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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632013/task-demands-in-osces-influence-learning-strategies
#1
Alexandre Lafleur, Jonathan Laflamme, Jimmie Leppink, Luc Côté
THEORY: Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis")...
March 2, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614194/impact-of-3-years-of-classroom-physical-activity-bouts-on-time-on-task-behavior
#2
Amanda N Szabo-Reed, Erik A Willis, Jaehoon Lee, Charles H Hillman, Richard A Washburn, Joseph E Donnelly
Participation in classroom physical activity (PA) may improve time-on-task (TOT), however, the influence of sustained moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) on TOT is unknown. PURPOSE: To explore the influence of classroom PA delivered with academic lessons on TOT, determine if the relationship between classroom PA and TOT differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight or baseline fitness, and identify the influence of MVPA on TOT when controlling for demographic variables. METHODS: Teachers in intervention schools were asked to deliver two, 10-minute PA lessons/day, 5 days/week...
June 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611575/ica-derived-eeg-correlates-to-mental-fatigue-effort-and-workload-in-a-realistically-simulated-air-traffic-control-task
#3
Deepika Dasari, Guofa Shou, Lei Ding
Electroencephalograph (EEG) has been increasingly studied to identify distinct mental factors when persons perform cognitively demanding tasks. However, most of these studies examined EEG correlates at channel domain, which suffers the limitation that EEG signals are the mixture of multiple underlying neuronal sources due to the volume conduction effect. Moreover, few studies have been conducted in real-world tasks. To precisely probe EEG correlates with specific neural substrates to mental factors in real-world tasks, the present study examined EEG correlates to three mental factors, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597322/sustained-attention-to-a-predictable-unengaging-go-no-go-task-shows-ongoing-development-between-6-and-11%C3%A2-years
#4
Frances C Lewis, Robert A Reeve, Simon P Kelly, Katherine A Johnson
Response time variability (RTV) is a useful measure of sustained attention; however, little is known about developmental changes in RTV at different temporal frequencies. Thirty-five 6-year-olds, 31 8-year-olds, and 37 10-year-olds completed the fixed-sequence Sustained Attention to Response Task on three occasions, six months apart. Fast Fourier Transform and ex-Gaussian analyses of response time (RT) data assessed momentary fluctuations in RT, gradual changes in RT, and very long responses, thought to reflect attentional control fluctuations, slow-shifting arousal, and infrequent lapses in attention, respectively...
June 8, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562199/delivery-of-community-based-palliative-care-findings-from-a-time-and-motion-study
#5
Nrupen A Bhavsar, Kate Bloom, Jonathan Nicolla, Callie Gable, Abby Goodman, Andrew Olson, Matthew Harker, Janet Bull, Donald H Taylor
BACKGROUND: Use of palliative care has increased substantially as the population ages and as evidence for its benefits grows. However, there is limited information regarding which care activities are necessary for delivering high-quality, interdisciplinary, community-based palliative care. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify and measure the discrete clinical and administrative activities completed by a multidisciplinary team in a hospice provider-led model for providing community-based palliative care...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549434/the-potential-of-task-shifting-in-scaling-up-services-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-a-time-and-motion-study-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#6
Helga Naburi, Anna Mia Ekström, Phares Mujinja, Charles Kilewo, Karim Manji, Gunnel Biberfeld, David Sando, Guerino Chalamila, Till Bärnighausen
BACKGROUND: In many African countries, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services are predominantly delivered by nurses. Although task-shifting is not yet well established, community health workers (CHWs) are often informally used as part of PMTCT delivery. According to the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) Task-shifting Guidelines, many PMTCT tasks can be shifted from nurses to CHWs. METHODS: The aim of this time and motion study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was to estimate the potential of task-shifting in PMTCT service delivery to reduce nurses' workload and health system costs...
May 26, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541081/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-academic-interventions-and-modifications-on-student-behavior-outcomes
#7
Kristy Warmbold-Brann, Matthew K Burns, June L Preast, Crystal N Taylor, Lisa N Aguilar
The current study examined the effect of academic interventions and modifications on behavioral outcomes in a meta-analysis of 32 single-case design studies. Academic interventions included modifying task difficulty, providing instruction in reading, mathematics, or writing, and contingent reinforcement for academic performance. There was an overall small to moderate effect (ϕ = .56) on behavioral outcomes, with a stronger effect on increasing time on task (ϕ = .64) than on decreasing disruptive behavior (ϕ = ...
May 25, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536846/time-on-task-effects-in-children-with-and-without-adhd-depletion-of-executive-resources-or-depletion-of-motivation
#8
Tycho J Dekkers, Joost A Agelink van Rentergem, Alette Koole, Wery P M van den Wildenberg, Arne Popma, Anika Bexkens, Reino Stoffelsen, Anouk Diekmann, Hilde M Huizenga
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation...
May 23, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496269/best-practices-for-use-of-blended-learning
#9
Amanda R Margolis, Andrea L Porter, Michael E Pitterle
Objective. To determine instructional best practice recommendations for use of blended learning from the students' perspective. Methods. Three focus groups were created, one for each of the first three years at a school of pharmacy. The focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed for content analysis. Results. Ten instructional best practices were identified from the focus groups: setting the stage, consistency when team teaching, timeliness in posting materials, time on task, accountability for online activities, use of structured active learning, instructor use of feedback on student preparation, incorporation of student feedback into the course, short reviews of online material during class, and ensuring technologies are user friendly...
April 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406669/methodology-of-performance-scoring-in-the-d2-sustained-attention-test-cumulative-reliability-functions-and-practical-guidelines
#10
Michael B Steinborn, Robert Langner, Hagen C Flehmig, Lynn Huestegge
We provide a psychometric analysis of commonly used performance indices of the d2 sustained-attention test, and give methodical guidelines and recommendations, based on this research. We examined experimental effects of repeated testing on performance speed and accuracy (omission and commission errors), and further evaluated aspects of test reliability by means of cumulative reliability function (CRF) analysis. These aspects were also examined for a number of alternative (yet commonly used) scoring techniques and valuation methods...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400244/the-interconnection-of-mental-fatigue-and-aging-an-eeg-study
#11
Stefan Arnau, Tina Möckel, Gerhard Rinkenauer, Edmund Wascher
Mental fatigue, a state of reduced alertness and decreased overall performance due to prolonged cognitive activity, is a major cause for a large number of accidents in traffic and industry. Against the background of an aging workforce, the investigation of the interconnection of mental fatigue and aging is of great practical relevance. In the present study, a group of younger and a group of older adults performed a cognitive task for 3h. The experimental design also comprised breaks with various durations. Beside behavioral data, the spectral properties of the ongoing EEG with respect to time on task and breaks were analyzed...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378886/when-i-say-%C3%A2-time-on-task
#12
Jimmie Leppink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328113/functional-equivalence-of-sleep-loss-and-time-on-task-effects-in-sustained-attention
#13
Bella Z Veksler, Glenn Gunzelmann
Research on sleep loss and vigilance both focus on declines in cognitive performance, but theoretical accounts have developed largely in parallel in these two areas. In addition, computational instantiations of theoretical accounts are rare. The current work uses computational modeling to explore whether the same mechanisms can account for the effects of both sleep loss and time on task on performance. A classic task used in the sleep deprivation literature, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), was extended from the typical 10-min duration to 35 min, to make the task similar in duration to traditional vigilance tasks...
March 22, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257928/the-effects-of-a-mid-task-break-on-the-brain-connectome-in-healthy-participants-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#14
Yu Sun, Julian Lim, Zhongxiang Dai, KianFoong Wong, Fumihiko Taya, Yu Chen, Junhua Li, Nitish Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos
Although rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce mental fatigue and boost cognitive performance, the effects of taking a break on behavior are not consistent. Moreover, our understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of rest breaks and how they modulate mental fatigue is still rudimentary. In this study, we investigated the effects of receiving a rest break on the topological properties of brain connectivity networks via a two-session experimental paradigm, in which one session comprised four successive blocks of a mentally demanding visual selective attention task (No-rest session), whereas the other contained a rest break between the second and third task blocks (Rest session)...
February 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166869/effects-of-platooning-on-signal-detection-performance-workload-and-stress-a-driving-simulator-study
#15
Daniël D Heikoop, Joost C F de Winter, Bart van Arem, Neville A Stanton
Platooning, whereby automated vehicles travel closely together in a group, is attractive in terms of safety and efficiency. However, concerns exist about the psychological state of the platooning driver, who is exempted from direct control, yet remains responsible for monitoring the outside environment to detect potential threats. By means of a driving simulator experiment, we investigated the effects on recorded and self-reported measures of workload and stress for three task-instruction conditions: (1) No Task, in which participants had to monitor the road, (2) Voluntary Task, in which participants could do whatever they wanted, and (3) Detection Task, in which participants had to detect red cars...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121286/precision-dependent-changes-in-motor-variability-during-sustained-bimanual-reaching
#16
Alessia Longo, Ruud Meulenbroek
Movement variability of the upper limb was investigated using a bimanual Fitts' task. Participants tapped rhythmically between target-pairs of different Index of Difficulties (ID) for three intervals of 20 min each. We studied the effects of ID and time-on-task on movement time, end-point variability, approximate entropy and standard deviation of relative phase. Lower ID and time-on-task caused decreasing movement time and increasing end-point variability. Moreover, standard deviation of relative phase and approximate entropy moderately increased...
January 25, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116761/assessing-the-benefits-of-napping-and-short-rest-breaks-on-processing-speed-in-sleep-restricted-adolescents
#17
Julian Lim, June C Lo, Michael W L Chee
Achievement-oriented adolescents often study long hours under conditions of chronic sleep restriction, adversely affecting cognitive function. Here, we studied how napping and rest breaks (interleaved off-task periods) might ameliorate the negative effects of sleep restriction on processing speed. Fifty-seven healthy adolescents (26 female, age = 15-19 years) participated in a 15-day live-in protocol. All participants underwent sleep restriction (5 h time-in-bed), but were then randomized into two groups: one of these groups received a daily 1-h nap opportunity...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060276/the-rodent-psychomotor-vigilance-test-rpvt-a-method-for-assessing-neurobehavioral-performance-in-rats-and-mice
#18
Catherine M Davis, Peter G Roma, Robert D Hienz
The human Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) is a widely used procedure for measuring changes in fatigue and sustained attention. The present article describes a rodent version of the PVT-termed the "rPVT"-that measures similar aspects of attention (i.e., performance accuracy, motor speed, premature responding, and lapses in attention). Data are presented that demonstrate both the short- and long-term usefulness of the rPVT when employed with laboratory rats. Rats easily learn the rPVT, and learning to perform the basic procedure takes less than two weeks of training...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017818/neural-cascade-of-conflict-processing-not-just-time-on-task
#19
Cameron C McKay, Berry van den Berg, Marty G Woldorff
In visual conflict tasks (e.g., Stroop or flanker), response times (RTs) are generally longer on incongruent trials relative to congruent ones. Two event-related-potential (ERP) components classically associated with the processing of stimulus conflict are the fronto-central, incongruency-related negativity (Ninc) and the posterior late-positive complex (LPC), which are derived from the ERP difference waves for incongruent minus congruent trials. It has been questioned, however, whether these effects, or other neural measures of incongruency (e...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881121/knowledge-is-not-enough-to-solve-the-problems-the-role-of-diagnostic-knowledge-in-clinical-reasoning-activities
#20
Jan Kiesewetter, Rene Ebersbach, Nike Tsalas, Matthias Holzer, Ralf Schmidmaier, Martin R Fischer
BACKGROUND: Clinical reasoning is a key competence in medicine. There is a lack of knowledge, how non-experts like medical students solve clinical problems. It is known that they have difficulties applying conceptual knowledge to clinical cases, that they lack metacognitive awareness and that higher level cognitive actions correlate with diagnostic accuracy. However, the role of conceptual, strategic, conditional, and metacognitive knowledge for clinical reasoning is unknown. METHODS: Medical students (n = 21) were exposed to three different clinical cases and instructed to use the think-aloud method...
November 24, 2016: BMC Medical Education
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