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Bombyx mori

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933984/differentiation-of-lepidoptera-scale-cells-from-epidermal-stem-cells-followed-by-ecdysone-regulated-dna-duplication-and-scale-secreting
#1
Shenglei Yuan, Wuren Huang, Lei Geng, Brenda T Beerntsen, Hongsheng Song, Erjun Ling
Integuments are the first line to protect insects from physical damage and pathogenic infection. In lepidopteran insects, they undergo distinct morphology changes such as scale formation during metamorphosis. However, we know little about integument development and scale formation during this stage. Here, we use the silkworm, Bombyx mori, as a model and show that stem cells in the integument of each segment, but not intersegmental membrane, divide into two scale precursor cells during the spinning stage. In young pupae, the scale precursor cell divides again...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928362/analysis-of-the-pressure-requirements-for-silk-spinning-reveals-a-pultrusion-dominated-process
#2
James Sparkes, Chris Holland
Silks are remarkable materials with desirable mechanical properties, yet the fine details of natural production remain elusive and subsequently inaccessible to biomimetic strategies. Improved knowledge of the natural processes could therefore unlock development of a host of bio inspired fibre spinning systems. Here, we use the Chinese silkworm Bombyx mori to review the pressure requirements for natural spinning and discuss the limits of a biological extrusion domain. This provides a target for finite element analysis of the flow of silk proteins, with the aim of bringing the simulated and natural domains into closer alignment...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928067/silk-fibres-grafted-with-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-hema-and-4-hydroxybutyl-acrylate-hba-for-biomedical-applications
#3
Paola Taddei, Michele Di Foggia, Simona Martinotti, Elia Ranzato, Irene Carmagnola, Valeria Chiono, Masuhiro Tsukada
Silk fibroin may be chemically modified by grafting, with the purpose of improving its properties according to the desired function. In this study, silk fabrics from Bombyx mori silk fibres were grafted with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), as well as a binary mixture of HEMA and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (HBA). The samples were then electrospun from trifluoroacetic acid and treated with aqueous methanol. The % weight gains ascribable to HEMA and HBA were successfully determined through Raman spectroscopy...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924263/refinement-of-ectopic-protein-expression-through-the-gal4-uas-system-in-bombyx-mori-application-to-behavioral-and-developmental-studies
#4
Chiho Hara, Koudai Morishita, Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Akihisa Mikami, Keiro Uchino, Takeshi Sakurai, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hideki Sezutsu, Masafumi Iwami, Taketoshi Kiya
Silkmoth, Bombyx mori, is one of the important model insects in which transgenic techniques and the GAL4/UAS system are applicable. However, due to cytotoxicity and low transactivation activity of GAL4, effectiveness of the GAL4/UAS system and its application in B. mori are still limited. In the present study, we refined the previously reported UAS vector by exploiting transcriptional and translational enhancers, and achieved 200-fold enhancement of reporter GFP fluorescence in the GAL4/UAS system. Enhanced protein expression of membrane-targeted GFP and calcium indicator protein (GCaMP5G) drastically improved visualization of fine neurite structures and neural activity, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922901/localization-of-an-aldo-keto-reductase-akr2e4-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-lepidoptera-bombycidae
#5
K Yamamoto, Y Ozakiya, T Uno
The aldo-keto reductase AKR2E4 reduces 3-dehydroecdysone to ecdysone in the silkworm Bombyx mori L. In this study, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the level of AKR2E4 mRNA was higher in the testes than in other tissues, and a western immunoblot analysis revealed that the AKR2E4 content in the testes was stage-specific from the fifth larval instar to the pupal stage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the AKR2E4 protein was present in cyst cells associated with sperm cells and spermatocytes...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921805/cytochrome-p450-diversification-and-hostplant-utilization-patterns-in-specialist-and-generalist-moths-birth-death-and-adaptation
#6
Bernarda Calla, Katherine Noble, Reed M Johnson, Kimberly K O Walden, Mary A Schuler, Hugh M Robertson, May R Berenbaum
Across insect genomes, the size of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) gene superfamily varies widely. CYPome size variation has been attributed to reciprocal adaptive radiations in insect detoxification genes in response to plant biosynthetic gene radiations driven by coevolution between herbivores and their chemically defended hostplants. Alternatively, variation in CYPome size may be due to random "birth and death" processes, whereby exponential increase via gene duplications is limited by random decay via gene death or transition via divergence...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918159/identification-of-circular-rna-in-the-bombyx-mori-silk-gland
#7
Huaiyan Gan, Tieshan Feng, Yuqian Wu, Chun Liu, Qingyou Xia, Tingcai Cheng
Bombyx mori is an economically important holometabolous lepidopteran insect. In B. mori endogenous noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs play crucial biological functions in metamorphosis and sex determination. In addition, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently identified as noncoding RNAs in most common model organisms and show potential as gene regulators. However, to date, there have been few studies on the circRNAs present in the B. mori genome conducted to date. Here, we identified 3916 circRNAs by deep circular transcriptome sequencing using the silk gland of B...
September 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898758/modular-flow-chamber-for-engineering-bone-marrow-architecture-and-function
#8
Christian A Di Buduo, Paolo M Soprano, Lorenzo Tozzi, Stefania Marconi, Ferdinando Auricchio, David L Kaplan, Alessandra Balduini
The bone marrow is a soft, spongy, gelatinous tissue found in the hollow cavities of flat and long bones that support hematopoiesis in order to maintain the physiologic turnover of all blood cells. Silk fibroin, derived from Bombyx mori silkworm cocoons, is a promising biomaterial for bone marrow engineering, because of its tunable architecture and mechanical properties, the capacity of incorporating labile compounds without loss of bioactivity and demonstrated ability to support blood cell formation. In this study, we developed a bone marrow scaffold consisting of a modular flow chamber made of polydimethylsiloxane, holding a silk sponge, prepared with salt leaching methods and functionalized with extracellular matrix components...
August 8, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893508/regulation-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-during-embryonic-diapause-process-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#9
Shi-Hong Gu, Hsiao-Yen Hsieh, Pei-Ling Lin
Regulation of protein phosphorylation requires coordinated interactions between protein kinases and protein phosphatases. In the present study, we investigated regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) during the embryonic diapause process of B. mori. An immunobloting analysis showed that Bombyx eggs contained a catalytic C subunit, a major 55-kDa regulatory B subunit (B55/PR55 subunit), and a structural A subunit, with the A and B subunits undergoing differential changes between diapause and non-diapause eggs during embryonic process...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893480/production-of-highly-immunogenic-virus-like-particles-of-bovine-papillomavirus-type-6-in-silkworm-pupae
#10
Satoko Watanabe, Tetsuya Iizuka, Shinichi Hatama, Toru Kanno, Masaji Mase, Tomoyuki Shibahara
Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are the causative agent of bovine teat papillomatosis, which can lead to severe economic losses in dairy cattle. Among the 14 identified BPV genotypes, BPV type 6 (BPV6) is the most frequently detected in teat papilloma lesions, and is therefore thought to play a major role in teat papillomatosis. To develop an effective vaccine against BPV6 infection, we produced virus-like particles of BPV6 (BPV6-VLP) in silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae and purified these by heparin affinity chromatography using a single column...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893182/the-dynamic-landscape-of-gene-regulation-during-bombyx-mori-oogenesis
#11
Qiang Zhang, Wei Sun, Bang-Yong Sun, Yang Xiao, Ze Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oogenesis in the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a complex process involving previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. During this process, follicles show drastic morphological and physiological changes. However, the genome-wide regulatory profiles of gene expression during oogenesis remain to be determined. RESULTS: In this study, we obtained time-series transcriptome data and used these data to reveal the dynamic landscape of gene regulation during oogenesis...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888987/in%C3%A2-vivo-rna-interference-of-bmnhr96-enhances-the-resistance-of-transgenic-silkworm-to-bmnpv
#12
Ji-Gui Yang, Tai-Hang Liu, Xiao-Long Dong, Yun-Fei Wu, Qian Zhang, Liang Zhou, Peng Chen, Cheng Lu, Min-Hui Pan
We previously identified a nuclear hormone receptor gene, BmNHR96, which promotes Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) entry into silkworm cells. In an attempt to create an antiviral silkworm strain for better silk production, we used RNAi to downregulate BmNHR96 in silkworm larvae. We screened the resulting BmNHR96-RNAi silkworm strain (NHR) and also explored the antiviral mechanism in vivo. We found that the survival rate of the NHR strain was higher than that of the Dazao strain, when silkworm larvae were infected with BmNPV via oral ODV infection and BV injection...
September 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887546/metabolomics-differences-between-silkworms-bombyx-mori-reared-on-fresh-mulberry-morus-leaves-or-artificial-diets
#13
Hui-Ling Dong, Sheng-Xiang Zhang, Hui Tao, Zhuo-Hua Chen, Xue Li, Jian-Feng Qiu, Wen-Zhao Cui, Yang-Hu Sima, Wei-Zheng Cui, Shi-Qing Xu
Silkworms (Bombyx mori) reared on artificial diets have great potential applications in sericulture. However, the mechanisms underlying the enhancement of metabolic utilization by altering silkworm nutrition are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the poor development and low silk protein synthesis efficiency of silkworms fed artificial diets. After multi-generational selection of the ingestive behavior of silkworms to artificial diets, we obtained two strains, one of which developed well and another in which almost all its larvae starved to death on the artificial diets...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887014/osiris9a-is-a-major-component-of-silk-fiber-in-lepidopteran-insects
#14
Chun Liu, Wenbo Hu, Tingcai Cheng, Zhangchuan Peng, Kazuei Mita, Qingyou Xia
In a previous high-throughput proteomics study, it was found that the silkworm cocoon contains hundreds of complex proteins, many of which have unknown functions, in addition to fibroins, sericins, and some protease inhibitors. Osiris was one of the proteins with no known function. In this study, we identified the Osiris gene family members and constructed a phylogenetic tree based on the sequences from different species. Our results indicate that the Osiris9 gene subfamily contains six members; it is specifically expressed in lepidopteran insects and has evolved by gene duplication...
September 5, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879017/correction-to-rna-sequencing-reveals-a-complete-but-an-unconventional-type-of-dosage-compensation-in-the-domestic-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#15
Gajula Gopinath, Kuchi Srikeerthana, Archana Tomar, Srikakolapu M Ch Sekhar, Kallare P Arunkumar
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.170261.].
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877691/alternative-moth-eye-nanostructures-antireflective-properties-and-composition-of-dimpled-corneal-nanocoatings-in-silk-moth-ancestors
#16
Mikhail Kryuchkov, Jannis Lehmann, Jakob Schaab, Vsevolod Cherepanov, Artem Blagodatski, Manfred Fiebig, Vladimir L Katanaev
Moth-eye nanostructures are a well-known example of biological antireflective surfaces formed by pseudoregular arrays of nipples and are often used as a template for biomimetic materials. Here, we provide morphological characterization of corneal nanostructures of moths from the Bombycidae family, including strains of domesticated Bombyx mori silk-moth, its wild ancestor Bombyx mandarina, and a more distantly related Apatelodes torrefacta. We find high diversification of the nanostructures and strong antireflective properties they provide...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872696/the-light-cycle-controls-the-hatching-rhythm-in-bombyx-mori-via-negative-feedback-loop-of-the-circadian-oscillator
#17
Hui Tao, Xue Li, Jian-Feng Qiu, Heng-Jiang Liu, Da-Yan Zhang, Feng Chu, Yanghu Sima, Shi-Qing Xu
Hatching behavior is a key target in silkworm (Bombyx mori) rearing, especially for the control of Lepidoptera pests. According to previous research, hatching rhythms appear to be controlled by a clock mechanism that restricts or "gates" hatching to a particular time. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Under 12-h light:12-h dark photoperiod (LD) conditions, the transcriptional levels of the chitinase5 (Cht5) and hatching enzyme-like (Hel) genes, as well as the enzymatic activities of their gene products, oscillated in time with ambient light cycles, as did the transcriptional levels of the cryptochrome 1, cryptochrome 2, period (per), and timeless genes, which are key components of the negative feedback loop of the circadian rhythm...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871778/graphitized-porous-carbon-for-rapid-screening-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-peptide-gamvvh-from-silkworm-pupa-protein-and-molecular-insight-into-inhibition-mechanism
#18
Mengliang Tao, Huaju Sun, Long Liu, Xuan Luo, Guoyou Lin, Renbo Li, Zhenxia Zhao, Zhongxing Zhao
A novel hydrophobic hexapeptide with high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was screened from silkworm pupa protein (SPP) hydrolysate via graphitized porous carbon and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Graphitized porous carbon derived from dopamine, possessing high surface area and high graphitic carbon, was used to rapidly screen and enrich hydrophobic peptides from SPP hydrolysate. The ACE inhibition pattern and mechanism of the purified peptide were also systematically studied by the classic Lineweaver-Burk model and by molecular docking/dynamic simulation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871135/physico-chemical-characterization-of-antheraea-mylitta-silk-mats-for-wound-healing-applications
#19
G H Darshan, Dexu Kong, Julien Gautrot, Shyamkumar Vootla
In the field of plastic reconstructive surgery, development of new innovative matrices for skin repair is in demand. The ideal biomaterial should promote attachment, proliferation and growth of cells. Additionally, it should degrade in an appropriate time period without releasing harmful substances, not exerting a pathological immune response. The materials used should display optimized mechanical properties to sustain cell growth and limit scaffold contraction. Wound healing is a biological process directed towards restoration of tissue that has suffered an injury...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869731/-prokaryotic-expression-purification-and-characterization-of-arginine-kinase-of-bombyx-mori
#20
Huawei He, Yejing Wang, Minjian Zhao, Shuguang Wei, Peng Zhao, Wenchao Jiang, Li'na Liu, Ping Zhao
Arginine kinase (AK) is a key enzyme in energy metabolism of invertebrates and plays an important regulatory role in the life activities such as growth and development, nutrition utilization, immune resistance and stress response. Arginine kinase of Bombyx mori (BmAK) is related to the energy balance and anti-NPV process, but there is little research on its molecular structure and enzymatic properties. We cloned the ORF sequence of BmAK gene, and analyzed chromosomal localization, genomic structure, mRNA structure, secondary and tertiary structure...
July 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
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