recognized in Sri Lanka. These clinical manifestations range from localized allergic reactions to end-organ failure and thrombotic-episodes. We report a case of 65 year old male who developed acute lower limb ischaemia after a sting of the hymenopteran Apis dorsata. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65 year old male with hypertension and hyperlipidaemia presented with envenomation from an attack of a swarm of A...
May 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784014/unintentional-sulfonylurea-toxicity-due-to-a-drug-drug-interaction-a-case-report
#9
Keith Gunaratne, Emily Austin, Peter E Wu
BACKGROUND: Sulfonylureas are widely used for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but these medications carry a risk of hypoglycemia. Drug-drug interactions that inhibit sulfonylurea metabolism and thus increase systemic exposure can cause unintentional sulfonylurea toxicity. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man presented with severe, recurrent hypoglycemia. He had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and was taking the sulfonylurea gliclazide with no prior episodes of hypoglycemia...
May 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783793/summary-of-u-s-injuries-and-fatalities-involving-entrapment-and-suffocation-in-grain-transport-vehicles
#10
Yuan-Hsin Cheng, William E Field, Salah F Issa, Kevin Kelley, Matthew Heber, Robert Turner
Since 1978, the Purdue University Agricultural Safety and Health Program has managed a surveillance effort and database to collect information on documented injuries and fatalities in all forms of U.S. agricultural confined spaces. The database currently contains 1,968 cases documented in the U.S. between 1964 and 2016. Of these cases, 174 (8.8%) involved entrapment or suffocation in grain transport vehicles (GTVs), including gravity-flow wagons, semi-truck trailers, and other agricultural transport vehicles that have limited access and are not considered normal work spaces or are classified as confined spaces...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782470/characterizing-abdominal-pain-in-patients-with-gastroparesis-into-neuropathic-and-nociceptive-components
#11
Asad Jehangir, Rany T Abdallah, Henry P Parkman
INTRODUCTION: The cause of abdominal pain (AP) in gastroparesis (Gp) is often not known; hence, its treatment can be challenging. Preoccupation with or increased attention (hypervigilance) to pain is associated with perceived pain severity and psychosocial disability. The aims of this study were to (1) characterize AP in Gp patients into neuropathic and nociceptive pain components; (2) assess these patients for hypervigilance to pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gp patients with AP as an important symptom, seen from June 2017 to November 2017 were given validated questionnaires to characterize their AP...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781592/stent-graft-induced-new-entry-sine-tears-after-type-b-aortic-dissection-how-to-treat-and-how-to-prevent
#12
Anne Burdess, Kevin Mani, Gustaf Tegler, Anders Wanhainen
Progress of aortic disease after stent graft treatment of aortic dissection includes the risk of Stent graft-Induced New Entry (SINE). In this paper we review the incidence and mechanisms thought to be responsible for retrograde ascending and distal SINE after TEVAR for Type B dissection, and examine potential techniques for treatment and prevention. Although the risk of proximal SINE is low, the fatality of this complication requires vigilance in patients who develop new onset symptoms in the early period after TEVAR treatment...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781061/performance-of-bi-2-o-3-tio-2-prepared-by-sol-gel-on-p-cresol-degradation-under-solar-and-visible-light
#13
Héctor H Vigil-Castillo, Aracely Hernández-Ramírez, Jorge L Guzmán-Mar, Norma A Ramos-Delgado, Minerva Villanueva-Rodríguez
Photocatalytic degradation of p-Cresol was evaluated using the mixed oxide Bi2 O3 /TiO2 (containing 2 and 20% wt. Bi2 O3 referred as TB2 and TB20) and was compared with bare TiO2 under simulated solar radiation. Materials were prepared by the classic sol-gel method. All solids exhibited the anatase phase by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The synthesized materials presented lower crystallite size and Eg value, and also higher surface area as Bi2 O3 amount was increased. Bi content was quantified showing near to 70% of theoretical values in TB2 and TB20...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779634/low-pretransplant-iga-level-is-associated-with-early-post-lung-transplant-seromucous-infection
#14
Sudish C Murthy, Robin K Avery, Marie Budev, Sandeep Gupta, Gösta B Pettersson, Edward R Nowicki, Atul Mehta, Jeffrey T Chapman, Jeevanantham Rajeswaran, Eugene H Blackstone
OBJECTIVES: Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Immunoglobulins are part of both seromucous (IgA) and serum (IgG) infection defense mechanisms. We therefore hypothesized that lower pretransplant IgA levels would be associated with more early post-lung transplant seromucous infections and greater mortality independent of IgG. METHODS: From January 2000 to July 2010, 538 patients undergoing primary lung transplantation had pretransplant IgA (n = 429) and IgG (n = 488) measured as a clinical routine...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779363/prognostic-factors-affecting-surgical-outcomes-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-external-auditory-canal
#15
Gi-Sung Nam, In Seok Moon, Ji Hyung Kim, Sung Huhn Kim, Jae Young Choi, Eun Jin Son
Objectives: Carcinomas of the external auditory canal (EAC) are rare, and management remains challenging. Previous studies seeking prognostic factors for EAC cancers included cancers other than carcinomas. In this study, we analyzed the treatment outcomes of, prognostic factors for, and survival rates associated with specifically squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the EAC. Methods: A retrospective review of 26 consecutive patients diagnosed with SCCs of the EAC in a 10-year period was performed in terms of clinical presentation, stage, choice of surgical procedure, and adjunct therapy...
May 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777842/nationally-representative-readmission-factors-in-patients-with-claudication-and-critical-limb-ischemia
#16
Rennier A Martinez, Michelle Shnayder, Joshua Parreco, Lukas Gaffney, Marcus Eby, Nicholas Cortolillo, Michael Lopez, Jack Zeltzer
INTRODUCTION: Hospital readmissions are not only associated with increased mortality, morbidity and costs but also, with current healthcare reform, tied to significant financial and administrative penalties. Some studies show that patients undergoing vascular surgery may have higher than average readmission rates. The recently released Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) is the most comprehensive national source of readmission data, gathering discharge information from 22 geographically dispersed states, accounting for 51...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776837/evaluation-of-massive-transfusion-protocol-practices-by-type-of-trauma-at-a-level-i-trauma-center
#17
Roshan Givergis, Swapna Munnangi, Katayoun Fayaz M Fomani, Anthony Boutin, Luis Carlos Zapata, Ld George Angus
PURPOSE: To evaluate massive transfusion protocol practices by trauma type at a level I trauma center. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on a sample of 76 trauma patients with MTP activation between March 2010 and January 2015 at a regional trauma center. Patient demographics, transfusion practices, and clinical outcomes were compared by type of trauma sustained. RESULTS: Penetrating trauma patients who required MTP activation were significantly younger, had lower injury severity score (ISS), higher probability of survival (POS), decreased mortality, and higher Glasgow Coma scale (GCS) compared to blunt trauma patients...
April 18, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776523/comparison-of-self-report-and-objective-measures-of-driving-behavior-and-road-safety-a-systematic-review
#18
Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Ioni Lewis, James Freeman
INTRODUCTION: This research systematically reviewed the existing literature in regards to studies which have used both self-report and objective measures of driving behavior. The objective of the current review was to evaluate disparities or similarities between self-report and objective measures of driving behavior. METHODS: Searches were undertaken in the following electronic databases, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus, for peer-reviewed full-text articles that (1) focused on road safety, and (2) compared both subjective and objective measures of driving performance or driver safety...
June 2018: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776002/the-chaos-of-hospitalisation-for-patients-with-critical-limb-ischaemia-approaching-major-amputation
#19
Susan Monaro, Sandra West, Jana Pinkova, Janice Gullick
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To illuminate the hospital experience for patients and families when major amputation has been advised for critical limb ischaemia (CLI). BACKGROUND: CLI creates significant burden to the health system and the family, particularly as the person with CLI approaches amputation. Major amputation is often offered as a late intervention for CLI in response to the marked deterioration of an ischaemic limb, and functional decline from reduced mobility, intractable pain, infection and/or toxaemia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775603/genetic-and-extracardiac-anomalies-are-associated-with-inferior-single-ventricle-palliation-outcomes
#20
Bahaaldin Alsoufi, Courtney McCracken, Matthew Oster, Subhadra Shashidharan, Kirk Kanter
BACKGROUND: We aim to examine the effect of genetic syndromes and extracardiac anomalies (GS/EC) on single ventricle (SV) palliation with focus on hospital death, interstage mortality, and progression towards subsequent palliation stages. METHODS: 530 neonates with SV underwent first-stage palliation: Norwood (n=284,53%), shunt (n=173,33%), band (n=73,14%). Outcomes were compared between those with GS/EC (n=121,23%) and without GS/EC (n=409,77%). Regression analyses were adjusted for other risk factors (age, gender, prematurity, weight, SV anomaly, first-stage palliation surgery)...
May 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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