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Tilmann A Klein, Markus Ullsperger, Gerhard Jocham
To decide optimally between available options, organisms need to learn the values associated with these options. Reinforcement learning models offer a powerful explanation of how these values are learnt from experience. However, human choices often violate normative principles. We suggest that seemingly counterintuitive decisions may arise as a natural consequence of the learning mechanisms deployed by humans. Here, using fMRI and a novel behavioural task, we show that, when suddenly switched to novel choice contexts, participants' choices are incongruent with values learnt by standard learning algorithms...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Fernanda S Matias, Pedro V Carelli, Claudio R Mirasso, Mauro Copelli
Anticipated synchronization (AS) is a counterintuitive behavior that has been observed in several systems. When AS occurs in a sender-receiver configuration, the latter can predict the future dynamics of the former for certain parameter values. In particular, in neuroscience AS was proposed to explain the apparent discrepancy between information flow and time lag in the cortical activity recorded in monkeys. Despite its success, a clear understanding of the mechanisms yielding AS in neuronal circuits is still missing...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
Ricardo B Fontes, Richard G Fessler
Surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) has emerged as an efficient treatment alternative, but it is fraught with potential perioperative morbidity, incompletely mitigated by emerging minimally invasive surgical techniques. In mild-to-moderate ASD balanced in the sagittal plane, there are situations in which the counterintuitive simple decompression through a foraminotomy or laminectomy, or even a short-segment fusion may be an attractive treatment. This article presents a case example and the authors' treatment rationale and reviews the limited available literature supporting it...
July 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Colin Bannard, Marla Rosner, Danielle Matthews
Of all the things a person could say in a given situation, what determines what is worth saying? Greenfield's principle of informativeness states that right from the onset of language, humans selectively comment on whatever they find unexpected. In this article, we quantify this tendency using information-theoretic measures and report on a study in which we tested the counterintuitive prediction that children will produce words that have a low frequency given the context, because these will be most informative...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
D Vale Cofer-Shabica, Richard M Stratt
With the notable exception of some illustrative two-degree-of-freedom models whose surprising classical dynamics has been worked out in detail, theories of roaming have largely bypassed the issue of when and why the counterintuitive phenomenon of roaming occurs. We propose that a useful way to begin to address these issues is to look for the geodesic (most efficient) pathways through the potential surfaces of candidate systems. Although roaming manifests itself in an unusual behavior at asymptotic geometries, we found in the case of formaldehyde dissociation that it was the pathways traversing the parts of the potential surface corresponding to highly vibrationally excited reactants that were the most revealing...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
H D d'Oliveira, X Davoy, E Arche, P Malfreyt, A Ghoufi
The surface tension (γ) of methane on a graphene monolayer is calculated by using the test-area approach. By using a united atom model to describe methane molecules, strong fluctuations of surface tension as a function of the surface area of the graphene are evidenced. In contrast with the liquid-vapor interfaces, the use of a larger cutoff does not fully erase the fluctuations in the surface tension. Counterintuitively, the description of methane and graphene from the Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations all-atom model and a flexible model, respectively, led to a lessening in the surface tension fluctuations...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Norman B Mendoza, Imelu G Mordeno, Carl A Latkin, Brian J Hall
Labor migrants are at an increased risk for poor mental health. Post-migration stressors contribute significantly to this risk. Social network supports are vitally important to protect health but little is known about the role of social network supports among labor migrants. The current study evaluated the role of migration stressors on poor mental health among Filipino female domestic workers (FDW) and whether family and friend social network support (SNS) modified this relationship. Data were collected from 261 FDWs in Macau, China from May to September 2013...
May 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Gao-Lei Hou, Bo Chen, Wesley J Transue, Zheng Yang, Hansjörg Grützmacher, Matthias Driess, Christopher C Cummins, Weston Thatcher Borden, Xue-Bin Wang
Three newly-synthesized [Na+(221-kryptofix)] salts containing AsCO-, PCO-, and PCS- anions were successfully electrosprayed into the vacuum, and these three ECX- anions were investigated by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) and high resolution photoelectron imaging spectroscopy. For each ECX- anion, a well-resolved NIPE spectrum was obtained, in which every major peak is split into a doublet. The splittings are attributed to spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in the ECX• radicals. Vibrational progressions in the NIPE spectra of ECX- were assigned to the symmetric and antisymmetric stretching modes in ECX• radicals...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jennifer C Brookes
Despite certain quantum concepts, such as superposition states, entanglement, 'spooky action at a distance' and tunnelling through insulating walls, being somewhat counterintuitive, they are no doubt extremely useful constructs in theoretical and experimental physics. More uncertain, however, is whether or not these concepts are fundamental to biology and living processes. Of course, at the fundamental level all things are quantum, because all things are built from the quantized states and rules that govern atoms...
May 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Jennifer N Moloney, Thomas G Cotter
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been detected in various cancers and has been shown to have several roles, for example, they can activate pro-tumourigenic signalling, enhance cell survival and proliferation, and drive DNA damage and genetic instability. Counterintuitively ROS can also promote anti-tumourigenic signalling, initiating oxidative stress-induced tumour cell death. Tumour cells express elevated levels of antioxidant proteins to detoxify elevated ROS levels, establish a redox balance, while maintaining pro-tumourigenic signalling and resistance to apoptosis...
June 3, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
A Ben Gouider Trabelsi, F V Kusmartsev, M B Gaifullin, D M Forrester, A Kusmartseva, M Oueslati
We report the discovery of remarkable photo-physical phenomena with characteristics unique to epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC (000-1). Surprisingly, the electrical resistance of graphene increases under light illumination in contrast to conventional materials where it normally decreases. The resistance shows logarithmic temperature dependences which may be attributed to an Altshuler-Aronov effect. We show that the photoresistance depends on the frequency of the irradiating light, with three lasers (red, green, and violet) used to demonstrate the phenomenon...
June 5, 2017: Nanoscale
Adam Alperstein, Raymond M Fertig, Matthew Feldman, Daniel Watford, Susan Nystrom, Guesly Delva, Salman Muddassir
An 18-year-old gentleman with a history of recurrent tonsillitis presented to the emergency room complaining of worsening sore throat. He was found to have a peritonisillar abscess, and imaging revealed a non-occlusive left internal jugular vein thrombosis. Lemierre's syndrome is a rare, potentially fatal condition characterized by internal jugular vein thrombosis with septicemia following an acute oropharyngeal infection. While anticoagulation is the mainstay of treatment of deep venous thromboembolism (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), the use of therapy is controversial in septic thrombophlebitis...
May 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Francis Beauvais
BACKGROUND: Factors that participate in the biological changes associated with a placebo are not completely understood. Natural evolution, mean regression, concomitant procedures and other non specific effects are well-known factors that contribute to the "placebo effect". In this article, we suggest that quantum-like correlations predicted by a probabilistic modeling could also play a role. RESULTS: An elementary experiment in biology or medicine comparing the biological changes associated with two placebos is modeled...
June 2, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Andrew Biggerstaff, David J Smith, Jamaluddin Jompa, James J Bell
Declines in coral abundance have been linked to increased sedimentation at many locations across the world and at some of these locations there have been subsequent increases in sponge abundance. These shifts appear counterintuitive as sponges are suspension feeders and many rely on photosymbionts for carbon. At a sedimented reef in Indonesia (Wakatobi) corals have declined and the photoautotrophic sponge Lamellodysidea herbacea is now abundant. We hypothesise that this is partly due to L. herbacea's ability to clear its tissues of high levels of settled-sediment and compensate for associated metabolic demands by altering its respiration rate...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dandan Hu, Yingying Zhang, Huajun Yang, Jian Lin, Tao Wu
We investigated the amine-induced structure transformation of four selenidostannates, i.e. [Sn3Se7Fe(TEPA)]n (1), {[Sn2Se6]·4(H(+)-PR)} (2), {[Sn2Se6]·2[Fe(en)3]} (3), and {[Sn3Se7]n·2n(H(+)-DBN)} (4) (TEPA = tetraethylenepentamine, PR = piperidine, en = ethylenediamine, DBN = 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene), which were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. The TEPA-induced 1D chain structure of [Sn3Se7Fe(TEPA)]n in 1 can undergo cleavage of Se-Fe and Se-Sn bonds to form a 0D dimer unit of [Sn2Se6](2-) observed in 2 and 3, induced by PR and en, respectively...
June 13, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Agata Wawrzkiewicz-Jałowiecka, Beata Dworakowska, Zbigniew J Grzywna
Large-conductance, voltage dependent, Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels (BK) are transmembrane proteins that regulate many biological processes by controlling potassium flow across cell membranes. Here, we investigate to what extent temperature (in the range of 17-37°C with ΔT=5°C step) is a regulating parameter of kinetic properties of the channel gating and memory effect in the series of dwell-time series of subsequent channel's states, at membrane depolarization and hyperpolarization. The obtained results indicate that temperature affects strongly the BK channels' gating, but, counterintuitively, it exerts no effect on the long-range correlations, as measured by the Hurst coefficient...
May 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gabriella Rondanina, Matteo Puntoni, Aliana Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Domenico Marra, Bernardo Bonanni, Andrea DeCensi
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing interest in combining postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and SERMs in midlife women. We previously showed that refusal to participate in a prevention trial of low dose tamoxifen in HT users was associated with higher worry about breast cancer. Given this counterintuitive finding, we studied which factors influenced worry and risk perception of breast cancer. METHODS: We assessed the relationships of breast cancer worry and risk perception with age, age at menopause, Gail risk, education, adherence to mammographic screening, BMI, smoking, physical activity, alcohol use, anxiety and depression in 457 midlife HT users who were eligible to participate in the trial...
May 29, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Sarah Genon, Tobias Wensing, Andrew Reid, Felix Hoffstaedter, Svenja Caspers, Christian Grefkes, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat, Simon B Eickhoff
Recently, we showed that the functional heterogeneity of the right dorsal premotor (PMd) cortex could be better understood by dividing it into five subregions that showed different behavioral associations according to task-based activations studies. The present study investigated whether the revealed behavioral profile could be corroborated and complemented by a structural brain behavior correlation approach in two healthy adults cohorts. Grey matter volume within the five volumes of interest (VOI-GM) was computed using voxel-based morphometry...
May 25, 2017: NeuroImage
K M Hallow, Y Gebremichael
Renal function plays a central role in cardiovascular, kidney, and multiple other diseases, and many existing and novel therapies act through renal mechanisms. Even with decades of accumulated knowledge of renal physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology, the dynamics of renal function remain difficult to understand and predict, often resulting in unexpected or counterintuitive therapy responses. Quantitative systems pharmacology modeling of renal function integrates this accumulated knowledge into a quantitative framework, allowing evaluation of competing hypotheses, identification of knowledge gaps, and generation of new experimentally testable hypotheses...
May 26, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Liping Yu, Qimin Yan, Adrienn Ruzsinszky
Materials with a negative Poisson's ratio, also known as auxetic materials, exhibit unusual and counterintuitive mechanical behaviour-becoming fatter in cross-section when stretched. Such behaviour is mostly attributed to some special re-entrant or hinged geometric structures regardless of the chemical composition and electronic structure of a material. Here, using first-principles calculations, we report a class of auxetic single-layer two-dimensional materials, namely, the 1T-type monolayer crystals of groups 6-7 transition-metal dichalcogenides, MX2 (M=Mo, W, Tc, Re; X=S, Se, Te)...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
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