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Bombyx mori

Manjunatha Ks Gowda, Anitha Peter, Mahantesha Bn Naika, P Niranjana, P Shamprasad
Biotic stress affects all organisms, including the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) which also has a plethora of defense mechanisms against the infecting pathogens. The midgut plays an important role as a natural barrier and source of innate immunity. The present investigation was thus undertaken to identify an antiviral red fluorescent protein formed in the midgut of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. The digestive juice from fifth instar Kolar Gold silkworm larvae was collected and subjected to 40 % ammonium sulfate precipitation and purified by gel filtration chromatography (GFC)...
January 15, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Masson Victor, Arafah Karim, Voisin Sébastien, Bulet Philippe
The exoskeleton of arthropods, called cuticle, is a biological composite material consisting principally of N-acetylglucosamine polymer embedded in cuticular proteins (CPs). The CPs have been studied and characterized by mass spectrometry in several cuticular structures and in many arthropods. Such analyses were usually carried out by protein extraction using SDS detergent followed by electrophoresis, allowing detection and identification of a large number of CPs. To build a repertoire of cuticular structures from Bombyx mori, Apis mellifera and Anopheles gambiae we avoided the use of SDS and electrophoresis...
January 12, 2018: Proteomics
Vaclav Prajzler, Kyungtaek Min, Sunghwan Kim, Pavla Nekvindova
Silk fibroin protein has been reinvented as a new optical material for biophotonic applications because of its optical transparency, biocompatibility, and easy fabrication process. It is used in various silk-based optical devices, which makes it desirable to investigate the optical properties of silk from diverse perspectives. This paper presents our investigation of the optical properties of silk fibroin, extracted from Bombyx mori cocoons. We have measured transmission spectra from the visible to near-infrared region and investigated waveguiding properties by the prism-coupling technique for five wavelengths (473...
January 11, 2018: Materials
Zu-Lian Liu, Jun Xu, Lin Ling, Ru Zhang, Peng Shang, Yong-Ping Huang
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved and multifunctional protein with activities ranging from cytoskeletal regulation to transcription regulation in numerous organisms. In insects, TCTP is essential for cell growth and proliferation. Recently, TCTP has been reported to affect the innate intestinal immune pathway in the Bombyx mori silkworm, a lepidopteran model insect. However, the comprehensive physiological roles of TCTP in the silkworm remain poorly understood. Here, we performed functional analysis of BmTCTP by using a binary transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromin repeats/RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases) system...
January 9, 2018: Insect Science
Guangli Cao, Yongchang Gong, Xiaolong Hu, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Lixu Huang, Lei Yu, Jian Xu, Kun Li, Mian Sahib Zar, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
The polycistronic and non-canonical gene tarsal-less (tal, known as pri) was reported to be required for embryonic and imaginal development in Drosophila; however, there are few reports of the tal gene in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, we cloned a tal-like (Bmtal) gene, and a sequence analysis showed that the Bmtal cDNA (1661 bp) contains five small open reading frames (smORFs) (A1, A2, A3, A4, and B) that encode short peptides of 11-12 (A1-A4) amino acid residues containing an LDPTG(E)L(Q)(V)Y motif that is conserved in Drosophila Tal, as well as a 32-amino-acid B peptide...
January 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
La Wang, Qin Xiao, Xiao-Lin Zhou, Yan Zhu, Zhan-Qi Dong, Peng Chen, Min-Hui Pan, Cheng Lu
Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) is an important pathogen of silkworms. Despite extensive studies in recent decades, the interaction between BmNPV and host cells is still not clearly understood. Autophagy is an intrinsic innate immune mechanism and it controls infection autonomously in virus-infected cells. In this study, we found that BmNPV infection could trigger autophagy, as demonstrated by the formation of autophagosomes, fluorescent Autophagy-related gene 8-Green Fluorescent Protein (ATG8-GFP) punctate, and lipidated ATG8...
December 30, 2017: Viruses
Kangkang Chen, Zhiqiang Lu
The silkworm Bombyx mori, an economically important insect that is usually reared indoors, is susceptible to various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and microsporidia. As with other insects, the silkworm lacks an adaptive immune system and relies solely on innate immunity to defend itself against infection. Compared to other intensively studied insects, such as the fruit fly and tobacco hornworm, the principal immune pathways in the silkworm remain unclear. In this article, we review the literature concerning silkworm immune responses to bacteria and fungi and present our perspectives on future research into silkworm immunity...
December 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Wenhui Zeng, Rongpeng Liu, Tianyang Zhang, Weidong Zuo, Yao Ou, Yiyun Tang, Hanfu Xu
Yorkie (Yki), the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate yes-associated protein (YAP), is a key effector of the Hippo pathway, which modulates organ size via the transcriptional regulation of downstream targets involved in cell proliferation and survival. YAP has been shown to be expressed as multiple splicing isoforms in mammals, but thus far, no evidence of alternatively spliced Yki isoforms has been reported in insects. Here, we confirmed that the Yki protein of the silkworm Bombyx mori, BmYki, is transcribed in the silk gland into at least four splicing isoforms, named BmY1329, BmY1314, BmY1188, and BmY1173...
December 28, 2017: Gene
Zulian Liu, Lin Ling, Jun Xu, Baosheng Zeng, Yongping Huang, Peng Shang, Anjiang Tan
MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate multiple physiological processes including development and metamorphosis in insects. In the current study, we demonstrate that a conserved invertebrate miRNA-14 (miR-14) plays an important role in ecdysteroid regulated development in the silkworm Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of miR-14 using the GAL4/UAS system resulted in delayed silkworm larval development and smaller body size of larva and pupa with decrease in ecdysteriod titers...
December 27, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jine Chen, Fengbo Li, Yan Liu, Weifeng Shen, Xin Du, Lihua He, Zhiqi Meng, Xianliang Ma, Yongqiang Wang
Lysine succinylation is a newly identified protein post-translational modification (PTM) of lysine residues. Increasing evidences demonstrate that this modification is prevalent in mitochondria and regulates many vital cellular processes, especially metabolism. Here, we determined the succinylome of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) midgut mitochondria during the larval gluttonous stage (the fifth instar) using succinylated peptides enrichment coupled with nano HPLC/MS/MS. A total of 1884 lysine succinylation sites on 373 mitochondrial proteins were identified...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Xingjian Liu, Yinü Li, Xiaoyuan Hu, Yongzhu Yi, Zhifang Zhang
The baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) has been investigated as a possible tool for gene therapy, but its inhibition by complement proteins in human serum limits its applicability. Here, we used the baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) to construct a gene delivery vector in which a reporter gene is driven by a cytomegalovirus IE promoter. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and luciferase reporter genes were used to test the efficiency of gene delivery...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
Shahid Ud Din Wani, Gangadharappa Hosahalli Veerabhadrappa
BACKGROUND: Silk Fibroin (SF), a natural source material obtained from Bombyx mori, has been widely enlisted as biomaterial having outstanding mechanical properties. SF has been reported one of the propitious bio-polymer for various drug delivery systems, as well as drug delivery vehicle. OBJECTIVE: This review is summarised to provide in comprehensive applications of silk fibroin in various drug delivery systems, and also to present the current opportunities and requirements by furnishing a definitive assessment on silk fibroin as a polymer...
December 27, 2017: Current Drug Targets
Xian-Zhi Meng, Bo Luo, Xiang-You Tang, Qiang He, Ting-Rong Xiong, Zhuo-Ya Fang, Guoqing Pan, Tian Li, Ze-Yang Zhou
Microsporidia Nosema bombycis CQ1 can be vertically transmitted in silkworm Bombyx mori but Vairimorpha necatrix BM cannot. Therefore, the pathological differences in silkworm infected with these two microsporidia required clarification. Here, we compared the virulence of N. bombycis CQ1 and V. necatrix BM against silkworm. The pathological characteristics in intestine, testis and ovary were surveyed using paraffin sections, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Our data firstly showed that the virulence of V...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Rima Shahin, Masashi Iwanaga, Hideki Kawasaki
We aimed to clarify the regulation of cuticular protein (CP) gene expression and the resulting insect cuticular layers by comparing the expression pattern of CP genes and related ecdysone-responsive transcription factor (ERTF) genes, the coding amino acid sequences of CP genes, and histological observation. The expression of CP and ERTF genes during pupal and adult stages was examined via qPCR. The number of CP genes expressed during pupal and adult stages decreased as compared to that during prepupal to pupation stages, particularly in CPRs...
December 16, 2017: Gene
Yuncai Liu, Hang Su, Rongqiao Li, Xiaotong Li, Yusong Xu, Xiangping Dai, Yanyan Zhou, Huabing Wang
BACKGROUND: Heat tolerance is a key parameter that affects insect distribution and abundance. Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a devastating pest of mulberry in the main mulberry-growing regions and can cause tremendous losses to sericulture by directly feeding on mulberry leaves and transmitting viruses to Bombyx mori. Moreover, G. pyloalis shows a prominent capacity for adaptation to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations and can survive several hours under high temperature...
December 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
L Liu, M Qu, J Yang, Q Yang
The ectoperitrophic space (EcPS) between the insect midgut epithelial cells and the peritrophic matrix is an unexplored, clean resource for concentrated proteins secreted by the midgut epithelial cells, which offers an ideal opportunity to uncover the midgut functions. In this study, we used Bombyx mori as a model organism and performed comparative proteomic analyses of the secreted proteins in the EcPS at the feeding and wandering stages. A total of 372 proteins were identified from both stages and 70 proteins were predicted to be secreted...
December 18, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Jing Zhang, Hongmei Liu, Zhipeng Sun, Jianjun Xie, Guohua Zhong, Xin Yi
Azadirachtin is a bio-rational insecticide used as an antifeedant and growth disruption agent against many insect species. However, recent studies have shown that there is a potential risk of this compound harming some beneficial insects. In such cases its application does not normally lead to death, but it may result in altered developmental regulation. Therefore, it is essential to obtain toxicological data to understand the mechanism of such sub-lethal effects, especially where they relate to important beneficial insects...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Takatsugu Miyazaki, Masaaki Ishizaki, Hideo Dohra, Sungjo Park, Andre Terzic, Tatsuya Kato, Tetsuya Kohsaka, Enoch Y Park
Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is a member of the relaxin/insulin superfamily and is expressed in testicular Leydig cells. Essential for fetal testis descent, INSL3 has been implicated in testicular and sperm function in adult males via interaction with relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2). The INSL3 is typically prepared using chemical synthesis or overexpression in Escherichia coli followed by oxidative refolding and proteolysis. Here, we expressed and purified full-length porcine INSL3 (pINSL3) using a silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid expression system...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Saima Kausar, Yu-Xuan Sun, Ji Wu Tian, Bao-Jian Zhu, Chao-Liang Liu
The SOCS (Suppressor of cytokine signaling) family members are a potential negative regulator of cytokine signaling pathway and play a key role to maintain immunological functions in animals. SOCS-6 is an important member of the SOCS family, however the functions of this gene have rarely been explored among eukaryotes. Herein, we cloned and expressed SOCS-6 gene from Bombyx mori (Dazao) (BmSOCS-6), and anti-rabbit antibodies were prepared using purified recombinant BmSOCS-6 protein. Under normal physiological conditions, the BmSOCS-6 expression was observed at varied levels in six tissues, with most greatly expressed in fat body and hemocytes...
December 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhenhu Guo, Wensheng Xie, Qin Gao, Dan Wang, Fei Gao, Shengrong Li, Lingyun Zhao
Possessing excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and good reactive activity, silk fiber has been attracting great attention in biomedicine including surgical suture, drug delivery and tissue engineering. So far, several protocols have been developed to further improve the mechanical properties of the silk fiber. In current study, a novel in suit biomineralization strategy was developed to produce nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) strengthened silk fiber based on the natural alkaline condition in the body of silkworm by feeding the silkworm with ion precursors of Ca2+ and PO43- ions...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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