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Bombyx mori

Tai-Hang Liu, Yun-Fei Wu, Xiao-Long Dong, Cai-Xia Pan, Guo-Yu Du, Ji-Gui Yang, Wei Wang, Xi-Yan Bao, Peng Chen, Min-Hui Pan, Cheng Lu
Cyclin proteins are the key regulatory and activity partner of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which play pivotal regulatory roles in cell cycle progression. In the present study, we identified a Cyclin L1 and two CDK11 two CDK11 splice variants, CDK11A and CDK11B, from silkworm, Bombyx mori. We determined that both Cyclin L1 and CDK11A/B are nuclear proteins, and further investigations were conducted to elucidate their spatiofunctional features. Cyclin L1 forms a complex with CDK11A/B and were co-localized to the nucleus...
March 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
Rina Hamajima, Michihiro Kobayashi, Motoko Ikeda
We previously demonstrated that ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of Bombyx mori BM-N cells is rapidly degraded upon infection with heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), including Autographa californica multiple NPV (AcMNPV), Hyphantria cunea MNPV, Spodoptera exigua MNPV and S. litura MNPV, and that this response is triggered by viral P143 proteins. The transient expression of P143 proteins from heterologous NPVs was also shown to induce apoptosis and caspase-3-like protease activation in BM-N cells. In the present study, we conducted a transient expression assay using BM-N cells expressing mutant AcMNPV P143 (Ac-P143) proteins and demonstrated that five amino acid residues cooperatively participate in Ac-P143 protein-triggered apoptosis of BM-N cells...
March 15, 2017: Virus Research
Dong-Rui Li, Hui-Li Ye, Jin-Shu Yang, Fan Yang, Mo-Ran Wang, Stephanie De Vos, Marnik Vuylsteke, Patrick Sorgeloos, Gilbert Van Stappen, Peter Bossier, Wei-Jun Yang
The sex of relatively primitive animals such as invertebrates is mostly determined by environmental factors and chromosome ploidy. Heteromorphic chromosomes may also play an important role, as in the ZW system in lepidopterans. However, the mechanisms of these various sex determination systems are still largely undefined. In the present study, a Masculinizer gene (Ar-Masc) was identified in the crustacean Artemia franciscana Kellogg 1906. Sequence analysis revealed that the 1140-bp full-length open reading frame of Ar-Masc encodes a 380-aa protein containing two CCCH-type zinc finger domains having a high degree of shared identities with the MASC protein characterized in the silkworm Bombyx mori, which has been determined to participate in the production of male-specific splice variants...
March 11, 2017: Gene
Zhong-Hua Pan, Ping Wu, Kun Gao, Cheng-Xiang Hou, Guang-Xing Qin, Tao Geng, Xi-Jie Guo
Viral microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play important roles in virus-host interactions. Some RNA virus-encoded miRNAs have been reported to promote viral replication and may be used as potential drug targets. Bombyx mori cypovirus (BmCPV), an important pathogen of silkworm, is a double-stranded RNA virus frequently causing serious damages in sericulture. Research on miRNA encoded by BmCPV may be useful to elucidate the BmCPV-host interaction and to develop new anti-viral methods. In our previous study, small RNA libraries of the midgut of BmCPV-infected silkworm have been generated by deep sequencing and several BmCPV-encoded putative miRNAs were predicted...
March 7, 2017: Virus Research
Cong-Hui Yang, Peng-Cheng Yang, Su-Fang Zhang, Zhi-Yong Shi, Le Kang, Ai-Bing Zhang
Cuticular proteins (CPs) are vital components of the insects' cuticle that support movement and protect insect from adverse environmental conditions. The CPs exist in a large number and diversiform structures, thus, the accurate annotation is the first step to interpreting their roles in insect growth. The rapid development of sequencing technology has simplified the access to the information on protein sequences, especially for non-model species. Dendrolimus punctatus is a Lepidopteran defoliator, and its periodic outbreaks cause severe damage to the coniferous forests...
March 8, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sabine Hänniger, Pascaline Dumas, Gerhard Schöfl, Steffi Gebauer-Jung, Heiko Vogel, Melanie Unbehend, David G Heckel, Astrid T Groot
BACKGROUND: Very little is known on how changes in circadian rhythms evolve. The noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) consists of two strains that exhibit allochronic differentiation in their mating time, which acts as a premating isolation barrier between the strains. We investigated the genetic basis of the strain-specific timing differences to identify the molecular mechanisms of differentiation in circadian rhythms. RESULTS: Through QTL analyses we identified one major Quantitative trait chromosome (QTC) underlying differentiation in circadian timing of mating activity...
March 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Waleed Abdel-Naby, Brigette Cole, Aihong Liu, Jingbo Liu, Pengxia Wan, Victor H Guaiquil, Ryan Schreiner, David Infanger, Brian D Lawrence, Mark I Rosenblatt
Purpose: The corneal surface is vulnerable to a myriad of traumatic insults including mechanical, chemical, and thermal injuries. The resulting trauma may render the naturally occurring regenerative properties of the cornea incapable of restoring a healthy epithelial surface, and may result in the loss of corneal transparency and vision. Healing of the corneal epithelium requires a complex cascade of biological processes that work to restore the tissue after injury. New therapeutic agents that act on the multiple steps of the corneal wound-healing process would offer a potential for improving patient outcomes...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Takayoshi Nakaoka, Masatoshi Iga, Tetsuya Yamada, Ikumi Koujima, Mika Takeshima, Xiangying Zhou, Yutaka Suzuki, Mari H Ogihara, Hiroshi Kataoka
Ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that induce molting and determine developmental timing in arthropods. In insect larva, the prothoracic gland (PG) is a major organ for ecdysone synthesis and release. Released ecdysone is converted into the active form, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the peripheral tissues. All processes from ecdysone synthesis and release from the PG to its conversion to 20E are called ecdysteroidogenesis and are under the regulation of numerous factors expressed in the PG and peripheral tissues...
2017: PloS One
Dieter Wicher, Satoshi Morinaga, Lorena Halty-deLeon, Nico Funk, Bill Hansson, Kazushige Touhara, Monika Stengl
Manduca sexta females attract their mates with the release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend with bombykal (E,Z)-10,12-hexadcadienal and (E,E,Z)-10,12,14-hexadecatrienal being the two major components. Here, we searched for the hawkmoth bombykal receptor in heterologous expression systems. The putative pheromone receptor MsexOr1 co-expressed with MsexOrco in Xenopus oocytes elicited dose-dependent inward currents upon bombykal application (10 - 300 µM), and coexpressed in HEK293 and CHO cells caused bombykal-dependent rises in the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Noriyasu Ando, Ryohei Kanzaki
The use of mobile robots is an effective method of validating sensory-motor models of animals in a real environment. The well-identified insect sensory-motor systems have been the major targets for modeling. Furthermore, mobile robots implemented with such insect models attract engineers who aim to avail advantages from organisms. However, directly comparing the robots with real insects is still difficult even if we successfully model the biological systems, because of the physical differences between them...
February 22, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
Fei Wang, Yu-Qing Zhang
Alkyl polyglycoside (APG), a nonionic surfactant, is often considered to be a green surfactant and is synthesized using glucose and long chain fatty alcohols. It is used as a degumming agent of Bombyx mori silk fibre in this study for the first time. We studied APG systematically in comparison to the traditional degumming methods, such as aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and neutral soap (NS). After repeatedly boiling silk fibres in an aqueous solution of 0.25% APG three times for 30min and using a bath ratio of 1:90-120 (g/mL), sericin was completely removed from the fibre...
May 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jason D Ryan, Desalegn Alemu Mengistie, Roger Gabrielsson, Anja Lund, Christian Müller
Durable, electrically conducting yarns are a critical component of electronic textiles (e-textiles). Here, such yarns with exceptional wear and wash resistance are realized through dyeing silk from the silkworm Bombyx mori with the conjugated polymer:polyelectrolyte complex PEDOT:PSS. A high Young's modulus of approximately 2 GPa combined with a robust and scalable dyeing process results in up to 40 m long yarns that maintain their bulk electrical conductivity of approximately 14 S cm(-1) when experiencing repeated bending stress as well as mechanical wear during sewing...
February 28, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Adam A Aboalroub, Ziming Zhang, Dimitra Keramisanou, Ioannis Gelis
Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases (AANATs) catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group from the acetyl-group donor, acetyl-CoA, to an arylalkylamine acceptor. Although a single AANAT has been identified in mammals, insects utilize multiple AANATs in a diverse array of biological processes. AANATs belong to the GCN5-related acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily of enzymes, which despite their overall very low sequence homology, are characterized by a well conserved catalytic core domain. The structural properties of many GNATs have been extensively studied by X-ray crystallography that revealed common features during the catalytic cycle...
February 24, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
R Sugahara, A Jouraku, T Nakakura, M Minaba, T Yamamoto, Y Shinohara, H Miyoshi, T Shiotsuki
The mitochondrial phosphate carrier gene (PiC) encodes a membrane protein that mediates the supply of inorganic phosphate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix. This substrate-specific transport system plays an important role in efficient ATP synthesis. Mammals appear to have only one PiC with two alternative splicing variants whose functional differences remain unclear. The present study is the first to characterize the multiple genes that encode PiC in insects. Bombyx mori was found to have two PiC paralogues, one ubiquitous and one testis-specific, the latter seeming to be present only in Lepidoptera...
February 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Traian V Chirila, Shuko Suzuki, Chloé Papolla
Fibroin, the major proteinaceous component of the silk fiber produced by larvae of the domesticated silk moth (Bombyx mori), has been widely investigated as a biomaterial for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Following sol-gel transition, silk fibroin solutions can generate hydrogels that present certain advantages when employed as biomaterials, especially if they are crosslinked. The subject of this study was the self-crosslinking of silk fibroin through a process induced by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, a method only recently proposed and scarcely reported...
February 21, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Hui-Yu Yi, Wan-Ying Yang, Wen-Mei Wu, Xing-Xia Li, Xiao-Juan Deng, Qing-Rong Li, Yang Cao, Yang-Jin Zhong, Ya-Dong Huang
Apoptosis and autophagy play crucial roles during Bombyx mori metamorphosis and in response to various adverse conditions, including starvation. Recently, calpain, one of the major intracellular proteases, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis and autophagy in mammals. BmATG5 and BmATG6 have been identified to mediate apoptosis following autophagy induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone and starvation in B. mori. However, B. mori calpains and their functions remain unclear. In this study, phylogenetic analysis of calpains from B...
November 7, 2016: Insect Science
Bin Xue, Fanchi Li, Jingsheng Hu, Jianghai Tian, Jinxin Li, Xiaoyu Cheng, Jiahuan Hu, Bing Li
Silk gland is a silkworm organ where silk proteins are synthesized and secreted. Dietary supplement of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) promotes silk protein synthesis in silkworms. In this study, digital gene expression (DGE) tag was used to analyze the gene expression profile of the posterior silk gland of silkworms that were fed with TiO2 NPs. In total, 5,702,823 and 6,150,719 clean tags, 55,096 and 74,715 distinct tags were detected in TiO2 NPs treated and control groups, respectively. Compared with the control, TiO2 NPs treated silkworms showed 306 differentially expressed genes, including 137 upregulated genes and 169 downregulated genes...
February 16, 2017: Gene
Dongxu Xing, Qiong Yang, Liang Jiang, Qingrong Li, Yang Xiao, Mingqiang Ye, Qingyou Xia
The silkworm Bombyx mori is an economically important species. White muscardine caused by Beauveria bassiana is the main fungal disease in sericulture, and understanding the silkworm responses to B. bassiana infection is of particular interest. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses in two silkworm strains Haoyue (HY, sensitive to B. bassiana) and Kang 8 (K8, resistant to B. bassiana) using an RNA-seq approach. For each strain, three biological replicates for immersion treatment, two replicates for injection treatment and three untreated controls were collected to generate 16 libraries for sequencing...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Arunrat Khamhaengpol, Sineenat Siri
Unlike silkworm (Bombyx mori) fibroin (SF), weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) fibroin (WAF) is much less studied. Due to differences in amino acid composition and protein structure, this work aimed to produce the recombinant WAF protein, designated as WAF1, and investigated on its potential application as a biomaterial for producing a cell-substratum. The composite electrospun scaffolds derived from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), WAF1, and extracted SF were produced by electrospinning. SEM images revealed non-woven and smooth fibers of PVA, PVA-WAF1, and PVA-SF scaffolds with the average diameters of 204...
February 15, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Dennis R Phillips, Kevin D Clark
The innate immune system of insects responds to wounding and pathogens by mobilizing multiple pathways that provide both systemic and localized protection. Key localized responses in hemolymph include melanization, coagulation, and hemocyte encapsulation, which synergistically seal wounds and envelop and destroy pathogens. To be effective, these pathways require a targeted deposition of their components to provide protection without compromising the host. Extensive research has identified a large number of the effectors that comprise these responses, but questions remain regarding their post-translational processing, function, and targeting...
2017: PloS One
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