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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881121/knowledge-is-not-enough-to-solve-the-problems-the-role-of-diagnostic-knowledge-in-clinical-reasoning-activities
#1
Jan Kiesewetter, Rene Ebersbach, Nike Tsalas, Matthias Holzer, Ralf Schmidmaier, Martin R Fischer
BACKGROUND: Clinical reasoning is a key competence in medicine. There is a lack of knowledge, how non-experts like medical students solve clinical problems. It is known that they have difficulties applying conceptual knowledge to clinical cases, that they lack metacognitive awareness and that higher level cognitive actions correlate with diagnostic accuracy. However, the role of conceptual, strategic, conditional, and metacognitive knowledge for clinical reasoning is unknown. METHODS: Medical students (n = 21) were exposed to three different clinical cases and instructed to use the think-aloud method...
November 24, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878205/iterative-development-and-evaluation-of-a-pharmacogenomic-guided-clinical-decision-support-system-for-warfarin-dosing
#2
Brittany L Melton, Alan J Zillich, Jason Saleem, Alissa L Russ, James E Tisdale, Brian R Overholser
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacogenomic-guided dosing has the potential to improve patient outcomes but its implementation has been met with clinical challenges. Our objective was to develop and evaluate a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for pharmacogenomic-guided warfarin dosing designed for physicians and pharmacists. METHODS: Twelve physicians and pharmacists completed 6 prescribing tasks using simulated patient scenarios in two iterations (development and validation phases) of a newly developed pharmacogenomic-driven CDSS prototype...
November 23, 2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811953/spatiotemporal-neurodynamics-of-automatic-temporal-expectancy-in-9-month-old-infants
#3
Giovanni Mento, Eloisa Valenza
Anticipating events occurrence (Temporal Expectancy) is a crucial capacity for survival. Yet, there is little evidence about the presence of cortical anticipatory activity from infancy. In this study we recorded the High-density electrophysiological activity in 9 month-old infants and adults undergoing an audio-visual S1-S2 paradigm simulating a lifelike "Peekaboo" game inducing automatic temporal expectancy of smiling faces. The results indicate in the S2-preceding Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) an early electrophysiological signature of expectancy-based anticipatory cortical activity...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803024/directly-comparing-handoff-protocols-for-pediatric-hospitalists
#4
Elizabeth H Lazzara, Robert Riss, Brady Patzer, Dustin C Smith, Y Raymond Chan, Joseph R Keebler, Sarah D Fouquet, Evan M Palmer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Handoff protocols are often developed by brainstorming and consensus, and few are directly compared. We hypothesized that a handoff protocol (Flex 11) developed using a rigorous methodology would be more favorable in terms of clinicians' attitudes, behaviors, cognitions, or time-on-task when performing handoffs compared with a prevalent protocol (Situation Background Assessment Recommendation [SBAR]). METHODS: Using a between-groups, randomized control trial design (Flex 11 versus SBAR) during a pilot study in a simulated environment, 20 clinicians (13 attending physicians and 7 residents) received 3 patient handoffs from a standardized physician, managed the patients, and handed off the patients to the same standardized physician...
December 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793791/natural-language-processing-enabled-and-conventional-data-capture-methods-for-input-to-electronic-health-records-a-comparative-usability-study
#5
David R Kaufman, Barbara Sheehan, Peter Stetson, Ashish R Bhatt, Adele I Field, Chirag Patel, James Mark Maisel
BACKGROUND: The process of documentation in electronic health records (EHRs) is known to be time consuming, inefficient, and cumbersome. The use of dictation coupled with manual transcription has become an increasingly common practice. In recent years, natural language processing (NLP)-enabled data capture has become a viable alternative for data entry. It enables the clinician to maintain control of the process and potentially reduce the documentation burden. The question remains how this NLP-enabled workflow will impact EHR usability and whether it can meet the structured data and other EHR requirements while enhancing the user's experience...
October 28, 2016: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768778/pupil-diameter-tracks-lapses-of-attention
#6
Ruud L van den Brink, Peter R Murphy, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708612/counteracting-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-right-parietal-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#7
Katrin Hanken, Mona Bosse, Kim Möhrke, Paul Eling, Andreas Kastrup, Andrea Antal, Helmut Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time (RT) and errors with prolonged time-on-task. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. METHODS: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697552/driving-performance-and-eeg-fluctuations-during-on-the-road-driving-following-sleep-deprivation
#8
J Perrier, S Jongen, E Vuurman, M L Bocca, J G Ramaekers, A Vermeeren
The present study mainly aimed to assess whether and how sleepiness due to sleep deprivation interacts with Time on Task (ToT) effects both on electroencephalography (EEG) measures and driving performance in real driving conditions. Healthy participants performed a one hour on-the-road monotonous highway driving task while EEG was recorded continuously after one night of normal sleep and after one night of total sleep deprivation. The main outcome parameter in the highway driving test was the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP)...
September 30, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635122/cognitive-fatigue-influences-time-on-task-during-bodyweight-resistance-training-exercise
#9
James R Head, Matthew S Tenan, Andrew J Tweedell, Thomas F Price, Michael E LaFiandra, William S Helton
Prior investigations have shown measurable performance impairments on continuous physical performance tasks when preceded by a cognitively fatiguing task. However, the effect of cognitive fatigue on bodyweight resistance training exercise task performance is unknown. In the current investigation 18 amateur athletes completed a full body exercise task preceded by either a cognitive fatiguing or control intervention. In a randomized repeated measure design, each participant completed the same exercise task preceded by a 52 min cognitively fatiguing intervention (vigilance) or control intervention (video)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633197/design-of-instructions-for-evacuating-disabled-adults
#10
Michael W Boyce, Janan Al-Awar Smither, Daniel O Fisher, P A Hancock
We investigated how the design of instructions can affect performance in preparing emergency stair travel devices for the evacuation of disable individuals. We had three hypotheses: 1) Design of instructions would account for a significant portion of explained performance variance, 2) Improvements in design of instructions would reduce time on task across device type and age group, and 3) There would be a performance decrement for older adults compared to younger adults based on the slowing of older adult information processing abilities...
January 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611786/evidence-for-increased-behavioral-control-by-punishment-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
E Furukawa, B Alsop, P Sowerby, S Jensen, G Tripp
BACKGROUND: The behavioral sensitivity of children with ADHD to punishment has received limited theoretical and experimental attention. This study evaluated the effects of punishment on the response allocation of children with ADHD and typically developing children. METHOD: Two hundred and ten children, 145 diagnosed with ADHD, completed an operant task in which they chose between playing two simultaneously available games. Reward was arranged symmetrically across the games under concurrent variable interval schedules...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589961/overview-of-the-interactive-task-in-biocreative-v
#12
Qinghua Wang, Shabbir S Abdul, Lara Almeida, Sophia Ananiadou, Yalbi I Balderas-Martínez, Riza Batista-Navarro, David Campos, Lucy Chilton, Hui-Jou Chou, Gabriela Contreras, Laurel Cooper, Hong-Jie Dai, Barbra Ferrell, Juliane Fluck, Socorro Gama-Castro, Nancy George, Georgios Gkoutos, Afroza K Irin, Lars J Jensen, Silvia Jimenez, Toni R Jue, Ingrid Keseler, Sumit Madan, Sérgio Matos, Peter McQuilton, Marija Milacic, Matthew Mort, Jeyakumar Natarajan, Evangelos Pafilis, Emiliano Pereira, Shruti Rao, Fabio Rinaldi, Karen Rothfels, David Salgado, Raquel M Silva, Onkar Singh, Raymund Stefancsik, Chu-Hsien Su, Suresh Subramani, Hamsa D Tadepally, Loukia Tsaprouni, Nicole Vasilevsky, Xiaodong Wang, Andrew Chatr-Aryamontri, Stanley J F Laulederkind, Sherri Matis-Mitchell, Johanna McEntyre, Sandra Orchard, Sangya Pundir, Raul Rodriguez-Esteban, Kimberly Van Auken, Zhiyong Lu, Mary Schaeffer, Cathy H Wu, Lynette Hirschman, Cecilia N Arighi
Fully automated text mining (TM) systems promote efficient literature searching, retrieval, and review but are not sufficient to produce ready-to-consume curated documents. These systems are not meant to replace biocurators, but instead to assist them in one or more literature curation steps. To do so, the user interface is an important aspect that needs to be considered for tool adoption. The BioCreative Interactive task (IAT) is a track designed for exploring user-system interactions, promoting development of useful TM tools, and providing a communication channel between the biocuration and the TM communities...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571023/-shifts-in-attention-during-mental-fatigue-evidence-from-subjective-behavioral-physiological-and-eye-tracking-data-correction-to-hopstaken-et-al-2016
#13
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Shifts in attention during mental fatigue: Evidence from subjective, behavioral, physiological, and eye-tracking data" by Jesper F. Hopstaken, Dimitri van der Linden, Arnold B. Bakker, Michiel A. J. Kompier and Yik Kiu Leung (, 2016[Jun], Vol 42[6], 878-889). In the article, there were formatting errors in columns 1 through 8 of Table 2. The correct table is present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) There is an increasing amount of evidence that during mental fatigue, shifts in motivation drive performance rather than reductions in finite mental energy...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522488/the-relevance-of-the-irrelevant-attention-and-task-set-adaptation-in-prematurely-born-adults
#14
Ida Emilia Aasen, Asta Kristine Håberg, Alexander Olsen, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Kari Anne I Evensen, Anne Elisabeth Sølsnes, Jon Skranes, Jan Ferenc Brunner
OBJECTIVE: To investigate attention and task-set adaptation in a preterm born very low birth weight (PT/VLBW) population by means of event-related potential components from an adapted cued go/no-go task. METHODS: P3 components after target and non-target cues, as well as target, no-go and non-target imperative stimuli were compared in 30 PT/VLBW young adults and 33 term-born controls. Changes in P3 amplitudes as a function of time-on-task were also investigated...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436353/how-visual-search-relates-to-visual-diagnostic-performance-a-narrative-systematic-review-of-eye-tracking-research-in-radiology
#15
A van der Gijp, C J Ravesloot, H Jarodzka, M F van der Schaaf, I C van der Schaaf, J P J van Schaik, Th J Ten Cate
Eye tracking research has been conducted for decades to gain understanding of visual diagnosis such as in radiology. For educational purposes, it is important to identify visual search patterns that are related to high perceptual performance and to identify effective teaching strategies. This review of eye-tracking literature in the radiology domain aims to identify visual search patterns associated with high perceptual performance. Databases PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using 'visual perception' OR 'eye tracking' AND 'radiology' and synonyms...
July 19, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405199/student-qsen-participation-during-an-adult-medical-surgical-rotation
#16
Susan Pauly-O'Neill, Elizabeth Cooper, Susan Prion
With the six QSEN competencies woven throughout the baccalaureate nursing curriculum, which includes high-fidelity simulation, the aim of this research was to uncover deficits in QSEN-related clinical opportunities. Pre-licensure BSN nursing students enrolled in a sophomore-level medical-surgical rotation augmented with 25 percent simulation were observed directly, with time-on-task for each QSEN competency recorded and tabulated. The students were found to spend little time addressing several of the six competency areas in both clinical and simulation settings...
May 2016: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378894/mid-task-break-improves-global-integration-of-functional-connectivity-in-lower-alpha-band
#17
Junhua Li, Julian Lim, Yu Chen, Kianfoong Wong, Nitish Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos, Yu Sun
Numerous efforts have been devoted to revealing neurophysiological mechanisms of mental fatigue, aiming to find an effective way to reduce the undesirable fatigue-related outcomes. Until recently, mental fatigue is thought to be related to functional dysconnectivity among brain regions. However, the topological representation of brain functional connectivity altered by mental fatigue is only beginning to be revealed. In the current study, we applied a graph theoretical approach to analyse such topological alterations in the lower alpha band (8~10 Hz) of EEG data from 20 subjects undergoing a two-session experiment, in which one session includes four successive blocks with visual oddball tasks (session 1) whereas a mid-task break was introduced in the middle of four task blocks in the other session (session 2)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359687/effects-of-cognitive-fatigue-on-time-on-task-performance-432-board-269-june-1-9-30-am-11-00-am
#18
James R Head, Matthew S Tenan, Andrew Tweedell, Thomas T Price, Michael LaFiandra, Deak Helton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325169/3-minute-smartphone-based-and-tablet-based-psychomotor-vigilance-tests-for-the-assessment-of-reduced-alertness-due-to-sleep-deprivation
#19
Devon A Grant, Kimberly A Honn, Matthew E Layton, Samantha M Riedy, Hans P A Van Dongen
The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) is widely used to measure reduced alertness due to sleep loss. Here, two newly developed, 3-min versions of the psychomotor vigilance test, one smartphone-based and the other tablet-based, were validated against a conventional 10-min laptop-based PVT. Sixteen healthy participants (ages 22-40; seven males, nine females) completed a laboratory study, which included a practice and a baseline day, a 38-h total sleep deprivation (TSD) period, and a recovery day, during which they performed the three different versions of the PVT every 3 h...
June 20, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235602/physically-active-vs-sedentary-academic-lessons-a-dose-response-study-for-elementary-student-time-on-task
#20
Lauren A Grieco, Esbelle M Jowers, Vanessa L Errisuriz, John B Bartholomew
BACKGROUND: Physically active academic lessons are an effective intervention to reduce sedentary time and increase student physical activity. They have also been shown to enhance task engagement, as indicated by observations of attention and behavior control, time on task (TOT). However, it is not clear if the improved TOT stems from the physical activity or if it is the result of an enjoyable break from traditional instruction. If it is due to physical activity, what dose of intensity is required for the effect? This study was designed to test these questions...
August 2016: Preventive Medicine
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