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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224717/tissue-specific-expression-and-silencing-phenotypes-of-mitochondrial-phosphate-carrier-paralogues-in-several-insect-species
#1
R Sugahara, A Jouraku, T Nakakura, M Minaba, T Yamamoto, Y Shinohara, H Miyoshi, T Shiotsuki
The mitochondrial phosphate carrier gene (PiC) encodes a membrane protein that mediates the supply of inorganic phosphate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix. This substrate-specific transport system plays an important role in efficient ATP synthesis. Mammals appear to have only one PiC with two alternative splicing variants whose functional differences remain unclear. The present study is the first to characterize the multiple genes that encode PiC in insects. Bombyx mori was found to have two PiC paralogues, one ubiquitous and one testis-specific, the latter seeming to be present only in Lepidoptera...
February 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220960/a-comparative-investigation-of-bombyx-mori-silk-fibroin-hydrogels-generated-by-chemical-and-enzymatic-crosslinking
#2
Traian V Chirila, Shuko Suzuki, Chloé Papolla
Fibroin, the major proteinaceous component of the silk fiber produced by larvae of the domesticated silk moth (Bombyx mori), has been widely investigated as a biomaterial for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Following sol-gel transition, silk fibroin solutions can generate hydrogels that present certain advantages when employed as biomaterials, especially if they are crosslinked. The subject of this study was the self-crosslinking of silk fibroin through a process induced by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, a method only recently proposed and scarcely reported...
February 21, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219118/bmcalpains-are-involved-in-autophagy-and-apoptosis-during-metamorphosis-and-after-starvation-in-bombyx-mori
#3
Hui-Yu Yi, Wan-Ying Yang, Wen-Mei Wu, Xing-Xia Li, Xiao-Juan Deng, Qing-Rong Li, Yang Cao, Yang-Jin Zhong, Ya-Dong Huang
Apoptosis and autophagy play crucial roles during Bombyx mori metamorphosis and in response to various adverse conditions, including starvation. Recently, calpain, one of the major intracellular proteases, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis and autophagy in mammals. BmATG5 and BmATG6 have been identified to mediate apoptosis following autophagy induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone and starvation in B. mori. However, B. mori calpains and their functions remain unclear. In this study, phylogenetic analysis of calpains from B...
November 7, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216040/differentially-expressed-genes-in-the-silk-gland-of-silkworm-bombyx-mori-treated-with-tio2-nps
#4
Bin Xue, Fanchi Li, Jingsheng Hu, Jianghai Tian, Jinxin Li, Xiaoyu Cheng, Jiahuan Hu, Bing Li
Silk gland is a silkworm organ where silk proteins are synthesized and secreted. Dietary supplement of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) promotes silk protein synthesis in silkworms. In this study, digital gene expression (DGE) tag was used to analyze the gene expression profile of the posterior silk gland of silkworms that were fed with TiO2 NPs. In total, 5,702,823 and 6,150,719 clean tags, 55,096 and 74,715 distinct tags were detected in TiO2 NPs treated and control groups, respectively. Compared with the control, TiO2 NPs treated silkworms showed 306 differentially expressed genes, including 137 upregulated genes and 169 downregulated genes...
February 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208575/rna-seq-analyses-for-two-silkworm-strains-reveals-insight-into-their-susceptibility-and-resistance-to-beauveria-bassiana-infection
#5
Dongxu Xing, Qiong Yang, Liang Jiang, Qingrong Li, Yang Xiao, Mingqiang Ye, Qingyou Xia
The silkworm Bombyx mori is an economically important species. White muscardine caused by Beauveria bassiana is the main fungal disease in sericulture, and understanding the silkworm responses to B. bassiana infection is of particular interest. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses in two silkworm strains Haoyue (HY, sensitive to B. bassiana) and Kang 8 (K8, resistant to B. bassiana) using an RNA-seq approach. For each strain, three biological replicates for immersion treatment, two replicates for injection treatment and three untreated controls were collected to generate 16 libraries for sequencing...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205050/composite-electrospun-scaffold-derived-from-recombinant-fibroin-of-weaver-ant-oecophylla-smaragdina-as-cell-substratum
#6
Arunrat Khamhaengpol, Sineenat Siri
Unlike silkworm (Bombyx mori) fibroin (SF), weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) fibroin (WAF) is much less studied. Due to differences in amino acid composition and protein structure, this work aimed to produce the recombinant WAF protein, designated as WAF1, and investigated on its potential application as a biomaterial for producing a cell-substratum. The composite electrospun scaffolds derived from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), WAF1, and extracted SF were produced by electrospinning. SEM images revealed non-woven and smooth fibers of PVA, PVA-WAF1, and PVA-SF scaffolds with the average diameters of 204...
February 15, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199361/bombyx-mori-and-aedes-aegypti-form-multi-functional-immune-complexes-that-integrate-pattern-recognition-melanization-coagulants-and-hemocyte-recruitment
#7
Dennis R Phillips, Kevin D Clark
The innate immune system of insects responds to wounding and pathogens by mobilizing multiple pathways that provide both systemic and localized protection. Key localized responses in hemolymph include melanization, coagulation, and hemocyte encapsulation, which synergistically seal wounds and envelop and destroy pathogens. To be effective, these pathways require a targeted deposition of their components to provide protection without compromising the host. Extensive research has identified a large number of the effectors that comprise these responses, but questions remain regarding their post-translational processing, function, and targeting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194425/molecular-cloning-bioinformatic-analysis-and-expression-of-bombyx-mori-lebocin-5-gene-related-to-beauveria-bassiana-infection
#8
Dingding Lü, Chengxiang Hou, Guangxing Qin, Kun Gao, Tian Chen, Xijie Guo
A full-length cDNA of lebocin 5 (BmLeb5) was first cloned from silkworm, Bombyx mori, by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The BmLeb5 gene is 808 bp in length and the open reading frame encodes a 179-amino acid hydroxyproline-rich peptide. Bioinformatic analysis results showed that BmLeb5 owns an O-glycosylation site and four RXXR motifs as other lebocins. Sequence similarity and phylogenic analysis results indicated that lebocins form a multiple gene family in silkworm as cecropins. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that BmLeb5 was highest expressed in the fat body...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188867/bombyx-mori-serpin6-regulates-prophenoloxidase-activity-and-the-expression-of-antimicrobial-proteins
#9
Bing Li, Hai-Zhong Yu, Chong-Jun Ye, Yan Ma, Xing Li, Tao Fan, Fu-Sheng Chen, Jia-Ping Xu
Serpins are a family of serine protease inhibitors that are found widely in insects. They play an important role in insect physiological responses, such as innate immunity and development. In this study, we obtained the Bombyx mori serpin6 (BmSerpin6) sequence from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the silkworm genome database (SilkDB). Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) results showed that BmSerpin6 was expressed highly in hemocytes, the midgut, and the fat body. After challenging with Micrococcus luteus (Mi) and Serratia marcescens (Sm), the BmSerpin6 expression level was induced significantly...
February 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188725/physiological-correlates-of-chill-susceptibility-in-lepidoptera
#10
Mads Kuhlmann Andersen, Signe Overgaard Jensen, Johannes Overgaard
The majority of insects enter a state of reversible coma if temperature is lowered sufficiently. If the cold treatment is not to severe these insects recover gradually when returned to benign temperatures in a time-dependent manner that often depends on the duration and intensity of the cold exposure. Previous studies have associated these phenotypes to changes in membrane potential (Vm) and ion balance, and especially hemolymph [K(+)] is known to be of importance for the recovery time. In the present study we examined this link in three species of Lepidoptera as insects from this order are known to possess resting hemolymph [K(+)] that would severely compromise Vm in other insects...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185941/expression-map-of-a-complete-set-of-gustatory-receptor-genes-in-chemosensory-organs-of-bombyx-mori
#11
Huizhen Guo, Tingcai Cheng, Zhiwei Chen, Liang Jiang, Youbing Guo, Jianqiu Liu, Shenglong Li, Kiyoko Taniai, Kiyoshi Asaoka, Keiko Kadono-Okuda, Kallare P Arunkumar, Jiaqi Wu, Hirohisa Kishino, Huijie Zhang, Rakesh K Seth, Karumathil P Gopinathan, Nicolas Montagné, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Marian R Goldsmith, Qingyou Xia, Kazuei Mita
Most lepidopteran species are herbivores, and interaction with host plants affects their gene expression and behavior as well as their genome evolution. Gustatory receptors (Grs) are expected to mediate host plant selection, feeding, oviposition and courtship behavior. However, due to their high diversity, sequence divergence and extremely low level of expression it has been difficult to identify precisely a complete set of Grs in Lepidoptera. By manual annotation and BAC sequencing, we improved annotation of 43 gene sequences compared with previously reported Grs in the most studied lepidopteran model, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and identified 7 new tandem copies of BmGr30 on chromosome 7, bringing the total number of BmGrs to 76...
February 6, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183638/electrospinning-of-silk-fibroin-from-all-aqueous-solution-at-low-concentration
#12
Yuki Kishimoto, Hideaki Morikawa, Shigeru Yamanaka, Yasushi Tamada
Non-woven mats of Bombyx mori silk fibroin were fabricated using electrospinning with an all aqueous solution at <10wt% without any co-existing water soluble polymer such as PEO. The fibroin aqueous solution electrospinnability was affected by the fibroin molecular weight and the spinning solution pH. Hot-water treatment without any alkaline reagent or soap produced higher molecular weight fibroin than the typical degumming process did. The higher molecular weight fibroin provided good electrospinnability...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181432/mimicking-hierarchical-complexity-of-the-osteochondral-interface-using-electrospun-silk-bioactive-glass-composites
#13
Joseph Christakiran M, Philip J T Reardon, Rocktotpal Konwarh, Jonathan C Knowles, Biman B Mandal
The anatomical complexity and slow regeneration capacity of hyaline cartilage at the osteochondral interface pose a great challenge in the repair of osteochondral defects (OCD). In this study, we utilized the processing feasibility offered by the sol derived 70S bioactive glass and silk fibroin (mulberry Bombyx mori and endemic Indian non-mulberry Antheraea assama), in fabricating a well-integrated, biomimetic scaffolding matrix with a coherent interface. Differences in surface properties such as wettability and amorphousness between the two silk groups resulted in profound variations in cell attachment and extracellular matrix protein deposition...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175946/integrin-beta-and-receptor-for-activated-protein-kinase-c-are-involved-in-the-cell-entry-of-bombyx-mori-cypovirus
#14
Yiling Zhang, Guangli Cao, Liyuan Zhu, Fei Chen, Mian Sahib Zar, Simei Wang, Xiaolong Hu, Yuhong Wei, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
Receptor-mediated endocytosis using a β1 integrin-dependent internalization was considered as the primary mechanism for the initiation of mammalian reovirus infection. Bombyx mori cypovirus (BmCPV) is a member of Reoviridae family which mainly infects the midgut epithelium of silkworm; the cell entry of BmCPV is poorly explored. In this study, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA), and BmCPV-protein interaction on the polyvinylidene difluoride membrane (BmCPV-PI-PVDF) methods were employed to screen the interacting proteins of BmCPV, and several proteins including integrin beta and receptor for activated protein kinase C (RACK1) were identified as the candidate interacting proteins for establishing the infection of BmCPV...
February 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174072/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analyses-of-a-diapause-hormone-receptor-like-gene-in-parthenogenetic-artemia
#15
Hui-Li Ye, Dong-Rui Li, Jin-Shu Yang, Dian-Fu Chen, Stephanie De Vos, Marnik Vuylsteke, Patrick Sorgeloos, Gilbert Van Stappen, Peter Bossier, Hiromichi Nagasawa, Wei-Jun Yang
In arthropods, mature females under certain conditions produce and release encysted gastrula embryos that enter diapause, a state of obligate dormancy. The process is presumably regulated by diapause hormone (DH) and diapause hormone receptor (DHR) that were identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori and other insects. However, the molecular structure and function of DHR in crustaceans remains unknown. Here, a DHR-like gene from parthenogenetic Artemia (Ar-DHR) was isolated and sequenced. The cDNA sequence consists of 1410bp with a 1260-bp open reading frame encoding a protein consisting of 420 amino acid residues...
February 4, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168773/characterization-of-an-entomopathogenic-fungi-target-integument-protein-bombyx-mori-single-domain-von-willebrand-factor-type-c-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#16
F Han, A Lu, Y Yuan, W Huang, B T Beerntsen, J Huang, E Ling
The insect cuticle works as the first line of defence to protect insects from pathogenic infections and water evaporation. However, the old cuticle must be shed in order to enter the next developmental stage. During each ecdysis, moulting fluids are produced and secreted into the area among the old and new cuticles. In a previous study, the protein Bombyx mori single domain von Willebrand factor type C (BmSVWC; BGIBMGA011399) was identified in the moulting fluids of Bo. mori and demonstrated to regulate ecdysis...
February 7, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160078/proteomic-analysis-of-bmn-cell-lipid-rafts-reveals-roles-in-bombyx-mori-nucleopolyhedrovirus-infection
#17
Xiaolong Hu, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Dhiraj Kumar, Fei Chen, Liyuan Zhu, Sulan Kuang, Renyu Xue, Guangli Cao, Chengliang Gong
The mechanism of how Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) enters cells is unknown. The primary components of membrane lipid rafts are proteins and cholesterol, and membrane lipid rafts are thought to be an active region for host-viral interactions. However, whether they contribute to the entry of BmNPV into silkworm cells remains unclear. In this study, we explored the membrane protein components of lipid rafts from BmN cells with mass spectrometry (MS). Proteins and cholesterol were investigated after establishing infection with BmNPV in BmN cells...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144697/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-p38-mapk-gene-and-protein-in-aquatic-midge-chironomus-riparius-diptera-chironomidae-exposed-to-environmental-contaminants
#18
Sun-Young Park, Jinhee Choi
P38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), an important signaling protein involved in various cellular processes, including stress responses, has been well characterized in model organisms. P38 has been identified in a number of insects, including the genus Drosophila; however, its homologue in Chironomus riparius has not yet been identified. In this study, we identified and characterized p38 MAPK (Crp38) gene in C. riparius using a transcriptome database that was previously generated 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing...
January 31, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134300/clone-and-functional-analysis-of-seryl-trna-synthetase-and-tyrosyl-trna-synthetase-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#19
Jingsheng Hu, Jianghai Tian, Fanchi Li, Bin Xue, Jiahuan Hu, Xiaoyu Cheng, Jinxin Li, Weide Shen, Bing Li
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are the key enzymes for protein synthesis. Glycine, alanine, serine and tyrosine are the major amino acids composing fibroin of silkworm. Among them, the genes of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) and glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) have been cloned. In this study, the seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) genes from silkworm were cloned. Their full length are 1709 bp and 1868 bp and contain open reading frame (ORF) of 1485 bp and 1575 bp, respectively...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130459/structural-and-mechanical-properties-of-cocoons-of-antherina-suraka-saturniidae-lepidoptera-an-endemic-species-used-for-silk-production-in-madagascar
#20
Maminirina Randrianandrasana, Wen-Yen Wu, David A Carney, Amy J Wagoner Johnson, May R Berenbaum
Antherina suraka Boisduval (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) produces a silken cocoon that has been the focus of efforts to create a commercial wild silk industry in Madagascar. In this study, structural and mechanical properties of the cocoon of A. suraka from two sites were measured and compared to the cocoon of Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae, Lepidoptera) the world's most common source for silk. Results of environmental scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing showed that the silk sheet of A. suraka cocoon is less compact, with greater thickness and lower tensile strength and stiffness than that of B...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
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