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Bombyx mori

Pingyang Wang, Simin Bi, Fan Wu, Pingzhen Xu, Xingjia Shen, Qiaoling Zhao
Molting is an important physiological process in the larval stage of Bombyx mori and is controlled by various hormones and peptides. The silkworm mutant that exhibits the phenotype of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2) is incapable of molting in the 2nd instar and dies after seven or more days. The ecdysone titer in the nm2 mutant is lower than that in the wildtype, and the mutant can be rescued by feeding with 20E and cholesterol. The results of positional cloning indicated that structural alteration of BmCPG10 is responsible for the phenotype of the nm2 mutant...
2017: PloS One
Ulyana Shimanovich, Francesco S Ruggeri, Erwin De Genst, Jozef Adamcik, Teresa P Barros, David Porter, Thomas Müller, Raffaele Mezzenga, Christopher M Dobson, Fritz Vollrath, Chris Holland, Tuomas P J Knowles
Naturally spun silks generate fibres with unique properties, including strength, elasticity and biocompatibility. Here we describe a microfluidics-based strategy to spin liquid native silk, obtained directly from the silk gland of Bombyx mori silkworms, into micron-scale capsules with controllable geometry and variable levels of intermolecular β-sheet content in their protein shells. We demonstrate that such micrococoons can store internally the otherwise highly unstable liquid native silk for several months and without apparent effect on its functionality...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
Tatsuya Kato, Kohei Itagaki, Mai Yoshimoto, Rikito Hiramatsu, Hamizah Suhaimi, Tetsuya Kohsaka, Enoch Y Park
Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) can easily enter and transduce foreign genes into mammalian cells, but these functions are difficult for Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). In this study, we investigated the induction of antibody production in mice immunized with an engineered BmNPV. The GP64 of BmNPV (BmGP64) was replaced with the GP64 of AcMNPV (AcGP64); this construct, designated BmNPVΔbgp/AcGP64, displays AcGP64 on the surface of BmNPV. The Neospora caninum antigen (NcSRS2) expression cassette, consisting of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter and NcSRS2 from N...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Tomohide Uno, Masayuki Furutani, Katsuhiko Sakamoto, Yuichi Uno, Kengo Kanamaru, Akira Mizoguchi, Susumu Hiragaki, Makio Takeda
Rab proteins are small monomeric GTPases/GTP-binding proteins, which form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily. The different Rab GTPases are localized to the cytosolic face of specific intracellular membranes, where they function as regulators of distinct steps in membrane trafficking. RabX4 is an insect-specific Rab protein that has no close homolog in vertebrates. There is little information about insect-specific Rab proteins. RabX4 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. Antibodies against Bombyx mori RabX4 were produced in rabbits for western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry...
July 14, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
P-J Yang, M-Y Zhan, C Ye, X-Q Yu, X-J Rao
Peptidoglycan is the major bacterial component recognized by the insect immune system. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that recognize peptidoglycans and modulate innate immune responses. Some PGRPs retain N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Enzyme Commission number: activity to hydrolyse bacterial peptidoglycans. Others have lost the enzymatic activity and work only as immune receptors. They are all important modulators for innate immunity. Here, we report the cloning and functional analysis of PGRP-S4, a short-form PGRP from the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori...
July 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Wentao Fan, Yangsheng Zhong, Mingyue Qin, Bimin Lin, Fangyan Chen, Huichao Yan, Wenchu Li, Jianrong Lin
Differentially expressed microRNAs were detected to explore the molecular mechanisms of diapause termination. The total small RNA of diapause-destined silkworm eggs and HCl-treated eggs was extracted and then sequenced using HiSeq high-throughput method. 44 novel miRNAs were discovered. Compared to those in the diapause-destined eggs, 61 miRNAs showed significant changes in the acid-treated eggs, with 23 being up-regulated and 38 being down-regulated. The potential target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted by miRanda...
2017: PloS One
Xinhai Ye, Liwen Yang, David Stanley, Fei Li, Qi Fang
Among its other biological roles, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC, encoded by two ace in most insects, catalyses the breakdown of acetylcholine, thereby terminating synaptic transmission. ace1 encodes the synaptic enzyme and ace2 has other essential actions in many insect species, such as Chilo suppressalis and Plutella xylostella. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been domesticated for more than two thousand years and its aces have no history of pesticide exposure. Here, we investigated the functional differences between two ace genes, BmAce1 and BmAce2, in the silkworm...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ying Wang, Ruizhi Zhang, Jonas Barandun, Huihui Du, Deming Chen, Yuping Jia, Yue Song, Bettina Vossbrinck, Chong Li, Zeyang Zhou, Charles R Vossbrinck, Heng Xiang
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a key enzyme in the protection of cells from oxidative stress. A tandem duplication of the MnSOD gene (NbMnSOD1 and NbMnSOD2) in the genome of Nosema bombycis, a parasite of the silkworm Bombyx mori, was previously identified. Here we compare the protein structures of NbMnSOD1 and NbMnSOD2 and characterize these two proteins in terms of cellular localization, timing of transcription, protein structure and enzyme activity. Despite a similarity in the primary sequence of NbMnSOD1 and NbMnSOD2, the latter shows a remarkable degree of amino acid sequence difference on the protein's surface and in the active site, where there is a substitution of a phenylalanine for a histidine in NbMnSOD2...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Xiao-Long Dong, Yun-Fei Wu, Tai-Hang Liu, Wei Wang, Cai-Xia Pan, Malavika Adur, Min-Juan Zhang, Min-Hui Pan, Cheng Lu
Our previous studies have indicated that Bombyx mori receptor expression enhancing protein a (BmREEPa) could participate in BV invasion in vivo and in vitro, however, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we screened BmREEPa interacting protein through co-immunoprecipitation and finally identified a membrane protein, Bombyx mori patched domain containing protein (BmPtchd, KR338939), which contains receptor activity. Further studies showed that BmPtchd, BmREEPa and Glycoprotein 64 could form a protein complex and the expression level of BmREEPa and BmPtchd could be affected by cellular cholesterol level...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qian Zhao, Dongna Ma, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
BACKGROUND: Structural variation among genomes is now viewed to be as important as single nucleoid polymorphisms in influencing the phenotype and evolution of a species. Segmental duplication (SD) is defined as segments of DNA with homologous sequence. RESULTS: Here, we performed a systematic analysis of segmental duplications (SDs) among five lepidopteran reference genomes (Plutella xylostella, Danaus plexippus, Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta and Heliconius melpomene) to understand their potential impact on the evolution of these species...
July 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Guanfeng Xu, Jie Zhang, Hao Lyu, Jia Liu, Yang Ding, Qili Feng, Qisheng Song, Sichun Zheng
Insect chitin synthase A (CHSA) is an epidermis-specific enzyme that plays an essential role in insect development. In this study, the function and regulation of CHSA-2b, an alternative splicing variant of Bombxy mori CHSA that is discovered only in Lepidopteran insects, were investigated. Analysis of mRNA level showed that BmCHSA-2b was responsive to 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in pupal wing unlike BmCHSA-2a, which shares almost the identical sequence as BmCHSA-2b except the first 31 amino acids, suggesting that the expression of these two alternative splicing variants is driven by different promoters of CHSA gene...
July 1, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tanmoy Sarkar, Thallapally Mogili, Vankadara Sivaprasad
Mulberry (Morus spp.), being an economically important tree, is cultivated in China, India, Thailand, Brazil, Uzbekistan and other Countries across the globe, for its leaves to feed monophagous mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori). The sustainability of silk industry is directly correlated with the production and continuous supply of high-quality mulberry leaves. In India, it is cultivated on large scale in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions under irrigated conditions for silkworm rearing. Drought, low temperature, high salinity and alkalinity, being experienced in widespread areas, are the major abiotic stresses, causing reduction in its potential foliage yield and quality...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
Lei He, Xiaolong Hu, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Fei Chen, Liyuan Zhu, Sulan Kuang, Guangli Cao, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
The genome of Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) contains 10 double stranded RNA segments (S1-S10). The segment 7 (S7) encodes 50kDa protein which is considered as a structural protein. The expression pattern and function of p50 in the virus life cycle are still unclear. In this study, the viral structural protein 7 (VP7) polyclonal antibody was prepared with immunized mouse to explore the presence of small VP7 gene-encoded proteins in Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus. The expression pattern of vp7 gene was investigated by its overexpression in BmN cells...
June 28, 2017: Gene
ZhiHong Li, GuoQing Pan, ZhenGang Ma, Bing Han, Bin Sun, Qi Ni, Jie Chen, Tian Li, TongBao Liu, MengXian Long, ChunFeng Li, ZeYang Zhou
Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular parasite, which can cause pébrine disease. To investigate the effects of N. bombycis infection, 5(th)-instar silkworms were challenged with N. bombycis isolate CQ1, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis was performed to analyze the differentially expressed proteins in infected and uninfected silkworm fat bodies 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-infection (dpi). 46 differentially expressed proteins were identified at the 5 time points using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The changed proteins mainly involved in immune response, energy metabolism, and molecular synthesis...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Kelsey DeFrates, Theodore Markiewicz, Kayla Callaway, Ye Xue, John Stanton, David Salas-de la Cruz, Xiao Hu
Biomaterials made from natural proteins and polysaccharides have become increasingly popular in the biomedical field due to their good biocompatibility and tunable biodegradability. However, the low miscibility of polysaccharides with proteins presents challenges in the creation of protein-polysaccharide composite materials. In this study, neat 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl) ionic liquid was used to regenerate Thailand gold Bombyx mori silk and microcrystalline cellulose blended films. This solvent was found to not only effectively dissolve both natural polymers, but also preserve the structure and integrity of the polymers...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jie Wang, Shuxu Yang, Chenlin Li, Yungen Miao, Liangjun Zhu, Chuanbin Mao, Mingying Yang
Bombyx mori (B. mori) silk fibroin and sericin can act as a great candidate in delivering drugs or other bioactive substances. Silica also has a great application in the field of drug delivery. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on the design of a nanocomposite made of silk protein and silica for drug delivery. Here, for the first time, we used B. mori silk fibroin (SF) and sericin (SS), self-assembled into nanospheres and nanofibers in situ in the aqueous solution, respectively, as a biotemplate to regulate the nucleation and self-assembly of silica for designing anticancer drug delivery...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tingting Chen, Zhanqi Dong, Nan Hu, Zhigang Hu, Feifan Dong, Yaming Jiang, Jun Li, Peng Chen, Cheng Lu, Minhui Pan
Baculovirus LEF-11 is a small nuclear protein that is involved in viral late gene transcription and DNA replication. However, the characteristics of its nuclear localization signal and its impact on viral DNA replication are unknown. In the present study, systemic bioinformatics analysis showed that the baculovirus LEF-11 contains monopartite and bipartite classical nuclear localization signal sequences (cNLSs), which were also detected in a few alphabaculovirus species. Localization of representative LEF-11 proteins of four baculovirus genera indicated that the nuclear localization characteristics of baculovirus LEF-11 coincided with the predicted results...
June 23, 2017: Virus Research
Shozo Honda, Phillipe Loher, Keisuke Morichika, Megumi Shigematsu, Takuya Kawamura, Yoriko Kirino, Isidore Rigoutsos, Yohei Kirino
Piwi proteins and their bound Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are predominantly expressed in the germline and play crucial roles in germline development by silencing transposons and other targets. Bombyx mori BmN4 cells are culturable germ cells that equip the piRNA pathway. Because of the scarcity of piRNA-expressing culturable cells, BmN4 cells are being utilized for the analyses of piRNA biogenesis. We here report that the piRNA biogenesis in BmN4 cells is regulated by cell density. As cell density increased, the abundance of Piwi proteins and piRNA biogenesis factors was commonly upregulated, resulting in an increased number of perinuclear nuage-like granules where Piwi proteins localize...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Guofang Shi, Pengfei Zhan, Weiming Jin, JianMing Fei, Lihua Zhao
Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically beneficial insect. Its growth and development are regulated by endogenous hormones. In the present study, we found that feeding titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) caused a significant increase of body size. TiO2 NP stimulated the transcription of several genes, including the insulin-related hormone bombyxin, PI3K/Akt/TOR (where PI3K is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and TOR is target of rapamycin), and the adenosine 5'-monophosphateactivated protein kinase (AMPK)/target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways...
August 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Ami Tachibana, Rina Hamajima, Moe Tomizaki, Takuya Kondo, Yoshie Nanba, Michihiro Kobayashi, Hayato Yamada, Motoko Ikeda
Baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) replicates in both Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 and Trichoplusia ni Tn368 cells, whereas AcMNPV defective in hcf-1 (host cell-factor 1) gene productively infects only Sf21 cells, indicating that HCF-1 is indispensable for the AcMNPV productive infection of Tn368 cells. Here, we demonstrated that HCF-1 protein transiently expressed in Tn368 cells promotes the DNA synthesis of Hyphantria cunea MNPV (HycuMNPV), Orygia pseudotsugata MNPV and Bombyx mori NPV, which are normally unable to replicate in Tn368 cells...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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