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Devajyoti Deka, Charles T Brown, James Sinclair
To examine how violent crime affects people's recreational and transportation walking duration in daytime and after dark on a typical day, this study undertakes associative and causal analyses with geo-referenced crime data, street-audit data, and data collected through an intercept survey in a three-municipality region of New Jersey that is predominantly inhabited by low-income and minority populations. Survey data was collected from 1173 respondents at 87 intersections selected by stratified random sampling...
May 16, 2018: Health & Place
Benjamin Steinegger, Alessio Cardillo, Paolo De Los Rios, Jesús Gómez-Gardeñes, Alex Arenas
The containment of epidemic spreading is a major challenge in science. Vaccination, whenever available, is the best way to prevent the spreading, because it eventually immunizes individuals. However, vaccines are not perfect, and total immunization is not guaranteed. Imperfect immunization has driven the emergence of antivaccine movements that totally alter the predictions about the epidemic incidence. Here, we propose a mathematically solvable mean-field vaccination model to mimic the spontaneous adoption of vaccines against influenzalike diseases and the expected epidemic incidence...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Subrata Dev, Sakuntala Chatterjee
In response to a concentration gradient of chemoattractant, E. coli bacterium modulates the rotational bias of flagellar motors which control its run-and-tumble motion, to migrate towards regions of high chemoattractant concentration. Presence of stochastic noise in the biochemical pathway of the cell has important consequences on the switching mechanism of motor bias, which in turn affects the runs and tumbles of the cell in a significant way. We model the intracellular reaction network in terms of coupled time evolution of three stochastic variables-kinase activity, methylation level, and CheY-P protein level-and study the effect of methylation noise on the chemotactic performance of the cell...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Phillip R Zoladz, Eric D Eisenmann, Robert M Rose, Brooke A Kohls, Brandon L Johnson, Kiera L Robinson, Megan E Heikkila, Kasey E Mucher, Madelaine R Huntley
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychological disorder typified by diagnostic symptom clusters including hyperarousal, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and intrusive re-experiencing of the traumatic event. Patients with PTSD have been reported to self-medicate with alcohol to ameliorate hyperarousal symptoms associated with the disorder. Research utilizing rodent models of PTSD to emulate this behavioral phenomenon has thus far yielded inconsistent results. In the present study, we examined the effects of a predator-based psychosocial stress model of PTSD on voluntary ethanol consumption...
January 8, 2018: Alcohol
Lourens Poorter, Carolina V Castilho, Juliana Schietti, Rafael S Oliveira, Flávia R C Costa
The functional trait approach has, as a central tenet, that plant traits are functional and shape individual performance, but this has rarely been tested in the field. Here, we tested the individual-based trait approach in a hyperdiverse Amazonian tropical rainforest and evaluated intraspecific variation in trait values, plant strategies at the individual level, and whether traits are functional and predict individual performance. We evaluated > 1300 tree saplings belonging to > 383 species, measured 25 traits related to growth and defense, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions, plant size, and traits on stem growth...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
Amitai Shenhav, Carolyn K Dean Wolf, Uma R Karmarkar
Our most important decisions often provoke the greatest anxiety, whether we seek the better of two prizes or the lesser of two evils. Yet many of our choices are more mundane, such as selecting from a slate of mediocre but acceptable restaurants. Previous research suggests that choices of decreasing value should provoke decreasing anxiety. Here we show that this is not the case. Across three behavioral studies and one fMRI study, we find that anxiety and its neural correlates demonstrate a U-shaped function of choice set value, greatest when choosing between both the highest value and lowest value sets...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Meirong Sun, Encong Wang, Jing Huang, Chenguang Zhao, Jialiang Guo, Dongwei Li, Li Sun, Boqi Du, Yulong Ding, Yan Song
The fundamental role of covert spatial attention is to enhance the processing of attended items while simultaneously ignoring irrelevant items. However, relatively little is known about how brain electrophysiological activities associated with target selection and distractor suppression are involved as they develop and become fully functional. The current study aimed to identify the neurophysiological bases of the development of covert spatial attention, focusing on electroencephalographic (EEG) markers of attentional selection (N2pc) and suppression (PD )...
May 15, 2018: Developmental Science
Maxime Lucas, Julian Newman, Aneta Stefanovska
Synchronization and stability under periodic oscillatory driving are well understood, but little is known about the effects of aperiodic driving, despite its abundance in nature. Here, we consider oscillators subject to driving with slowly varying frequency, and investigate both short-term and long-term stability properties. For a phase oscillator, we find that, counterintuitively, such variation is guaranteed to enlarge the Arnold tongue in parameter space. Using analytical and numerical methods that provide information on time-variable dynamical properties, we find that the growth of the Arnold tongue is specifically due to the growth of a region of intermittent synchronization where trajectories alternate between short-term stability and short-term neutral stability, giving rise to stability on average...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Victoria Iskrova Michailova, Denitsa B Momekova, Hristiana A Velichkova, Evgeni H Ivanov, Rumiana Kirilova Kotsilkova, Daniela B Karashanova, Elena D Mileva, Ivaylo Vladimirov Dimitrov, Stanislav Miletiev Rangelov
Lower alcohols can induce a combined collapse-swelling de-mixing transition (LCST-type co-nonsolvency) in aqueous solutions of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) by interacting with the polymer's amide groups. This interaction results in an increase of the total surface area of hydrophobic sites and destabilizes the chains. Here, we make use of this phenomenon to drive the counterintuitive self-assembly of a PNIPAM-containing double-hydrophilic graft copolymer in water-ethanol mixtures at T ≪ LCST. Rheological frequency sweeps are used to quantify the distinct solvation states of PNIPAM at various temperatures and ethanol concentrations...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Tomasz Szafarowski, Janusz Sierdzinski, Miroslaw J Szczepanski, Theresa L Whiteside, Nils Ludwig, Antoni Krzeski
PURPOSE: Microvessel density (MVD) corresponds to the intensity of neo-angiogenesis. MVD assessments are based on the expression levels of the vascular endothelium markers such as, e.g., CD34 or CD105. The goal of this study was to assess MVD among patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and to evaluate the predictive value of MVD in head and neck cancers. METHODS: The study included 49 patients treated for HNSCC and 11 patients with dysplasia of the upper respiratory tract epithelium...
May 10, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Rebecca D Usery, Thais A Enoki, Sanjula P Wickramasinghe, V P Nguyen, David G Ackerman, Denise V Greathouse, Roger E Koeppe, Francisco N Barrera, Gerald W Feigenson
A number of highly curved membranes in vivo, such as epithelial cell microvilli, have the relatively high sphingolipid content associated with "raft-like" composition. Given the much lower bending energy measured for bilayers with "nonraft" low sphingomyelin and low cholesterol content, observing high curvature for presumably more rigid compositions seems counterintuitive. To understand this behavior, we measured membrane rigidity by fluctuation analysis of giant unilamellar vesicles. We found that including a transmembrane helical GWALP peptide increases the membrane bending modulus of the liquid-disordered (Ld) phase...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Maciej Krzeszewski, Eli M Espinoza, Ctirad Červinka, James B Derr, John A Clark, Dan Borchardt, Gregory J O Beran, Daniel T Gryko, Valentine I Vullev
Electric dipoles are everywhere, and the importance of understanding how they affect chemical, physical and biological processes cannot be overstated. Electron transfer (ET) is essential for sustaining life and for making energy conversion possible. Molecular dipoles present important, but underutilized, paradigms for guiding ET processes. While dipoles generate fields of Gigavolts per meter in their vicinity, reported differences between rates of ET along vs. against dipoles are often small or undetectable...
May 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Natassa Steck, Claudia Cooper, Vasiliki Orgeta
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is associated with increased risk of institutionalization and mortality. Understanding risk factors for depression in AD is key to its development and treatment. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAL databases for longitudinal prospective cohort studies that evaluated risk factors for depression in people with AD. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion and assessed quality of studies using predetermined criteria...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jeroen Claus, Gargi Patel, Flavia Autore, Audrey Colomba, Gregory Weitsman, Tanya N Soliman, Selene Roberts, Laura C Zanetti-Domingues, Michael Hirsch, Francesca Collu, Roger George, Elena Ortiz-Zapater, Paul R Barber, Boris Vojnovic, Yosef Yarden, Marisa L Martin-Fernandez, Angus Cameron, Franca Fraternali, Tony Ng, Peter J Parker
While targeted therapy against HER2 is an effective first-line treatment in HER2+ breast cancer, acquired resistance remains a clinical challenge. The pseudokinase HER3, heterodimerisation partner of HER2, is widely implicated in the resistance to HER2-mediated therapy. Here, we show that lapatinib, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of HER2, is able to induce proliferation cooperatively with the HER3 ligand neuregulin. This counterintuitive synergy between inhibitor and growth factor depends on their ability to promote atypical HER2-HER3 heterodimerisation...
May 1, 2018: ELife
Lesheng Li, Yosuke Kanai
Developing a molecular-level understanding of how a hot electron transfer process can be enhanced at semiconductor-molecule interfaces is central to advancing various future technologies. Using first-principles quantum dynamics simulations, we investigate how surface coverage and molecular adsorbate species influence the hot electron transfer at semiconductor-molecule interfaces. Counterintuitively, hot electron transfer from the semiconductor to molecules was found to be lessened with increased surface coverage because the inter-molecular interaction changes nonadiabatic couplings across the semiconductor and adsorbed molecules...
April 30, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Devrim Kahraman, Omer Gunhan, Bulent Celasun
Most of the odontogenic keratocysts show an indolent behaviour like non-neoplastic lesions. For this reason, the odontogenic keratocyst was reclassified within the odontogenic cysts category in the WHO 2017 classification. Some odontogenic keratocysts may contain satellite cysts or solid squamoid islands within their wall. Recently, a solid form of odontogenic keratocyst has also been described which is composed entirely of multiple epithelial islands and small cysts in a collagenous stroma. The true nature of this variant is unclear yet...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Mani Alikhani, Michelle Y Chou, Edmund Khoo, Sarah Alansari, Rachel Kwal, Tali Elfersi, Abdullah Almansour, Chinapa Sangsuwon, Mohammed Al Jearah, Jeanne M Nervina, Cristina C Teixeira
INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic tooth movement results from increased inflammation and osteoclast activation. Since patients of all ages now routinely seek orthodontics treatment, we investigated whether age-dependent biologic responses to orthodontic force correlate with the rate of tooth movement. METHODS: We studied 18 healthy subjects, adolescents (11-14 years) and adults (21-45 years), with Class II Division 1 malocclusion requiring 4 first premolar extractions...
May 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Valeria Lulla, Liis Karo-Astover, Kai Rausalu, Sirle Saul, Andres Merits, Aleksei Lulla
Polyprotein processing has an important regulatory role in the lifecycle of positive-strand RNA viruses. In the case of alphaviruses, sequential cleavage of non-structural (ns) polyprotein at three sites eventually yields four mature ns-proteins that continue working in complex to replicate viral genomic RNA and transcribe subgenomic RNA. Recognition of cleavage sites by viral nsP2 protease is guided by short sequences upstream of the scissile bond and, more importantly, by the spatial organization of the replication complex...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
Hanne S Antila, Erik Luijten
Ion mobility and ionic conductance in nanodevices are known to deviate from bulk behavior, a phenomenon often attributed to surface effects. We demonstrate that dielectric mismatch between the electrolyte and the surface can qualitatively alter ionic transport in a counterintuitive manner. Instead of following the polarization-induced modulation of the concentration profile, mobility is enhanced or reduced by changes in the ionic atmosphere near the interface and affected by a polarization force parallel to the surface...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Farokh Mivehvar, Stefan Ostermann, Francesco Piazza, Helmut Ritsch
Supersolids are characterized by the counterintuitive coexistence of superfluid and crystalline order. Here we study a supersolid phase emerging in the steady state of a driven-dissipative system. We consider a transversely pumped Bose-Einstein condensate trapped along the axis of a ring cavity and coherently coupled to a pair of degenerate counterpropagating cavity modes. Above a threshold pump strength the interference of photons scattered into the two cavity modes results in an emergent superradiant lattice, which spontaneously breaks the continuous translational symmetry towards a periodic atomic pattern...
March 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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