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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911797/meeting-the-sustainable-development-goals-leads-to-lower-world-population-growth
#1
Guy J Abel, Bilal Barakat, Samir Kc, Wolfgang Lutz
Here we show the extent to which the expected world population growth could be lowered by successfully implementing the recently agreed-upon Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs include specific quantitative targets on mortality, reproductive health, and education for all girls by 2030, measures that will directly and indirectly affect future demographic trends. Based on a multidimensional model of population dynamics that stratifies national populations by age, sex, and level of education with educational fertility and mortality differentials, we translate these goals into SDG population scenarios, resulting in population sizes between 8...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911736/the-multiple-assemblies-of-vdac-from-conformational-heterogeneity-to-%C3%AE-aggregation-and-amyloid-formation
#2
REVIEW
Alexandre Boulbrima, Davina Temple, Georgios Psakis
From their cellular localisation, to their atomic structure and their involvement in mitochondrial-driven cell death, voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) have challenged the scientific community with enigmas and paradoxes for over four decades. VDACs form active monomer channels in lipid bilayers, but they can also organise in multimeric assemblies. What induces, regulates and/or controls the monomer-multimer dynamics at the cellular level is not known. However, these state transitions appear to be relevant for mitochondria in making life or death decisions and for driving developmental processes...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909256/optimizing-the-multisectoral-nutrition-policy-cycle-a-systems-perspective
#3
Sascha Lamstein, Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Patrick Webb, Eileen Kennedy
Based on the data collected in Uganda, Nepal, and Ethiopia, the papers included in this supplement fill a critical gap in evidence regarding multisectoral National Nutrition Action Plans. The studies offer new data and new thinking on how and why governance, effective financial decentralization, and improved accountability all matter for nutrition actions in low-income countries. This introductory paper offers an overview of the current state of evidence and thinking on the multisectoral nutrition policy cycle, including how governance and financing support that process...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907996/probabilistic-information-transmission-in-a-network-of-coupled-oscillators-reveals-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-responding-to-threats
#4
Amanda Chicoli, Derek A Paley
Individuals in a group may obtain information from other group members about the environment, including the location of a food source or the presence of a predator. Here, we model how information spreads in a group using a susceptible-infected-removed epidemic model. We apply this model to a simulated shoal of fish using the motion dynamics of a coupled oscillator model, in order to test the biological hypothesis that polarized or aligned shoaling leads to faster and more accurate escape responses. The contributions of this study are the (i) application of a probabilistic model of epidemics to the study of collective animal behavior; (ii) testing the biological hypothesis that group cohesion improves predator escape; (iii) quantification of the effect of social cues on startle propagation; and (iv) investigation of the variation in response based on network connectivity...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907171/correction-beyond-rational-decision-making-modelling-the-influence-of-cognitive-biases-on-the-dynamics-of-vaccination-coverage
#5
Marina Voinson, Sylvain Billiard, Alexandra Alvergne
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142990.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900238/power-flow-analysis-and-optimal-locations-of-resistive-type-superconducting-fault-current-limiters
#6
Xiuchang Zhang, Harold S Ruiz, Jianzhao Geng, Boyang Shen, Lin Fu, Heng Zhang, Tim A Coombs
Based on conventional approaches for the integration of resistive-type superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) on electric distribution networks, SFCL models largely rely on the insertion of a step or exponential resistance that is determined by a predefined quenching time. In this paper, we expand the scope of the aforementioned models by considering the actual behaviour of an SFCL in terms of the temperature dynamic power-law dependence between the electrical field and the current density, characteristic of high temperature superconductors...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893160/integrating-household-risk-mitigation-behavior-in-flood-risk-analysis-an-agent-based-model-approach
#7
Toon Haer, W J Wouter Botzen, Hans de Moel, Jeroen C J H Aerts
Recent studies showed that climate change and socioeconomic trends are expected to increase flood risks in many regions. However, in these studies, human behavior is commonly assumed to be constant, which neglects interaction and feedback loops between human and environmental systems. This neglect of human adaptation leads to a misrepresentation of flood risk. This article presents an agent-based model that incorporates human decision making in flood risk analysis. In particular, household investments in loss-reducing measures are examined under three economic decision models: (1) expected utility theory, which is the traditional economic model of rational agents; (2) prospect theory, which takes account of bounded rationality; and (3) a prospect theory model, which accounts for changing risk perceptions and social interactions through a process of Bayesian updating...
November 28, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892952/dynamic-prognostic-value-of-the-revised-international-prognostic-scoring-system-following-pretransplant-hypomethylating-treatment-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#8
S-A Yahng, Y-W Jeon, J-H Yoon, S-H Shin, S-E Lee, Y-S Choi, D-Y Kim, J-H Lee, B-S Cho, K-S Eom, S Lee, C-K Min, H-J Kim, J-W Lee, K-H Lee, W-S Min, J-H Lee, Y-J Kim
This study aimed to analyze the use of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) assessed after hypomethylating treatment (HMT) for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) undergoing an allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Among 115 patients who received pre-SCT HMT, comparison analysis of the prognostic values between the IPSS-R at the time of HMT (IPSS-R@HMT) and at the time of SCT after HMT (IPSS-R@SCT) showed a significantly higher predictive power for overall survival (OS) of the latter...
November 28, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889491/pramipexole-enhances-disadvantageous-decision-making-lack-of-relation-to-changes-in-phasic-dopamine-release
#9
Romina Pes, Sean C Godar, Andrew T Fox, Lauren M Burgeno, Hunter J Strathman, David P Jarmolowicz, Paola Devoto, Beth Levant, Paul E M Phillips, Stephen C Fowler, Marco Bortolato
Pramipexole (PPX) is a high-affinity D2-like dopamine receptor agonist, used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless leg syndrome. Recent evidence indicates that PPX increases the risk of problem gambling and impulse-control disorders in vulnerable patients. Although the molecular bases of these complications remain unclear, several authors have theorized that PPX may increase risk propensity by activating presynaptic dopamine receptors in the mesolimbic system, resulting in the reduction of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
November 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884203/a-system-dynamics-model-of-clinical-decision-thresholds-for-the-detection-of-developmental-behavioral-disorders
#10
R Christopher Sheldrick, Dominic J Breuer, Razan Hassan, Kee Chan, Deborah E Polk, James Benneyan
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision-making has been conceptualized as a sequence of two separate processes: assessment of patients' functioning and application of a decision threshold to determine whether the evidence is sufficient to justify a given decision. A range of factors, including use of evidence-based screening instruments, has the potential to influence either or both processes. However, implementation studies seldom specify or assess the mechanism by which screening is hypothesized to influence clinical decision-making, thus limiting their ability to address unexpected findings regarding clinicians' behavior...
November 25, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882927/global-gain-modulation-generates-time-dependent-urgency-during-perceptual-choice-in-humans
#11
Peter R Murphy, Evert Boonstra, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Decision-makers must often balance the desire to accumulate information with the costs of protracted deliberation. Optimal, reward-maximizing decision-making can require dynamic adjustment of this speed/accuracy trade-off over the course of a single decision. However, it is unclear whether humans are capable of such time-dependent adjustments. Here, we identify several signatures of time-dependency in human perceptual decision-making and highlight their possible neural source. Behavioural and model-based analyses reveal that subjects respond to deadline-induced speed pressure by lowering their criterion on accumulated perceptual evidence as the deadline approaches...
November 24, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880019/inferential-and-forward-projection-modeling-to-evaluate-options-for-controlling-invasive-mammals-on-islands
#12
D P Anderson, P McMurtrie, K-A Edge, P W J Baxter, A E Byrom
Successful pest-mammal eradications from remote islands have resulted in important biodiversity benefits. Near-shore islands can also serve as refuges for native biota but require ongoing effort to maintain low-pest or pest-free status. Three management options are available in the presence of reinvasion risk: (1) control-to-zero density, in which immigration may occur but reinvaders are removed; (2) sustained population suppression (to relatively low numbers); or (3) no action. Biodiversity benefits can result from options one and two...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879036/fmri-single-trial-discovery-of-spatio-temporal-brain-activity-patterns
#13
Michele Allegra, Shima Seyed-Allaei, Fabrizio Pizzagalli, Fahimeh Baftizadeh, Marta Maieron, Carlo Reverberi, Alessandro Laio, Daniele Amati
There is growing interest in the description of short-lived patterns in the spatiotemporal cortical activity monitored via neuroimaging. Most traditional analysis methods, designed to estimate relatively long-term brain dynamics, are not always appropriate to capture these patterns. Here we introduce a novel data-driven approach for detecting short-lived fMRI brain activity patterns. Exploiting Density Peak Clustering (Rodriguez and Laio [2014]), our approach reveals well localized clusters by identifying and grouping together voxels whose time-series are similar, irrespective of their brain location, even when very short time windows (∼10 volumes) are used...
November 23, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878980/cost-effectiveness-of-mass-dog-vaccination-campaigns-against-rabies-in-flores-island-indonesia
#14
E Wera, M C M Mourits, M M Siko, H Hogeveen
A dynamic deterministic simulation model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of different mass dog vaccination strategies against rabies in a dog population representative of a typical village on Flores Island. Cost-effectiveness was measured as public cost per averted dog-rabies case. Simulations started with the introduction of one infectious dog into a susceptible dog population of 399 dogs and subsequently ran for a period of 10 years. The base scenario represented a situation without any control intervention...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869900/-transient-left-ventricular-apical-ballooning-with-dynamic-outflow-tract-obstruction-complicated-by-persistent-hypotension
#15
Rodolfo Pino, Faro Manzella, Danilo Puccio, Giuseppa Sciortino, Giovanni Polizzi
The pathogenesis of tako-tsubo syndrome remains, nowadays, unclear: it is likely that the relevance of the different proposed mechanisms differs among specific clinical contexts. In this paper, we describe the case of a 61-year-old woman admitted to the intensive cardiac care unit for pre-syncope and persistent hypotension. Clinical and echocardiographic data were suggestive of tako-tsubo syndrome with severe dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction and severe mitral regurgitation. Coronary angiography was normal...
October 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867051/total-laparoscopic-hysterectomy-versus-vaginal-hysterectomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
E M Sandberg, A R H Twijnstra, S R C Driessen, F W Jansen
Hysterectomies performed laparoscopically have greatly increased within the last few decades and even exceed the number of vaginal hysterectomies (VH). This systematic review compares surgical outcomes of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and VH to evaluate which approach offers the most benefits and was conducted according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science for all relevant publications from January 2000 through February 2016...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866799/inhibitory-control-in-the-cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamocortical-loop-complex-regulation-and-interplay-with-memory-and-decision-processes
#17
Wei Wei, Xiao-Jing Wang
We developed a circuit model of spiking neurons that includes multiple pathways in the basal ganglia (BG) and is endowed with feedback mechanisms at three levels: cortical microcircuit, corticothalamic loop, and cortico-BG-thalamocortical system. We focused on executive control in a stop signal task, which is known to depend on BG across species. The model reproduces a range of experimental observations and shows that the newly discovered feedback projection from external globus pallidus to striatum is crucial for inhibitory control...
November 16, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861550/fruit-size-determines-the-role-of-three-scatter-hoarding-rodents-as-dispersers-or-seed-predators-of-a-fleshy-fruited-atacama-desert-shrub
#18
Claudia A Luna, Andrea P Loayza, Francisco A Squeo
Scatter-hoarding rodents can act as both predators and dispersers for many large-seeded plants because they cache seeds for future use, but occasionally forget them in sites with high survival and establishment probabilities. The most important fruit or seed trait influencing rodent foraging behavior is seed size; rodents prefer large seeds because they have higher nutritional content, but this preference can be counterbalanced by the higher costs of handling larger seeds. We designed a cafeteria experiment to assess whether fruit and seed size of Myrcianthes coquimbensis, an endangered desert shrub, influence the decision-making process during foraging by three species of scatter-hoarding rodents differing in body size: Abrothrix olivaceus, Phyllotis darwini and Octodon degus...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858211/factors-influencing-the-decision-making-process-and-long-term-interpersonal-outcomes-for-parents-who-undergo-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-for-fanconi-anemia-a-qualitative-investigation
#19
K Haude, P McCarthy Veach, B LeRoy, H Zierhut
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to malignancy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to treat FA, and best results are attained with sibling donors who are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical matches. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers parents of an affected child the opportunity to have an unaffected child who is an HLA match. While some research has investigated parents' experiences during the PGD process, no published studies specifically address factors influencing their decision-making process and long-term interpersonal outcomes...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855514/trail-blazing-or-jam-session-towards-a-new-concept-of-clinical-decision-making
#20
Torsten Risør
Clinical decision-making (CDM) is key in learning to be a doctor as the defining activity in their clinical work. CDM is often portrayed in the literature as similar to 'trail blazing'; the doctor as the core agent, clearing away obstacles on the path towards diagnosis and treatment. However, in a fieldwork of young doctors in Denmark, it was difficult connect their practice to this image. This paper presents the exploration of this discrepancy in the heart of medical practice and how an alternative image emerged; that of a 'jam session'...
November 17, 2016: Anthropology & Medicine
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