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Sunkyu Yu, Xianji Piao, Jiho Hong, Namkyoo Park
Disorder plays a critical role in signal transport by controlling the correlation of a system, as demonstrated in various complex networks. In wave physics, disordered potentials suppress wave transport, because of their localized eigenstates, from the interference between multiple scattering paths. Although the variation of localization with tunable disorder has been intensively studied as a bridge between ordered and disordered media, the general trend of disorder-enhanced localization has remained unchanged, and the existence of complete delocalization in highly disordered potentials has not been explored...
October 2016: Science Advances
S Kettemann
We consider the orthogonality catastrophe at the Anderson metal-insulator transition (AMIT). The typical overlap F between the ground state of a Fermi liquid and the one of the same system with an added potential impurity is found to decay at the AMIT exponentially with system size L as F∼exp(-cL^{η}), where η is the power of multifractal intensity correlations. Thus, strong disorder typically increases the sensitivity of a system to an added impurity exponentially. We recover, on the metallic side of the transition, Anderson's result that the fidelity F decays with a power law F∼L^{-q(E_{F})} with system size L...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
E J Rosero, W A S Barbosa, J F Martinez Avila, A Z Khoury, J R Rios Leite
We show how two electrically coupled semiconductor lasers having optical feedback can present simultaneous antiphase correlated fast power fluctuations, and strong in-phase synchronized spikes of chaotic power drops. This quite counterintuitive phenomenon is demonstrated experimentally and confirmed by numerical solutions of a deterministic dynamical system of rate equations. The occurrence of negative and positive cross correlation between parts of a complex system according to time scales, as proved in our simple arrangement, is relevant for the understanding and characterization of collective properties in complex networks...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Ayaka Kato, Kenji Morita
It has been suggested that dopamine (DA) represents reward-prediction-error (RPE) defined in reinforcement learning and therefore DA responds to unpredicted but not predicted reward. However, recent studies have found DA response sustained towards predictable reward in tasks involving self-paced behavior, and suggested that this response represents a motivational signal. We have previously shown that RPE can sustain if there is decay/forgetting of learned-values, which can be implemented as decay of synaptic strengths storing learned-values...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Jessica Rk Forrest
Insect phenologies are changing in response to climate warming. Shifts toward earlier seasonal activity are widespread; however, responses of insect phenology to warming are often more complex. Many species have prolonged their activity periods; others have shown delays. Furthermore, because of interspecific differences in temperature sensitivity, warming can increase or decrease synchronization between insects and their food plants and natural enemies. Here, I review recent findings in three areas-shifts in phenology, changes in voltinism, and altered species interactions-and highlight counterintuitive responses to warming caused by the particularities of insect life cycles...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Philipp Del Hougne, Fabrice Lemoult, Mathias Fink, Geoffroy Lerosey
Controlling waves in complex media has become a major topic of interest, notably through the concepts of time reversal and wave front shaping. Recently, it was shown that spatial light modulators can counterintuitively focus waves both in space and time through multiple scattering media when illuminated with optical pulses. In this Letter, we transpose the concept to a microwave cavity using flat arrays of electronically tunable resonators. We prove that maximizing the Green's function between two antennas at a chosen time yields diffraction limited spatiotemporal focusing...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Stephen V Gliske, William C Stacey, Eugene Lim, Katherine A Holman, Christian G Fink
Previous experimental studies have demonstrated the emergence of narrowband local field potential oscillations during epileptic seizures in which the underlying neural activity appears to be completely asynchronous. We derive a mathematical model explaining how this counterintuitive phenomenon may occur, showing that a population of independent, completely asynchronous neurons may produce narrowband oscillations if each neuron fires quasi-periodically, without requiring any intrinsic oscillatory cells or feedback inhibition...
July 14, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
Lipeng Chen, Maxim F Gelin, Vladimir Y Chernyak, Wolfgang Domcke, Yang Zhao
The effect of a dissipative environment on the ultrafast nonadiabatic dynamics at conical intersections is analyzed for a two-state two-mode model chosen to represent the S2(ππ*)-S1(nπ*) conical intersection in pyrazine (the system) which is bilinearly coupled to infinitely many harmonic oscillators in thermal equilibrium (the bath). The system-bath coupling is modeled by the Drude spectral function. The equation of motion for the reduced density matrix of the system is solved numerically exactly with the hierarchy equation of motion method using graphics-processor-unit (GPU) technology...
September 20, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Jinze Li, Suman Koner, Michael German, Arup K Sengupta
From a sustainability viewpoint, sodium exchange softening, although used widely, is under scrutiny due to its production of excess Na-laden spent regenerant and subsequent discharge to the environment. Many arid regions are introducing regulations disallowing dumping of concentrated sodium salts, the residuals from popular Na-exchange softening. The sodium content of the softened water is, also, always higher than in the feed, which poses a dietary health concern when used for drinking or cooking. An efficient, easy-to-operate hardness removal process with reduced sodium in both the treated water and in the spent regenerant is an unmet global need...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Robert Blackwell, Oliver Sweezy-Schindler, Christopher Edelmaier, Zachary R Gergely, Patrick J Flynn, Salvador Montes, Ammon Crapo, Alireza Doostan, J Richard McIntosh, Matthew A Glaser, Meredith D Betterton
Microtubule dynamic instability allows search and capture of kinetochores during spindle formation, an important process for accurate chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent work has found that microtubule rotational diffusion about minus-end attachment points contributes to kinetochore capture in fission yeast, but the relative contributions of dynamic instability and rotational diffusion are not well understood. We have developed a biophysical model of kinetochore capture in small fission-yeast nuclei using hybrid Brownian dynamics/kinetic Monte Carlo simulation techniques...
September 27, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Øyvind L Martinsen, Adrian Furnham, Thorvald Hærem
The present study on insight is based on an integration of Kaplan and Simon's (1990) information processing theory of insight, a cognitive style theory, and achievement motivation theory. The style theory is the Assimilator (rule oriented, familiarity seeking)-Explorer (novelty seeking, explorative) styles (Kaufmann, 1979). Our hypothesis is that the effectiveness of 2 types of search constraints (prior experience and solution hints) for solving insight problems is moderated by both cognitive style and achievement needs, and depending on optimal levels of achievement motivation for different task conditions...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
B Keith Payne, Jazmin L Brown-Iannuzzi, Chris Loersch
The effect of primes (i.e., incidental cues) on human behavior has become controversial. Early studies reported counterintuitive findings, suggesting that primes can shape a wide range of human behaviors. Recently, several studies failed to replicate some earlier priming results, raising doubts about the reliability of those effects. We present a within-subjects procedure for priming behavior, in which participants decide whether to bet or pass on each trial of a gambling game. We report 6 replications (N = 988) showing that primes consistently affected gambling decisions when the decision was uncertain...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
David B Larson, Lane F Donnelly, Daniel J Podberesky, Arnold C Merrow, Richard E Sharpe, Jonathan B Kruskal
In September 2015, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published a report titled "Improving Diagnosis in Health Care," in which it was recommended that "health care organizations should adopt policies and practices that promote a nonpunitive culture that values open discussion and feedback on diagnostic performance." It may seem counterintuitive that a report addressing a highly technical skill such as medical diagnosis would be focused on organizational culture. The wisdom becomes clearer, however, when examined in the light of recent advances in the understanding of human error and individual and organizational performance...
September 27, 2016: Radiology
Frank J A Dennissen, Marta Anglada-Huguet, Astrid Sydow, Eckhard Mandelkow, Eva-Maria Mandelkow
Accumulation of Tau is a characteristic hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases but the mode of toxic action of Tau is poorly understood. Here, we show that the Tau protein is toxic due to its aggregation propensity, whereas phosphorylation and/or missorting is not sufficient to cause neuronal dysfunction. Aggregate-prone Tau accumulates, when expressed in vitro at near-endogenous levels, in axons as spindle-shaped grains. These axonal grains contain Tau that is folded in a pathological (MC-1) conformation...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
P Gale
The host reservoir of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) remains elusive. One suggestion is that EBOV emerges in mammals when the precursor virus jumps from mayflies (or other riverine insects) to insectivorous bats. However, this does not fit with the current view that filoviruses cannot infect arthropods. Here, it is first argued that the evidence that arthropods are refractory is not definitive. Second, it is proposed that a combination of filovirus filament length and the high temperature (~42°C) experienced by an insect virus ingested by a flying bat, together with the large number of insects eaten by bats (e...
September 26, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Takemi Sugiyama, Theo Niyonsenga, Natasha J Howard, Neil T Coffee, Catherine Paquet, Anne W Taylor, Mark Daniel
Consistent associations have been observed between macro-level urban sprawl and overweight/obesity, but whether residential proximity to urban centres predicts adiposity change over time has not been established. Further, studies of local-area walkability and overweight/obesity have generated mixed results. This study examined 4-year change in adults' waist circumference in relation to proximity to city centre, proximity to closest suburban centre, and local-area walkability. Data were from adult participants (n=2080) of a cohort study on chronic conditions and health risk factors in Adelaide, Australia...
September 21, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Michel De Vos, Johan Smitz, Jeremy G Thompson, Robert B Gilchrist
Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is currently defined as the maturation in vitro of immature cumulus-oocyte complexes collected from antral follicles. This is the original definition as first described by Pincus and Enzmann and then by Edwards many decades ago, and this clear and unambiguous definition has served us well ever since. In an attempt to clarify apparent differences among clinicians, the following revised definition of IVM was recently proposed: 'The retrieval of oocytes from small and intermediate sized follicles in an ovary before the largest follicle has surpassed 13 mm in mean diameter'...
September 22, 2016: Human Reproduction
Evelyn G Reátegui-Zirena, Bridgette N Fidder, Christopher J Salice
Diet quality can have a strong impact on organismal fitness although diet quality is infrequently considered as a factor in toxicity tests. The purpose of this study was to assess how diets differing in nutritional content affect sensitivity to Cd as measured by several sublethal responses related directly to bioenergetics. We evaluated feeding rate, growth rate, behavior and macronutrient content in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to Cd and fed two different diets. Hatchlings were fed either lettuce or high-caloric pellets, and exposed to 5, 10, and 20 µg/L Cd for 12 days...
September 23, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Vasiliki-Kalliopi Bournia, George Kitas, Athanasios D Protogerou, Petros P Sfikakis
Although large-scale population studies have shown that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increase the risk of myocardial infarction, this is not confirmed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we review the litterature on the differential effects of NSAIDs on cardiovascular risk in osteoarthritis (OA) versus RA and discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy. To assess a potential additive effect of age in non-RA populations, we compared weighted mean age between RA patients and unselected NSAID users included in cohort and case-control studies that estimate the cardiovascular risk of NSAIDs, assuming that the main indication for NSAID usage in elderly populations is OA...
September 23, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
Albert Migliori, Per Söderlind, Alexander Landa, Franz J Freibert, Boris Maiorov, B J Ramshaw, Jon B Betts
The electronic and thermodynamic complexity of plutonium has resisted a fundamental understanding for this important elemental metal. A critical test of any theory is the unusual softening of the bulk modulus with increasing temperature, a result that is counterintuitive because no or very little change in the atomic volume is observed upon heating. This unexpected behavior has in the past been attributed to competing but never-observed electronic states with different bonding properties similar to the scenario with magnetic states in Invar alloys...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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