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Dynamic decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448498/personalized-glucose-forecasting-for-type-2-diabetes-using-data-assimilation
#1
David J Albers, Matthew Levine, Bruce Gluckman, Henry Ginsberg, George Hripcsak, Lena Mamykina
Type 2 diabetes leads to premature death and reduced quality of life for 8% of Americans. Nutrition management is critical to maintaining glycemic control, yet it is difficult to achieve due to the high individual differences in glycemic response to nutrition. Anticipating glycemic impact of different meals can be challenging not only for individuals with diabetes, but also for expert diabetes educators. Personalized computational models that can accurately forecast an impact of a given meal on an individual's blood glucose levels can serve as the engine for a new generation of decision support tools for individuals with diabetes...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447539/feasibility-of-preference-driven-radiotherapy-dose-treatment-planning-to-support-shared-decision-making-in-anal-cancer
#2
Heidi S Rønde, Leonard Wee, John Pløen, Ane L Appelt
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Chemo-radiotherapy is an established primary curative treatment for anal cancer, but clinically equal rationale for different target doses exists. If joint preferences (physician and patient) are used to determine acceptable tradeoffs in radiotherapy treatment planning, multiple dose plans must be simultaneously explored. We quantified the degree to which different toxicity priorities might be incorporated into treatment plan selection, to elucidate the feasible decision space for shared decision making in anal cancer radiotherapy...
April 27, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442714/mitigating-herding-in-hierarchical-crowdsourcing-networks
#3
Han Yu, Chunyan Miao, Cyril Leung, Yiqiang Chen, Simon Fauvel, Victor R Lesser, Qiang Yang
Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441882/work-right-to-right-work-an-automythology-of-chronic-illness-and-work
#4
Lavanya Vijayasingham
Objectives Chronic illness is known to disrupt and redirect the usual course of work trajectories. This article aims to portray the longitudinal course of negotiating work after multiple sclerosis. Methods Using therapy and personal journals to reconstruct memories and experience, an autoethnography is produced and narrated within Campbell's "Hero's Journey" automythology framework. Results The narrative highlights the intrasubjectivity of illness meaning-the changing internal meaning-making and external behavior and decision-making dynamics...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438832/a-photoconversion-model-for-full-spectral-programming-and-multiplexing-of-optogenetic%C3%A2-systems
#5
Evan J Olson, Constantine N Tzouanas, Jeffrey J Tabor
Optogenetics combines externally applied light signals and genetically engineered photoreceptors to control cellular processes with unmatched precision. Here, we develop a mathematical model of wavelength- and intensity-dependent photoconversion, signaling, and output gene expression for our two previously engineered light-sensing Escherichia coli two-component systems. To parameterize the model, we develop a simple set of spectral and dynamical calibration experiments using our recent open-source "Light Plate Apparatus" device...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437767/building-integrated-agriculture-a-first-assessment-of-aerobiological-air-quality-in-rooftop-greenhouses-i-rtgs
#6
Mireia Ercilla-Montserrat, Rebeca Izquierdo, Jordina Belmonte, Juan Ignacio Montero, Pere Muñoz, Concepción De Linares, Joan Rieradevall
Building-integrated rooftop greenhouse (i-RTG) agriculture has intensified in recent years, due to the growing interest in the development of new agricultural spaces and in the promotion of food self-sufficiency in urban areas. This paper provides a first assessment of the indoor dynamics of bioaerosols in an i-RTG, with the aim of evaluating biological air quality in a tomato greenhouse near Barcelona. It evaluates the greenhouse workers' exposure to airborne pollen and fungal spores in order to prevent allergy problems associated with occupational tasks...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426971/metaplasticity-as-a-neural-substrate-for-adaptive-learning-and-choice-under-uncertainty
#7
Shiva Farashahi, Christopher H Donahue, Peyman Khorsand, Hyojung Seo, Daeyeol Lee, Alireza Soltani
Value-based decision making often involves integration of reward outcomes over time, but this becomes considerably more challenging if reward assignments on alternative options are probabilistic and non-stationary. Despite the existence of various models for optimally integrating reward under uncertainty, the underlying neural mechanisms are still unknown. Here we propose that reward-dependent metaplasticity (RDMP) can provide a plausible mechanism for both integration of reward under uncertainty and estimation of uncertainty itself...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426739/artificial-neural-network-and-sarima-based-models-for-power-load-forecasting-in-turkish-electricity-market
#8
Ömer Özgür Bozkurt, Göksel Biricik, Ziya Cihan Tayşi
Load information plays an important role in deregulated electricity markets, since it is the primary factor to make critical decisions on production planning, day-to-day operations, unit commitment and economic dispatch. Being able to predict the load for a short term, which covers one hour to a few days, equips power generation facilities and traders with an advantage. With the deregulation of electricity markets, a variety of short term load forecasting models are developed. Deregulation in Turkish Electricity Market has started in 2001 and liberalization is still in progress with rules being effective in its predefined schedule...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426536/exploring-the-interaction-between-nursing-decision-making-and-patient-outcomes-in-2-european-cancer-centers-a-qualitative-study
#9
Dario Valcarenghi, Annamaria Bagnasco, Giuseppe Aleo, Gianluca Catania, Milko Zanini, Bruno Cavaliere, Franco Carnevale, Loredana Sasso
BACKGROUND: In some clinical settings, nurses have difficulty describing the outcomes of their caring activities. Understanding the reasons for this could help nurse leaders to improve the effectiveness and visibility of nursing practice and safeguard nurses' working conditions. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to understand how nurses working in 2 different adult cancer centers make healthcare decisions and assess the respective outcomes on their patients...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425491/the-neural-dynamics-underlying-the-interpersonal-effects-of-emotional-expression-on-decision-making
#10
Xuhai Chen, Tingting Zheng, Lingzi Han, Yingchao Chang, Yangmei Luo
Although numerous studies explore the effects of emotion on decision-making, the existing research has mainly focused on the influence of intrapersonal emotions, leaving the influence of one person's emotions on another's decisions underestimated. To specify how interpersonal emotions shape decision-making and delineate the underlying neural dynamics involved, the present study examined brain responses to utilitarian feedback combined with angry or happy faces in competitive and cooperative contexts. Behavioral results showed that participants responded slower following losses than wins when competitors express happiness but responded faster following losses than wins when cooperators express anger...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421298/dog-rivalry-impacts-following-behavior-in-a-decision-making-task-involving-food
#11
Christy L Hoffman, Malini Suchak
Dogs learn a great deal from humans and other dogs. Previous studies of socially influenced learning between dogs have typically used a highly trained demonstrator dog who is unfamiliar to the observer. Because of this, it is unknown how dynamics between familiar dogs may influence their likelihood of learning from each other. In this study, we tested dogs living together in two-dog households on whether individual dogs' rivalry scores were associated with performance on a local enhancement task. Specifically, we wanted to know whether dog rivalry impacted whether an observer dog would approach a plate from which a demonstrator dog had eaten all available food, or whether the observer dog would approach the adjacent plate that still contained food...
April 18, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420725/monitoring-daily-dynamics-of-early-tumor-response-to-targeted-therapy-by-detecting-circulating-tumor-dna-in-urine
#12
Hatim Husain, Vladislava O Melnikova, Karena Kosco, Brian Woodward, Soham More, Sandeep C Pingle, Elizabeth Weihe, Ben Ho Park, Muneesh Tewari, Mark G Erlander, Ezra E W Cohen, Scott M Lippman, Razelle Kurzrock
Purpose: Non-invasive drug biomarkers for the early assessment of tumor response can enable adaptive therapeutic decision-making and proof-of-concept studies for investigational drugs. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is released into the circulation by tumor cell turnover and has been shown to be detectable in urine. Experimental Design : We tested the hypothesis that dynamic changes in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating (exon 19del and L858R) and resistance (T790M) mutation levels detected in urine could inform tumor response within days of therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving osimertinib, a second line third generation anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420191/designing-effective-interactions-for-concordance-around-end-of-life-care-decisions-lessons-from-hospice-admission-nurses
#13
Carey Candrian, Channing Tate, Kirsten Broadfoot, Alexandra Tsantes, Daniel Matlock, Jean Kutner
Near the end of life, hospice care reduces symptom-related distress and hospitalizations while improving caregiving outcomes. However, it takes time for a person to gain a sufficient understanding of hospice and decide to enroll. This decision is influenced by knowledge of hospice and its services, emotion and fear, cultural and religious beliefs, and an individual's acceptance of diagnosis. Hospice admission interactions, a key influence in shaping decisions regarding hospice care, happen particularly late in the illness trajectory and are often complex, unpredictable, and highly variable...
April 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419113/evaluation-of-harvest-and-information-needs-for-north-american-sea-ducks
#14
Mark D Koneff, Guthrie S Zimmerman, Chris P Dwyer, Kathleen K Fleming, Paul I Padding, Patrick K Devers, Fred A Johnson, Michael C Runge, Anthony J Roberts
Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418309/translation-of-real-time-infectious-disease-modeling-into-routine-public-health-practice
#15
David J Muscatello, Abrar A Chughtai, Anita Heywood, Lauren M Gardner, David J Heslop, C Raina MacIntyre
Infectious disease dynamic modeling can support outbreak emergency responses. We conducted a workshop to canvas the needs of stakeholders in Australia for practical, real-time modeling tools for infectious disease emergencies. The workshop was attended by 29 participants who represented government, defense, general practice, and academia stakeholders. We found that modeling is underused in Australia and its potential is poorly understood by practitioners involved in epidemic responses. The development of better modeling tools is desired...
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414582/educating-the-next-generation-of-family-caregivers-through-the-use-of-dynamic-case-studies
#16
Carol L Jenkins, Abby J Schwartz
Between 2008 and 2016, students in an Introduction to Gerontology course were required to complete a dynamic case study project simulating caregiving arrangement decision-making. Students were divided into groups representing typical multigenerational families, and were required to determine how to develop caregiving arrangements to respond to an older family member's changing levels of need. The assignment concluded with students writing a final paper summarizing what they learned. This study examined the themes emerging from student group case study papers to gain an understanding of the challenges students face in understanding the dynamics of making family-based caregiving decisions...
April 17, 2017: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414471/the-reciprocal-dynamic-model-of-career-decision-ambiguity-tolerance-with-career-indecision-a-longitudinal-three-wave-investigation
#17
Hui Xu, Terence J G Tracey
The current study investigated the dynamic interplay of career decision ambiguity tolerance and career indecision over 3 assessment times in a sample of college students (n = 583). While the previous research has repeatedly shown an association of career decision ambiguity tolerance with career indecision, the direction of this association has not been adequately assessed with longitudinal investigation. It was hypothesized in this study that there is a reciprocal pattern of career decision ambiguity tolerance leading to subsequent career indecision and career indecision leading to subsequent career decision ambiguity tolerance...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412937/understanding-relevance-of-health-research-considerations-in-the-context-of-research-impact-assessment
#18
EDITORIAL
Mark J Dobrow, Fiona A Miller, Cy Frank, Adalsteinn D Brown
BACKGROUND: With massive investment in health-related research, above and beyond investments in the management and delivery of healthcare and public health services, there has been increasing focus on the impact of health research to explore and explain the consequences of these investments and inform strategic planning. Relevance is reflected by increased attention to the usability and impact of health research, with research funders increasingly engaging in relevance assessment as an input to decision processes...
April 17, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412049/more-than-a-destination-contraceptive-decision-making-as-a-journey
#19
Margaret Mary Downey, Stephanie Arteaga, Elodia Villaseñor, Anu Manchikanti Gomez
BACKGROUND: Contraceptive use is widely recognized as a means of reducing adverse health-related outcomes. However, dominant paradigms of contraceptive counseling may rely on a narrow definition of "evidence" (i.e., scientifically accurate but exclusive of individual women's experiences). Given increased enthusiasm for long-acting, reversible contraceptive methods, such paradigms may reinforce counseling that overprivileges effectiveness, particularly for groups considered at high risk of unintended pregnancy...
April 12, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410651/advance-care-planning-for-patients-approaching-end-stage-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Rebecca J Schmidt
Patients with chronic kidney disease typically suffer a cascade of comorbid conditions, the magnitude of which have formidable impact on advance care planning (ACP). Complex health care decisions are complicated further by contextual issues that may change over time. A dynamic and evolving process, ACP ideally begins early in the continuum of chronic kidney disease, long before end-stage kidney disease is reached. Planning ahead for care is preparatory to making decisions about kidney replacement therapy and can make for a smooth transition in addition to preventing the start of dialysis by default...
March 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
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