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Dynamic decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720181/computerized-tests-of-team-performance-and-crew-coordination-suitable-for-military-aviation-settings
#1
Ben D Lawson, Thomas W Britt, Amanda M Kelley, Jeremy R Athy, Shauna M Legan
INTRODUCTION: The coordination of team effort on shared tasks is an area of inquiry. A number of tests of team performance in challenging environments have been developed without comparison or standardization. This article provides a systematic review of the most accessible and usable low-to-medium fidelity computerized tests of team performance and determines which are most applicable to military- and aviation-relevant research, such as studies of group command, control, communication, and crew coordination...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719229/experiences-using-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-safer-conception-among-hiv-serodiscordant-heterosexual-couples-in-the-united-states
#2
Angela R Bazzi, Ashley A Leech, Dea L Biancarelli, Meg Sullivan, Mari-Lynn Drainoni
Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising HIV prevention strategy for HIV serodiscordant couples (HIV-infected male, uninfected female) seeking safer conception. However, most research on PrEP for safer conception has focused on couples in sub-Saharan Africa; little is known about the perspectives or experiences of heterosexual couples in the United States. We conducted qualitative interviews with six couples (six women and five of their male partners) receiving PrEP for conception services at an urban safety net hospital in the US Northeast...
July 18, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718164/advances-in-imaging-in-prostate-and-bladder-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Abhishek Srivastava, Laura M Douglass, Victoria Chernyak, Kara L Watts
Recent advancements in urologic imaging techniques aim to improve the initial detection of urologic malignancies and subsequent recurrence and to more accurately stage disease. This allows the urologist to make better informed treatment decisions. In particular, exciting advances in the imaging of prostate cancer and bladder cancer have recently emerged including the use of dynamic, functional imaging with MRI and PET. In this review, we will explore these imaging modalities, in addition to new sonography techniques and CT, and how they hope to improve the diagnosis and management of prostate and bladder cancer...
September 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717978/-treatment-strategy-and-planning-for-pilon-fractures
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Mittlmeier, Alice Wichelhaus
BACKGROUND: Pilon fractures are mainly severe and prognostically serious injuries with a high rate of relevant soft tissue involvement. The adequate decision making and choice of treatment in the early phase of trauma are of paramount importance for the final outcome. This essentially encompasses the management of the soft tissue damage, the surgical planning and the differentiated selection of procedures. GOALS/MATERIAL AND METHODS: Most concepts of staged treatment nowadays offer a wide range of options which are integrated into expert-based algorithms...
July 17, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717214/cumulative-dynamics-of-independent-information-spreading-behaviour-a-physical-perspective
#5
Cangqi Zhou, Qianchuan Zhao, Wenbo Lu
The popularization of information spreading in online social networks facilitates daily communication among people. Although much work has been done to study the effect of interactions among people on spreading, there is less work that considers the pattern of spreading behaviour when people independently make their decisions. By comparing microblogging, an important medium for information spreading, with the disordered spin glass system, we find that there exist interesting corresponding relationships between them...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716166/invited-review-helping-dairy-farmers-to-improve-economic-performance-utilizing-data-driving-decision-support-tools
#6
V E Cabrera
The objective of this review paper is to describe the development and application of a suite of more than 40 computerized dairy farm decision support tools contained at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) Dairy Management website http://DairyMGT.info. These data-driven decision support tools are aimed to help dairy farmers improve their decision-making, environmental stewardship and economic performance. Dairy farm systems are highly dynamic in which changing market conditions and prices, evolving policies and environmental restrictions together with every time more variable climate conditions determine performance...
July 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716081/impact-of-a-nurse-led-telephone-intervention-on-satisfaction-and-health-outcomes-of-children-with-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases-and-their-families-a-crossover-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Anne-Sylvie Ramelet, Béatrice Fonjallaz, Laura Rio, Sandra Zoni, Pierluigi Ballabeni, Joachim Rapin, Christophe Gueniat, Michaël Hofer
BACKGROUND: Children suffering from rheumatic disease are faced with multidimensional challenges that affect their quality of life and family dynamics. Symptom management and monitoring of the course of the disease over time are important to minimize disability and pain. Poor disease control and anticipation of the need for treatment changes may be prompted by specialist medical follow-up and regular nurse-led consultations with the patient and families, in which information and support is provided...
July 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715956/visual-decision-making-in-an-uncertain-and-dynamic-world
#8
Joshua I Gold, Alan A Stocker
The right decision today may be the wrong decision tomorrow. We live in a world in which expectations, contingencies, and goals continually evolve and change. Thus, decisions do not occur in isolation but rather are tightly embedded in these streams of temporal dependencies. Accordingly, even relatively straightforward visual decisions must take into account not just the immediate sensory input but also past experiences and future goals and expectations. Here, we evaluate recent progress in understanding how the brain implements these dependencies...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715105/a-simulation-based-approach-to-measuring-team-situational-awareness-in-emergency-medicine-a-multicenter-observational-study
#9
Elizabeth D Rosenman, Aurora J Dixon, Jessica M Webb, Sarah Brolliar, Simon J Golden, Kerin A Jones, Sachita Shah, James A Grand, Steve W J Kozlowski, Georgia T Chao, Rosemarie Fernandez
OBJECTIVES: Team situational awareness (TSA) is critical for effective teamwork and supports dynamic decision-making in unpredictable, time-pressured situations. Simulation provides a platform for developing and assessing TSA; but these efforts are limited by suboptimal measurement approaches. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel approach to TSA measurement in interprofessional emergency medicine teams. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, prospective, simulation-based observational study to evaluate an approach to TSA measurement...
July 17, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712160/perspectives-on-childhood-resilience-among-the-aboriginal-community-an-interview-study
#10
Christian Young, Allison Tong, Janice Nixon, Peter Fernando, Deanna Kalucy, Simone Sherriff, Kathleen Clapham, Jonathan C Craig, Anna Williamson
OBJECTIVE: To describe Aboriginal community members' perspectives on the outcomes and origins of resilience among Aboriginal children. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 36 Aboriginal adults (15 health service professionals, 8 youth workers and 13 community members) at two urban and one regional Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in New South Wales. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. RESULTS: We identified six themes: withstanding risk (displaying normative development, possessing inner fortitude); adapting to adversity (necessary endurance, masking inner vulnerabilities); positive social influences (secure family environments, role modelling healthy behaviours and relationships); instilling cultural identity (investing in Aboriginal knowledge, building a strong cultural self-concept); community safeguards (offering strategic sustainable services, holistic support, shared responsibility, providing enriching opportunities); and personal empowerment (awareness of positive pathways, developing self-respect, fostering positive decision making)...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711852/gauging-policy-driven-large-scale-vegetation-restoration-programmes-under-a-changing-environment-their-effectiveness-and-socio-economic-relationships
#11
Ting Li, Yihe Lü, Bojie Fu, Alexis J Comber, Paul Harris, Lianhai Wu
Large-scale ecological restoration has been widely accepted globally as an effective strategy for combating environmental crises and to facilitate sustainability. Assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration is vital for researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers. However, few practical tools are available to perform such tasks, particularly for large-scale restoration programmes in complex socio-ecological systems. By taking a "before and after" design, this paper formulates a composite index (Ej) based on comparing the trends of vegetation cover and vegetation productivity to assess ecological restoration effectiveness...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706497/the-sustained-influence-of-an-error-on-future-decision-making
#12
Björn C Schiffler, Sara L Bengtsson, Daniel Lundqvist
Post-error slowing (PES) is consistently observed in decision-making tasks after negative feedback. Yet, findings are inconclusive as to whether PES supports performance accuracy. We addressed the role of PES by employing drift diffusion modeling which enabled us to investigate latent processes of reaction times and accuracy on a large-scale dataset (>5,800 participants) of a visual search experiment with emotional face stimuli. In our experiment, post-error trials were characterized by both adaptive and non-adaptive decision processes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704928/dynamic-hippocampal-and-prefrontal-contributions-to-memory-processes-and-representations-blur-the-boundaries-of-traditional-cognitive-domains
#13
REVIEW
Rachael D Rubin, Hillary Schwarb, Heather D Lucas, Michael R Dulas, Neal J Cohen
The hippocampus has long been known to be a critical component of the memory system involved in the formation and use of long-term declarative memory. However, recent findings have revealed that the reach of hippocampal contributions extends to a variety of domains and tasks that require the flexible use of cognitive and social behavior, including domains traditionally linked to prefrontal cortex (PFC), such as decision-making. In addition, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has gained traction as a necessary part of the memory system...
July 12, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702459/a-review-of-quantitative-tools-used-to-assess-the-epidemiology-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-in-u-s-swine-farms-using-dr-morrison-s-swine-health-monitoring-program-data
#14
REVIEW
Carles Vilalta, Andreia G Arruda, Steven J P Tousignant, Pablo Valdes-Donoso, Petra Muellner, Ulrich Muellner, Moh A Alkhamis, Robert B Morrison, Andres M Perez
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes far-reaching financial losses to infected countries and regions, including the U.S. The Dr. Morrison's Swine Health Monitoring Program (MSHMP) is a voluntary initiative in which producers and veterinarians share sow farm PRRS status weekly to contribute to the understanding, in quantitative terms, of PRRS epidemiological dynamics and, ultimately, to support its control in the U.S. Here, we offer a review of a variety of analytic tools that were applied to MSHMP data to assess disease dynamics in quantitative terms to support the decision-making process for veterinarians and producers...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701975/to-pass-or-not-to-pass-modeling-the-movement-and-affordance-dynamics-of-a-pick-and-place-task
#15
Maurice Lamb, Rachel W Kallen, Steven J Harrison, Mario Di Bernardo, Ali Minai, Michael J Richardson
Humans commonly engage in tasks that require or are made more efficient by coordinating with other humans. In this paper we introduce a task dynamics approach for modeling multi-agent interaction and decision making in a pick and place task where an agent must move an object from one location to another and decide whether to act alone or with a partner. Our aims were to identify and model (1) the affordance related dynamics that define an actor's choice to move an object alone or to pass it to their co-actor and (2) the trajectory dynamics of an actor's hand movements when moving to grasp, relocate, or pass the object...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696850/advanced-mr-imaging-techniques-for-differentiation-of-neuropathic-arthropathy-and-osteomyelitis-in-the-diabetic-foot
#16
Teodoro Martín Noguerol, Antonio Luna Alcalá, Luis S Beltrán, Marta Gómez Cabrera, Jordi Broncano Cabrero, Joan C Vilanova
Diagnosis and treatment of foot disease in patients with diabetes is a common clinical-radiologic challenge, particularly the differentiation of neuropathic arthropathy from osteomyelitis. Conventional clinical tests and imaging techniques have limited accuracy for evaluation of the diabetic foot. The introduction of morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in these patients has provided a qualitative leap in diagnosis. The characteristics of soft-tissue and bone marrow edema and their patterns of distribution throughout the foot allow discrimination between both entities...
July 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694677/does-shared-decision-making-results-in-better-health-related-outcomes-for-individuals-with-painful-musculoskeletal-disorders-a-systematic-review
#17
Yannick Tousignant-Laflamme, Shefali Christopher, Derek Clewley, Leila Ledbetter, Christian Jaeger Cook, Chad E Cook
Background: Shared Decision-Making (SDM) is a dynamic process by which the health care professional and the patient influence each other in making health-related choices or decisions. SDM is strongly embedded in today's health care approaches, and is advocated as an ideal model since it renders individuals more control towards the health care they choose to receive, and has been shown to improve patient outcomes. Objectives: The goal of this systematic review was to investigate the added-value of SDM on clinical health-related outcomes in patients with a variety of musculoskeletal conditions...
July 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692700/noise-multisensory-integration-and-previous-response-in-perceptual-disambiguation
#18
Cesare V Parise, Marc O Ernst
Sensory information about the state of the world is generally ambiguous. Understanding how the nervous system resolves such ambiguities to infer the actual state of the world is a central quest for sensory neuroscience. However, the computational principles of perceptual disambiguation are still poorly understood: What drives perceptual decision-making between multiple equally valid solutions? Here we investigate how humans gather and combine sensory information-within and across modalities-to disambiguate motion perception in an ambiguous audiovisual display, where two moving stimuli could appear as either streaming through, or bouncing off each other...
July 10, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690797/the-influence-of-breeding-phenology-on-the-genetic-structure-of-four-pond-breeding-salamanders
#19
Jacob J Burkhart, William E Peterman, Emily R Brocato, Kimberly M Romine, M Madeline S Willis, Brittany H Ousterhout, Thomas L Anderson, Dana L Drake, Freya E Rowland, Raymond D Semlitsch, Lori S Eggert
Understanding metapopulation dynamics requires knowledge about local population dynamics and movement in both space and time. Most genetic metapopulation studies use one or two study species across the same landscape to infer population dynamics; however, using multiple co-occurring species allows for testing of hypotheses related to different life history strategies. We used genetic data to study dispersal, as measured by gene flow, in three ambystomatid salamanders (Ambystoma annulatum, A. maculatum, and A...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689031/re-defining-the-characteristics-of-environmental-volunteering-creating-a-typology-of-community-scale-green-infrastructure
#20
Gemma Jerome, Ian Mell, Dave Shaw
One way to engage people with green infrastructure (GI) is as environmental volunteers. Previous studies explored the nature of such groups/projects in terms of the benefits they deliver such as their impact on levels of social capital within a pre-defined community. However, existing literature contributes little to our understanding of the composition, characteristics and mechanisms used to form and maintain these groups. As such, it is difficult to establish the influencing factors determining the capacity of a group to sustain its provision over time...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Research
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