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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342285/serial-participation-and-the-ethics-of-phase-1-healthy-volunteer-research
#1
Rebecca L Walker, Marci D Cottingham, Jill A Fisher
Phase 1 healthy volunteer clinical trials-which financially compensate subjects in tests of drug toxicity levels and side effects-appear to place pressure on each joint of the moral framework justifying research. In this article, we review concerns about phase 1 trials as they have been framed in the bioethics literature, including undue inducement and coercion, unjust exploitation, and worries about compromised data validity. We then revisit these concerns in light of the lived experiences of serial participants who are income-dependent on phase 1 trials...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339478/cooperation-clustering-and-assortative-mixing-in-dynamic-networks
#2
David Melamed, Ashley Harrell, Brent Simpson
Humans' propensity to cooperate is driven by our embeddedness in social networks. A key mechanism through which networks promote cooperation is clustering. Within clusters, conditional cooperators are insulated from exploitation by noncooperators, allowing them to reap the benefits of cooperation. Dynamic networks, where ties can be shed and new ties formed, allow for the endogenous emergence of clusters of cooperators. Although past work suggests that either reputation processes or network dynamics can increase clustering and cooperation, existing work on network dynamics conflates reputations and dynamics...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330835/international-guidelines-for-groin-hernia-management
#3
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
January 12, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#4
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327248/introducing-new-technology-safely-into-urological-practice
#5
Siska Van Bruwaene, Benjamin Namdarian, Ben Challacombe, Ben Eddy, Ignace Billiet
PURPOSE: Surgical innovation is necessary to ensure continued improvement in patient care. However, several challenges unique to the surgical craft are encountered during the development and validation of such new technology. This article highlights some of these challenges and gives an overview of existing solutions. METHODS: A Pubmed review was performed about the "introduction of new technology" to identify challenges. Cross-referencing was used to explore the possible solutions per challenge...
January 11, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325536/autonomy-and-couples-joint-decision-making-in-healthcare
#6
Pauline E Osamor, Christine Grady
BACKGROUND: Respect for autonomy is a key principle in bioethics. However, respecting autonomy in practice is complex because most people define themselves and make decisions influenced by a complex network of social relationships. The extent to which individual autonomy operates for each partner within the context of decision-making within marital or similar relationships is largely unexplored. This paper explores issues related to decision-making by couples (couples' joint decision-making) for health care and the circumstances under which such a practice should be respected as compatible with autonomous decision-making...
January 11, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324054/bayesian-diagnostics-of-hidden-markov-structural-equation-models-with-missing-data
#7
Jingheng Cai, Ming Ouyang, Kai Kang, Xinyuan Song
Cocaine is a type of drug that functions to increase the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. However, cocaine dependence or abuse is highly related to an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and deficits in cognitive performance, attention, and decision-making abilities. Given the chronic and persistent features of drug addiction, the progression of abstaining from cocaine often evolves across several states, such as addiction to, moderate dependence on, and swearing off cocaine. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are well suited to the characterization of longitudinal data in terms of a set of unobservable states, and have increasingly been used to uncover the dynamic heterogeneity in progressive diseases or activities...
January 11, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321039/strategies-to-control-hiv-and-hcv-in-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-guangdong-province-china-a-system-dynamic-modeling-study
#8
Xia Zou, Yong Xu, Wen Chen, Yinghua Xia, Yin Liu, Cheng Gong, Li Ling
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) participants remain high. Optimized HIV and HCV prevention strategies for MMT clinics in resource-limited regions are urgently needed. This study aims to develop an MMT system dynamic model (SDM) to compare and optimize HIV and HCV control strategies in the MMT system. METHODS: We developed an MMT-SDM structure based on literature reviews...
January 10, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317467/evaluating-team-decision-making-as-an-emergent-phenomenon
#9
John Kinnear, Nick Wilson, Anthony O'Dwyer
BACKGROUND: The complexity of modern clinical practice has highlighted the fallibility of individual clinicians' decision-making, with effective teamwork emerging as a key to patient safety. Dual process theory is widely accepted as a framework for individual decision-making, with type 1 processes responsible for fast, intuitive and automatic decisions and type 2 processes for slow, analytical decisions. However, dual process theory does not explain cognition at the group level, when individuals act in teams...
January 9, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316913/influence-of-demographic-changes-on-the-impact-of-vaccination-against-varicella-and-herpes-zoster-in-germany-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#10
Johannes Horn, Oliver Damm, Wolfgang Greiner, Hartmut Hengel, Mirjam E Kretzschmar, Anette Siedler, Bernhard Ultsch, Felix Weidemann, Ole Wichmann, André Karch, Rafael T Mikolajczyk
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that reduced exposure to varicella might lead to an increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ). Reduction of exposure to varicella is a consequence of varicella vaccination but also of demographic changes. We analyzed how the combination of vaccination programs and demographic dynamics will affect the epidemiology of varicella and HZ in Germany over the next 50 years. METHODS: We used a deterministic dynamic compartmental model to assess the impact of different varicella and HZ vaccination strategies on varicella and HZ epidemiology in three demographic scenarios, namely the projected population for Germany, the projected population additionally accounting for increased immigration as observed in 2015/2016, and a stationary population...
January 9, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316887/how-do-informal-information-sources-influence-women-s-decision-making-for-birth-a-meta-synthesis-of-qualitative-studies
#11
Ruth A Sanders, Kenda Crozier
BACKGROUND: Women approach birth using various methods of preparation drawing from conventional healthcare providers alongside informal information sources (IIS) outside the professional healthcare context. An investigation of the forms in which these informal information sources are accessed and negotiated by women, and how these disconnected and often conflicting elements influence women's decision-making process for birth have yet to be evaluated. The level of antenatal preparedness women feel can have significant and long lasting implications on their birth experience and transition into motherhood and beyond...
January 10, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316421/the-role-of-hippocampal-replay-in-memory-and%C3%A2-planning
#12
REVIEW
H Freyja Ólafsdóttir, Daniel Bush, Caswell Barry
The mammalian hippocampus is important for normal memory function, particularly memory for places and events. Place cells, neurons within the hippocampus that have spatial receptive fields, represent information about an animal's position. During periods of rest, but also during active task engagement, place cells spontaneously recapitulate past trajectories. Such 'replay' has been proposed as a mechanism necessary for a range of neurobiological functions, including systems memory consolidation, recall and spatial working memory, navigational planning, and reinforcement learning...
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315795/environmental-risk-assessment-of-engineered-nano-sio2-nano-iron-oxides-nano-ceo2-nano-al2-o3-and-quantum-dots
#13
Yan Wang, Bernd Nowack
A lot of research studies have endeavored to investigate the ecotoxicological hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). However, little is known regarding the actual environmental risks of ENMs, combining both hazard and exposure data. The aim of this study is to quantify the environmental risks for nano-Al2 O3 , nano-SiO2 , nano iron oxides, nano-CeO2 , and quantum dots by comparing the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) with the predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC). The PEC values of these five ENMs in fresh waters in 2020 for northern Europe and southeastern Europe were taken from a published dynamic probabilistic material flow analysis model...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314345/differentiation-between-vasogenic-edema-and-infiltrative-tumor-in-patients-with-high-grade-gliomas-using-texture-patch-based-analysis
#14
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Deborah T Blumenthal, Orna Aizenstein, Felix Bokstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
BACKGROUND: High-grade gliomas (HGGs) induce both vasogenic edema and extensive infiltration of tumor cells, both of which present with similar appearance on conventional MRI. Using current radiological criteria, differentiation between these tumoral and nontumoral areas within the nonenhancing lesion area remains challenging. PURPOSE: To use radiomics patch-based analysis, based on conventional MRI, for the classification of the nonenhancing lesion area in patients with HGG into tumoral and nontumoral components...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304043/the-spectrosome-of-occupational-health-problems
#15
Delphine Bosson-Rieutort, Régis de Gaudemaris, Dominique J Bicout
Given the increased prevalence of cancer, respiratory diseases, and reproductive disorders, for which multifactorial origins are strongly suspected, the impact of the environment on the population represents a substantial public health challenge. Surveillance systems have become an essential public health decision-making tool. Networks have been constructed to facilitate the development of analyses of the multifactorial aspects of the relationships between occupational contexts and health. The aim of this study is to develop and present an approach for the optimal exploitation of observational databases to describe and improve the understanding of the (occupational) environment-health relationships, taking into account key multifactorial aspects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302731/quantifying-dynamic-deformity-after-dual-plane-breast-augmentation
#16
Marcelo Recondo Cheffe, Jorge Diego Valentini, Marcus Vinicius Martins Collares, Pedro Salomão Piccinini, Jefferson Luis Braga da Silva
BACKGROUND: Dynamic breast deformity (DBD) is characterized by visible distortion and deformity of the breast due to contraction of the pectoralis major muscle after submuscular breast augmentation; fortunately, in most cases, this is not a clinically significant complaint from patients. The purpose of this study is to present a simple method for objectively measuring DBD in patients submitted to dual plane breast augmentation (DPBA). METHODS: We studied 32 women, between 18 and 50 years old, who underwent primary DPBA with at least 1 year of follow-up...
January 4, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301172/myelography-in-the-assessment-of-degenerative-lumbar-scoliosis-and-its-influence-on-surgical-management
#17
George McKay, Peter Alexander Torrie, Wendy Bertram, Priyan Landham, Stephen Morris, John Hutchinson, Roland Watura, Ian Harding
OBJECTIVE: Myelography has been shown to highlight foraminal and lateral recess stenosis more readily than computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It also has the advantage of providing dynamic assessment of stenosis in the loaded spine. The advent of weight-bearing MRI may go some way towards improving assessment of the loaded spine and is less invasive, however availability remains limited. This study evaluates the potential role of myelography and its impact upon surgical decision making...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299626/top-down-bottom-up-and-sideways-the-multilayered-complexities-of-multi-level-actors-shaping-forest-governance-and-redd-arrangements-in-madre-de-dios-peru
#18
Dawn Rodriguez-Ward, Anne M Larson, Harold Gordillo Ruesta
This study examines the role multilevel governance plays in the adoption of sustainable landscape management initiatives in emerging arrangements aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). It sheds light on the challenges these multiple layers of actors and interests encounter around such alternatives in a subnational jurisdiction. Through transcript analysis of 93 interviews with institutional actors in the region of Madre de Dios, Peru, particularly with regard to five sites of land-use change, we identified the multiple actors who are included and excluded in the decision-making process and uncovered their complex interactions in forest and landscape governance and REDD+ arrangements...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297392/summary-findings-from-a-mixed-methods-study-on-identifying-and-responding-to-maternal-and-newborn-illness-in-seven-countries-implications-for-programs
#19
Danielle Charlet, Allisyn C Moran, Supriya Madhavan
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of systematic information documenting recognition of potentially life-threatening complications and decisions to seek care, as well as reaching care and the specific steps in that process. In response to this gap in knowledge, a multi-country mixed methods study was conducted to illuminate the dynamics driving Delays 1 and 2 across seven countries for maternal and newborn illness and death. METHODS: A common protocol and tools were developed, adapted by each of seven study teams depending on their local context (Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Nepal)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294740/developing-and-validating-the-scale-of-economic-self-efficacy
#20
Gretchen L Hoge, Amanda M Stylianou, Andrea Hetling, Judy L Postmus
Experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and financial hardship are often intertwined. The dynamics of an abusive relationship may include economic abuse tactics that compromise a survivor's ability to work, pursue education, have access to financial resources, and establish financial skills, knowledge, and security. An increasingly common goal among programs serving IPV survivors is increasing financial empowerment through financial literacy. However, providing financial education alone may not be enough to improve financial behaviors...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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