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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333996/evaluating-erroneous-offside-calls-in-soccer
#1
Stefanie Hüttermann, Benjamin Noël, Daniel Memmert
The ability to simultaneously attend to multiple objects declines with increases in the visual angle separating distant objects. We explored whether these laboratory-measured limits on visual attentional spread generalize to a real life context: offside calls by soccer assistant referees. We coded all offside calls from a full year of first division German soccer matches. By determining the x-y coordinates of the relevant players and assistant referee on the soccer field we were able to calculate how far assistant referees had to spread their visual attention to perform well...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333944/mechanisms-of-glycosylase-induced-genomic-instability
#2
Daniel E Eyler, Kylie A Burnham, Thomas E Wilson, Patrick J O'Brien
Human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) initiates base excision repair (BER) to guard against mutations by excising alkylated and deaminated purines. Counterintuitively, increased expression of AAG has been implicated in increased rates of spontaneous mutation in microsatellite repeats. This microsatellite mutator phenotype is consistent with a model in which AAG excises bulged (unpaired) bases, altering repeat length. To directly test the role of base excision in AAG-induced mutagenesis, we conducted mutation accumulation experiments in yeast overexpressing different variants of AAG and detected mutations via high-depth genome resequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320772/mechanism-for-microbial-population-collapse-in-a-fluctuating-resource-environment
#3
Serdar Turkarslan, Arjun V Raman, Anne W Thompson, Christina E Arens, Mark A Gillespie, Frederick von Netzer, Kristina L Hillesland, Sergey Stolyar, Adrian López García de Lomana, David J Reiss, Drew Gorman-Lewis, Grant M Zane, Jeffrey A Ranish, Judy D Wall, David A Stahl, Nitin S Baliga
Managing trade-offs through gene regulation is believed to confer resilience to a microbial community in a fluctuating resource environment. To investigate this hypothesis, we imposed a fluctuating environment that required the sulfate-reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris to undergo repeated ecologically relevant shifts between retaining metabolic independence (active capacity for sulfate respiration) and becoming metabolically specialized to a mutualistic association with the hydrogen-consuming Methanococcus maripaludis Strikingly, the microbial community became progressively less proficient at restoring the environmentally relevant physiological state after each perturbation and most cultures collapsed within 3-7 shifts...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319082/passive-phloem-loading-and-long-distance-transport-in-a-synthetic-tree-on-a-chip
#4
Jean Comtet, Kaare H Jensen, Robert Turgeon, Abraham D Stroock, A E Hosoi
Vascular plants rely on differences in osmotic pressure to export sugars from regions of synthesis (mature leaves) to sugar sinks (roots, fruits). In this process, known as Münch pressure flow, the loading of sugars from photosynthetic cells to the export conduit (the phloem) is crucial, as it sets the pressure head necessary to power long-distance transport. Whereas most herbaceous plants use active mechanisms to increase phloem sugar concentration above that of the photosynthetic cells, in most tree species, for which transport distances are largest, loading seems, counterintuitively, to occur by means of passive symplastic diffusion from the mesophyll to the phloem...
March 20, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318565/the-counterintuitive-role-of-extra-column-volume-in-the-determination-of-column-efficiency-and-scaling-of-chromatographic-processes
#5
A Schultze-Jena, M A Boon, P J Th Bussmann, A E M Janssen, A van der Padt
In industrial liquid separation processes chromatography often has a key function in the optimization of yield and purity. For the design of an industrial system, chromatographic processes are generally simulated using mathematical models, tested and optimized at laboratory level, and then scaled up to pilot and subsequently industrial scale. To describe the system, experimental data and model data need to be fitted and extra column contribution must be determined. This paper describes the influence of extra-column volume on overall separation efficiency for lab scale and its impact on the design of large scale systems...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318004/the-conflicting-role-of-buckled-structure-in-phonon-transport-of-2d-group-iv-and-group-v-materials
#6
Bo Peng, Dequan Zhang, Hao Zhang, Hezhu Shao, Gang Ni, Yongyuan Zhu, Heyuan Zhu
Controlling heat transport through material design is one important step toward thermal management in 2D materials. To control heat transport, a comprehensive understanding of how structure influences heat transport is required. It has been argued that a buckled structure is able to suppress heat transport by increasing the flexural phonon scattering. Using a first principles approach, we calculate the lattice thermal conductivity of 2D mono-elemental materials with a buckled structure. Somewhat counterintuitively, we find that although 2D group-V materials have a larger mass and higher buckling height than their group-IV counterparts, the calculated κ of blue phosphorene (106...
March 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303921/partitioning-of-red-blood-cell-aggregates-in-bifurcating-microscale-flows
#7
E Kaliviotis, J M Sherwood, S Balabani
Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297875/accuracy-of-rate-coding-when-shorter-time-window-and-higher-spontaneous-activity-help
#8
Marie Levakova, Massimiliano Tamborrino, Lubomir Kostal, Petr Lansky
It is widely accepted that neuronal firing rates contain a significant amount of information about the stimulus intensity. Nevertheless, theoretical studies on the coding accuracy inferred from the exact spike counting distributions are rare. We present an analysis based on the number of observed spikes assuming the stochastic perfect integrate-and-fire model with a change point, representing the stimulus onset, for which we calculate the corresponding Fisher information to investigate the accuracy of rate coding...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297865/numerical-study-of-nonequilibrium-gas-flow-in-a-microchannel-with-a-ratchet-surface
#9
Lianhua Zhu, Zhaoli Guo
The nonequilibrium gas flow in a two-dimensional microchannel with a ratchet surface and a moving wall is investigated numerically with a kinetic method [Guo et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 033313 (2015)]PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.033313. The presence of periodic asymmetrical ratchet structures on the bottom wall of the channel and the temperature difference between the walls of the channel result in a thermally induced flow, and hence a tangential propelling force on the wall. Such thermally induced propelling mechanism can be utilized as a model heat engine...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296412/negative-linear-compressibility-due-to-layer-sliding-in-a-layered-mof
#10
Qingxin Zeng, Kai Wang, Yuancun Qiao, Xiaodong Li, Bo Zou
Negative linear compressibility (NLC) is a rare and counterintuitive phenomenon because materials with this property would expand along one specific direction when uniformly compressed. NLC materials have a broad range of potential applications in designing pressure sensors, artificial muscles and so on. Designing and searching for systems with NLC is desired and crucial for material and compression science. Herein, with the help of high-pressure X-ray diffraction measurements and density functional theory calculations, we find that the 2D layered Co(SCN)2(pyrazine)2 exhibits NLC with a new mechanism-layer sliding...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293953/counterintuitive-adsorption-of-pw11o39-7-on-au-100
#11
Zhongling Lang, Xavier Aparicio-Anglès, Ira Weinstock, Anna Clotet, Josep M Poblet
Understanding the interaction between charged species and surfaces is one of the most challenging topics in chemistry, given its wide involvement in several fields such as electrocatalysis, stabilization of metal nanoparticles, preparation of devices, etc. In general, these systems are particularly complex to model because of the elevated number of factors that must be taken into account. Here, we report a robust strategy based on density functional theory for studying these interactions, which has been applied to the highly charged lacunary [PW11O39](7-) (PW11) adsorbed on gold and silver surfaces...
March 15, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291795/experimental-chronic-kidney-disease-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-an-ex-vivo-rat-lung-model
#12
Chung-Kan Peng, Kun-Lun Huang, Chou-Chin Lan, Yu-Juei Hsu, Geng-Chin Wu, Chia-Hui Peng, Chin-Pyng Wu, Khee-Siang Chan
Lung ischemia reperfusion injury (LIRI) is one of important complications following lung transplant and cardiopulmonary bypass. Although patients on hemodialysis are still excluded as lung transplant donors because of the possible effects of renal failure on the lungs, increased organ demand has led us to evaluate the influence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on LIRI. A CKD model was induced by feeding Sprague-Dawley rats an adenine-rich (0.75%) diet for 2, 4 and 6 weeks, and an isolated rat lung in situ model was used to evaluate ischemia reperfusion (IR)-induced acute lung injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287397/majorana-dc-josephson-current-mediated-by-a-quantum-dot
#13
Luting Xu, Xinqi Li, Qingfeng Sun
The Josephson supercurrent through the hybrid Majorana--quantum dot--Majorana junction is investigated. We particularly analyze the effect of spin-selective coupling between the Majorana and quantum dot states, which emerges only in the topological phase and will influence the current through bent junctions and/or in the presence of magnetic fields in the quantum dot. We find that the characteristic behaviors of the supercurrent through this system are quite counterintuitive, remarkably differing from the resonant tunneling, e...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286695/when-weaker-can-be-tougher-the-role-of-oxidation-state-i-in-p-vs-n-ligand-derived-ni-catalyzed-trifluoromethylthiolation-of-aryl-halides
#14
Indrek Kalvet, Qianqian Guo, Graham J Tizzard, Franziska Schoenebeck
The direct introduction of the valuable SCF3 moiety into organic molecules has received considerable attention. While it can be achieved successfully for aryl chlorides under catalysis with Ni(0)(cod)2 and dppf, this report investigates the Ni-catalyzed functionalization of the seemingly more reactive aryl halides ArI and ArBr. Counterintuitively, the observed conversion triggered by dppf/Ni(0) is ArCl > ArBr > ArI, at odds with bond strength preferences. By a combined computational and experimental approach, the origin of this was identified to be due to the formation of (dppf)Ni(I), which favors β-F elimination as a competing pathway over the productive cross-coupling, ultimately generating the inactive complex (dppf)Ni(SCF2) as a catalysis dead end...
March 3, 2017: ACS Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280250/extremely-efficient-internal-exciton-dissociation-through-edge-states-in-layered-2d-perovskites
#15
J-C Blancon, H Tsai, W Nie, C C Stoumpos, L Pedesseau, C Katan, M Kepenekian, C M M Soe, K Appavoo, M Y Sfeir, S Tretiak, P M Ajayan, M G Kanatzidis, J Even, J J Crochet, A D Mohite
Understanding and controlling charge and energy flow in state-of-the-art semiconductor quantum-wells has enabled high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. Two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites are solution-processed quantum-wells wherein the band gap can be tuned by varying the perovskite layer thickness, which modulates the effective electron-hole confinement. We report that, counterintuitive to classical quantum-confined systems where photo-generated electrons and holes are strongly bound by Coulomb interactions or excitons, the photo-physics of thin films made of Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites with a thickness exceeding two perovskite crystal-units (>1...
March 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253907/systemic-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-status-following-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-a-piglet-hypoxia-ischemia-model
#16
Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Dorottya Kelen, Stuart Faulkner, Kevin D Broad, Manigandan Chandrasekaran, Áron Kerenyi, Takenori Kato, Alan Bainbridge, Xavier Golay, Mark Sullivan, Boris W Kramer, Nicola J Robertson
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The influence of hypothermia (HT) on cytokines after HI is unclear. Our aim was to assess in a piglet asphyxia model, under normothermic (NT) and HT conditions: (i) the evolution of serum cytokines over 48 h and (ii) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine levels at 48 h; (iii) serum pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine profile over 48 h and (iv) relation between brain injury measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and brain TUNEL positive cells with serum cytokines, serum pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines and CSF cytokines...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251753/optomechanical-control-of-quantum-yield-in-trans-cis-ultrafast-photoisomerization-of-a-retinal-chromophore-model
#17
Alessio Valentini, Daniel Rivero, Felipe Zapata, Cristina García-Iriepa, Marco Marazzi, Raúl Palmeiro, Ignacio Fdez Galván, Diego Sampedro, Massimo Olivucci, Luis Manuel Frutos
The quantum yield of a photochemical reaction is one of the most fundamental quantities in photochemistry, as it measures the efficiency of the transduction of light energy into chemical energy. Nature has evolved photoreceptors in which the reactivity of a chromophore is enhanced by its molecular environment to achieve high quantum yields. The retinal chromophore sterically constrained inside rhodopsin proteins represents an outstanding example of such a control. In a more general framework, mechanical forces acting on a molecular system can strongly modify its reactivity...
March 2, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250813/modelling-the-evolution-of-hiv-1-virulence-in-response-to-imperfect-therapy-and-prophylaxis
#18
David R M Smith, Nicole Mideo
Average HIV-1 virulence appears to have evolved in different directions in different host populations since antiretroviral therapy first became available, and models predict that HIV drugs can select for either higher or lower virulence, depending on how treatment is administered. However, HIV virulence evolution in response to "leaky" therapy (treatment that imperfectly suppresses viral replication) and the use of preventive drugs (pre-exposure prophylaxis) has not been explored. Using adaptive dynamics, we show that higher virulence can evolve when antiretroviral therapy is imperfectly effective and that this evolution erodes some of the long-term clinical and epidemiological benefits of HIV treatment...
March 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247356/mimicking-muscle-stem-cell-quiescence-in-culture-methods-for-synchronization-in-reversible-arrest
#19
Reety Arora, Mohammed Rumman, Nisha Venugopal, Hardik Gala, Jyotsna Dhawan
Growing evidence supports the view that in adult stem cells, the defining stem cell features of potency and self-renewal are associated with the quiescent state. Thus, uncovering the molecular logic of this reversibly arrested state underlies not only a fundamental understanding of adult tissue dynamics but also hopes for therapeutic regeneration and rejuvenation of damaged or aging tissue. A key question concerns how adult stem cells use quiescence to establish or reinforce the property of self-renewal. Since self-renewal is largely studied by assays that measure proliferation, the concept of self-renewal programs imposed during non-proliferating conditions is counterintuitive...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240892/potential-energy-surfaces-of-core-hole-and-shake-up-states-for-dissociative-ionization-studies
#20
Ines Corral, Jesús González-Vázquez, Fernando Martin
The theoretical description of core-hole and core-hole excited (shake-up) states resulting from the interaction of a molecule with X-ray free electron lasers, attosecond pulses and synchrotron radiation is a challenging task, as these states lie in the ionization continuum and, therefore, are subject to variational collapse. Although much effort has been devoted in the past to describe core-hole states in the Franck Condon (FC) region, very few attempts, even less for shake up states, have been reported near the dissociation threshold, where multistate degeneracy introduces additional complications...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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