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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915752/a-new-insight-into-diffusional-escape-from-a-biased-cylindrical-trap
#1
Alexander M Berezhkovskii, Leonardo Dagdug, Sergey M Bezrukov
Recent experiments with single biological nanopores, as well as single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and pulling studies of protein and nucleic acid folding raised a number of questions that stimulated theoretical and computational investigations of barrier crossing dynamics. The present paper addresses a closely related problem focusing on trajectories of Brownian particles that escape from a cylindrical trap in the presence of a force F parallel to the cylinder axis. To gain new insights into the escape dynamics, we analyze the "fine structure" of these trajectories...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910127/visual-shape-perception-as-bayesian-inference-of-3d-object-centered-shape-representations
#2
Goker Erdogan, Robert A Jacobs
Despite decades of research, little is known about how people visually perceive object shape. We hypothesize that a promising approach to shape perception is provided by a "visual perception as Bayesian inference" framework which augments an emphasis on visual representation with an emphasis on the idea that shape perception is a form of statistical inference. Our hypothesis claims that shape perception of unfamiliar objects can be characterized as statistical inference of 3D shape in an object-centered coordinate system...
September 14, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900296/the-causes-and-ecological-correlates-of-head-scale-asymmetry-and-fragmentation-in-a-tropical-snake
#3
Gregory P Brown, Thomas Madsen, Sylvain Dubey, Rick Shine
The challenge of identifying the proximate causes and ecological consequences of phenotypic variation can be facilitated by studying traits that are usually but not always bilaterally symmetrical; deviations from symmetry likely reflect disrupted embryogenesis. Based on a 19-year mark-recapture study of >1300 slatey-grey snakes (Stegonotus cucullatus) in tropical Australia, and incubation of >700 eggs, we document developmental and ecological correlates of two morphological traits: asymmetry and fragmentation of head scales...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894661/patient-reported-disability-measures-do-not-correlate-with-electrodiagnostic-severity-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#4
Jacob E Tulipan, Kevin F Lutsky, Mitchell G Maltenfort, Mitchell K Freedman, Pedro K Beredjiklian
BACKGROUND: Electrophysiologic studies including electromyography and nerve conduction studies play a role in the evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), despite evidence that these studies do not correlate with CTS-specific symptom scores. There is a lack of evidence comparing electrophysiologic data with general measures of function. METHODS: Fifty patients presenting for CTS treatment over an 8-month period were analyzed retrospectively. All patients completed surveys including the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Survey [(physical component summary 12, mental component summary (MCS-12)]...
August 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880992/innate-lymphoid-cells-at-the-interface-between-obesity-and-asthma
#5
REVIEW
Laetitia Everaere, Saliha Ait Yahia, Mélodie Bouté, Camille Audousset, Cécile Chenivesse, Anne Tsicopoulos
Obesity and asthma prevalence has dramatically and concomitantly increased over the last 25 years, and many epidemiological studies have highlighted obesity as an important risk factor for asthma. Although many studies have been performed, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Innate mechanisms have been involved in both diseases in particular through the recently described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs are subdivided in three groups that are defined by their cytokine production and by their master transcription factor expression, in sharp correlation with their T helper counterparts...
September 7, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878965/social-seeking-declines-in-young-adolescents
#6
Indu Dubey, Danielle Ropar, Antonia F de C Hamilton
The desire to engage with others is an important motivational force throughout our lifespan. It is known that social behaviour and preferences change from childhood to adulthood, but whether this change is linked with any changes in social motivation is not known. We evaluated 255 typically developing participants from ages 4-20 years on a behavioural paradigm 'Choose a Movie' (CAM). On every trial, participants had a choice between viewing social or non-social movies presented with different levels of effort (key presses/screen touch required)...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875567/influence-of-neighboring-plants-on-the-dynamics-of-an-ant-acacia-protection-mutualism
#7
Todd M Palmer, Corinna Riginos, Rachel E Damiani, Natalya Morgan, John S Lemboi, James Lengingiro, Juan Carlos Ruiz-Guajardo, Robert M Pringle
Ant-plant protection symbioses, in which plants provide food and/or shelter for ants in exchange for protection from herbivory, are model systems for understanding the ecology of mutualism. While interactions between ants, host plants, and herbivores have been intensively studied, we know little about how plant-plant interactions influence the dynamics of these mutualisms-despite strong evidence that plants compete for resources, that hosting ants can be costly, and that host-plant provisioning to ants can therefore be constrained by resource availability...
September 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874380/the-global-regulatory-protein-crp-controls-multifactorial-fluoroquinolone-susceptibility-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#8
Stefani C Kary, Joshua R K Yoneda, Stephen C Olshefsky, Laura A Stewart, Steven B West, Andrew D S Cameron
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment of Salmonella enterica infections, but resistance to this family of antibiotics is growing. Here we report that loss of the global regulatory protein, CRP, or its allosteric effector, cAMP, reduces susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. A Δcrp mutation was synergistic with the primary fluoroquinolone resistance allele gyrA83, thus can contribute to clinically-relevant resistance. Decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones could be partly explained by decreased expression of the outer membrane porin genes ompA and ompF with a concomitant increase in the expression of the ciprofloxacin-resistance efflux pump gene acrB in Δcrp cells...
September 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864990/exploitation-of-non-mammalian-model-organisms-in-epigenetic-research
#9
William V Holt
Model organisms are widely used in research that is ultimately aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of human disease. It may seem counterintuitive to expect clinically useful information to be obtained from species as diverse as fishes and insects, but because fundamental biological mechanisms share evolutionary origins they transcend species barriers. Epigenetic mechanisms fulfil this expectation admirably as more and more is discovered about the basic operational rules of inheritance, which are much more elaborate than formerly thought...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861903/patterns-and-biases-of-climate-change-threats-in-the-iucn-red-list
#10
Nicholas Trull, Monika Böhm, Jamie Carr
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assessments rely on published data and expert inputs, and biases can be introduced where underlying definitions and concepts are ambiguous. Consideration of climate-change threat is no exception, and recently numerous approaches to assessing the threat of climate change to species have been developed. We explored IUCN Red List assessments of amphibians and birds to determine whether species listed as threatened by climate change display distinct patterns in terms of habitat occupied and additional nonclimatic threats faced...
August 31, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860624/surface-frontogenesis-by-surface-heat-fluxes-in-the-upstream-kuroshio-extension-region
#11
Tomoki Tozuka, Meghan F Cronin, Hiroyuki Tomita
Western boundary currents bring warm tropical water poleward and eastward and are characterized by a sharp sea surface temperature (SST) front on the poleward edge of the current as it extends into the interior basin. One of the most prominent such front is associated with the Kuroshio Extension (KE) as it extends east of Japan ("upstream KE"). Large latent and sensible heat fluxes that warm the atmosphere and cool the ocean project this front into the atmosphere, thereby affecting weather and climate both locally and remotely...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858268/fitness-fatness-and-active-school-commuting-among-liverpool-schoolchildren
#12
Robert J Noonan, Lynne M Boddy, Zoe R Knowles, Stuart J Fairclough
This study investigated differences in health outcomes between active and passive school commuters, and examined associations between parent perceptions of the neighborhood environment and active school commuting (ASC). One hundred-ninety-four children (107 girls), aged 9-10 years from ten primary schools in Liverpool, England, participated in this cross-sectional study. Measures of stature, body mass, waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were taken. School commute mode (active/passive) was self-reported and parents completed the neighborhood environment walkability scale for youth...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856166/ketoacidosis-with-canagliflozin-prescribed-for-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-inhibitor-induced-hyperglycemia-a-case-report
#13
Christopher Bowman, Vandana Abramson, Melissa Wellons
Context. Many phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors are under trial for cancer treatment. We present a patient taking taselisib who developed ketoacidosis within 1 week of starting canagliflozin. Case Description. A 69-year-old female patient with no previous history of diabetes mellitus was enrolled in a clinical trial for taselisib therapy in stage IV breast cancer. Hyperglycemia treatment with metformin was insufficient and not tolerated. The addition of canagliflozin daily resulted in ketoacidosis and hospitalization within 1 week...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855394/an-in-vivo-genetic-screen-in-drosophila-identifies-the-orthologue-of-human-cancer-testis-gene-spo11-among-a-network-of-targets-to-inhibit-lethal-3-malignant-brain-tumour-growth
#14
Fabrizio Rossi, Cristina Molnar, Kazuya Hashiyama, Jan P Heinen, Judit Pampalona, Salud Llamazares, José Reina, Tomomi Hashiyama, Madhulika Rai, Giulia Pollarolo, Ismael Fernández-Hernández, Cayetano Gonzalez
Using transgenic RNAi technology, we have screened over 4000 genes to identify targets to inhibit malignant growth caused by the loss of function of lethal(3)malignant brain tumour in Drosophila in vivo We have identified 131 targets, which belong to a wide range of gene ontologies. Most of these target genes are not significantly overexpressed in mbt tumours hence showing that, rather counterintuitively, tumour-linked overexpression is not a good predictor of functional requirement. Moreover, we have found that most of the genes upregulated in mbt tumours remain overexpressed in tumour-suppressed double-mutant conditions, hence revealing that most of the tumour transcriptome signature is not necessarily correlated with malignant growth...
August 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841196/growth-description-for-vessel-wall-adaptation-a-thick-walled-mixture-model-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-evolution
#15
Andrii Grytsan, Thomas S E Eriksson, Paul N Watton, T Christian Gasser
(1) Background: Vascular tissue seems to adapt towards stable homeostatic mechanical conditions, however, failure of reaching homeostasis may result in pathologies. Current vascular tissue adaptation models use many ad hoc assumptions, the implications of which are far from being fully understood; (2) Methods: The present study investigates the plausibility of different growth kinematics in modeling Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) evolution in time. A structurally motivated constitutive description for the vessel wall is coupled to multi-constituent tissue growth descriptions; Constituent deposition preserved either the constituent's density or its volume, and Isotropic Volume Growth (IVG), in-Plane Volume Growth (PVG), in-Thickness Volume Growth (TVG) and No Volume Growth (NVG) describe the kinematics of the growing vessel wall...
August 25, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836040/two-gut-associated-yeasts-in-a-tephritid-fruit-fly-have-contrasting-effects-on-adult-attraction-and-larval-survival
#16
Alexander M Piper, Kevin Farnier, Tomas Linder, Robert Speight, John Paul Cunningham
Yeast-insect interactions have been well characterized in drosophilid flies, but not in tephritid fruit flies, which include many highly polyphagous pest species that attack ripening fruits. Using the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) as our model tephritid species, we identified yeast species present in the gut of wild-collected larvae and found two genera, Hanseniaspora and Pichia, were the dominant isolates. In behavioural trials using adult female B. tryoni, a fruit-agar substrate inoculated with Pichia kluyveri resulted in odour emissions that increased the attraction of flies, whereas inoculation with Hanseniaspora uvarum, produced odours that strongly deterred flies, and both yeasts led to decreased oviposition...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833970/single-cell-phenotyping-reveals-heterogeneity-among-haematopoietic-stem-cells-following-infection
#17
Adam L MacLean, Maia A Smith, Juliane Liepe, Aaron Sim, Reema Khorshed, Narges M Rashidi, Nico Scherf, Axel Krinner, Ingo Roeder, Cristina Lo Celso, Michael Ph Stumpf
The haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche provides essential micro-environmental cues for the production and maintenance of HSCs within the bone marrow. During inflammation, haematopoietic dynamics are perturbed, but it is not known whether changes to the HSC-niche interaction occur as a result. We visualise HSCs directly in vivo, enabling detailed analysis of the 3D niche dynamics and migration patterns in murine bone marrow following Trichinella spiralis infection. Spatial statistical analysis of these HSC trajectories reveals two distinct modes of HSC behaviour: (i) a pattern of revisiting previously explored space, and (ii) a pattern of exploring new space...
August 22, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833856/alcohol-use-and-the-wage-returns-to-education-and-work-experience
#18
Jeremy W Bray, Jesse M Hinde, Arnie P Aldridge
Despite a widely held belief that alcohol use should negatively impact wages, much of the literature on the topic suggests a positive relationship between nonproblematic alcohol use and wages. Studies on the effect of alcohol use on educational attainment have also failed to find a consistent, negative effect of alcohol use on years of education. Thus, the connections between alcohol use, human capital, and wages remain a topic of debate in the literature. In this study, we use the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a theoretical model of wage determination that links alcohol use to wages via human capital...
August 22, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829581/iron-iii-ejection-from-a-beheaded-taml-activator-catalytically-relevant-mechanistic-insight-into-the-deceleration-of-electrophilic-processes-by-electron-donors
#19
Matthew R Mills, Longzhu Q Shen, David Z Zhang, Alexander D Ryabov, Terrence J Collins
Kinetic studies of the acid-induced ejection of iron(III) show that the more electron-rich tetra-amido-N macrocyclic ligand (TAML) activator [Fe(III){(Me2CNCOCMe2NCO)2CMe2}OH2](-) (4), which does not have a benzene ring in its head component ("beheaded" TAML), is up to 1 × 10(4) times more resistant than much less electron-rich [Fe(III){1,2-C6H4(NCOCMe2NCO)2CMe2}OH2](-) (1a) to the electrophilic attack. This counterintuitive increased resistance is seen in both the specific acid (kobs = k1[H(+)]/(K + [H(+)])) and phosphate general acid (kII = (kdiKa1 + ktri[H(+)])/(Ka1+[H(+)])) demetalation pathways...
August 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827359/mechanism-of-ion-adsorption-to-aqueous-interfaces-graphene-water-vs-air-water
#20
Debra L McCaffrey, Son C Nguyen, Stephen J Cox, Horst Weller, A Paul Alivisatos, Phillip L Geissler, Richard J Saykally
The adsorption of ions to aqueous interfaces is a phenomenon that profoundly influences vital processes in many areas of science, including biology, atmospheric chemistry, electrical energy storage, and water process engineering. Although classical electrostatics theory predicts that ions are repelled from water/hydrophobe (e.g., air/water) interfaces, both computer simulations and experiments have shown that chaotropic ions actually exhibit enhanced concentrations at the air/water interface. Although mechanistic pictures have been developed to explain this counterintuitive observation, their general applicability, particularly in the presence of material substrates, remains unclear...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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