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Dynamic decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810390/shared-decision-making-rhetoric-and-reality-women-s-experiences-and-perceptions-of-adjuvant-treatment-decision-making-for-breast-cancer
#1
Neda Mahmoodi, Sally Sargeant
This interview-based study uses phenomenology as a theoretical framework and thematic analysis to challenge existing explanatory frameworks of shared decision-making, in an exploration of women's experiences and perceptions of shared decision-making for adjuvant treatment in breast cancer. Three themes emerged are as follows: (1) women's desire to participate in shared decision-making, (2) the degree to which shared decision-making is perceived to be shared and (3) to what extent are women empowered within shared decision-making...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808316/habituation-based-synaptic-plasticity-and-organismic-learning-in-a-quantum-perovskite
#2
Fan Zuo, Priyadarshini Panda, Michele Kotiuga, Jiarui Li, Mingu Kang, Claudio Mazzoli, Hua Zhou, Andi Barbour, Stuart Wilkins, Badri Narayanan, Mathew Cherukara, Zhen Zhang, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan, Riccardo Comin, Karin M Rabe, Kaushik Roy, Shriram Ramanathan
A central characteristic of living beings is the ability to learn from and respond to their environment leading to habit formation and decision making. This behavior, known as habituation, is universal among all forms of life with a central nervous system, and is also observed in single-cell organisms that do not possess a brain. Here, we report the discovery of habituation-based plasticity utilizing a perovskite quantum system by dynamical modulation of electron localization. Microscopic mechanisms and pathways that enable this organismic collective charge-lattice interaction are elucidated by first-principles theory, synchrotron investigations, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and in situ environmental breathing studies...
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806952/socio-cultural-contexts-of-end-of-life-conversations-and-decisions-bereaved-family-cancer-caregivers-retrospective-co-constructions
#3
Jennifer Nyawira Githaiga, Leslie Swartz
BACKGROUND: End-of-life communication becomes increasingly difficult in terminal cancer, which inevitably entails conversations around dying and death. In resource-limited areas, the context of end-of-life communication is usually home-based palliative care comprising mostly women in the family who play critical roles as informal caregivers. This article examined the content and contexts of family end-of-life conversations and decisions based on the retrospective accounts of a sample of bereaved women family cancer caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya...
August 14, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803693/editorial-overview-cell-dynamics-dynamic-cell-decision-making
#4
EDITORIAL
Eugenia Piddini, Helen McNeill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802757/the-typhoid-vaccine-acceleration-consortium-tyvac-vaccine-effectiveness-study-designs-accelerating-the-introduction-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-and-reducing-the-global-burden-of-enteric-fever-report-from-a-meeting-held-on-26-27-october-2016-oxford-uk
#5
James E Meiring, Malick Gibani
Typhoid fever is estimated to cause between 11.9-26.9 million infections globally each year with 129,000-216,510 deaths. Access to improved water sources have reduced disease incidence in parts of the world but the use of efficacious vaccines is seen as an important public health tool for countries with a high disease burden. A new generation of Vi typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs), licensed for use in young children and expected to provide longer lasting protection than previous vaccines, are now available...
August 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801876/tumor-dna-an-emerging-biomarker-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#6
Joseph A Bellairs, Rifat Hasina, Nishant Agrawal
Head and neck cancer (HNC) includes a diverse range of malignancies arising commonly from mucosal epithelia of the upper aerodigestive tract. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the most common form of HNC, develops in the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx and is associated with tobacco exposure, alcohol abuse, and infection with oncogenic viruses. Despite global advances in cancer care, HNSCC often presents with advanced disease and is associated with poor 5-year survival of ~50%. Genotyping tumor tissue to guide clinical decision-making is becoming commonplace in modern oncology, but in the management of HNSCC, tissue biopsies with cytopathology or histopathology remain the mainstay for diagnosis...
August 12, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800987/dynamic-three-dimensional-geometry-of-the-aortic-valve-apparatus-a-feasibility-study
#7
Arash Khamooshian, Yannis Amador, Ting Hai, Jelliffe Jeganathan, Maria Saraf, Eitezaz Mahmood, Robina Matyal, Kamal R Khabbaz, Massimo Mariani, Feroze Mahmood
OBJECTIVE: To provide (1) an overview of the aortic valve (AV) apparatus anatomy and nomenclature, and (2) data regarding the normal AV apparatus geometry and dynamism during the cardiac cycle obtained from three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE). DESIGN: Retrospective feasibility study. SETTING: A single-center university teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study was performed on data of 10 patients with a nonregurgitant, nonstenotic aortic valve undergoing cardiac surgery...
August 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799658/dynamic-blowout-risk-analysis-using-loss-functions
#8
Majeed Abimbola, Faisal Khan
Most risk analysis approaches are static; failing to capture evolving conditions. Blowout, the most feared accident during a drilling operation, is a complex and dynamic event. The traditional risk analysis methods are useful in the early design stage of drilling operation while falling short during evolving operational decision making. A new dynamic risk analysis approach is presented to capture evolving situations through dynamic probability and consequence models. The dynamic consequence models, the focus of this study, are developed in terms of loss functions...
August 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795577/understanding-the-emergence-and-development-of-medical-collaboration-across-organizational-boundaries-a-longitudinal-case-study
#9
Nassera Touati, Charo Rodríguez, Marie-Andrée Paquette, Jean-Louis Denis
Our goal in this investigation was to help shed light on the very difficult process of collaboration between family physicians and specialists working at different levels of healthcare delivery. More precisely, and grounded on Giddens' structuration theory, our investigation aims to understand how medical collaboration emerges and develops around chronic patients. This was a longitudinal interpretive case study, the "case" being a continuum-of-care for patients suffering from diabetes, put in place in an urban health center in the Canadian province of Quebec...
August 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795061/a-multi-agent-based-approach-for-prehospital-emergency-management
#10
Reza Safdari, Jaleh Shoshtarian Malak, Niloofar Mohammadzadeh, Azimeh Danesh Shahraki
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate an architecture to automate the prehospital emergency process to categorize the specialized care according to the situation at the right time for reducing the patient mortality and morbidity. METHODS: Prehospital emergency process were analyzed using existing prehospital management systems, frameworks and the extracted process were modeled using sequence diagram in Rational Rose software. System main agents were identified and modeled via component diagram, considering the main system actors and by logically dividing business functionalities, finally the conceptual architecture for prehospital emergency management was proposed...
July 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792476/a-comprehensive-system-for-monitoring-urban-accessibility-in-smart-cities
#11
Higinio Mora, Virgilio Gilart-Iglesias, Raquel Pérez-Del Hoyo, María Dolores Andújar-Montoya
The present work discusses the possibilities offered by the evolution of Information and Communication Technologies with the aim of designing a system to dynamically obtain knowledge of accessibility issues in urban environments. This system is facilitated by technology to analyse the urban user experience and movement accessibility, which enabling accurate identification of urban barriers and monitoring its effectiveness over time. Therefore, the main purpose of the system is to meet the real needs and requirements of people with movement disabilities...
August 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792080/dynamic-predictions-with-time-dependent-covariates-in-survival-analysis-using-joint-modeling-and-landmarking
#12
Dimitris Rizopoulos, Geert Molenberghs, Emmanuel M E H Lesaffre
A key question in clinical practice is accurate prediction of patient prognosis. To this end, nowadays, physicians have at their disposal a variety of tests and biomarkers to aid them in optimizing medical care. These tests are often performed on a regular basis in order to closely follow the progression of the disease. In this setting, it is of interest to optimally utilize the recorded information and provide medically relevant summary measures, such as survival probabilities, which will aid in decision making...
August 9, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790900/maladaptive-decision-making-in-adults-with-a-history-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-in-a-preclinical-model-is-attributable-to-the-compromised-assignment-of-incentive-value-during-stimulus-reward-learning
#13
Lauren C Kruse, Abigail G Schindler, Rapheal G Williams, Sophia J Weber, Jeremy J Clark
According to recent WHO reports, alcohol remains the number one substance used and abused by adolescents, despite public health efforts to curb its use. Adolescence is a critical period of biological maturation where brain development, particularly the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, undergoes substantial remodeling. These circuits are implicated in complex decision making, incentive learning and reinforcement during substance use and abuse. An appealing theoretical approach has been to suggest that alcohol alters the normal development of these processes to promote deficits in reinforcement learning and decision making, which together make individuals vulnerable to developing substance use disorders in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790857/assessing-the-oseltamivir-induced-resistance-risk-and-implications-for-influenza-infection-control-strategies
#14
Nan-Hung Hsieh, Yi-Jun Lin, Ying-Fei Yang, Chung-Min Liao
BACKGROUND: Oseltamivir-resistant mutants with higher drug resistance rates and low trans-mission fitness costs have not accounted for influenza (sub)type viruses. Predicting the impacts of neuraminidase inhibitor therapy on infection rates and transmission of drug-resistant viral strains requires further investigation. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential risk of oseltamivir-induced resistance for influenza A (H1N1) and A (H3N2) viruses...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781151/2016-guideline-strategies-for-the-use-of%C3%A2-antifungal-agents-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-or-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients-in-taiwan
#15
REVIEW
Bor-Sheng Ko, Wei-Ting Chen, Hsiang-Chi Kung, Un-In Wu, Jih-Luh Tang, Ming Yao, Yee-Chun Chen, Hwei-Fang Tien, Shan-Chwen Chang, Yin-Ching Chuang, Dong-Tsamn Lin
The Infectious Diseases Society of Taiwan (IDST), the Hematology Society of Taiwan, the Taiwan Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Medical Foundation in Memory of Dr. Deh-Lin Cheng, Foundation of Professor Wei-Chuan Hsieh for Infectious Diseases Research and Education, and CY Lee's Research Foundation for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccines cooperatively published this guideline for the use of antifungal agents in hematological patients with invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Taiwan. The guideline is the first one endorsed by IDST focusing on selection of antifungal strategies, including prophylaxis, empirical (or symptom-driven) and pre-emptive (or diagnostic-driven) strategy...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780662/bicuspid-aortic-valvulopathy-and-associated-aortopathy-a-review-of-contemporary-studies-relevant-to-clinical-decision-making
#16
REVIEW
Michael H Kwon, Thoralf M Sundt
The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) phenotype is becoming increasingly recognized as a complex and heterogeneous clinical entity, with some but not all patients developing accelerated degrees of both aortic insufficiency (AI) and aortic stenosis (AS) in comparison to patients with tricuspid aortic valves (TAV). In addition, there remains a well-established association between the BAV phenotype and aortic enlargement independent of valve function as well as progression among some to ascending aortic aneurysm and the attendant concern over risk of aortic dissection...
September 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777728/rat-prefrontal-cortex-inactivations-during-decision-making-are-explained-by-bistable-attractor-dynamics
#17
Alex T Piet, Jeffrey C Erlich, Charles D Kopec, Carlos D Brody
Two-node attractor networks are flexible models for neural activity during decision making. Depending on the network configuration, these networks can model distinct aspects of decisions including evidence integration, evidence categorization, and decision memory. Here, we use attractor networks to model recent causal perturbations of the frontal orienting fields (FOF) in rat cortex during a perceptual decision-making task (Erlich, Brunton, Duan, Hanks, & Brody, 2015). We focus on a striking feature of the perturbation results...
August 4, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768447/neural-oscillation-correlates-chemistry-decision-making
#18
Li-Yu Huang, Hsiao-Ching She, Tzyy-Ping Jung
This study explored the electroencephalography (EEG) dynamics during a chemistry-related decision-making task and further examined whether the correctness of the decision-making performance could be reflected by EEG activity. A total of 66 undergraduate students' EEG were collected while they participated in a chemistry-related decision-making task in which they had to retrieve the relevant chemistry concepts in order to make correct decisions for each task item. The results showed that it was only in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) cluster that distinct patterns in EEG dynamics were displayed for the correct and incorrect responses...
May 7, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766079/lawful-sinners-reproductive-governance-and-moral-agency-around-abortion-in-mexico
#19
Elyse Ona Singer
The Catholic Hierarchy unequivocally bans abortion, defining it as a mortal sin. In Mexico City, where the Catholic Church wields considerable political and popular power, abortion was recently decriminalized in a historic vote. Of the roughly 170,000 abortions that have been carried out in Mexico City's new public sector abortion program to date, more than 60% were among self-reported Catholic women. Drawing on eighteen months of fieldwork, including interviews with 34 Catholic patients, this article examines how Catholic women in Mexico City grapple with abortion decisions that contravene Church teachings in the context of recent abortion reform...
August 1, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762616/policy-choices-in-dementia-care-an-exploratory-analysis-of-the-alberta-continuing-care-system-accs-using-system-dynamics
#20
Monica Cepoiu-Martin, Diane P Bischak
BACKGROUND: The increase in the incidence of dementia in the aging population and the decrease in the availability of informal caregivers put pressure on continuing care systems to care for a growing number of people with disabilities. Policy changes in the continuing care system need to address this shift in the population structure. One of the most effective tools for assessing policies in complex systems is system dynamics. Nevertheless, this method is underused in continuing care capacity planning...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
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