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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439752/mathematical-modeling-of-cellular-cross-talk-between-endothelial-and-tumor-cells-highlights-counterintuitive-effects-of-vegf-targeted-therapies
#1
Harsh Jain, Trachette Jackson
Tumor growth and progression are critically dependent on the establishment of a vascular support system. This is often accomplished via the expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of ligands. VEGF ligands are overexpressed in a wide variety of solid tumors and therefore have inspired optimism that inhibition of the different axes of the VEGF pathway-alone or in combination-would represent powerful anti-angiogenic therapies for most cancer types...
April 24, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421282/associations-between-a-mediterranean-diet-pattern-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-european-adolescents
#2
Aline Arouca, Nathalie Michels, Luis A Moreno, Esther M González-Gil, Ascensión Marcos, Sonia Gómez, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, Kurt Widhalm, Dénes Molnár, Yannis Manios, Frederic Gottrand, Antonio Kafatos, Mathilde Kersting, Michael Sjöström, Alejandro de la O, Marika Ferrari, Inge Huybrechts, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Stefaan De Henauw
AIM: To test whether the Mediterranean diet score and each food-subgroup is associated with inflammatory biomarkers in European adolescents. METHODS: In 464 adolescents (13-17 years) of the European HELENA study, data were available on body composition, inflammation markers, and food intake determined by two computerized 24-h recalls. The Mediterranean diet score and its food-subgroups (Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts, Pulses, Cereal and Roots, Monounsaturated/Saturated fat ratio, Dairy, Fish, Meat and Alcohol) were evaluated...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418600/validation-of-a-laboratory-developed-test-of-human-sperm-capacitation
#3
Melissa A Moody, Cristina Cardona, Alana J Simpson, T Timothy Smith, Alexander J Travis, G Charles Ostermeier
Sperm must undergo capacitation to become fertilization competent. Here we validated that monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1 ) localization patterns, which were assessed in the Cap-Score™ Sperm Function Test, reflect a capacitated state in human sperm. First, we defined patterns representing sperm that do or do not respond to stimuli for capacitation. Sperm with "capacitated" patterns had exposed acrosomal carbohydrates and underwent acrosome exocytosis in response to calcium ionophore (A23187). Precision was evaluated by percent change of the Cap-Score measured for 50, 100, 150, and 200 sperm...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416668/ambiguity-in-the-causes-for-decadal-trends-in-atmospheric-methane-and-hydroxyl
#4
Alexander J Turner, Christian Frankenberg, Paul O Wennberg, Daniel J Jacob
Methane is the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and its atmospheric burden has more than doubled since 1850. Methane concentrations stabilized in the early 2000s and began increasing again in 2007. Neither the stabilization nor the recent growth are well understood, as evidenced by multiple competing hypotheses in recent literature. Here we use a multispecies two-box model inversion to jointly constrain 36 y of methane sources and sinks, using ground-based measurements of methane, methyl chloroform, and the C(13)/C(12) ratio in atmospheric methane (δ(13)CH4) from 1983 through 2015...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415314/cell-alignment-patterns-in-the-collective-migration-of-cells-with-polarized-adhesion
#5
Katsuyoshi Matsushita
Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd) utilizes inhomogeneities in the distribution of cell-cell adhesion molecules on cell membranes for collective cell migration. A simple example of an inhomogeneity is a front-side (leading-edge) polarization in the distribution at the early streaming stage. Experiments have shown that the polarized cell-cell adhesion induces side-by-side contact between cells [Beug et al., Nature (London) 274, 445 (1978)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/274445a0]. This result is counterintuitive, as one would expect cells to align front to front in contact with each other on the basis of front-side polarization...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415216/derivation-of-matrix-product-states-for-the-heisenberg-spin-chain-with-open-boundary-conditions
#6
Zhongtao Mei, C J Bolech
Using the algebraic Bethe Ansatz, we derive a matrix product representation of the exact Bethe-Ansatz states of the six-vertex Heisenberg chain (either XXX or XXZ and spin-1/2) with open boundary conditions. In this representation, the components of the Bethe eigenstates are expressed as traces of products of matrices that act on a tensor product of auxiliary spaces. As compared to the matrix product states of the same Heisenberg chain but with periodic boundary conditions, the dimension of the exact auxiliary matrices is enlarged as if the conserved number of spin-flips considered would have been doubled...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409958/pressure-stabilized-tin-selenide-phase-with-an-unexpected-stoichiometry-and-a-predicted-superconducting-state-at-low-temperatures
#7
Hulei Yu, Wenxin Lao, Lijuan Wang, Kuo Li, Yue Chen
Tin-selenium binary compounds are important semiconductors that have attracted much interest for thermoelectric and photovoltaic applications. As tin has a +2 or +4 oxidation state and selenium has an oxidation number of -2, only SnSe and SnSe_{2} have been observed. In this work, we show that the chemical bonding between tin and selenium becomes counterintuitive under pressures. Combining evolutionary algorithms and density functional theory, a novel cubic tin-selenium compound with an unexpected stoichiometry 3∶4 has been predicted and further synthesized in laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments...
March 31, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402641/self-assembled-morphologies-of-linear-and-miktoarm-star-triblock-copolymer-monolayers
#8
Hanlin Deng, Weihua Li, Feng Qiu, An-Chang Shi
Monolayers of linear and miktoarm star ABC triblock copolymers with equal A and C blocks were investigated using self-consistent field theory. Monolayers of ABC triblock copolymers were formed between two parallel surfaces that were attractive to the A and C blocks. The repulsive interaction parameter χACN between the A and C blocks was chosen to be weaker than the A/B and B/C interactions, quantified by χABN and χBCN, respectively, such that the B blocks were confined at the A/C interface, resulting in various B domains with different geometries and arrangements...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397822/ultrastrong-steel-via-minimal-lattice-misfit-and-high-density-nanoprecipitation
#9
Suihe Jiang, Hui Wang, Yuan Wu, Xiongjun Liu, Honghong Chen, Mengji Yao, Baptiste Gault, Dirk Ponge, Dierk Raabe, Akihiko Hirata, Mingwei Chen, Yandong Wang, Zhaoping Lu
Next-generation high-performance structural materials are required for lightweight design strategies and advanced energy applications. Maraging steels, combining a martensite matrix with nanoprecipitates, are a class of high-strength materials with the potential for matching these demands. Their outstanding strength originates from semi-coherent precipitates, which unavoidably exhibit a heterogeneous distribution that creates large coherency strains, which in turn may promote crack initiation under load. Here we report a counterintuitive strategy for the design of ultrastrong steel alloys by high-density nanoprecipitation with minimal lattice misfit...
April 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397647/can-science-feed-on-a-crisis-expectations-the-pine-institute-and-the-decline-of-the-french-resin-industry
#10
Marcin Krasnodębski
Argument While science and economy are undoubtedly interwoven, the nature of their relationship is often reduced to a positive correlation between economic and scientific prosperity. It seems that the modern scholarship focusing on "success stories" tends to neglect counterintuitive examples such as the impact of economic crises on research. We argue that economic difficulties, under certain circumstances, may also lead to the prosperous development of scientific institutions. This paper focuses on a particular organism, the Pine Institute in Bordeaux in France...
March 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396969/psychological-and-behavioral-moderators-of-the-relationship-between-trauma-severity-and-hiv-transmission-risk-behavior-among-msm-with-a-history-of-childhood-sexual-abuse
#11
Abigail W Batchelder, Peter P Ehlinger, Michael S Boroughs, Jillian C Shipherd, Steven A Safren, Gail H Ironson, Conall O'Cleirigh
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can be associated with condomless sex among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, the impact of moderating factors on the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and condomless sex is poorly understood. We examined whether PTSD symptom severity was associated with condomless sex among MSM with CSA histories, and whether substance dependence, self-esteem, and distress tolerance moderated that relationship (n = 288)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388082/self-assembly-a-facile-way-of-forming-ultrathin-high-performance-graphene-oxide-membranes-for-water-purification
#12
Weiwei L Xu, Chao Fang, Fanglei Zhou, Zhuonan Song, Qiuli Liu, Rui Qiao, Miao Yu
Single-layer graphene oxide (SLGO) is emerging as a new-generation membrane material for high-flux, high-selectivity water purification, owing to its favorable 2-D morphology that allows facile fabrication of ultrathin membranes with sub-nanometer interlayer channels. However, reliable and precise molecular sieving performance still necessarily depends on thick graphene oxide (GO) deposition which usually leads to low water flux. This trade-off between selectivity and flux significantly impedes the development of ultrathin GO membranes...
April 7, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386026/coupling-between-distant-biofilms-and-emergence-of-nutrient-time-sharing
#13
Jintao Liu, Rosa Martinez-Corral, Arthur Prindle, Dong-Yeon D Lee, Joseph Larkin, Marçal Gabalda-Sagarra, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo, Gürol M Süel
Bacteria within communities can interact to organize their behavior. It remains unclear whether such interactions extend beyond a single community to coordinate the behavior of distant populations. We discovered that two Bacillus subtilis biofilm communities undergoing metabolic oscillations become coupled through electrical signaling and synchronize their growth dynamics. Coupling increases competition by also synchronizing demand for limited nutrients. As predicted by mathematical modeling, we confirm that biofilms resolve this conflict by switching from in-phase to anti-phase oscillations...
April 6, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376460/persuasive-interventions-for-controversial-cancer-screening-recommendations-testing-a-novel-approach-to-help-patients-make-evidence-based-decisions
#14
Barry G Saver, Kathleen M Mazor, Roger Luckmann, Sarah L Cutrona, Marcela Hayes, Tatyana Gorodetsky, Nancy Esparza, Gonzalo Bacigalupe
PURPOSE: We wanted to evaluate novel decision aids designed to help patients trust and accept the controversial, evidence-based, US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations about prostate cancer screening (from 2012) and mammography screening for women aged 40 to 49 years (from 2009). METHODS: We created recorded vignettes of physician-patient discussions about prostate cancer screening and mammography, accompanied by illustrative slides, based on principles derived from preceding qualitative work and behavioral science literature...
January 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374957/the-evolution-of-strategic-male-mating-effort-in-an-information-transfer-framework
#15
Leif Engqvist, Michael Taborsky
Sperm competition theory predicts that males should use cues indicating the risk and intensity of sperm competition to tailor their sperm investment accordingly. Rival males are an important source of social information regarding sperm competition risk. However, revealing such information may not be in the rival males' interest. Here we use a theoretical approach based on informed and uninformed games to investigate when information transfer about sperm competition risk to competitors is beneficial for a male, and when it is not...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373720/purification-of-an-unpolarized-spin-ensemble-into-entangled-singlet-pairs
#16
Johannes N Greiner, Durga Bhaktavatsala Rao Dasari, Jörg Wrachtrup
Dynamical polarization of nuclear spin ensembles is of central importance for magnetic resonance studies, precision sensing and for applications in quantum information theory. Here we propose a scheme to generate long-lived singlet pairs in an unpolarized nuclear spin ensemble which is dipolar coupled to the electron spins of a Nitrogen Vacancy center in diamond. The quantum mechanical back-action induced by frequent spin-selective readout of the NV centers allows the nuclear spins to pair up into maximally entangled singlet pairs...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364762/levitation-of-heavy-particles-against-gravity-in-asymptotically-downward-flows
#17
Jean-Régis Angilella, Daniel J Case, Adilson E Motter
In the fluid transport of particles, it is generally expected that heavy particles carried by a laminar fluid flow moving downward will also move downward. We establish a theory to show, however, that particles can be dynamically levitated and lifted by interacting vortices in such flows, thereby moving against gravity and the asymptotic direction of the flow, even when they are orders of magnitude denser than the fluid. The particle levitation is rigorously demonstrated for potential flows and supported by simulations for viscous flows...
March 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363355/association-of-obesity-with-in-hospital-mortality-of-cardiogenic-shock-complicating-acute-myocardial-infarction
#18
Kshitij Chatterjee, Tanush Gupta, Abhinav Goyal, Dhaval Kolte, Sahil Khera, Anusha Shanbhag, Kavisha Patel, Pedro Villablanca, Nayan Agarwal, Wilbert S Aronow, Mark A Menegus, Gregg C Fonarow, Deepak L Bhatt, Mario J Garcia, Nikhil K Meena
Several previous studies have shown obesity to be counterintuitively associated with more favorable mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, the association of obesity with in-hospital mortality of cardiogenic shock complicating AMI has not been previously examined. We queried the 2004 to 2013 National Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients ≥18 years hospitalized with the principal diagnosis of AMI. Multivariable regression models adjusting for demographics, hospital characteristics, and co-morbidities were used to examine differences in incidence and in-hospital mortality of cardiogenic shock complicating AMI between obese and nonobese patients...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363024/phase-diagram-of-fatty-acid-langmuir-monolayers-from-rheological-measurements
#19
J Tajuelo, E Guzmán, F Ortega, R G Rubio, M A Rubio
Langmuir monolayers of fatty acids and alcohols are two-dimensional systems with a rich equilibrium phase diagram. We have explored the temperature and surface-pressure-dependent shear response of monolayers formed by fatty acids of different chain lengths and a fatty alcohol. This has been accomplished with an interfacial shear rheometer utilizing magnetic tweezers and equipped with a refined temperature control and acquisition system. Our rheological results have allowed us to draw a phase diagram from the viscoelastic properties of these 2-D systems and show new phenomena that strongly depend on temperature: the existence of a maximum in viscosity at the L2' phase, the behavior of the elastic modulus to the storage modulus ratio at the L2 phase, and the increase or decrease in viscosity at the L2-LS phase transition...
April 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350706/a-posting-peculiarity
#20
Brant A Ulsh, Ed Bradley
The definitions of "radiation area," "high radiation area," and "very high radiation area," provided by the U.S. Department of Energy in 10 CFR Part 835.2, and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 10 CFR Part 20.1003, appear to require redundant posting. This is counterintuitive and would be confusing if the regulations were followed as currently written. We suspect that this is unintentional. However, until the relevant regulations are revised, it is recommended that licensees request written clarification from the regulators to ensure that they are able to demonstrate regulatory compliance...
May 2017: Health Physics
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