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Bombyx mori fungi

Kangkang Chen, Zhiqiang Lu
The silkworm Bombyx mori, an economically important insect that is usually reared indoors, is susceptible to various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and microsporidia. As with other insects, the silkworm lacks an adaptive immune system and relies solely on innate immunity to defend itself against infection. Compared to other intensively studied insects, such as the fruit fly and tobacco hornworm, the principal immune pathways in the silkworm remain unclear. In this article, we review the literature concerning silkworm immune responses to bacteria and fungi and present our perspectives on future research into silkworm immunity...
December 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
F Han, A Lu, Y Yuan, W Huang, B T Beerntsen, J Huang, E Ling
The insect cuticle works as the first line of defence to protect insects from pathogenic infections and water evaporation. However, the old cuticle must be shed in order to enter the next developmental stage. During each ecdysis, moulting fluids are produced and secreted into the area among the old and new cuticles. In a previous study, the protein Bombyx mori single domain von Willebrand factor type C (BmSVWC; BGIBMGA011399) was identified in the moulting fluids of Bo. mori and demonstrated to regulate ecdysis...
June 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
J Li, L Wang, C Qian, C F Zhang, L S Dai, Q N Liu, G Q Wei, Y Sun, D R Liu, B J Zhu, C L Liu
Karyopherins, including alpha and beta types, are transport proteins in the eukaryotic cell that carry cargoes across nuclear pore complexes into or out of the nucleus. In this study, full open reading frames of one beta and three alpha types of karyopherin were cloned from cDNA of the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori). The one beta and three alpha types' open reading frames were 2661, 1563, 1515, and 1551 base pairs long, respectively, and coded 886, 520, 504, and 516 amino acids, respectively. The alphas all had one importin-beta-binding (IBB) domain, and eight, four, or seven armadillo/beta-catenin-like repeats...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
N R Vokhidova, M E Sattarov, N D Kareva, S Sh Rashidova
The fungicidal activity of some chitosan samples and of its nanostructured systems with copper was studied. The samples of Bombyx mori chitosan and its nanostructured systems with copper were found to inhibit growth and development of phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium solani 169 and Verticillium dahlie 57. The growth inhibition zone was of considerable size (22 to 60 mm).
November 2014: Mikrobiologiia
Sung Yeol Lim, Sehee Lee, Hyun Gi Kong, Jungkwan Lee
Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum...
December 2014: Mycobiology
Feifei Luo, Qian Wang, Chunlin Yin, Yinglu Ge, Fenglin Hu, Bo Huang, Hong Zhou, Guanhu Bao, Bin Wang, Ruili Lu, Zengzhi Li
Beauveria bassiana is a kind of world-wide entomopathogenic fungus and can also colonize plant rhizosphere. Previous researches showed differential expression of genes when entomopathogenic fungi are cultured in insect or plant materials. However, so far there is no report on metabolic alterations of B. bassiana in the environments of insect or plant. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem. Herein, we first provide the metabolomic analysis of B. bassiana cultured in insect pupae extracts (derived from Euproctis pseudoconspersa and Bombyx mori, EPP and BMP), plant root exudates (derived from asparagus and carrot, ARE and CRE), distilled water and minimal media (MM), respectively...
September 2015: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
André da Costa, Raul Machado, Artur Ribeiro, Tony Collins, Viruthachalam Thiagarajan, Maria Teresa Neves-Petersen, José Carlos Rodríguez-Cabello, Andreia C Gomes, Margarida Casal
In the present work we explored the ABP-CM4 peptide properties from Bombyx mori for the creation of biopolymers with broad antimicrobial activity. An antimicrobial recombinant protein-based polymer (rPBP) was designed by cloning the DNA sequence coding for ABP-CM4 in frame with the N-terminus of the elastin-like recombinamer consisting of 200 repetitions of the pentamer VPAVG, here named A200. The new rPBP, named CM4-A200, was purified via a simplified nonchromatographic method, making use of the thermoresponsive behavior of the A200 polymer...
February 9, 2015: Biomacromolecules
Amalia Muñoz-Gómez, Mauricio Corredor, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Carlos Peláez
Galleria mellonella has emerged as a potential invertebrate model for scrutinizing innate immunity. Larvae are easy to handle in host-pathogen assays. We undertook proteomics research in order to understand immune response in a heterologous host when challenged with microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. The aim of this study was to investigate hemolymph proteins that were differentially expressed between control and immunized larvae sets, tested with F. oxysporum at two temperatures. The iTRAQ approach allowed us to observe the effects of immune challenges in a lucid and robust manner, identifying more than 50 proteins, 17 of them probably involved in the immune response...
2014: PloS One
Jie Zhang, Anrui Lu, Lulu Kong, Qiaoli Zhang, Erjun Ling
Molting fluid accumulates between the old and new cuticles during periodical ecdysis in Ecdysozoa. Natural defects in insect ecdysis are frequently associated with melanization (an immunity response) occurring primarily in molting fluids, suggesting that molting fluid may impact immunity as well as affect ecdysis. To address this hypothesis, proteomic analysis of molting fluids from Bombyx mori during three different types of ecdysis was performed. Many proteins were newly identified, including immunity-related proteins, in each molting fluid...
December 26, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Cheng-Xiang Hou, Guang-Xing Qin, Ting Liu, Xing-Lin Mei, Bing Li, Zhong-Yuan Shen, Xi-Jie Guo
The most important pathogenic fungus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), is Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli ) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which causes significant damage to sericulture production. Therefore, diagnosing fungal disease and developing new control measures are crucial to silk production. To better understand the responsive and interactive mechanisms between the host silkworm and this fungus, variations in silkworm gene expression were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization method following the injection of B...
2013: Journal of Insect Science
Niels Wynant, Tewodros F Duressa, Dulce Santos, Joost Van Duppen, Paul Proost, Roger Huybrechts, Jozef Vanden Broeck
Desert locusts are characterized by a highly sensitive and effective RNA interference (RNAi) response. Moreover, delivery of dsRNA into the open body cavity will elicit potent silencing effects throughout the body. On the other hand, many other insect species, such as Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster, lack the ability to efficiently spread the RNAi-signal. In this study, we demonstrated that, in the serum of the desert locust, lipophorins adhere to dsRNA-fragments. Lipophorins can be subdivided into high density and low density lipophorins (HDLp and LDLp), according to their buoyant density, and we showed that both types of lipophorins can interact with dsRNA fragments...
May 2014: Journal of Insect Physiology
Hui-Yu Yi, Xiao-Juan Deng, Wan-Ying Yang, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Yang Cao, Xiao-Qiang Yu
Gloverins are basic, glycine-rich and heat-stable antibacterial proteins (∼14- kDa) in lepidopteran insects with activity against Escherichia coli, Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and a virus. Hyalophora gloveri gloverin adopts a random coil structure in aqueous solution but has α-helical structure in membrane-like environment, and it may interact with the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Manduca sexta gloverin binds to the O-specific antigen and outer core carbohydrate of LPS. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, there are four gloverins with slightly acidic to neutral isoelectric points...
July 2013: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
B F Sun, J H Xiao, S M He, L Liu, R W Murphy, D W Huang
Eukaryotic horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events are increasingly being discovered yet few reports have summarized multiple occurrences in a wide range of species. We systematically investigated HGT events in the order Lepidoptera by employing a series of filters. Bombyx mori, Danaus plexippus and Heliconius melpomene had 13, 12 and 12 HGTs, respectively, from bacteria and fungi. These HGTs contributed a total of 64 predicted genes: 22 to B. mori, 22 to D. plexippus and 20 to H. melpomene. Several new genes were generated by post-transfer duplications...
February 2013: Insect Molecular Biology
Youshan Li, Ping Zhao, Shiping Liu, Zhaoming Dong, Jianping Chen, Zhonghuai Xiang, Qingyou Xia
Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana, penetrate the insect cuticle using a plethora of hydrolytic enzymes including cuticle-degrading proteases and chitinases, which are important virulence factors. The insect integument and hemolymph contains a relatively high concentration of protease inhibitors, which are closely involved with defense against pathogenic microorganisms. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying resistance against entomopathogenic fungi and to identify a new molecular target for improving fungal resistance in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we cloned and expressed a novel silkworm TIL-type protease inhibitor BmSPI38, which was very stable over a wide range of temperatures and pH values...
October 2012: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Gangliang Huang
The pseudotrisaccharide allosamidin 1 is a potent family-18 chitinase inhibitor, and it demonstrates biological activities against insects and fungi. Recent development for the synthesis and activities of compound 1 and its analogues was reviewed. Huang et al. described the solid-phase synthesis of allosamidin 1 and its analogues, which were obtained by iterative glycosylation reactions, catalytic hydrogenation, acetylation, and deacetylation, respectively. It indicated that di-N-acetyl-β-chitobiosyl allosamizoline was strongly against insect chitinase from Bombyx mori...
June 2012: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Seung-Joon Ahn, Heiko Vogel, David G Heckel
UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGT) catalyze the conjugation of a range of diverse small lipophilic compounds with sugars to produce glycosides, playing an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the regulation of endobiotics in insects. Recent progress in genome sequencing has enabled an assessment of the extent of the UGT multigene family in insects. Here we report over 310 putative UGT genes identified from genomic databases of eight different insect species together with a transcript database from the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera...
February 2012: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yanfang Shang, Zhibing Duan, Wei Huang, Qiang Gao, Chengshu Wang
Insect pathogenic fungi like Beauveria bassiana have been developed as environmentally friendly biocontrol agents against arthropod pests. However, restrictive environmental factors, including solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation frequently lead to inconsistent field performance. To improve resistance to UV damage, we used Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to engineer B. bassiana with an exogenous tyrosinase gene. The results showed that the mitotically stable transformants produced larger amounts of yellowish pigments than the wild-type strain, and these imparted significantly increased UV-resistance...
January 2012: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Chun-Dong Zhang, Min-Hui Pan, Juan Tan, Fang-Fang Li, Jun Zhang, Ting-Ting Wang, Cheng Lu
The Pumilio protein is the founding member of the PUF family of RNA-binding proteins, which contains 8 repeat Puf domains and plays important roles during embryogenesis and post-embryogenesis by binding the Nanos response element (NRE) of specific target genes in eukaryotes. In addition, many other proteins containing the Puf domain were identified but with different functions from the Pumilio protein in various species. Taking advantage of the newly assembled genome sequences, in this study we performed a genome-wide analysis of PUF genes in silkworm and other 27 species...
January 2012: Molecular Biology Reports
Yang Wang, Niranji Sumathipala, Subrahmanyam Rayaprolu, Haobo Jiang
Detection of pathogenic invaders is the essential first step of a successful defense response in multicellular organisms. In this study, we have identified a new member of the β-1,3-glucanase-related protein superfamily from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. This protein, designated microbe binding protein (MBP), is 61% identical in sequence to Bombyx mori Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, but only 34-36% identical to M. sexta β-1,3-glucan recognition protein-1 and 2. Its mRNA levels were strongly up-regulated in hemocytes and fat body of immune challenged larvae, along with an increase in concentration of the plasma protein...
May 2011: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yuping Li, Huan Wang, Runxi Xia, Song Wu, Shenglin Shi, Junfang Su, Yanqun Liu, Li Qin, ZhenDong Wang
The will die slowly (wds) gene coding for a WD-repeat protein with seven repeats has been characterized in Drosophila melanogaster. In this paper, the wds gene was isolated and characterized from the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). The obtained 1733 bp cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 1041 bp encoding a polypeptide of 346 amino acids, with 85% sequence identity to that from D. melanogaster. RT-PCR analysis showed that the wds gene was transcribed during four developmental stages and in all the tissues tested, consistent with the result observed in Bombyx mori based on EST resources and genome-wide microarray information...
August 2011: Molecular Biology Reports
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