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Cedric Tan Kai Wei, Philippa Doyle, Emma Bagshaw, David S Richardson, Stuart Wigby, Tommaso Pizzari
In structured populations, competition for reproductive opportunities should be relaxed among related males. The few tests of this prediction often neglect the fact that sexual selection acts through multiple mechanisms, both before and after mating. We performed experiments to study the role of within-group male relatedness across pre- and postcopulatory mechanisms of sexual selection in social groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, in which two related males and one unrelated male competed over females unrelated to all the males...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Laura S Caulfield
Purpose Large numbers of women in prison report significant emotional and mental health problems, and there is evidence to suggest that the prison environment may exacerbate the incidence and severity of these issues (Armour, 2012). However, there has been limited exploration of the extent to which women's mental health problems exist prior to incarceration, whether symptoms first occur in incarceration, and how incarceration affects this. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 women incarcerated in three English prisons and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
Lambèr Royakkers, Marc Steen
Developers and designers make all sorts of moral decisions throughout an innovation project. In this article, we describe how teams of developers and designers engaged with ethics in the early phases of innovation based on case studies in the SUBCOP project (SUBCOP stands for 'SUicide Bomber COunteraction and Prevention'). For that purpose, Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be used as a reference. Specifically, we focus on the following two research questions: How can researchers/developers learn about users' perspectives and values during the innovation process? and How can researchers/developers take into account these values, and related design criteria, in their decision-making during the innovation process? Based on a case study of several innovation processes in this project, we conclude the researchers/developers involved are able to do something similar to VSD (without them knowing about VSD or calling it 'VSD'), supported by relatively simple exercises in the project, e...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Amanda L Smith, Ian R Grosse
Mammalian zygomatic arch shape is remarkably variable, ranging from nearly cylindrical to blade-like in cross section. Based on geometry, the arch can be hypothesized to be a sub-structural beam whose ability to resist deformation is related to cross sectional shape. We expect zygomatic arches with different cross sectional shapes to vary in the degree to which they resist local bending and torsion due to the contraction of the masseter muscle. A stiffer arch may lead to an increase in the relative proportion of applied muscle load being transmitted through the arch to other cranial regions, resulting in elevated cranial stress (and thus, strain)...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Yasuyuki Nakamura, Tasuku Ogihara, Sayaka Hatano, Manabu Abe, Shigeru Yamago
The termination mechanism of radical polymerization, that is, disproportionation (Disp) versus combination (Comb), determines the chain length and end-group structure of the resulting polymer as well as polymer properties, and yet factors governing the mechanism are still unclear. Furthermore, no attempts have been made to control the mechanism. Here, the effects of temperature and viscosity on the termination of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene (St) polymerization were elucidated by using small molecular model-radicals and the corresponding polymer radicals in various solvents...
November 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Erik G Noonburg, James E Byers
Movement of individuals links the effects of local variation in habitat quality with growth and persistence of populations at the landscape scale. When the populations themselves are linked by interspecific interactions, such as predation, differential movement between habitats may lead to counterintuitive system-wide dynamics. Understanding the interaction between local drivers and dynamics of widely dispersed species is necessary to predict the impacts of habitat fragmentation and degradation, which may be transmitted across habitat boundaries by species' movements...
October 2016: Ecology
Thomas Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng, Gregory S Kolt, Bin Jalaludin
Does a rise in crime result in increased sitting time and a reduction in physical activity? We used unobserved ("fixed")-effects models to examine associations between change in objectively measured crime (nondomestic violence, malicious damage, breaking and entering, and stealing, theft, and robbery) in Australia and measures of sitting time, walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a residentially stable sample of 17,474 men and 19,688 women at baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010)...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Nancy E Epstein
BACKGROUND: Different degrees of blood flow/vascular compromise occur with anterior, posterior, or circumferential spinal cord compression/spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI is also divided into primary and secondary injury. Primary SCI refers to the original neurological damage to tissues, whereas secondary injury reflects interruption of normal blood flow leading to further inflammatory response/other local changes which contribute to additional neurological injury. METHODS: The authors developed a quantitative "3-D finite element fluid structure interaction model" of spinal cord blood flow to better document the mechanisms of secondary ischemic damage occurring in the spinal cord anteriorly, posteriorly, or circumferentially...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Rangarajan Radhakrishnan, Suzanne M Fielding
We study shear banding in soft glassy materials subject to a large amplitude oscillatory shear flow (LAOS). By numerical simulations of the widely used soft glassy rheology model, supplemented by more general physical arguments, we demonstrate strong banding over an extensive range of amplitudes and frequencies of the imposed shear rate γ[over ˙](t)=γ[over ˙]_{0}cos(ωt), even in materials that do not permit banding as their steady state response to a steadily imposed shear flow γ[over ˙]=γ[over ˙]_{0}=const...
October 28, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Yantao Yang, Roberto Verzicco, Detlef Lohse
Vertically bounded fingering double diffusive convection is numerically investigated, focusing on the influences of different velocity boundary conditions, i.e., the no-slip condition, which is inevitable in the lab-scale experimental researches, and the free-slip condition, which is an approximation for the interfaces in many natural environments, such as the oceans. For both boundary conditions the flow is dominated by fingers and the global responses follow the same scaling laws, with enhanced prefactors for the free-slip cases...
October 28, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Kathryn M Keefer, Heather L True
The nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC) is a highly conserved but poorly characterized triad of proteins that bind near the ribosome exit tunnel. The NAC is the first cotranslational factor to bind to polypeptides and assist with their proper folding. Surprisingly, we found that deletion of NAC subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae rescues toxicity associated with the strong [PSI+] prion. This counterintuitive finding can be explained by changes in chaperone balance and distribution whereby the folding of the prion protein is improved and the prion is rendered nontoxic...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
Benjamin A Burnett, Benjamin S Williams
The development of quantum dot cascade lasers has been proposed as a path to obtain terahertz semiconductor lasers that operate at room temperature. The expected benefit is due to the suppression of nonradiative electron-phonon scattering and reduced dephasing that accompanies discretization of the electronic energy spectrum. We present numerical modeling which predicts that simple scaling of conventional quantum well based designs to the quantum dot regime will likely fail due to electrical instability associated with high-field domain formation...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
Xiaosong Zhu, Xi Liu, Pengfei Lan, Dian Wang, Qingbin Zhang, Wei Li, Peixiang Lu
When a molecule has more than one chiral center, it can be either a chiral molecule or a meso isomer. High harmonic generation (HHG) of stereoisomers with two chiral centers driven by circularly polarized (CP) laser pulses is investigated. Counterintuitively, it is found that the HHG exhibits prominent circular dichroism for the meso isomer, while the harmonic spectra with left and right CP laser pulses are nearly the same for the chiral isomers. We show that the anomalous circular dichroism is attributed to the characteristic recollision dynamics of HHG...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
Bob Rehder, Michael R Waldmann
Causal Bayes nets capture many aspects of causal thinking that set them apart from purely associative reasoning. However, some central properties of this normative theory routinely violated. In tasks requiring an understanding of explaining away and screening off, subjects often deviate from these principles and manifest the operation of an associative bias that we refer to as the rich-get-richer principle. This research focuses on these two failures comparing tasks in which causal scenarios are merely described (via verbal statements of the causal relations) versus experienced (via samples of data that manifest the intervariable correlations implied by the causal relations)...
November 8, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Xiao Feng, Yang Yu, Sijia He, Jin Cheng, Yanping Gong, Zhengxiang Zhang, Xuguang Yang, Bing Xu, Xinjian Liu, Chuan-Yuan Li, Ling Tian, Qian Huang
Vascular recovery or re-angiogenesis after radiotherapy plays a significant role in tumor recurrence, whereas molecular mechanisms of this process remain elusive. In this work, we found that dying glioma cells promoted post-irradiation angiogenesis through a caspase 3 dependent mechanism. Evidence in vitro and in vivo indicated that caspase 3 inhibition undermined proangiogenic effects of dying glioma cells. Proteolytic inactivation of caspase 3 in glioma cells reduced tumorigenicity. Importantly, we identified that NF-κB/COX-2/PGE2 axis acted as downstream signaling of caspase 3, mediating proangiogenic response after irradiation...
November 5, 2016: Cancer Letters
Helmut Schiffl, Susanne M Lang
Acute kidney injury is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome encompassing a spectrum of risk factors and acute insults, occurring in multiple settings and affecting both short-term and long-term outcomes. Obesity has become an epidemic. The available literature suggests that AKI is common in critically ill surgical or medical obese patients and that obesity is a novel risk factor for this acute renal syndrome. The pathophysiology of obesity-associated AKI is not completely understood. Obesity-related factors combined with the burden of other comorbidities in elderly obese patients may interact with known precipitating factors such as hypotension, nephrotoxins or sepsis and increase the susceptibility of this population to AKI...
November 7, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Nader N Nasief, Ahmed M Said, David Hangauer
Understanding subtle aspects of hydrogen bonding is a challenging but crucial task to improve our ability to design ligands with high affinity for protein hosts. To gain a deeper understanding of these aspects, we investigated a series of thrombin inhibitors in which the basicity of the ligand's group that accepts an H-bond from Gly216 was modulated via bioisosterism; e.g., a C=O acceptor was made electron deficient or rich via bioisosteric replacements of the adjacent moiety. Although the ligand's binding affinity was anticipated to improve when the H-bond basicity is increased (due to stronger H-bonding with the protein), we herein present data that unexpectedly revealed an opposite trend...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hamidreza Khalilian, Hossein Fazli
Diffusion of self-propelled particles in the presence of randomly distributed obstacles is studied in three dimensions (3D) using Langevin dynamics simulations. It is found that depending on the magnitude of the propelling force and the particle aspect ratio, the diffusion coefficient can be a monotonically decreasing or a non-monotonic concave function of the obstructed volume fraction. Counterintuitive enhancement of the particle diffusivity with increasing the obstacle crowd is shown to be resulted from interplay of self-propulsion and anisotropy in the particle shape...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Replicable effects of primes on human behavior" by B. Keith Payne, Jazmin L. Brown-Iannuzzi and Chris Loersch (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Oct], Vol 145[10], 1269-1279). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-46925-002.) The effect of primes (i.e., incidental cues) on human behavior has become controversial. Early studies reported counterintuitive findings, suggesting that primes can shape a wide range of human behaviors. Recently, several studies failed to replicate some earlier priming results, raising doubts about the reliability of those effects...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
C J Mable, K L Thompson, M J Derry, O O Mykhaylyk, B P Binks, S P Armes
Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) [PGMA-PHPMA-PBzMA] triblock copolymer nano-objects in the form of a concentrated aqueous dispersion via a three-step synthesis based on reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. First, GMA is polymerized via RAFT solution polymerization in ethanol, then HPMA is polymerized via RAFT aqueous solution polymerization, and finally BzMA is polymerized via "seeded" RAFT aqueous emulsion polymerization...
October 25, 2016: Macromolecules
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