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Time-on-task

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129668/characterization-of-actions-taken-during-the-delivery-of-medication-therapy-management-a-time-and-motion-approach
#1
Alice C Chang, Jutieh Lincoln, Wendy M Lantaff, Stephanie A Gernant, Heather A Jaynes, William Doucette, Margie E Snyder
OBJECTIVES: To characterize actions performed by pharmacists and support staff during provision of medication therapy management (MTM) and to compare actions performed according to practice characteristics. METHODS: A purposeful sample of 7 MTM practices (2 call centers and 5 community practices) was identified and visited by investigators. Pharmacists and support staff were observed during their routine provision of MTM. Investigators characterized "major" (e.g...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127776/working-memory-capacity-and-intra-individual-variability-of-proactive-control
#2
Elizabeth A Wiemers, Thomas S Redick
Two datasets of 110 young adults were examined to investigate the relationship between individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) and dynamic cognitive control. The results delve into the specific differences between high- and low-WMC individuals' ability to enact and maintain cognitive control using the AX version of the continuous performance test (AX-CPT). Compared to high-WMC individuals, low-WMC individuals: (a) made more errors, specifically to AX targets; (b) exhibited a partial shift to proactive control with more time-on-task; (c) had more exaggerated slower AX target responses in the tail of the response time distribution; and (d) were equally likely to adjust control after conflict...
November 8, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061491/neural-mechanisms-of-mental-fatigue-elicited-by-sustained-auditory-processing
#3
Travis M Moore, Alexandra P Key, Antonia Thelen, Benjamin W Y Hornsby
Despite growing evidence that prolonged episodes of effortful listening can lead to mental fatigue, little work has been done to examine the patterns of brain activation associated with listening over time. In order to gain a better understanding of the nature of listening-related mental fatigue, this study characterized the effects of sustained auditory processing on brain activation in 19 adults with normal hearing. A 50-min, auditory choice paradigm served as the fatiguing task. Mental fatigue was quantified using subjective (self-report) and behavioral (response time and accuracy) measures, as well as event-related potential (ERP) measures indexing motivation (error-related negativity; ERN) and general arousal (N1)...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029252/time-on-task-effect-during-sleep-deprivation-in-healthy-young-adults-is-modulated-by-dopamine-transporter-genotype
#4
Brieann C Satterfield, Jonathan P Wisor, Michelle A Schmidt, Hans P A Van Dongen
Study Objectives: The time-on-task (TOT) effect and total sleep deprivation (TSD) have similar effects on neurobehavioral functioning, including increased performance instability during tasks requiring sustained attention. The TOT effect is exacerbated by TSD, suggesting potentially overlapping mechanisms. We probed these mechanisms by investigating genotype-phenotype relationships on psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) performance for three a-priori selected genes previously linked to the TOT effect and/or TSD: DAT1, COMT, and TNFα...
October 4, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027071/the-brain-s-reward-response-occurs-even-without-actual-reward
#5
A Fielding, Y Fu, E A Franz
What if the brain's response to reward occurs even when there is no reward? Wouldn't that be a further concern for people prone to problem gambling and other forms of addiction, like those related to eating? Electroencephalography was employed to investigate this possibility using probabilistic feedback manipulations and measures of known event-related potentials (ERPs) related to reward processing. We tested the hypothesis-that reward-based ERPs would occur even in the absence of a tangible reward and when manipulations on expectation are implicit...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947237/neuropsychological-effects-of-occupational-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#6
B Fimm, W Sturm, A Esser, T Schettgen, K Willmes, J Lang, P M Gaum, T Kraus
In the context of a health surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a transformer and capacitor recycling company in Germany, their family members, employees of surrounding companies and area residents a broad range of cognitive functions covering attention, executive processing, reasoning, memory and motor performance was examined. The study aimed at identifying potential adverse effects of PCB load on cognitive functions. Detailed analysis of PCB burden of the participants revealed rather high correlations of lower and higher chlorinated as well as dioxin-like PCBs...
September 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921043/slow-wave-activity-and-executive-dysfunction-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing
#7
Jessica A Christiansz, Chloe R Lappin, Aidan J Weichard, Gillian M Nixon, Margot J Davey, Rosemary S C Horne, Sarah N Biggs
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine slow wave activity (SWA), a marker of homeostatic regulation, as a potential mechanism linking sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with executive dysfunction in children. METHODS: Executive function domains of working memory, spatial planning, information processing, and sustained attention were assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) in children (N = 40; 5-12 years) referred for clinical diagnosis of SDB...
September 18, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865286/the-influence-of-time-on-task-on-mind-wandering-and-visual-working-memory
#8
Marissa Krimsky, Daniel E Forster, Maria M Llabre, Amishi P Jha
Working memory relies on executive resources for successful task performance, with higher demands necessitating greater resource engagement. In addition to mnemonic demands, prior studies suggest that internal sources of distraction, such as mind wandering (i.e., having off-task thoughts) and greater time on task, may tax executive resources. Herein, the consequences of mnemonic demand, mind wandering, and time on task were investigated during a visual working memory task. Participants (N=143) completed a delayed-recognition visual working memory task, with mnemonic load for visual objects manipulated across trials (1 item=low load; 2 items=high load) and subjective mind wandering assessed intermittently throughout the experiment using a self-report Likert-type scale (1=on-task, 6=off-task)...
December 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830703/brief-periods-of-nrem-sleep-do-not-promote-early-offline-gains-but-subsequent-on-task-performance-in-motor-skill-learning
#9
Jonathan G Maier, Hannah Piosczyk, Johannes Holz, Nina Landmann, Christoph Deschler, Lukas Frase, Marion Kuhn, Stefan Klöppel, Kai Spiegelhalder, Annette Sterr, Dieter Riemann, Bernd Feige, Ulrich Voderholzer, Christoph Nissen
Sleep modulates motor learning, but its detailed impact on performance curves remains to be fully characterized. This study aimed to further determine the impact of brief daytime periods of NREM sleep on 'offline' (task discontinuation after initial training) and 'on-task' (performance within the test session) changes in motor skill performance (finger tapping task). In a mixed design (combined parallel group and repeated measures) sleep laboratory study (n=17 'active' wake vs. sleep, n=19 'passive' wake vs...
August 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792946/is-intraindividual-reaction-time-variability-an-independent-cognitive-predictor-of-mortality-in-old-age-findings-from-the-sydney-memory-and-ageing-study
#10
Nicole A Kochan, David Bunce, Sarah Pont, John D Crawford, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
Intraindividual variability of reaction time (IIVRT), a proposed cognitive marker of neurobiological disturbance, increases in old age, and has been associated with dementia and mortality. The extent to which IIVRT is an independent predictor of mortality, however, is unclear. This study investigated the association of IIVRT and all-cause mortality while accounting for cognitive level, incident dementia and biomedical risk factors in 861 participants aged 70-90 from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Participants completed two computerised reaction time (RT) tasks (76 trials in total) at baseline, and comprehensive medical and neuropsychological assessments every 2 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771087/when-comprehension-elicits-incomprehension-deterioration-of-semantic-categorisation-in-the-absence-of-stimulus-repetition
#11
Upasana Nathaniel, Hannah E Thompson, Emma Davies, Dominic Arnold, Glyn Hallam, Sara Stampacchia, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Repetition improves retrieval from memory; however, under some circumstances, it can also impair performance. Separate literatures have investigated this phenomenon, including studies showing subjective loss of meaning following "semantic satiation", slowed naming and categorisation when semantically-related items are repeated, and semantic "access deficits" in aphasia. Such effects have been variously explained in terms of habituation of repeatedly-accessed representations, increased interference from strongly activated competitors, and longer-term weight changes reflecting the suppression of non-targets on earlier trials (i...
August 3, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739542/a-cluster-randomized-control-trial-to-assess-the-impact-of-active-learning-on-child-activity-attention-control-and-academic-outcomes-the-texas-i-can-trial
#12
John B Bartholomew, Esbelle M Jowers, Vanessa L Errisuriz, Sharon Vaughn, Gregory Roberts
BACKGROUND: Active learning is designed to pair physical activity with the teaching of academic content. This has been shown to be a successful strategy to increase physical activity and improve academic performance. The existing designs have confounded academic lessons with physical activity. As a result, it is impossible to determine if the subsequent improvement in academic performance is due to: (1) physical activity, (2) the academic content of the active learning, or (3) the combination of academic material taught through physical activity...
October 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715711/sustained-attention-ability-in-schizophrenia-investigation-of-conflict-monitoring-mechanisms
#13
Marc Hoonakker, Nadège Doignon-Camus, José Eduardo Marques-Carneiro, Anne Bonnefond
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of the current study was to assess, with a time-on-task approach, sustained attention ability in schizophrenia, and to investigate conflict monitoring underlying this ability. METHODS: Behavioral and event-related potentials data (N2 and P3a amplitudes) were recorded in a long-lasting sustained attention Go/NoGo task (sustained attention to response task, SART), over a period of 30min, in 29 patients with schizophrenia and 29 pair-matched healthy subjects...
September 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690558/blue-enriched-white-light-enhances-physiological-arousal-but-not-behavioral-performance-during-simulated-driving-at-early-night
#14
Beatriz Rodríguez-Morilla, Juan A Madrid, Enrique Molina, Angel Correa
Vigilance usually deteriorates over prolonged driving at non-optimal times of day. Exposure to blue-enriched light has shown to enhance arousal, leading to behavioral benefits in some cognitive tasks. However, the cognitive effects of long-wavelength light have been less studied and its effects on driving performance remained to be addressed. We tested the effects of a blue-enriched white light (BWL) and a long-wavelength orange light (OL) vs. a control condition of dim light on subjective, physiological and behavioral measures at 21:45 h...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662176/a-new-perspective-on-the-interplay-between-self-control-and-cognitive-performance-modeling-progressive-depletion-patterns
#15
Christoph Lindner, Gabriel Nagy, Wolfgang Andreas Ramos Arhuis, Jan Retelsdorf
Exerting self-control in a first task weakens self-control performance in a subsequent unrelated task (ego depletion). In self-control research new strategies are required to investigate the ego-depletion effect, which has recently been shown to be more fragile than previously assumed. Moreover, the relation between ego depletion and trait self-control is still unclear, as various studies have reported heterogeneous findings concerning the interplay of both variables. We addressed these lacunas by drawing on a sample of N = 120 students, who participated in two test sessions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632013/task-demands-in-osces-influence-learning-strategies
#16
Alexandre Lafleur, Jonathan Laflamme, Jimmie Leppink, Luc Côté
THEORY: Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis")...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614194/impact-of-three-years-of-classroom-physical-activity-bouts-on-time-on-task-behavior
#17
Amanda N Szabo-Reed, Erik A Willis, Jaehoon Lee, Charles H Hillman, Richard A Washburn, Joseph E Donnelly
Participation in classroom physical activity (PA) may improve time-on-task (TOT); however, the influence of sustained moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) on TOT is unknown. PURPOSE: To explore the influence of classroom PA delivered with academic lessons on TOT, determine if the relationship between classroom PA and TOT differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight or baseline fitness, and identify the influence of MVPA on TOT when controlling for demographic variables. METHODS: Teachers in intervention schools were asked to deliver two 10-min PA lessons per day, 5 d·wk...
November 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611575/ica-derived-eeg-correlates-to-mental-fatigue-effort-and-workload-in-a-realistically-simulated-air-traffic-control-task
#18
Deepika Dasari, Guofa Shou, Lei Ding
Electroencephalograph (EEG) has been increasingly studied to identify distinct mental factors when persons perform cognitively demanding tasks. However, most of these studies examined EEG correlates at channel domain, which suffers the limitation that EEG signals are the mixture of multiple underlying neuronal sources due to the volume conduction effect. Moreover, few studies have been conducted in real-world tasks. To precisely probe EEG correlates with specific neural substrates to mental factors in real-world tasks, the present study examined EEG correlates to three mental factors, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597322/sustained-attention-to-a-predictable-unengaging-go-no-go-task-shows-ongoing-development-between-6-and-11%C3%A2-years
#19
Frances C Lewis, Robert A Reeve, Simon P Kelly, Katherine A Johnson
Response time variability (RTV) is a useful measure of sustained attention; however, little is known about developmental changes in RTV at different temporal frequencies. Thirty-five 6-year-olds, 31 8-year-olds, and 37 10-year-olds completed the fixed-sequence Sustained Attention to Response Task on three occasions, six months apart. Fast Fourier Transform and ex-Gaussian analyses of response time (RT) data assessed momentary fluctuations in RT, gradual changes in RT, and very long responses, thought to reflect attentional control fluctuations, slow-shifting arousal, and infrequent lapses in attention, respectively...
June 8, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562199/delivery-of-community-based-palliative-care-findings-from-a-time-and-motion-study
#20
Nrupen A Bhavsar, Kate Bloom, Jonathan Nicolla, Callie Gable, Abby Goodman, Andrew Olson, Matthew Harker, Janet Bull, Donald H Taylor
BACKGROUND: Use of palliative care has increased substantially as the population ages and as evidence for its benefits grows. However, there is limited information regarding which care activities are necessary for delivering high-quality, interdisciplinary, community-based palliative care. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify and measure the discrete clinical and administrative activities completed by a multidisciplinary team in a hospice provider-led model for providing community-based palliative care...
October 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
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