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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773755/expectations-do-not-alter-early-sensory-processing-during-perceptual-decision-making
#1
Nuttida Rungratsameetaweemana, Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Annalisa Salazar, John T Serences
Two factors play an important role in shaping perception: the allocation of selective attention to behaviorally relevant sensory features, and prior expectations about regularities in the environment. Signal detection theory proposes distinct roles of attention and expectation on decision-making such that attention modulates early sensory processing whereas expectation influences the selection and execution of motor responses. Challenging this classic framework, recent studies suggest that expectations about sensory regularities enhance the encoding and accumulation of sensory evidence during decision-making...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686384/on-the-role-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-fatigue-effects-on-cognitive-flexibility-a-system-neurophysiological-approach
#2
Vanessa A Petruo, Moritz Mückschel, Christian Beste
Demanding tasks like cognitive flexibility show time-related deterioration of performance (i.e. fatigability effects). Fatigability has been associated with structural and functional properties of the prefrontal cortex. However, the electrophysiological underpinnings of these processes are not well understood. We examined n = 34 healthy participants with a task switching paradigm in which switches were either signaled by cues or needed to be maintained by working memory processes. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) and performed residue iteration decomposition (RIDE) to account for effects of fatigue on intra-individual variability of neurophysiological data...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642849/impact-of-brain-arousal-and-time-on-task-on-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-in-the-wake-sleep-transition
#3
Jue Huang, Christine Ulke, Christian Sander, Philippe Jawinski, Janek Spada, Ulrich Hegerl, Tilman Hensch
BACKGROUND: Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity has been shown to vary with the state of brain arousal. In a previous study, this association of ANS activity with distinct states of brain arousal was demonstrated using 15-min EEG data, but without directly controlling for possible time-on-task effects. In the current study we examine ANS-activity in fine-graded EEG-vigilance stages (indicating states of brain arousal) during two conditions of a 2-h oddball task while controlling for time-on-task...
April 11, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629186/systematic-review-of-acute-physically-active-learning-and-classroom-movement-breaks-on-children-s-physical-activity-cognition-academic-performance-and-classroom-behaviour-understanding-critical-design-features
#4
Andy J Daly-Smith, Stephen Zwolinsky, Jim McKenna, Phillip D Tomporowski, Margaret Anne Defeyter, Andrew Manley
Objective: To examine the impact of acute classroom movement break (CMB) and physically active learning (PAL) interventions on physical activity (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, Education Resources Information Center, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, SCOPUS and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: Studies investigating school-based acute bouts of CMB or PAL on (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627585/cardiovascular-correlates-of-emotional-state-cognitive-workload-and-time-on-task-effect-during-a-realistic-flight-simulation
#5
Antonio R Hidalgo-Muñoz, Damien Mouratille, Nadine Matton, Mickaël Causse, Yves Rouillard, Radouane El-Yagoubi
In aviation, emotion and cognitive workload can considerably increase the probability of human error. An accurate online physiological monitoring of pilot's mental state could prevent accidents. The heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) of 21 private pilots were analysed during two realistic flight simulator scenarios. Emotion was manipulated by a social stressor and cognitive workload with the difficulty of a secondary task. Our results confirmed the sensitivity of the HR to cognitive demand and training effects, with increased HR when the task was more difficult and decreased HR with training (time-on-task)...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610113/the-association-between-technology-use-and-health-status-in-a-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-cohort-multi-method-study
#6
Matthew Witry, Alejandro Comellas, Jacob Simmering, Philip Polgreen
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine and electronic health (eHealth) interventions have been proposed to improve management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for patients between traditional clinic and hospital visits to reduce complications. However, the effectiveness of such interventions may depend on patients' comfort with technology. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe the relationship between patient demographics and COPD disease severity and the use of communication-related technology...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601889/sleep-deprivation-increases-the-costs-of-attentional-effort-performance-preference-and-pupil-size
#7
Stijn A A Massar, Julian Lim, Karen Sasmita, Michael W L Chee
Sleep deprivation (SD) consistently degrades performance in tasks requiring sustained attention, resulting in slower and more variable response times that worsen with time-on-task. Loss of motivation to exert effort may exacerbate performance degradation during SD. To test this, we evaluated sustained performance on a vigilance task, combining this with an effort-based decision-making task and pupillometry. Vigilance was tested at rest and after sleep deprivation, under different incentive conditions (1, 5 or 15 cents for fast responses)...
March 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562338/development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-user-interface-for-reviewing-clinical-microbiology-results
#8
Adam Wright, Pamela M Neri, Skye Aaron, Thu-Trang T Hickman, Francine L Maloney, Daniel A Solomon, Dustin McEvoy, Angela Ai, Kevin Kron, Gianna Zuccotti
Background: Microbiology laboratory results are complex and cumbersome to review. We sought to develop a new review tool to improve the ease and accuracy of microbiology results review. Methods: We observed and informally interviewed clinicians to determine areas in which existing microbiology review tools were lacking. We developed a new tool that reorganizes microbiology results by time and organism. We conducted a scenario-based usability evaluation to compare the new tool to existing legacy tools, using a balanced block design...
March 17, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559936/relationship-of-event-related-potentials-to-the-vigilance-decrement
#9
Ashley Haubert, Matt Walsh, Rachel Boyd, Megan Morris, Megan Wiedbusch, Mike Krusmark, Glenn Gunzelmann
Cognitive fatigue emerges in wide-ranging tasks and domains, but traditional vigilance tasks provide a well-studied context in which to explore the mechanisms underlying it. Though a variety of experimental methodologies have been used to investigate cognitive fatigue in vigilance, relatively little research has utilized electroencephalography (EEG), specifically event-related potentials (ERPs), to explore the nature of cognitive fatigue, also known as the vigilance decrement. Moreover, much of the research that has been done on vigilance and ERPs uses non-traditional vigilance paradigms, limiting generalizability to the established body of behavioral results and corresponding theories...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513611/driver-vigilance-in-automated-vehicles-hazard-detection-failures-are-a-matter-of-time
#10
Eric T Greenlee, Patricia R DeLucia, David C Newton
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether monitoring the roadway for hazards during automated driving results in a vigilance decrement. BACKGROUND: Although automated vehicles are relatively novel, the nature of human-automation interaction within them has the classic hallmarks of a vigilance task. Drivers must maintain attention for prolonged periods of time to detect and respond to rare and unpredictable events, for example, roadway hazards that automation may be ill equipped to detect...
June 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490538/how-to-tell-a-patient-s-story-influence-of-the-case-narrative-design-on-the-clinical-reasoning-process-in-virtual-patients
#11
Inga Hege, Anita Dietl, Jan Kiesewetter, Jörg Schelling, Isabel Kiesewetter
BACKGROUND: Virtual patients (VPs) are narrative-based educational activities to train clinical reasoning in a safe environment. Our aim was to explore the influence of the design of the narrative and level of difficulty on the clinical reasoning process, diagnostic accuracy and time-on-task. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we analyzed the clinical reasoning process of 46 medical students with six VPs in three different variations: (1) patients showing a friendly behavior, (2) patients showing a disruptive behavior and (3) a version without a patient story...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474851/active-learning-improves-on-task-behaviors-in-4th-grade-children
#12
J B Bartholomew, N M Golaszewski, E Jowers, E Korinek, G Roberts, A Fall, S Vaughn
While increased opportunities for physical activity (PA) are a critical, public health need for children, school-based interventions often place teachers in the position to choose between PA and time spent on academic lessons. Active learning is designed to overcome this by combining PA with academic material. Moreover, teachers are likely to be more responsive to change in academic-related outcomes than in PA. This study utilizes a large, cluster randomized control trial in which student attention, or time on task (TOT) and accelerometer-based PA is assessed in conjunction with active learning...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435913/validating-a-visual-version-of-the-metronome-response-task
#13
Patrick Laflamme, Paul Seli, Daniel Smilek
The metronome response task (MRT)-a sustained-attention task that requires participants to produce a response in synchrony with an audible metronome-was recently developed to index response variability in the context of studies on mind wandering. In the present studies, we report on the development and validation of a visual version of the MRT (the visual metronome response task; vMRT), which uses the rhythmic presentation of visual, rather than auditory, stimuli. Participants completed the vMRT (Studies 1 and 2) and the original (auditory-based) MRT (Study 2) while also responding to intermittent thought probes asking them to report the depth of their mind wandering...
February 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396509/stationary-gaze-entropy-predicts-lane-departure-events-in-sleep-deprived-drivers
#14
Brook A Shiferaw, Luke A Downey, Justine Westlake, Bronwyn Stevens, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, David J Berlowitz, Phillip Swann, Mark E Howard
Performance decrement associated with sleep deprivation is a leading contributor to traffic accidents and fatalities. While current research has focused on eye blink parameters as physiological indicators of driver drowsiness, little is understood of how gaze behaviour alters as a result of sleep deprivation. In particular, the effect of sleep deprivation on gaze entropy has not been previously examined. In this randomised, repeated measures study, 9 (4 male, 5 female) healthy participants completed two driving sessions in a fully instrumented vehicle (1 after a night of sleep deprivation and 1 after normal sleep) on a closed track, during which eye movement activity and lane departure events were recorded...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360609/a-model-based-quantification-of-action-control-deficits-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Mathieu Servant, Nelleke van Wouwe, Scott A Wylie, Gordon D Logan
Basal ganglia dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is thought to generate deficits in action control, but the characterization of these deficits have been qualitative rather than quantitative. Patients with PD typically show prolonged response times on tasks that instantiate a conflict between goal-directed processing and automatic response tendencies. In the Simon task, for example, the irrelevant location of the stimulus automatically activates a corresponding lateralized response, generating a potential conflict with goal-directed choices...
March 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356975/electrophysiological-and-behavioral-effects-of-frontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-cognitive-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Marina Fiene, Katharina S Rufener, Maria Kuehne, Mike Matzke, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms affecting patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sustained cognitive effort induces cognitive fatigue, operationalized as subjective exhaustion and fatigue-related objective alertness decrements with time-on-task. During prolonged cognitive testing, MS patients show increased simple reaction times (RT) accompanied by lower amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the P300 event-related potential. Previous studies suggested a major role of structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal cortex including a frontal hypo-activation in fatigue pathogenesis...
March 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346084/effects-of-the-road-environment-on-the-development-of-driver-sleepiness-in-young-male-drivers
#17
Christer Ahlström, Anna Anund, Carina Fors, Torbjörn Åkerstedt
Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment...
March 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334237/safety-of-working-patterns-among-uk-neuroradiologists-what-can-we-learn-from-the-aviation-industry-and-cognitive-science
#18
John Reicher, Stuart Currie, Daniel Birchall
As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to strike the necessary balance between achieving satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities...
April 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196429/engaging-undergraduate-biology-students-in-scientific-modeling-analysis-of-group-interactions-sense-making-and-justification
#19
Andrea M-K Bierema, Christina V Schwarz, Jon R Stoltzfus
National calls for improving science education (e.g., Vision and Change ) emphasize the need to learn disciplinary core ideas through scientific practices. To address this need, we engaged small groups of students in developing diagrammatic models within two (one large-enrollment and one medium-enrollment) undergraduate introductory biology courses. During these activities, students developed scientific models of biological phenomena such as enhanced growth in genetically modified fish. To investigate whether undergraduate students productively engaged in scientific practices during these modeling activities, we recorded groups of students as they developed models and examined three characteristics: how students 1) interacted with one another, 2) made sense of phenomena, and 3) justified their ideas...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180544/dynamic-electronic-health-record-note-prototype-seeing-more-by-showing-less
#20
Jeffery L Belden, Richelle J Koopman, Sonal J Patil, Nathan J Lowrance, Gregory F Petroski, Jamie B Smith
INTRODUCTION: Cluttered documentation may contribute adversely to physician readers' cognitive load, inadvertently obscuring high-value information with less valuable information. We test the hypothesis that a novel, collapsible assessment, plan, subjective, objective (APSO) note design would be faster, more accurate, and more satisfying to use than a conventional electronic health record (EHR) subjective, objective, assessment, plan (SOAP) note for finding information needed for ambulatory chronic disease care...
November 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
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