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Medical Simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933728/sequential-change-detection-and-monitoring-of-temporal-trends-in-random-effects-meta-analysis
#1
Samson Henry Dogo, Allan Clark, Elena Kulinskaya
Temporal changes in magnitude of effect sizes reported in many areas of research are a threat to the credibility of the results and conclusions of meta-analysis. Numerous sequential methods for meta-analysis have been proposed to detect changes and monitor trends in effect sizes so that meta-analysis can be updated when necessary and interpreted based on the time it was conducted. The difficulties of sequential meta-analysis under the random-effects model are caused by dependencies in increments introduced by the estimation of the heterogeneity parameter τ(2) ...
December 8, 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933407/simvascular-an-open-source-pipeline-for-cardiovascular-simulation
#2
REVIEW
Adam Updegrove, Nathan M Wilson, Jameson Merkow, Hongzhi Lan, Alison L Marsden, Shawn C Shadden
Patient-specific cardiovascular simulation has become a paradigm in cardiovascular research and is emerging as a powerful tool in basic, translational and clinical research. In this paper we discuss the recent development of a fully open-source SimVascular software package, which provides a complete pipeline from medical image data segmentation to patient-specific blood flow simulation and analysis. This package serves as a research tool for cardiovascular modeling and simulation, and has contributed to numerous advances in personalized medicine, surgical planning and medical device design...
December 8, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933290/validation-of-a-cochlear-implant-patient-specific-model-of-the-voltage-distribution-in-a-clinical-setting
#3
Waldo Nogueira, Daniel Schurzig, Andreas Büchner, Richard T Penninger, Waldemar Würfel
Cochlear Implants (CIs) are medical implantable devices that can restore the sense of hearing in people with profound hearing loss. Clinical trials assessing speech intelligibility in CI users have found large intersubject variability. One possibility to explain the variability is the individual differences in the interface created between electrodes of the CI and the auditory nerve. In order to understand the variability, models of the voltage distribution of the electrically stimulated cochlea may be useful...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933135/impact-of-laparoscopic-surgery-training-laboratory-on-surgeon-s-performance
#4
REVIEW
Fabio C M Torricelli, Joao Arthur B A Barbosa, Giovanni S Marchini
Minimally invasive surgery has been replacing the open standard technique in several procedures. Similar or even better postoperative outcomes have been described in laparoscopic or robot-assisted procedures when compared to open surgery. Moreover, minimally invasive surgery has been providing less postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization, and thus a faster return to daily activities. However, the learning curve required to obtain laparoscopic expertise has been a barrier in laparoscopic spreading. Laparoscopic surgery training laboratory has been developed to aid surgeons to overcome the challenging learning curve...
November 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931207/a-comparative-study-classification-vs-user-based-collaborative-filtering-for-clinical-prediction
#5
Fang Hao, Rachael Hageman Blair
BACKGROUND: Recommender systems have shown tremendous value for the prediction of personalized item recommendations for individuals in a variety of settings (e.g., marketing, e-commerce, etc.). User-based collaborative filtering is a popular recommender system, which leverages an individuals' prior satisfaction with items, as well as the satisfaction of individuals that are "similar". Recently, there have been applications of collaborative filtering based recommender systems for clinical risk prediction...
December 8, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931193/coagulase-negative-staphylococcal-sepsis-in-neonates-do-we-need-to-adapt-vancomycin-dose-or-target
#6
Helgi Padari, Kersti Oselin, Tõnis Tasa, Tuuli Metsvaht, Krista Lõivukene, Irja Lutsar
BACKGROUND: Despite differences in types of infection and causative organisms, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) targets of vancomycin therapy derived from adult studies are suggested for neonates. We aimed to identify doses needed for the attainment of AUC/MIC > 400 and AUC/MIC > 300 in neonates with sepsis and correlate these targets with recommended doses and treatment outcome. METHODS: Neonates who had Vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) performed between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were studied...
December 8, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930930/numerical-simulation-of-interaction-between-organs-and-food-bolus-during-swallowing-and-aspiration
#7
Takahiro Kikuchi, Yukihiro Michiwaki, Seiichi Koshizuka, Tetsu Kamiya, Yoshio Toyama
The mechanism of swallowing is still not fully understood, because the process of swallowing is a rapid and complex interaction among several involved organs and the food bolus. In this work, with the aim of studying swallowing and aspiration processes noninvasively and systematically, a computer simulation method for analyzing the involved organs and water (considered as the food bolus) is proposed. The shape and motion of the organs involved in swallowing are modeled in the same way as in our previous study, by using the Hamiltonian moving particle simulation (MPS) method and forced displacements on the basis of motion in a healthy volunteer...
November 30, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930431/first-person-point-of-view-augmented-reality-for-central-line-insertion-training-a-usability-and-feasibility-study
#8
Lauryn R Rochlen, Robert Levine, Alan R Tait
INTRODUCTION: The value of simulation in medical education and procedural skills training is well recognized. Despite this, many mannequin-based trainers are limited by the inability of the trainee to view the internal anatomical structures. This study evaluates the usability and feasibility of a first-person point-of-view-augmented reality (AR) trainer on needle insertion as a component of central venous catheter placement. METHODS: Forty subjects, including medical students and anesthesiology residents and faculty, participated...
December 8, 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930361/determining-the-appropriate-model-complexity-for-patient-specific-advice-on-mechanical-ventilation
#9
Stephen E Rees, Dan S Karbing
Mathematical physiological models can be applied in medical decision support systems. To do so requires consideration of the necessary model complexity. Models that simulate changes in the individual patient are required, meaning that models should have a complexity where parameters can be uniquely identified at the bedside from clinical data and where the models adequately represent the individual patient's (patho)physiology. This paper describes the models included in a system for providing decision support for mechanical ventilation...
December 8, 2016: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929141/contact-infection-of-infectious-disease-onboard-a-cruise-ship
#10
Nan Zhang, Ruosong Miao, Hong Huang, Emily Y Y Chan
Cruise tourism has become more popular. Long-term personal contact, complex population flows, a lack of medical care facilities, and defective infrastructure aboard most cruise ships is likely to result in the ship becoming an incubator for infectious diseases. In this paper, we use a cruise ship as a research scenario. Taking into consideration personal behavior, the nature and transfer route of the virus across different surfaces, virus reproduction, and disinfection, we studied contact infection of infectious disease on a cruise ship...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927920/validation-of-autoclave-protocols-for-the-successful-decontamination-of-category-a-medical-waste-generated-from-the-care-of-patients-with-serious-communicable-diseases
#11
Brian T Garibaldi, Mallory Reimers, Neysa Ernst, Gregory Bova, Elaine Nowakowski, James Bukowski, Brandon C Ellis, Chris Smith, Lauren Sauer, Kim Dionne, Karen C Carroll, Lisa L Maragakis, Nicole M Parrish
In response to the Ebola outbreak in 2014, many hospitals designated specific areas to care for patients with Ebola and other highly infectious diseases. The safe handling of Category A infectious substances is a unique challenge in this environment. One solution is onsite waste treatment with a steam sterilizer or autoclave. The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) installed two pass-through autoclaves in its Biocontainment Unit (BCU). The JHH BCU and The Johns Hopkins Biosafety Level 3 Clinical Microbiology Laboratory designed and validated waste handling protocols with simulated patient trash to ensure adequate sterilization...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925222/sulfadimethoxine-in-giant-freshwater-prawns-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-an-attempt-to-estimate-the-withdrawal-time-by-a-population-pharmacokinetic-approach
#12
A Poapolathep, M Giorgi, P L Toutain, S Poapolathep, K Imsilp, C Sakulthaew, N Wannapat, N Klangkaew
The fates of sulfadimethoxine (SDM) for different routes of administration were investigated in muscle tissue of giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, following either intramuscular (i.m.) or gavage administration at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The depletion patterns of SDM were also examined after medicated feed treatment at the feeding concentration of 10 g/kg of feed twice a day at a rate of 1% of total b.w. for five consecutive days. The concentration of SDM in prawn muscle tissue was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet detector...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924429/cyp2c19-lof-and-gof-guided-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#13
Minghuan Jiang, Joyce H S You
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of CYP2C19 loss-of-function and gain-of-function allele guided (LOF/GOF-guided) antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A life-long decision-analytic model was designed to simulate outcomes of three strategies: universal clopidogrel (75 mg daily), universal alternative P2Y12 inhibitor (prasugrel 10 mg daily or ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily), and LOF/GOF-guided therapy (LOF/GOF allele carriers receiving alternative P2Y12 inhibitor, wild-type patients receiving clopidogrel)...
December 7, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924388/laparoscopic-and-robotic-skills-are-transferable-in-a-simulation-setting-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Lauren Thomaier, Megan Orlando, Melinda Abernethy, Chandhana Paka, Chi Chiung Grace Chen
BACKGROUND: Although surgical simulation provides an effective supplement to traditional training, it is not known whether skills are transferable between minimally invasive surgical modalities. The purpose of this study was to assess the transferability of skills between minimally invasive surgical simulation platforms among simulation-naïve participants. METHODS: Forty simulation-naïve medical students were enrolled in this randomized single-blinded controlled trial...
December 6, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924337/allosteric-effects-of-gold-nanoparticles-on-human-serum-albumin
#15
Qing Shao, Carol K Hall
The ability of nanoparticles to alter protein structure and dynamics plays an important role in their medical and biological applications. We investigate allosteric effects of gold nanoparticles on human serum albumin protein using molecular simulations. The extent to which bound nanoparticles influence the structure and dynamics of residues distant from the binding site is analyzed. The root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation and variation in the secondary structure of individual residues on a human serum albumin protein are calculated for four protein-gold nanoparticle binding complexes...
December 7, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922990/robotically-assisted-thoracic-surgery-proposed-guidelines-for-privileging-and-credentialing
#16
Faiz Y Bhora, Adnan M Al-Ayoubi, Sadiq S Rehmani, Craig M Forleiter, Wissam N Raad, Scott G Belsley
OBJECTIVE: Increased use of robotically assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) necessitates effective credentialing guidelines to ensure safe outcomes. We provide a stepwise algorithm for granting privileges and credentials in RATS. This algorithm reflects graduated responsibility and complexity of the surgical procedures performed. Furthermore, it takes into account volume, outcomes, surgeon's competency, and appropriateness of robot usage. METHODS: We performed a literature review for available strategies to grant privileges and credentials for implementing robotic surgery...
December 5, 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922719/markov-mixed-effects-modeling-using-electronic-adherence-monitoring-records-identifies-influential-covariates-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#17
Kumpal Madrasi, Ayyappa Chaturvedula, Jessica E Haberer, Mark Sale, Michael J Fossler, David Bangsberg, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Craig W Hendrix
Adherence is a major factor in the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Modeling patterns of adherence helps to identify influential covariates of different types of adherence as well as to enable clinical trial simulation so that appropriate interventions can be developed. We developed a Markov mixed-effects model to understand the covariates influencing adherence patterns to daily oral PrEP. Electronic adherence records (date and time of medication bottle cap opening) from the Partners PrEP ancillary adherence study with a total of 1147 subjects were used...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922570/developing-a-simulation-based-training-program-for-the-prehospital-professionals-and-students-on-the-management-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome
#18
Melih Elcin, Arif Onan, Orhan Odabasi, Melahat Saylam, Handan Ilhan, Pinar Daylan Kockaya, Ilker Gurcuoglu, Yavuz Uckuyu, Duygu Cengiz, Osman Arikan Nacar
INTRODUCTION: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a major global health threat. Prehospital professionals face the risk of infection as they work to save lives. They should be made aware of the disease and be prepared to handle such cases. The aims of our study are to develop a training program about the prehospital management of a MERS case using standardized patient (SP) scenarios, to evaluate the awareness and preparedness of the participants about MERS, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this training...
December 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920940/3d-printing-in-neurosurgery-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Michael Randazzo, Jared M Pisapia, Nickpreet Singh, Jayesh P Thawani
BACKGROUND: The recent expansion of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology into the field of neurosurgery has prompted a widespread investigation of its utility. In this article, we review the current body of literature describing rapid prototyping techniques with applications to the practice of neurosurgery. METHODS: An extensive and systematic search of the Compendex, Scopus, and PubMed medical databases was conducted using keywords relating to 3D printing and neurosurgery...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917508/estimating-personalized-diagnostic-rules-depending-on-individualized-characteristics
#20
Ying Liu, Yuanjia Wang, Chaorui Huang, Donglin Zeng
There is an increasing demand for personalization of disease screening based on assessment of patient risk and other characteristics. For example, in breast cancer screening, advanced imaging technologies have made it possible to move away from 'one-size-fits-all' screening guidelines to targeted risk-based screening for those who are in need. Because diagnostic performance of various imaging modalities may vary across subjects, applying the most accurate modality to the patients who would benefit the most requires personalized strategy...
December 4, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
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