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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815299/morphological-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-microsporidium-nosema-sp-isolated-from-rice-stem-borer-chilo-suppressalis-walker-lepidoptera-pyralidae
#1
Dongxu Xing, Qiong Yang, Sentai Liao, Lanzhi Han, Qingrong Li, Chaoyi Zhao, Yang Xiao, Mingqiang Ye
A new microsporidium was isolated from Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), one of the most important rice pests in China. The morphology and molecular systematics of this novel microsporidium were described in this study. The spores were long oval and measured 3.17 × 1.64 μm on fresh smears. Ultrastructure of the spores was characteristic for the genus Nosema: a diplokaryon, 10-12 polar filament coils of the same type, and posterior vacuole. Small subunit rRNA gene sequence data and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the microsporidian species from C...
August 16, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807613/identification-and-quantification-and-antioxidant-activity-of-flavonoids-in-different-strains-of-silk-cocoon-bombyx-mori
#2
Supamas Napavichayanun, Oliver Lutz, Martin Fischnaller, Thomas Jakschitz, Günther Bonn, Pornanong Aramwit
Silk cocoon is produced from silkworm (Bombyx mori) to protect itself from outer environment. Various strains of cocoon contain different forms and amounts of flavonoids, which may affect on their antioxidant activity. Moreover, the extraction method would influence the amount of flavonoids extracted. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify and quantify the flavonoids in 3 strains of bivoltine Bombyx mori silk cocoon (Chul 1/1; white cocoon, Chul 3/2; greenish cocoon, and Chul 4/2; yellow cocoon) extracted by 6 different solvents including acetone, ethyl acetate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, methanol, and purified water...
August 11, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797905/evidence-for-the-role-of-bmnpv-bm65-protein-in-the-repair-of-ultraviolet-induced-dna-damage
#3
Qi Tang, Peng Wu, Zhaoyang Hu, Yanhua Yang, Lipeng Qiu, Hanqing Liu, Shanying Zhu, Zhongjian Guo, Hengchuan Xia, Keping Chen, Guohui Li
It is unclear how, or to what extent, baculovirus DNA that has been damaged by ultraviolet (UV) light is repaired during infection and replication. In our previous study, expression of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ORF Bm65, a homolog of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac79, correlated with decreased inactivation of virus by UV irradiation. In the current study, we accumulated more evidence pointing to a role for Bm65 in repair of UV-induced DNA damage. The localization of Bm65 was studied using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion constructs expressed in BmN cells transfected with a Bm65 expression plasmid...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796495/discerning-silk-produced-by-bombyx-mori-from-those-produced-by-wild-species-using-elisa-combined-with-conventional-methods
#4
Qiushi You, Qingqing Li, Hailing Zheng, ZhiWen Hu, Yang Zhou, Bing Wang
Recently, much interest has been attracted to separate silk produced by Bombyx mori from other species of silk and to trace the beginnings of silk cultivation from wild silk exploitation. In this paper, significant differences between silks from Bombyx mori and other species were found by microscopy and spectroscopy, such as morphology, secondary structure and amino acid composition. For further accurate identification, a diagnostic antibody was designed by comparing the peptide sequences of silks produced by Bombyx mori and other species...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793345/cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-bmyki-gene-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#5
Wenhui Zeng, Riyuan Wang, Tianyang Zhang, Chunying Gong, Weidong Zuo, Rongpeng Liu, Yao Ou, Hanfu Xu
The transcriptional coactivator Yorkie(Yki), is a critical downstream effector of the Hippo(Hpo) signaling pathway that controls organ size through the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. During the past ten years the biological function of Yki has been studied extensively in Drosophila and a few other insects, however, little is known about it in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a major research model of lepidopteran insect. Here, we describe the isolation, characterization and expression of the B. mori Yki ortholog, BmYki...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791152/rna-sequencing-reveals-a-complete-but-an-unconventional-type-of-dosage-compensation-in-the-domestic-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#6
Gajula Gopinath, Kuchi Srikeerthana, Archana Tomar, Srikakolapu M Ch Sekhar, Kallare P Arunkumar
Sex chromosomal dose difference between sexes is often normalized by a gene regulatory mechanism called dosage compensation (DC). Studies indicate that DC mechanisms are generally effective in XY rather than ZW systems. However, DC studies in lepidopterans (ZW system) gave bewildering results. In Manduca sexta, DC was complete and in Plodia interpunctella, it was incomplete. In Heliconius species, dosage was found to be partly incomplete. In domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori, DC studies have yielded contradictory results thus far, showing incomplete DC based on microarray data and a possible existence of DC based on recent reanalysis of same data...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772716/silk-optical-properties-over-12-6-octaves-thz-ir-visible-uv-range
#7
Armandas Balčytis, Meguya Ryu, Xuewen Wang, Fabio Novelli, Gediminas Seniutinas, Shan Du, Xungai Wang, Jingliang Li, Jeffrey Davis, Dominique Appadoo, Junko Morikawa, Saulius Juodkazis
Domestic (Bombyx mori) and wild (Antheraea pernyi) silk fibers were characterised over a wide spectral range from THz 8 cm -1 ( λ = 1.25 mm, f = 0.24 THz) to deep-UV 50 × 10 3 cm - 1 ( λ = 200 nm, f = 1500 THz) wavelengths or over a 12.6 octave frequency range. Spectral features at β-sheet, α-coil and amorphous fibroin were analysed at different spectral ranges. Single fiber cross sections at mid-IR were used to determine spatial distribution of different silk constituents and revealed an α-coil rich core and more broadly spread β-sheets in natural silk fibers obtained from wild Antheraea pernyi moths...
March 28, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768207/bm-muted-orthologous-to-mouse-muted-and-encoding-a-subunit-of-the-bloc-1-complex-is-responsible-for-the-otm-translucent-mutation-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#8
Haokun Zhang, Takashi Kiuchi, Lingyan Wang, Munetaka Kawamoto, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Yutaka Banno, Susumu Katsuma, Toru Shimada
"Tanaka's mottled translucent" (otm) is a mutation of the silkworm Bombyx mori that exhibits translucent skin during larval stages. We performed positional cloning of the gene responsible for otm and mapped it to a 364-kb region on chromosome 5 that contains 22 hypothetical protein-coding genes. We performed RNA-seq analysis of the epidermis and fat body of otm larvae and determined that the gene BGIBMGA002619 may be responsible for the otm mutation. BGIBMGA002619 encodes the biosynthesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1) subunit 5, whose ortholog is responsible for the Muted mutant in mouse...
July 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765923/bombyx-mori-hemocyte-extract-has-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-human-phorbol-myristate-acetate-differentiated-thp%C3%A2-1-cells-via-tlr4-mediated-suppression-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#9
Young Il Kim, Kwang Ho Choi, Seong Ryul Kim, Tae-Won Goo, Seung-Won Park
Hemolymph is the circulating fluid of insects and is a key component of their immune system. However, little is known concerning hemocyte identification, development, differentiation and related cellular immune responses. The present study aimed to determine whether a hemocyte extract prepared from Bombyx mori larvae had anti‑inflammatory effects; THP‑1 (a human monocytic leukemia cell line) cells that had been differentiated into macrophage‑like cells by treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were used...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755911/itraq-proteomic-analysis-of-the-interactions-between-bombyx-mori-nuclear-polyhedrosis-virus-and-silkworm
#10
Wei-Tao Dong, Long-Fei Xiao, Jun-Jie Hu, Xin-Xu Zhao, Ji-Xing Liu, Yong Zhang
The silkworm hemolymph is an important defense system against bacteria and viruses. In this study, silkworms were infected with Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus to investigate the subsequent immune response at the protein level. Proteomes were analyzed before and after infection using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and LC-MS. A total of 456 differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which 179 were upregulated and 193 were downregulated. Changes in expression were validated by western blot for several proteins...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754962/two-dopamine-d2-like-receptor-genes-from-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-and-their-evolutionary-history-in-metazoan
#11
Ping Chen, Peng Chen, Tian Li, Qi Shen, Deng-Feng Yan, Liang Zhang, Xi Chen, Yan Li, Wei Zhao
Dopamine is widely distributed in metazoans and is implicated in many physiological functions. Dopaminergic signaling is mediated through two classes of dopamine receptors, D1-like and D2-like. Phylogeny analysis reveals that, the dopamine receptors probably appeared ahead of the cnidarian divergence, two distinct classes of dopamine receptors likely formed prior to the separation of deuterostomes and protostomes, and INDRs probably split from its ancestor before the emergence of nematodes. Two D2-like genes are closely linked on the same scaffold, and the chromosome region around D2-like gene loci show colinearity among different species within Lepidoptera...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750999/pigmentary-analysis-of-eggs-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#12
Haiyan Zhang, Ying Lin, Guanwang Shen, Xue Tan, Chao Lei, Wei Long, Hongling Liu, Yandi Zhang, Yinying Xu, Jinxin Wu, Jianjian Gu, Qingyou Xia, Ping Zhao
Ommochromes are major pigments involved in coloration of eggs, eyes, wings, and epidermis of insects. Bombyx mori (silkworm) eggs contain a mixture of ommochrome pigments and their precursors. Here, we analyzed the pigment composition of every egg color strain using egg color mutants (w-2, pe, and re) and wild-type strains (dazao and C108) by using full wavelength scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography. We identified ommochrome pigments and their precursors in pigment extracts from non-diapause eggs and diapause eggs, and found that the quantities of ommochrome precursor 3-hydroxy-kynurenine were much higher in the diapause eggs...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747820/physicochemical-properties-of-meat-batter-added-with-edible-silkworm-pupae-bombyx-mori-and-transglutaminase
#13
Yoo-Sun Park, Yun-Sang Choi, Ko-Eun Hwang, Tae-Kyung Kim, Cheol-Won Lee, Dong-Min Shin, Sung Gu Han
This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of meat batters prepared with fresh pork meat, back fat, water, and salt and formulated with three different amounts (5%, 10%, and 15%) of silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) powder and transglutaminase (TG). Meat batters formulated with silkworm pupae powder showed significantly higher contents of protein and ash than control batter. Addition of silkworm pupae to batter also showed significantly lower cooking loss than the control. Moreover, meat batter containing 15% silkworm pupae showed no significant difference in redness value compared to the control...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746045/applicability-of-biotechnologically-produced-insect-silks
#14
Heike M Herold, Thomas Scheibel
Silks are structural proteins produced by arthropods. Besides the well-known cocoon silk, which is produced by larvae of the silk moth Bombyx mori to undergo metamorphosis inside their silken shelter (and which is also used for textile production by men since millennia), numerous further less known silk-producing animals exist. The ability to produce silk evolved multiple independent times during evolution, and the fact that silk was subject to convergent evolution gave rise to an abundant natural diversity of silk proteins...
July 26, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739571/splice-variants-of-ph-sensitive-chloride-channel-identify-a-key-determinant-of-ivermectin-sensitivity-in-the-larvae-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#15
Daiki Okuhara, Shogo Furutani, Katsuhiko Ito, Makoto Ihara Ihara, Kazuhiko Matsuda
The pH-sensitive chloride channels (pHCls) are broadly expressed in insects, but little is known about their physiological role, diversity and sensitivity to insecticides acting on relevant chloride channels. Here we have sequenced 50 transcripts of the pHCl-1 gene from the brain, third thoracic ganglion (T3G) and midgut of larvae of silkworm Bombyx mori. It was found that >50 variants were expressed with distinct splicing in the T3G compared to the brain and midgut. Of the variants detected, variant 9, which was expressed most abundantly in the larvae, was reconstituted in Xenopus laevis oocytes to characterise its pH- and ivermectin sensitivity...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737162/silk-fiber-reinforcement-modulates-in-vitro-chondrogenesis-in-3d-composite-scaffolds
#16
Yogendra Pratap Singh, Mimi Adhikary, Nandana Bhardwaj, Bibhas Kumar Bhunia, Biman B Mandal
The limited self-regenerative capacity of adult cartilage has steered the upsurge in tissue engineered replacements to combat the problem of osteoarthritis. In the present study, the potential of fiber-reinforced silk composites from mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea assamensis) silk has been investigated for cartilage tissue engineering. The fabricated composites were physico-chemically characterized and analyzed for cellular viability, proliferation, extracellular matrix formation and immunocompatibility...
July 24, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735962/enhancement-of-antiviral-capacity-of-transgenic-silkworms-against-cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis-virus-via-knockdown-of-multiple-viral-genes
#17
Liang Jiang, Zhengwen Peng, Huizhen Guo, Jingchen Sun, Qiang Sun, Fei Xia, Chunlin Huang, Guowen Xu, Qingyou Xia
Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), a major pathogen of silkworms, causes serious economic losses in sericulture. The BmCPV genome contains 10 discrete dsRNA segments; among these, S1, S2, S3, S4, S6, and S7 encode virus structural proteins, whereas S5, S8, S9, and S10 encode nonstructural proteins. In an attempt to create an anti-BmCPV silkworm strain, we constructed transgenic RNAi vector pb-CNS for knockdown of S5, S8, S9, and S10, and pb-SNS targeting S1, S2, S4, S5, and S8. Transgenic silkworm line CNS and SNS were generated via microinjection of the practical diapause silkworm strain Furong...
July 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727825/differentially-expressed-genes-in-the-head-of-the-2nd-instar-pre-molting-larvae-of-the-nm2-mutant-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#18
Pingyang Wang, Simin Bi, Fan Wu, Pingzhen Xu, Xingjia Shen, Qiaoling Zhao
Molting is an important physiological process in the larval stage of Bombyx mori and is controlled by various hormones and peptides. The silkworm mutant that exhibits the phenotype of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2) is incapable of molting in the 2nd instar and dies after seven or more days. The ecdysone titer in the nm2 mutant is lower than that in the wildtype, and the mutant can be rescued by feeding with 20E and cholesterol. The results of positional cloning indicated that structural alteration of BmCPG10 is responsible for the phenotype of the nm2 mutant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722016/silk-micrococoons-for-protein-stabilisation-and-molecular-encapsulation
#19
Ulyana Shimanovich, Francesco S Ruggeri, Erwin De Genst, Jozef Adamcik, Teresa P Barros, David Porter, Thomas Müller, Raffaele Mezzenga, Christopher M Dobson, Fritz Vollrath, Chris Holland, Tuomas P J Knowles
Naturally spun silks generate fibres with unique properties, including strength, elasticity and biocompatibility. Here we describe a microfluidics-based strategy to spin liquid native silk, obtained directly from the silk gland of Bombyx mori silkworms, into micron-scale capsules with controllable geometry and variable levels of intermolecular β-sheet content in their protein shells. We demonstrate that such micrococoons can store internally the otherwise highly unstable liquid native silk for several months and without apparent effect on its functionality...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716628/transduction-of-a-neospora-caninum-antigen-gene-into-mammalian-cells-using-a-modified-bombyx-mori-nucleopolyhedrovirus-for-antibody-production
#20
Tatsuya Kato, Kohei Itagaki, Mai Yoshimoto, Rikito Hiramatsu, Hamizah Suhaimi, Tetsuya Kohsaka, Enoch Y Park
Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) can easily enter and transduce foreign genes into mammalian cells, but these functions are difficult for Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). In this study, we investigated the induction of antibody production in mice immunized with an engineered BmNPV. The GP64 of BmNPV (BmGP64) was replaced with the GP64 of AcMNPV (AcGP64); this construct, designated BmNPVΔbgp/AcGP64, displays AcGP64 on the surface of BmNPV. The Neospora caninum antigen (NcSRS2) expression cassette, consisting of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter and NcSRS2 from N...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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