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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077759/complex-responses-to-movement-based-disease-control-when-livestock-trading-helps
#1
Jamie C Prentice, Glenn Marion, Michael R Hutchings, Tom N McNeilly, Louise Matthews
Livestock disease controls are often linked to movements between farms, for example, via quarantine and pre- or post-movement testing. Designing effective controls, therefore, benefits from accurate assessment of herd-to-herd transmission. Household models of human infections make use of R*, the number of groups infected by an initial infected group, which is a metapopulation level analogue of the basic reproduction number R0 that provides a better characterization of disease spread in a metapopulation. However, existing approaches to calculate R* do not account for individual movements between locations which means we lack suitable tools for livestock systems...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073900/the-longer-the-better-an-empirical-study-of-the-extent-and-mechanisms-of-attenuating-biomarker-associations-in-cardiovascular-patient-cohorts
#2
Lutz P Breitling, Ute Mons, Harry Hahmann, Wolfgang Koenig, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Hermann Brenner
BACKGROUND: Identifying novel risk markers in cardiovascular patients remains a research priority. Longer follow-up generally is considered favorable in such studies, but associations of interest may become attenuated with increasing follow-up. This issue has not been adequately addressed in the context of patient cohorts. The current study analyzed the extent and mechanisms of attenuating associations in a cardiovascular patient cohort. METHODS: The associations of numerous biomarkers with all-cause mortality were estimated by multiple Cox regression in the Langzeiterfolge der KARdiOLogischen Anschlussheilbehandlung (KAROLA) prospective cohort study of 1204 patients who had participated in an inpatient rehabilitation program after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or coronary bypass operation...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069947/first-passage-time-approach-to-controlling-noise-in-the-timing-of-intracellular-events
#3
Khem Raj Ghusinga, John J Dennehy, Abhyudai Singh
In the noisy cellular environment, gene products are subject to inherent random fluctuations in copy numbers over time. How cells ensure precision in the timing of key intracellular events despite such stochasticity is an intriguing fundamental problem. We formulate event timing as a first-passage time problem, where an event is triggered when the level of a protein crosses a critical threshold for the first time. Analytical calculations are performed for the first-passage time distribution in stochastic models of gene expression...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069262/advanced-modeling-reconciles-counterintuitive-decisions-in-lead-optimization
#4
REVIEW
Ariel Fernández, L Ridgway Scott
Lead optimization (LO) is essential to fulfill the efficacy and safety requirements of drug-based targeted therapy. The ease with which water may be locally removed from around the target protein crucially influences LO decisions. However, inferred binding sites often defy intuition and the resulting LO decisions are often counterintuitive, with nonpolar groups in the drug placed next to polar groups in the target. We first introduce biophysical advances to reconcile these apparent mismatches. We incorporate three-body energy terms that account for the net stabilization of preformed target structures upon removal of interfacial water concurrent with drug binding...
January 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068071/spin-polarization-induced-preedge-transitions-in-the-sulfur-k-edge-xas-spectra-of-open-shell-transition-metal-sulfates-spectroscopic-validation-of-%C3%AF-bond-electron-transfer
#5
Patrick Frank, Robert K Szilagyi, Volker Gramlich, Hua-Fen Hsu, Britt Hedman, Keith O Hodgson
Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of the monodentate sulfate complexes [M(II)(itao)(SO4)(H2O)0,1] (M = Co, Ni, Cu) and [Cu(Me6tren)(SO4)] exhibit well-defined preedge transitions at 2479.4, 2479.9, 2478.4, and 2477.7 eV, respectively, despite having no direct metal-sulfur bond, while the XAS preedge of [Zn(itao)(SO4)] is featureless. The sulfur K-edge XAS of [Cu(itao)(SO4)] but not of [Cu(Me6tren)(SO4)] uniquely exhibits a weak transition at 2472.1 eV, an extraordinary 8.7 eV below the first inflection of the rising K-edge...
January 9, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061906/bilateral-rectus-sheath-haematoma-complicating-dengue-virus-infection-in-a-patient-on-warfarin-for-mechanical-aortic-valve-replacement-a-case-report
#6
Chamith Thushanga Rosa, Mitrakrishnan Rayno Navinan, Sincy Samarawickrama, Himam Hamza, Maheshika Gunarathne, Arulprashanth Arulanantham, Neeha Subba, Udari Samarasiri, Thushara Mathias, Aruna Kulatunga
BACKGROUND: The management of Dengue virus infection can be challenging. Varied presentations and numerous complications intrinsic to dengue by itself increase the complexity of treatment and potential mortality. When burdened with the presence of additional comorbidities and the need to continue compulsory medications, clear stepwise definitive guidance is lacking and patients tend to have more complex complications and outcomes calling to question the clinical decisions that may have been taken...
January 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060881/individual-hiv-risk-versus-population-impact-of-risk-compensation-after-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-initiation-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#7
Samuel M Jenness, Akshay Sharma, Steven M Goodreau, Eli S Rosenberg, Kevin M Weiss, Karen W Hoover, Dawn K Smith, Patrick Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: Risk compensation (RC) could reduce or offset the biological prevention benefits of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among those at substantial risk of infection, including men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated the potential extent and causal mechanisms through which RC could impact HIV transmission at the population and individual levels. METHODS: Using a stochastic network-based mathematical model of HIV transmission dynamics among MSM in the United States, we simulated RC as a reduction in the probability of condom use after initiating PrEP, with heterogeneity by PrEP adherence profiles and partnership type in which RC occurred...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057723/how-the-brain-converts-negative-evaluation-into-performance-facilitation
#8
Charlotte Prévost, Hakwan Lau, Dean Mobbs
Surpassing negative evaluation is a recurrent theme of success stories. Yet, there is little evidence supporting the counterintuitive idea that negative evaluation might not only motivate people, but also enhance performance. To address this question, we designed a task that required participants to decide whether taking up a risky challenge after receiving positive or negative evaluations from independent judges. Participants believed that these evaluations were based on their prior performance on a related task...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054598/antarctic-ice-sheet-discharge-driven-by-atmosphere-ocean-feedbacks-at-the-last-glacial-termination
#9
C J Fogwill, C S M Turney, N R Golledge, D M Etheridge, M Rubino, D P Thornton, A Baker, J Woodward, K Winter, T D van Ommen, A D Moy, M A J Curran, S M Davies, M E Weber, M I Bird, N C Munksgaard, L Menviel, C M Rootes, B Ellis, H Millman, J Vohra, A Rivera, A Cooper
Reconstructing the dynamic response of the Antarctic ice sheets to warming during the Last Glacial Termination (LGT; 18,000-11,650 yrs ago) allows us to disentangle ice-climate feedbacks that are key to improving future projections. Whilst the sequence of events during this period is reasonably well-known, relatively poor chronological control has precluded precise alignment of ice, atmospheric and marine records, making it difficult to assess relationships between Antarctic ice-sheet (AIS) dynamics, climate change and sea level...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054516/counterintuitive-cooperative-endocytosis-of-like-charged-nanoparticles-in-cellular-internalization-computer-simulation-and-experiment
#10
Ye Li, Bing Yuan, Kai Yang, Xianren Zhang, Bing Yan, Dapeng Cao
The nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with charged ligands are of particular significance due to their potential drug/gene delivery and biomedical applications. However, the molecular mechanism of endocytosis of the charged NPs by cells, especially the effect of the NP-NP and NP-biomembrane interactions on the internalization pathways is still poorly understood. In this work, we systematically investigate the internalization behaviors of the positively charged NPs by combining experiment technology and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation...
January 5, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054048/radical-induced-intermolecular-linkage-and-energy-level-modifications-of-a-porphyrin-monolayer
#11
Abdolreza Jahanbekam, Colin Harthcock, David Y Lee
A new method to directly modify the surface structure and energy levels of a porphyrin monolayer was examined in the molecular scale using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS) and presented in this communication. The exposure to atomic oxygen has induced highly ordered surface cross-linking and changed the occupied and unoccupied orbital levels of a cobalt(ii) octaethyl porphyrin (CoOEP) monolayer, and as a result, the HOMO-LUMO gap was reduced by ∼10%. Counterintuitively, the STM/STS data indicated that the reactive central Co atoms did not participate in the gas-surface reactions...
January 5, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049306/transport-geometrical-and-topological-properties-of-stealthy-disordered-hyperuniform-two-phase-systems
#12
G Zhang, F H Stillinger, S Torquato
Disordered hyperuniform many-particle systems have attracted considerable recent attention, since they behave like crystals in the manner in which they suppress large-scale density fluctuations, and yet also resemble statistically isotropic liquids and glasses with no Bragg peaks. One important class of such systems is the classical ground states of "stealthy potentials." The degree of order of such ground states depends on a tuning parameter χ. Previous studies have shown that these ground-state point configurations can be counterintuitively disordered, infinitely degenerate, and endowed with novel physical properties (e...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045959/the-impact-of-detoxification-costs-and-predation-risk-on-foraging-implications-for-mimicry-dynamics
#13
Christina G Halpin, John Skelhorn, Candy Rowe, Graeme D Ruxton, Andrew D Higginson
Prey often evolve defences to deter predators, such as noxious chemicals including toxins. Toxic species often advertise their defence to potential predators by distinctive sensory signals. Predators learn to associate toxicity with the signals of these so-called aposematic prey, and may avoid them in future. In turn, this selects for mildly toxic prey to mimic the appearance of more toxic prey. Empirical evidence shows that mimicry could be either beneficial ('Mullerian') or detrimental ('quasi-Batesian') to the highly toxic prey, but the factors determining which are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042984/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-offline-visual-oscillatory-activity-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#14
Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Timothy J McDermott, Mackenzie S Mills, Nathan M Coolidge, Tony W Wilson
Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive neuromodulatory method that involves delivering low amplitude, direct current to specific regions of the brain. While a wealth of literature shows changes in behavior and cognition following tDCS administration, the underlying neuronal mechanisms remain largely unknown. Neuroimaging studies have generally used fMRI and shown only limited consensus to date, while the few electrophysiological studies have reported mostly null or counterintuitive findings...
December 7, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036210/unconventional-disorder-effects-in-correlated-superconductors
#15
Maria N Gastiasoro, Fabio Bernardini, Brian M Andersen
We study the effects of disorder on unconventional superconductors in the presence of correlations, and explore a novel correlated disorder paradigm dominated by strong deviations from standard Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory due to generation of local bound states and cooperative impurity behavior driven by Coulomb interactions. Specifically we explain under which circumstances magnetic disorder acts as a strong poison destroying high-T_{c} superconductivity at the sub-1% level, and when nonmagnetic disorder, counterintuitively, hardly affects the unconventional superconducting state while concomitantly inducing an inhomogeneous full-volume magnetic phase...
December 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018644/how-self-organization-can-guide-evolution
#16
Jonathan Glancy, James V Stone, Stuart P Wilson
Self-organization and natural selection are fundamental forces that shape the natural world. Substantial progress in understanding how these forces interact has been made through the study of abstract models. Further progress may be made by identifying a model system in which the interaction between self-organization and selection can be investigated empirically. To this end, we investigate how the self-organizing thermoregulatory huddling behaviours displayed by many species of mammals might influence natural selection of the genetic components of metabolism...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018180/local-field-potentials-myths-and-misunderstandings
#17
REVIEW
Oscar Herreras
The intracerebral local field potential (LFP) is a measure of brain activity that reflects the highly dynamic flow of information across neural networks. This is a composite signal that receives contributions from multiple neural sources, yet interpreting its nature and significance may be hindered by several confounding factors and technical limitations. By and large, the main factor defining the amplitude of LFPs is the geometry of the current sources, over and above the degree of synchronization or the properties of the media...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018140/friend-or-foe-epigenetic-regulation-of-retrotransposons-in-mammalian-oogenesis-and-early-development
#18
REVIEW
Alexei V Evsikov, Caralina Marín de Evsikova
Epigenetics is the study of phenotypic variation arising from developmental and environmental factors regulating gene transcription at molecular, cellular, and physiological levels. A naturally occurring biological process driven by epigenetics is the egg-to-embryo developmental transition when two fully differentiated adult cells - egg and sperm - revert to an early stem cell type with totipotency but subsequently differentiates into pluripotent embryonic stem cells that give rise to any cell type. Transposable elements (TEs) are active in mammalian oocytes and early embryos, and this activity, albeit counterintuitive because TEs can lead to genomic instability in somatic cells, correlates to successful development...
December 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009490/exploring-the-chemical-reaction-space-at-the-formation-of-chalcogenidometalate-superspheres-in-ionic-liquids
#19
Stefanie Dehnen, Silke Santner, Jan J Weigand, Sivathmeehan Yogendra
The synthesis of anionic chalcogenidometalate superspheres can be achieved from [Ge4Se10]4- salts and SnCl4 in ionic liquids with (Cn(C1)C1Im)+ cations (n = 4, 6, 8). Its formation is apparently independent from the lengths of the Cn chain and the presence or absence of a second methyl group at the ionic liquid cation that are exchanged for alkali metal cations during the reactions, although this may appear counterintuitive. In contrast, and equally counterintuitive, the ionic liquid anion was found to play a crucial role for both the general observability as well as the crystal yield and quality of the products, although they are not part of the product: a minimum content of chloride is needed, while ionic liquids with [BF4]- anions alone do not support the product formation/crystallization...
December 23, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008625/arterial-ligation-versus-embolization-in-epistaxis-management-counterintuitive-national-trends
#20
Michael J Sylvester, Sei Y Chung, Luis A Guinand, Aparna Govindan, Soly Baredes, Jean Anderson Eloy
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Arterial ligation and embolization are treatment modalities indicated in severe and refractory epistaxis. The purpose of this study was to examine temporal trends and compare outcomes in treatment of hospitalized epistaxis patients with ligation or embolization. METHODS: This retrospective cohort analysis utilized the 2008 to 2013 National Inpatient Sample to identify patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of epistaxis, and an associated procedure code for ligation or embolization...
December 23, 2016: Laryngoscope
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