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Bombyx mori

Branislav Bednár, Ladislav Roller, Daniel Čižmár, Diana Mitrová, Dušan Žitňan
Allatotropin (AT) and related neuropeptides are widespread bioactive molecules that regulate development, food intake and muscle contractions in insects and other invertebrates. In moths, alternative splicing of the at gene generates three mRNA precursors encoding AT with different combinations of three structurally similar AT-like peptides (ATLI-III). We used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to map the differential expression of these transcripts during the postembryonic development of Bombyx mori...
January 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
ShuoHao Huang, CaiYun Han, ZhenQiao Ma, Jie Zhou, JianYun Zhang, LongQuan Huang
Vitamin B6 comprises six interconvertible pyridine compounds, among which pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a coenzyme for over 140 enzymes. PLP is also a very reactive aldehyde. The most well established mechanism for maintaining low levels of free PLP is its dephosphorylation by phosphatases. A human PLP-specific phosphatase has been identified and characterized. However, very little is known about the phosphatase in other living organisms. In this study, a cDNA clone of putative PLP phosphatase was identified from B...
January 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Akira Kikuchi, Takeru Nakazato, Katsuhiko Ito, Yosui Nojima, Takeshi Yokoyama, Kikuo Iwabuchi, Hidemasa Bono, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Ryoichi Sato, Hiroko Tabunoki
BACKGROUND: Various insect species have been added to genomic databases over the years. Thus, researchers can easily obtain online genomic information on invertebrates and insects. However, many incorrectly annotated genes are included in these databases, which can prevent the correct interpretation of subsequent functional analyses. To address this problem, we used a combination of dry and wet bench processes to select functional genes from public databases. RESULTS: Enolase is an important glycolytic enzyme in all organisms...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
Honglei Wang, Xiaoling Tong, Meijing Liu, Hai Hu, Zhiquan Li, Zhonghuai Xiang, Fangyin Dai, Cheng Lu
In insects, abdominal appendages, also called prolegs, vary due to adaptive evolution. Mutations on prolegs within species provide insights to better understand the mechanisms underlying appendage development and diversity. In silkworm Bombyx mori, extra-crescents and degenerated abdominal legs (Edl) mutant, belonging to the E pseudoallele group, is a spontaneous mutation that adds crescents and degenerates prolegs on the third abdominal segment (A3). This mutation may be a homeotic transformation of A3 to A2...
2017: PloS One
Susumu Katsuma, Ryuhei Kokusho
: The baculovirus VP39 is a major nucleocapsid protein essential for viral propagation. However, the critical domains or residues of the VP39 protein have not yet been identified. Here, we performed mutagenesis experiments of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) using 5-bromo-2' -deoxyuridine and isolated a BmNPV mutant that produced fewer occlusion bodies than the wild-type virus. This mutant also produced fewer infectious budded viruses (BVs), when compared with the wild-type virus in both cultured cells and B...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
Rui-Ting Chen, Peng Jiao, Zhen Liu, Yan Lu, Hu-Hu Xin, Deng-Pan Zhang, Yun-Gen Miao
Silk glands (SGs) undergo massive apoptosis driven degeneration during the larval-pupal transformation. To better understand this event on molecular level, we investigated the expression of apoptosis-related genes across the developmental transition period that spans day 4 in the fifth instar Bombyx mori larvae to day 2 pupae. Increases in the expression of BmDredd (an initiator caspase homolog) closely followed the highest BmEcR expression and resembled the expression trend of BmIcE. Simultaneously, we found that BmDredd expression was significantly higher in SG compared to other tissues at 18 h post-spinning, but reduced following injection of the apoptosis inhibitor (Z-DEVD-fmk)...
2017: PloS One
Tetsuo Asakura, Kotaro Isobe, Shunsuke Kametani, Obehi T Ukpebor, Moshe C Silverstein, Gregory S Boutis
: The mechanical properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF), such as elasticity and tensile strength, change remarkably upon hydration. However, the microscopic interaction with water is not currently well understood on a molecular level. In this work, the dynamics of water molecules interacting with SF was studied by (2)H solution NMR relaxation and exchange measurements. Additionally, the conformations of hydrated [3-(13)C]Ala-, [3-(13)C]Ser- and [3-(13)C]Tyr-SF fibers and films were investigated by (13)C DD/MAS NMR...
January 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Selvaraj Tamilselvan, Thirunavukkarasu Ashokkumar, Kasivelu Govindaraju
In the present investigation, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) interactions with Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) were characterized using High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microcopy (AFM) and Confocal Microscope (CM). HR-SEM study reveals that the biosynthesized AgNPs have interacted with BmNPV and were found on the surface. TEM micrographs of normal and viral polyhedra treated with AgNPs showed that the nanoparticles were accumulated in the membrane and it was noted that some of the AgNPs successfully penetrated the membrane by reaching the capsid of BmNPV...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Noriyasu Ando, Shuhei Emoto, Ryohei Kanzaki
Robotic odor source localization has been a challenging area and one to which biological knowledge has been expected to contribute, as finding odor sources is an essential task for organism survival. Insects are well-studied organisms with regard to odor tracking, and their behavioral strategies have been applied to mobile robots for evaluation. This "bottom-up" approach is a fundamental way to develop biomimetic robots; however, the biological analyses and the modeling of behavioral mechanisms are still ongoing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zhongjie Zhang, Xiaojing Liu, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Zhisheng Wang, Xia Xu, Yongping Huang, Muwang Li, Kai Li, Anjiang Tan
Two major hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), regulate insect growth and development according to their precisely coordinated titres, which are controlled by both biosynthesis and degradation pathways. Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) is the primary JH-specific degradation enzyme that plays a key role in regulating JH titers, along with JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) and JH diol kinase (JHDK). In the current study, a loss-of-function analysis of JHE in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, was performed by targeted gene disruption using the transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases) system...
January 3, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Peng Lü, Yali Xing, Zhaoyang Hu, Yanhua Yang, Ye Pan, Kangmin Chen, Feifei Zhu, Yajing Zhou, Keping Chen, Qin Yao
Bombyx mori bidensiovirus (BmBDV) is a species of Bidensovirus that has been was placed into a new genus within the new family Bidnaviridae by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. BmBDV causes fatal flacherie disease in silkworms, which causes large losses to the sericulture industry. BmBDV contains two sets of complementary linear single-stranded DNAs of approximately 6.5 kb (viral DNA 1, VD1) and 6.0 kb (viral DNA 2, VD2). VD1 and VD2 are encapsidated in separate icosahedral non-enveloped capsids, which are similar in size and shape...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Sher Afzal Khan, Michael Reichelt, David G Heckel
Many insect pigments are localized in subcellular pigment granules, and transport of pigment precursors from the cytoplasm is accomplished by ABC proteins. Drosophila melanogaster has three half-transporter genes (white, scarlet, and brown, all affecting eye pigments) and Bombyx mori has a fourth (ok). The White, Brown, Scarlet and Ok proteins each have one transmembrane and one cytoplasmic domain and they heterodimerize to form functional transporters with different substrate specificities. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to create somatic and germ-line knockout mutations of these four genes in the noctuid moth Helicoverpa armigera...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jiangbo Song, Dongmei Tang, Zhiquan Li, Xiaoling Tong, Jianfei Zhang, Minjin Han, Hai Hu, Cheng Lu, Fangyin Dai
Established animal models have accelerated our understanding of the mechanisms involved in lifespan determination. However, more experimental animals are required to clarify the complex mechanisms behind the phenomena of aging and lifespan. In this study, we reported the variation of lifespan in nine distinct silkworm strains. Lifespan correlated significantly with BmFoxO gene expression in the representative silkworm strains tested (Xiafang, Dazao-N, and N4). In general, the female silkworm was longer lived than the male of the same strain...
December 26, 2016: Oncotarget
X Zhang, S Zheng
Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes required for the degradation of chitin. They are essential for insect moulting and metamorphosis. In this study, the regulation mechanism of a chitinase gene, Bombyx mori chitinase 5 (BmCHT5), was studied. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that BmCHT5 was up-regulated during the larval-larval and larval-pupa transitions and notably induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Analysis of the BmCHT5 promoter revealed the presence of one Bombyx mori Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger Isoform 4 (BR-C Z4), two BR-C Z2 and two ecdysone-induced protein 74A (E74A) cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that are related to 20E...
December 29, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Megumi Sumitani, Mari Kondo, Katsumi Kasashima, Hitoshi Endo, Kaoru Nakamura, Toshihiko Misawa, Hiromitsu Tanaka, Hideki Sezutsu
In the present study, we initially cloned and characterized a mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) homologue in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Bombyx mori TFAM (BmTFAM) localized to mitochondria in cultured silkworm and human cells, and co-localized with mtDNA nucleoids in human HeLa cells. In an immunoprecipitation analysis, BmTFAM was found to associate with human mtDNA in mitochondria, indicating its feature as a non-specific DNA-binding protein. In spite of the low identity between BmTFAM and human TFAM (26...
December 24, 2016: Gene
Shuko Suzuki, Traian V Chirila, Grant A Edwards
Fibroin proteins isolated from the cocoons of certain silk-producing insects have been widely investigated as biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. In this study, fibroins were isolated from cocoons of domesticated Bombyx mori (BM) and wild Antheraea pernyi (AP) silkworms following a degumming process. The object of this study was to obtain an assessment on certain properties of these fibroins in order that a concept might be had regarding the feasibility of using their blends as biomaterials. Membranes, 10-20 μm thick, which are water-insoluble, flexible and transparent, were prepared from pure fibroins and from their blends, and subjected to water vapor annealing in vacuum, with the aim of providing materials sufficiently strong for manipulation...
December 2016: Progress in biomaterials
Rina Hamajima, Asako Iwamoto, Moe Tomizaki, Ikue Suganuma, Koji Kitaguchi, Michihiro Kobayashi, Hayato Yamada, Motoko Ikeda
Recent advances in genome-wide surveys have revealed a number of lepidopteran insect homologs of mammalian and Drosophila genes that are responsible for apoptosis regulation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for apoptosis regulation in lepidopteran insect cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the transfection of Bombyx mori BM-N cells with dsRNA against the B. mori cellular iap1 gene (cbm-iap1) induces severe apoptosis that is accompanied by an increase of caspase-3-like protease activity...
October 28, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Hiromitsu Tanaka, Aki Sagisaka
Using gene-knockdown techniques, we searched for endogenous Ets family proteins involved in the regulation of Escherichia coli-dependent lebocin promoter activation in the E. coli-responsive silkworm cell line NIAS-Bm-aff3. Results showed that the gene knockdown of BmPointeds (BmPNTs), Drosophila Pointed orthologs, enhanced E. coli-dependent lebocin promoter activation, suggesting that endogenous BmPNTs repress the activation of this promoter. Furthermore, we found that i) the BmPNT gene produced at least two alternative splicing isoforms, BmPNT1 and BmPNT2, both of which function as repressors; ii) BmPNTs were not associated with an already-reported repressor element, most proximal GGAA/T motif (EtsRE3), in lebocin promoter, which plays a role in the repression of E...
March 10, 2017: Gene
Yong He, Huimin Deng, Qihao Hu, Zidan Zhu, Lin Liu, Sichun Zheng, Qisheng Song, Qili Feng
The transcription factor BmPOUM2 interacted with another transcription factor BmAbd-A to regulate the expression of the wing cuticle protein gene BmWCP4 in Bombyx mori. In this study, the binding domains and amino acids for the interaction between BmPOUM2 and BmAbd-A were reported. Two isoforms of BmPOUM2 were identified. The short isoform (BmPOUM2-S) lacks a 114-amino acid sequence containing a POU-homeodomain and a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS), as compared to the full-length isoform (BmPOUM2)...
December 14, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jian-Feng Li, Jia-Xin Zhang, Zhi-Guo Wang, Ying-Jia Yao, Xu Han, You-Long Zhao, Jun-Ping Liu, Shuang-Quan Zhang
Antibacterial peptide CM4 (ABP-CM4) is a natural product isolated from the silkworm Bombyx mori. It is a small cationic peptide with broad-spectrum activities against harmful microorganisms and may be used as a novel food preservative. However, ABP-CM4 lacks tertiary structure in water-like solutions, which makes it more susceptible to proteases and labile when exposed to air. In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was chosen to form an inclusion complex with ABP-CM4, which enhanced the physical and chemical properties of ABP-CM4 but did not decrease its antibacterial activity...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
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