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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406669/methodology-of-performance-scoring-in-the-d2-sustained-attention-test-cumulative-reliability-functions-and-practical-guidelines
#1
Michael B Steinborn, Robert Langner, Hagen C Flehmig, Lynn Huestegge
We provide a psychometric analysis of commonly used performance indices of the d2 sustained-attention test, and give methodical guidelines and recommendations, based on this research. We examined experimental effects of repeated testing on performance speed and accuracy (omission and commission errors), and further evaluated aspects of test reliability by means of cumulative reliability function (CRF) analysis. These aspects were also examined for a number of alternative (yet commonly used) scoring techniques and valuation methods...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400244/the-interconnection-of-mental-fatigue-and-aging-an-eeg-study
#2
Stefan Arnau, Tina Möckel, Gerhard Rinkenauer, Edmund Wascher
Mental fatigue, a state of reduced alertness and decreased overall performance due to prolonged cognitive activity, is a major cause for a large number of accidents in traffic and industry. Against the background of an aging workforce, the investigation of the interconnection of mental fatigue and aging is of great practical relevance. In the present study, a group of younger and a group of older adults performed a cognitive task for 3h. The experimental design also comprised breaks with various durations. Beside behavioral data, the spectral properties of the ongoing EEG with respect to time on task and breaks were analyzed...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378886/when-i-say-%C3%A2-time-on-task
#3
Jimmie Leppink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328113/functional-equivalence-of-sleep-loss-and-time-on-task-effects-in-sustained-attention
#4
Bella Z Veksler, Glenn Gunzelmann
Research on sleep loss and vigilance both focus on declines in cognitive performance, but theoretical accounts have developed largely in parallel in these two areas. In addition, computational instantiations of theoretical accounts are rare. The current work uses computational modeling to explore whether the same mechanisms can account for the effects of both sleep loss and time on task on performance. A classic task used in the sleep deprivation literature, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), was extended from the typical 10-min duration to 35 min, to make the task similar in duration to traditional vigilance tasks...
March 22, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257928/the-effects-of-a-mid-task-break-on-the-brain-connectome-in-healthy-participants-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#5
Yu Sun, Julian Lim, Zhongxiang Dai, KianFoong Wong, Fumihiko Taya, Yu Chen, Junhua Li, Nitish Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos
Although rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce mental fatigue and boost cognitive performance, the effects of taking a break on behavior are not consistent. Moreover, our understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of rest breaks and how they modulate mental fatigue is still rudimentary. In this study, we investigated the effects of receiving a rest break on the topological properties of brain connectivity networks via a two-session experimental paradigm, in which one session comprised four successive blocks of a mentally demanding visual selective attention task (No-rest session), whereas the other contained a rest break between the second and third task blocks (Rest session)...
February 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166869/effects-of-platooning-on-signal-detection-performance-workload-and-stress-a-driving-simulator-study
#6
Daniël D Heikoop, Joost C F de Winter, Bart van Arem, Neville A Stanton
Platooning, whereby automated vehicles travel closely together in a group, is attractive in terms of safety and efficiency. However, concerns exist about the psychological state of the platooning driver, who is exempted from direct control, yet remains responsible for monitoring the outside environment to detect potential threats. By means of a driving simulator experiment, we investigated the effects on recorded and self-reported measures of workload and stress for three task-instruction conditions: (1) No Task, in which participants had to monitor the road, (2) Voluntary Task, in which participants could do whatever they wanted, and (3) Detection Task, in which participants had to detect red cars...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121286/precision-dependent-changes-in-motor-variability-during-sustained-bimanual-reaching
#7
Alessia Longo, Ruud Meulenbroek
Movement variability of the upper limb was investigated using a bimanual Fitts' task. Participants tapped rhythmically between target-pairs of different Index of Difficulties (ID) for three intervals of 20 min each. We studied the effects of ID and time-on-task on movement time, end-point variability, approximate entropy and standard deviation of relative phase. Lower ID and time-on-task caused decreasing movement time and increasing end-point variability. Moreover, standard deviation of relative phase and approximate entropy moderately increased...
January 25, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116761/assessing-the-benefits-of-napping-and-short-rest-breaks-on-processing-speed-in-sleep-restricted-adolescents
#8
Julian Lim, June C Lo, Michael W L Chee
Achievement-oriented adolescents often study long hours under conditions of chronic sleep restriction, adversely affecting cognitive function. Here, we studied how napping and rest breaks (interleaved off-task periods) might ameliorate the negative effects of sleep restriction on processing speed. Fifty-seven healthy adolescents (26 female, age = 15-19 years) participated in a 15-day live-in protocol. All participants underwent sleep restriction (5 h time-in-bed), but were then randomized into two groups: one of these groups received a daily 1-h nap opportunity...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060276/the-rodent-psychomotor-vigilance-test-rpvt-a-method-for-assessing-neurobehavioral-performance-in-rats-and-mice
#9
Catherine M Davis, Peter G Roma, Robert D Hienz
The human Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) is a widely used procedure for measuring changes in fatigue and sustained attention. The present article describes a rodent version of the PVT-termed the "rPVT"-that measures similar aspects of attention (i.e., performance accuracy, motor speed, premature responding, and lapses in attention). Data are presented that demonstrate both the short- and long-term usefulness of the rPVT when employed with laboratory rats. Rats easily learn the rPVT, and learning to perform the basic procedure takes less than two weeks of training...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017818/neural-cascade-of-conflict-processing-not-just-time-on-task
#10
Cameron C McKay, Berry van den Berg, Marty G Woldorff
In visual conflict tasks (e.g., Stroop or flanker), response times (RTs) are generally longer on incongruent trials relative to congruent ones. Two event-related-potential (ERP) components classically associated with the processing of stimulus conflict are the fronto-central, incongruency-related negativity (Ninc) and the posterior late-positive complex (LPC), which are derived from the ERP difference waves for incongruent minus congruent trials. It has been questioned, however, whether these effects, or other neural measures of incongruency (e...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881121/knowledge-is-not-enough-to-solve-the-problems-the-role-of-diagnostic-knowledge-in-clinical-reasoning-activities
#11
Jan Kiesewetter, Rene Ebersbach, Nike Tsalas, Matthias Holzer, Ralf Schmidmaier, Martin R Fischer
BACKGROUND: Clinical reasoning is a key competence in medicine. There is a lack of knowledge, how non-experts like medical students solve clinical problems. It is known that they have difficulties applying conceptual knowledge to clinical cases, that they lack metacognitive awareness and that higher level cognitive actions correlate with diagnostic accuracy. However, the role of conceptual, strategic, conditional, and metacognitive knowledge for clinical reasoning is unknown. METHODS: Medical students (n = 21) were exposed to three different clinical cases and instructed to use the think-aloud method...
November 24, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878205/iterative-development-and-evaluation-of-a-pharmacogenomic-guided-clinical-decision-support-system-for-warfarin-dosing
#12
Brittany L Melton, Alan J Zillich, Jason Saleem, Alissa L Russ, James E Tisdale, Brian R Overholser
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacogenomic-guided dosing has the potential to improve patient outcomes but its implementation has been met with clinical challenges. Our objective was to develop and evaluate a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for pharmacogenomic-guided warfarin dosing designed for physicians and pharmacists. METHODS: Twelve physicians and pharmacists completed 6 prescribing tasks using simulated patient scenarios in two iterations (development and validation phases) of a newly developed pharmacogenomic-driven CDSS prototype...
November 23, 2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811953/spatiotemporal-neurodynamics-of-automatic-temporal-expectancy-in-9-month-old-infants
#13
Giovanni Mento, Eloisa Valenza
Anticipating events occurrence (Temporal Expectancy) is a crucial capacity for survival. Yet, there is little evidence about the presence of cortical anticipatory activity from infancy. In this study we recorded the High-density electrophysiological activity in 9 month-old infants and adults undergoing an audio-visual S1-S2 paradigm simulating a lifelike "Peekaboo" game inducing automatic temporal expectancy of smiling faces. The results indicate in the S2-preceding Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) an early electrophysiological signature of expectancy-based anticipatory cortical activity...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803024/directly-comparing-handoff-protocols-for-pediatric-hospitalists
#14
Elizabeth H Lazzara, Robert Riss, Brady Patzer, Dustin C Smith, Y Raymond Chan, Joseph R Keebler, Sarah D Fouquet, Evan M Palmer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Handoff protocols are often developed by brainstorming and consensus, and few are directly compared. We hypothesized that a handoff protocol (Flex 11) developed using a rigorous methodology would be more favorable in terms of clinicians' attitudes, behaviors, cognitions, or time-on-task when performing handoffs compared with a prevalent protocol (Situation Background Assessment Recommendation [SBAR]). METHODS: Using a between-groups, randomized control trial design (Flex 11 versus SBAR) during a pilot study in a simulated environment, 20 clinicians (13 attending physicians and 7 residents) received 3 patient handoffs from a standardized physician, managed the patients, and handed off the patients to the same standardized physician...
December 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793791/natural-language-processing-enabled-and-conventional-data-capture-methods-for-input-to-electronic-health-records-a-comparative-usability-study
#15
David R Kaufman, Barbara Sheehan, Peter Stetson, Ashish R Bhatt, Adele I Field, Chirag Patel, James Mark Maisel
BACKGROUND: The process of documentation in electronic health records (EHRs) is known to be time consuming, inefficient, and cumbersome. The use of dictation coupled with manual transcription has become an increasingly common practice. In recent years, natural language processing (NLP)-enabled data capture has become a viable alternative for data entry. It enables the clinician to maintain control of the process and potentially reduce the documentation burden. The question remains how this NLP-enabled workflow will impact EHR usability and whether it can meet the structured data and other EHR requirements while enhancing the user's experience...
October 28, 2016: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768778/pupil-diameter-tracks-lapses-of-attention
#16
Ruud L van den Brink, Peter R Murphy, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708612/counteracting-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-right-parietal-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#17
Katrin Hanken, Mona Bosse, Kim Möhrke, Paul Eling, Andreas Kastrup, Andrea Antal, Helmut Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time (RT) and errors with prolonged time-on-task. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. METHODS: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697552/driving-performance-and-eeg-fluctuations-during-on-the-road-driving-following-sleep-deprivation
#18
J Perrier, S Jongen, E Vuurman, M L Bocca, J G Ramaekers, A Vermeeren
The present study mainly aimed to assess whether and how sleepiness due to sleep deprivation interacts with Time on Task (ToT) effects both on electroencephalography (EEG) measures and driving performance in real driving conditions. Healthy participants performed a one hour on-the-road monotonous highway driving task while EEG was recorded continuously after one night of normal sleep and after one night of total sleep deprivation. The main outcome parameter in the highway driving test was the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP)...
September 30, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635122/cognitive-fatigue-influences-time-on-task-during-bodyweight-resistance-training-exercise
#19
James R Head, Matthew S Tenan, Andrew J Tweedell, Thomas F Price, Michael E LaFiandra, William S Helton
Prior investigations have shown measurable performance impairments on continuous physical performance tasks when preceded by a cognitively fatiguing task. However, the effect of cognitive fatigue on bodyweight resistance training exercise task performance is unknown. In the current investigation 18 amateur athletes completed a full body exercise task preceded by either a cognitive fatiguing or control intervention. In a randomized repeated measure design, each participant completed the same exercise task preceded by a 52 min cognitively fatiguing intervention (vigilance) or control intervention (video)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633197/design-of-instructions-for-evacuating-disabled-adults
#20
Michael W Boyce, Janan Al-Awar Smither, Daniel O Fisher, P A Hancock
We investigated how the design of instructions can affect performance in preparing emergency stair travel devices for the evacuation of disable individuals. We had three hypotheses: 1) Design of instructions would account for a significant portion of explained performance variance, 2) Improvements in design of instructions would reduce time on task across device type and age group, and 3) There would be a performance decrement for older adults compared to younger adults based on the slowing of older adult information processing abilities...
January 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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