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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808563/conceptualizing-ecosystem-tipping-points-within-a-physiological-framework
#1
Christopher D G Harley, Sean D Connell, Zoë A Doubleday, Brendan Kelaher, Bayden D Russell, Gianluca Sarà, Brian Helmuth
Connecting the nonlinear and often counterintuitive physiological effects of multiple environmental drivers to the emergent impacts on ecosystems is a fundamental challenge. Unfortunately, the disconnect between the way "stressors" (e.g., warming) is considered in organismal (physiological) and ecological (community) contexts continues to hamper progress. Environmental drivers typically elicit biphasic physiological responses, where performance declines at levels above and below some optimum. It is also well understood that species exhibit highly variable response surfaces to these changes so that the optimum level of any environmental driver can vary among interacting species...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807050/cooperative-binding-mitigates-the-high-dose-hook-effect
#2
Ranjita Dutta Roy, Christian Rosenmund, Melanie I Stefan
BACKGROUND: The high-dose hook effect (also called prozone effect) refers to the observation that if a multivalent protein acts as a linker between two parts of a protein complex, then increasing the amount of linker protein in the mixture does not always increase the amount of fully formed complex. On the contrary, at a high enough concentration range the amount of fully formed complex actually decreases. It has been observed that allosterically regulated proteins seem less susceptible to this effect...
August 14, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794429/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-genetic-influence-on-human-childlessness
#3
Renske M Verweij, Melinda C Mills, Felix C Tropf, René Veenstra, Anastasia Nyman, Harold Snieder
Previous research has found a genetic component of human reproduction and childlessness. Others have argued that the heritability of reproduction is counterintuitive due to a frequent misinterpretation that additive genetic variance in reproductive fitness should be close to zero. Yet it is plausible that different genetic loci operate in male and female fertility in the form of sexual dimorphism and that these genes are passed on to the next generation. This study examines the extent to which genetic factors influence childlessness and provides an empirical test of genetic sexual dimorphism...
September 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793811/cognitive-foundations-of-learning-from-testimony
#4
Paul L Harris, Melissa A Koenig, Kathleen H Corriveau, Vikram K Jaswal
Humans acquire much of their knowledge from the testimony of other people. An understanding of the way that information can be conveyed via gesture and vocalization is present in infancy. Thus, infants seek information from well-informed interlocutors, supply information to the ignorant, and make sense of communicative acts that they observe from a third-party perspective. This basic understanding is refined in the course of development. As they age, children's reasoning about testimony increasingly reflects an ability not just to detect imperfect or inaccurate claims but also to assess what inferences may or may not be drawn about informants given their particular situation...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790416/enhancing-structural-robustness-of-scale-free-networks-by-information-disturbance
#5
Jun Wu, Suo-Yi Tan, Zhong Liu, Yue-Jin Tan, Xin Lu
Many real-world systems can be described by scale-free networks with power-law degree distributions. Scale-free networks show a "robust yet fragile" feature due to their heterogeneous degree distributions. We propose to enhance the structural robustness of scale-free networks against intentional attacks by changing the displayed network structure information rather than modifying the network structure itself. We first introduce a simple mathematical model for attack information and investigate the impact of attack information on the structural robustness of scale-free networks...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771522/detecting-representative-data-and-generating-synthetic-samples-to-improve-learning-accuracy-with-imbalanced-data-sets
#6
Der-Chiang Li, Susan C Hu, Liang-Sian Lin, Chun-Wu Yeh
It is difficult for learning models to achieve high classification performances with imbalanced data sets, because with imbalanced data sets, when one of the classes is much larger than the others, most machine learning and data mining classifiers are overly influenced by the larger classes and ignore the smaller ones. As a result, the classification algorithms often have poor learning performances due to slow convergence in the smaller classes. To balance such data sets, this paper presents a strategy that involves reducing the sizes of the majority data and generating synthetic samples for the minority data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770257/nanoparticle-based-receptors-mimic-protein-ligand-recognition
#7
Laura Riccardi, Luca Gabrielli, Xiaohuan Sun, Federico De Biasi, Federico Rastrelli, Fabrizio Mancin, Marco De Vivo
The self-assembly of a monolayer of ligands on the surface of noble-metal nanoparticles dictates the fundamental nanoparticle's behavior and its functionality. In this combined computational-experimental study, we analyze the structure, organization, and dynamics of functionalized coating thiols in monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We explain how functionalized coating thiols self-organize through a delicate and somehow counterintuitive balance of interactions within the monolayer itself and with the solvent...
July 13, 2017: Chem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768894/phenotypic-plasticity-in-reproductive-effort-malaria-parasites-respond-to-resource-availability
#8
Philip L G Birget, Charlotte Repton, Aidan J O'Donnell, Petra Schneider, Sarah E Reece
The trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental in the life history of all sexually reproducing organisms. This includes malaria parasites, which rely on asexually replicating stages for within-host survival and on sexually reproducing stages (gametocytes) for between-host transmission. The proportion of asexual stages that form gametocytes (reproductive effort) varies during infections-i.e. is phenotypically plastic-in response to changes in a number of within-host factors, including anaemia...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766877/munchausen-by-proxy-a-qualitative-investigation-into-online-perceptions-of-medical-child-abuse
#9
Anoushka P A Anderson, Marc D Feldman, Joanne Bryce
In Munchausen by proxy (MBP) maltreatment, increasingly termed "medical child abuse" (MCA), a caregiver fabricates or induces illness in another. The perpetrator's goal for the behavior is to meet personal emotional needs by forcing unnecessary or misguided medical or psychological treatment. Generally, a mother is the perpetrator and her child is the victim. There is a serious lack of research into most aspects of MCA, and this study is the first to utilize the anonymity of an Internet forum to investigate victims' first-hand experiences of, and the public's opinions about, suspected and confirmed MCA...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752025/biased-activity-of-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-the-janus-face-of-thymoquinone
#10
REVIEW
Charlotte Detremmerie, Paul M Vanhoutte, Susan Leung
The natural compound thymoquinone, extracted from Nigella sativa (black cumin), is widely used in humans for its anti-oxidative properties. Thymoquinone is known for its acute endothelium-independent vasodilator effects in isolated rat aortae and pulmonary arteries, depending in part on activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels and inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels. The compound also improves endothelial dysfunction in mesenteric arteries of ageing rodents and in aortae of rabbits treated with pyrogallol, by inhibiting oxidative stress...
July 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747353/effectiveness-of-a-low-cost-graduate-student-led-intervention-on-study-habits-and-performance-in-introductory-biology
#11
Tyler D Hoskins, J D Gantz, Blake R Chaffee, Kel Arlinghaus, James Wiebler, Michael Hughes, Joyce J Fernandes
Institutions have developed diverse approaches that vary in effectiveness and cost to improve student performance in introductory science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. We developed a low-cost, graduate student-led, metacognition-based study skills course taught in conjunction with the introductory biology series at Miami University. Our approach aimed to improve performance for underachieving students by combining an existing framework for the process of learning (the study cycle) with concrete tools (outlines and concept maps) that have been shown to encourage deep understanding...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742432/controversies-surrounding-critical-care-nutrition-an-appraisal-of-permissive-underfeeding-protein-and-outcomes
#12
Jayshil J Patel, Robert G Martindale, Stephen A McClave
Over the past few years, numerous studies have called into question the optimal dose, timing, composition, and advancement rate of nutrition during the early acute phase of critical illness. These studies suggest permissive underfeeding with slow advancement may be more beneficial than aggressive full feeding. These counterintuitive results were possibly explained by enhanced autophagy, less hyperglycemia, or prevention of refeeding syndrome. This review underscores the controversies surrounding permissive underfeeding, aims to answer whether permissive underfeeding is appropriate for all critically ill patients, describes the impact of optimal protein delivery on critical care outcomes, discusses nutrition risk, and cogitates on the impact of nutrition on critical care outcomes...
July 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740860/tunable-and-laser-reconfigurable-2d-heterocrystals-obtained-by-epitaxial-stacking-of-crystallographically-incommensurate-bi2se3-and-mos2-atomic-layers
#13
Anthony Vargas, Fangze Liu, Christopher Lane, Daniel Rubin, Ismail Bilgin, Zachariah Hennighausen, Matthew DeCapua, Arun Bansil, Swastik Kar
Vertical stacking is widely viewed as a promising approach for designing advanced functionalities using two-dimensional (2D) materials. Combining crystallographically commensurate materials in these 2D stacks has been shown to result in rich new electronic structure, magnetotransport, and optical properties. In this context, vertical stacks of crystallographically incommensurate 2D materials with well-defined crystallographic order are a counterintuitive concept and, hence, fundamentally intriguing. We show that crystallographically dissimilar and incommensurate atomically thin MoS2 and Bi2Se3 layers can form rotationally aligned stacks with long-range crystallographic order...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739917/changes-in-cognitive-flexibility-and-hypothesis-search-across-human-life-history-from-childhood-to-adolescence-to-adulthood
#14
Alison Gopnik, Shaun O'Grady, Christopher G Lucas, Thomas L Griffiths, Adrienne Wente, Sophie Bridgers, Rosie Aboody, Hoki Fung, Ronald E Dahl
How was the evolution of our unique biological life history related to distinctive human developments in cognition and culture? We suggest that the extended human childhood and adolescence allows a balance between exploration and exploitation, between wider and narrower hypothesis search, and between innovation and imitation in cultural learning. In particular, different developmental periods may be associated with different learning strategies. This relation between biology and culture was probably coevolutionary and bidirectional: life-history changes allowed changes in learning, which in turn both allowed and rewarded extended life histories...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723088/development-of-a-transferable-reactive-force-field-of-p-h-systems-application-to-the-chemical-and-mechanical-properties-of-phosphorene
#15
Hang Xiao, Xiaoyang Shi, Feng Hao, Xiangbiao Liao, Yayun Zhang, Xi Chen
We developed ReaxFF parameters for phosphorus and hydrogen to give a good description of the chemical and mechanical properties of pristine and defected black phosphorene. ReaxFF for P/H is transferable to a wide range of phosphorus- and hydrogen-containing systems including bulk black phosphorus, blue phosphorene, edge-hydrogenated phosphorene, phosphorus clusters, and phosphorus hydride molecules. The potential parameters were obtained by conducting global optimization with respect to a set of reference data generated by extensive ab initio calculations...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722640/the-role-of-risk-proximity-in-the-beliefs-and-behaviors-related-to-mosquito-borne-diseases-the-case-of-chikungunya-in-french-guiana
#16
Claude Flamand, Camille Fritzell, Pauline Obale, Philippe Quenel, Jocelyn Raude
Human behaviors are increasingly recognized to play a key role in the spread of infectious diseases. Although a set of social and cognitive determinants has been consistently found to affect the adoption of health protective behaviors aiming to control and prevent a variety of infections, little is currently known about the ecological drivers of these behaviors in epidemic settings. In this article, we took advantage of the outbreak of chikungunya, a reemerging mosquito-borne disease, that occurred in French Guiana in 2014-15 to test empirically the assumption proposed by Zielinski-Gutierrez and Hayden that the proximity of the disease and perceptions of the natural environment may considerably shape public response to an emerging health threat...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722337/validation-of-brain-derived-signals-in-near-infrared-spectroscopy-through-multivoxel-analysis-of-concurrent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Yoshiya Moriguchi, Takamasa Noda, Kosei Nakayashiki, Yohei Takata, Shiori Setoyama, Shingo Kawasaki, Yoshihiko Kunisato, Kazuo Mishima, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Takashi Hanakawa
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a convenient and safe brain-mapping tool. However, its inevitable confounding with hemodynamic responses outside the brain, especially in the frontotemporal head, has questioned its validity. Some researchers attempted to validate NIRS signals through concurrent measurements with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but, counterintuitively, NIRS signals rarely correlate with local fMRI signals in NIRS channels, although both mapping techniques should measure the same hemoglobin concentration...
July 19, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712468/the-impact-of-counter-perceptual-testimony-on-children-s-categorization-after-a-delay
#18
Samuel Ronfard, Jonathan D Lane, Muanjing Wang, Paul L Harris
When preschoolers are presented with a label for an entity that conflicts with its appearance, they sometimes rely on the new label rather than on the entity's appearance to categorize the entity and to infer its properties. We examined whether children's learning from such claims is short-lived or long-lasting and whether the persistence of their learning depends on the degree of fit between those claims and the available perceptual evidence. Children aged 3-5years (N=71) were asked to categorize hybrids. These hybrids combined 75% of the features from one animal or object with 25% of the features from a different animal or object...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709784/individual-decision-making-in-the-causal-pathway-to-addiction-contributions-and-limitations-of-rodent-models
#19
REVIEW
Serge H Ahmed
The causal pathway from vulnerability to drug use and addiction involves a complex interaction between genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. An individual can intervene on this causal pathway by two major types of individual decision. There is the inaugural, momentous decision to use a drug for the first time. This decision is influenced by both prior knowledge on the drug and its expected effects, and also by prior self-knowledge on one's own vulnerability. After an individual has used a drug for the first time, there is the decision to repeat drug use...
July 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709323/noise-induced-stabilization-of-collective-dynamics
#20
Pau Clusella, Antonio Politi
We illustrate a counterintuitive effect of an additive stochastic force, which acts independently on each element of an ensemble of globally coupled oscillators. We show that a very small white noise not only broadens the clusters, wherever they are induced by the deterministic forces, but can also stabilize a linearly unstable collective periodic regime: self-consistent partial synchrony. With the help of microscopic simulations we are able to identify two noise-induced bifurcations. A macroscopic analysis, based on a perturbative solution of the associated nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation, confirms the numerical studies and allows determining the eigenvalues of the stability problem...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
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