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Stock and flow

Vijayan Jasna, Angia Sriram Pradeep Ram, Ammini Parvathi, Telesphore Sime-Ngando
Our understanding on the importance of viral lysis in the functioning of tropical estuarine ecosystem is limited. This study examines viral infection of prokaryotes and subsequent lysis of cells belonging to different morphotypes across a salinity gradient in monsoon driven estuarine ecosystem (Cochin estuary, India). High standing stock of viruses and prokaryotes accompanied by lytic infection rates in the euryhaline/mesohaline region of the estuary suggests salinity to have an influential role in driving interactions between prokaryotes and viruses...
2018: PloS One
Sebastiaan Deetman, Stefan Pauliuk, Detlef van Vuuren, Ester Van Der Voet, Arnold Tukker
This study provides scenarios towards 2050 for the demand of five metals in electricity production, cars and electronic appliances. The metals considered are copper, tantalum, neodymium, cobalt and lithium. The study shows how highly technology-specific data on products and material flows can be used in integrated assessment models to asses global resource and metal demand. We use the Shared Socio-economic Pathways as implemented by the IMAGE integrated assessment model as a starting point. This allows us to translate information on the use of electronic appliances, cars and renewable energy technologies into quantitative data on metal flows, through application of metal content estimates in combination with a dynamic stock model...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kai Fang, Qifeng Zhang, Huajun Yu, Yutao Wang, Liang Dong, Lei Shi
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are limited in their ability to measure progress towards environmental sustainability especially at the city level. The aim of this paper is to provide insights into an integrated assessment of urban sustainability, with emphasis on the significance of the maintenance of natural capital stocks. The use of water and land as critical natural capital in Guiyang, a southeast city in China was investigated by bringing together the ecological footprint (EF), water footprint (WF) and corresponding capacity indicators into an improved three-dimensional (i3D) model...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A Coelho, P Brandão, M Lobo, I Lojo, A Canedo
INTRODUCTION: Major pelvic Ilio-Iliac arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an exceedingly rare diagnosis with only a few described cases in the literature, most of them related to congenital defects or trauma. In this case report, we aim to present a case of an ilio-iliac AVF with an atypical clinical presentation. CASE REPORT: The patient is a 77-year-old women, with a relevant medical history of a temporally remote hysterectomy. She developed an exuberant unilateral right leg oedema and was diagnosed with a femoro-iliac deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and started on anticoagulation and daily use of elastic compression stockings...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Jacqueline S Silva-Cavalcanti, Monica F Costa, Luis H B Alves
Spatial and temporal density and biomass of the infaunal mollusk Anomalocardia flexuosa (Linnaeus, 1767) evaluated a tidal plain at Goiana estuary (Northeast Brazil). Three hundred and sixty core samples were taken during an annual cycle from three intertidal habitats (A, B and C). Shell ranged from 2.20 to 28.48 mm (15.08 ± 4.08 mm). Recruitment occurred more intensely from January to March. Total (0-1,129 g m-2 ) differed seasons (rainy and dry), with highest values in the early rainy season (221.0 ± 231...
2018: PeerJ
Cinzia Barberini, Enrica Lavezzini, Daniela Zoboli, Corrado Busani
INTRODUCTION: In the past couple of years, the demand of galenic compounds has risen sharply. In order to plan the activity, our team designed and set up a database which stores all the necessary information related to drugs and ingredients. This allows our internal Galenic Laboratory to better manage the pharmaceutical prescriptions for the hospital and the outpatients, optimizing the use of raw materials. METHODS: The application is based on the interconnection of prescription-related aspects (patients' and prescriber's details and prescription information)...
February 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Doreen Richardt, Sherazade Luise Haban-Rackebrandt, Sina Stock, Michael Scharfschwerdt, Hans-Hinrich Sievers
OBJECTIVES: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a treatment strategy for degenerated aortic valve prostheses, but there is some concern regarding valve thrombosis. The optimal anticoagulation strategy for implantation of a transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis remains unclear. METHODS: Aortic root models with the Sapien-XT and S3 prostheses (sizes 23 and 26) fixed in a Perimount Magna Ease bioprosthesis (sizes 23 and 25) were constructed. The haemodynamics of the left ventricle were imitated in a proved in vitro model...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Felix Patzelt, Jean-Philippe Bouchaud
How and why stock prices move is a centuries-old question still not answered conclusively. More recently, attention shifted to higher frequencies, where trades are processed piecewise across different time scales. Here we reveal that price impact has a universal nonlinear shape for trades aggregated on any intraday scale. Its shape varies little across instruments, but drastically different master curves are obtained for order-volume and -sign impact. The scaling is largely determined by the relevant Hurst exponents...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Daqian Jiang, Wei-Qiang Chen, Xianlai Zeng, Linbin Tang
Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic organic chemical, is creating a new category of ecological and human health challenges due to unintended leakage. Effectively managing the use and leakage of BPA can benefit from an understanding of the anthropogenic BPA cycle (i.e., the size of BPA flows and stocks). In this work, we provide a dynamic analysis of the anthropogenic BPA cycle in China for 2000-2014. We find that China's BPA inflows haveconsumption has increased 10-fold since 2000, to approximately ~3 million tonnes/year...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sima Rafiei, Arman Daneshvaran, Sina Abdollahzade
CONTEXT: Shortage of physicians particularly in specialty levels is considered as an important issue in Iran health system. Thus, in an uncertain environment, long-term planning is required for health professionals as a basic priority on a national scale. AIMS: This study aimed to estimate the number of required neurosurgeons using system dynamic modeling. SETTING AND DESIGN: System dynamic modeling was applied to predict the gap between stock and number of required neurosurgeons in Iran up to 2020...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
M Thomson, A R Lyndon
Study of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta in Orkney, U.K., burns (small streams) with a common-garden sea in Scapa Flow supports the key role of nutrient availability in fresh water, independent of day length, as a determinant of smolt age, with a systematic increase in mean smolt age from 1 to 3 years related inversely to productivity. Whole catchment (8 km2 ) population budgets indicated annual smolt production of around 650 individuals from approximately 100 spawners. Egg-to-smolt survival was 0·65%, while marine survival was estimated from mark-recapture to be between 3·5 and 10%...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Xin Sun, Han Hao, Fuquan Zhao, Zongwei Liu
Lithium has been widely recognized as an essential metal for next-generation clean technologies. With the aim of identifying opportunities for improving lithium resource efficiency and security, this study establishes a long-term trade-linked material flow analysis framework to analyze lithium flow throughout the technological life cycle and across national boundaries during the 1994-2015 period. The results indicate that with broader purposes identified, global lithium production and consumption experienced rapid growth over the past decades...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Evi Wezenbeek, Tine Willems, Nele Mahieu, Martine De Muynck, Luc Vanden Bossche, Adelheid Steyaert, Dirk De Clercq, Erik Witvrouw
BACKGROUND: Several risk factors have been suggested in the development of Achilles tendinopathy, but large-scale prospective studies are limited. PURPOSE: To investigate the role of the vascular response to activity of the Achilles tendon, tendon thickness, ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) of tendon structure, and foot posture as possible risk factors in the development of Achilles tendinopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Yun-An Huang, Jan Jastorff, Jan Van den Stock, Laura Van de Vliet, Patrick Dupont, Mathieu Vandenbulcke
Psychological construction models of emotion state that emotions are variable concepts constructed by fundamental psychological processes, whereas according to basic emotion theory, emotions cannot be divided into more fundamental units and each basic emotion is represented by a unique and innate neural circuitry. In a previous study, we found evidence for the psychological construction account by showing that several brain regions were commonly activated when perceiving different emotions (i.e. a general emotion network)...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Yan Wang, Bernd Nowack
Static environmental exposure assessment models based on material flow analysis (MFA) have previously been used to estimate flows of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to the environment. However, such models do not account for changes in the system behavior over time. Dynamic MFA used in this study includes the time-dependent development of the modelling system by considering accumulation of ENMs in stocks and the environment, and the dynamic release of ENMs from nano-products. In addition, this study also included regional variations in population, waste management systems, and environmental compartments, which subsequently influence the environmental release and concentrations of ENMs...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kim Pingoud, Tommi Ekholm, Risto Sievänen, Saija Huuskonen, Jari Hynynen
This paper provides a perspective for comparing trade-offs between harvested wood flows and forest carbon stocks with different forest management regimes. A constant management regime applied to a forest area with an even age-class distribution leads to a steady state, in which the annual harvest and carbon stocks remain constant over time. As both are desirable - carbon stocks for mitigating climate change and harvests for the economic use of wood and displacing fossil fuels - an ideal strategy should be chosen from a set of management regimes that are Pareto-optimal in the sense of multi-criteria decision-making...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Cristian B Canales-Aguirre, Lisa W Seeb, James E Seeb, María I Cádiz, Selim S Musleh, Ivan Arismendi, Gonzalo Gajardo, Ricardo Galleguillos, Daniel Gomez-Uchida
Different pathways of propagation and dispersal of non-native species into new environments may have contrasting demographic and genetic impacts on established populations. Repeated introductions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to Chile in South America, initially through stocking and later through aquaculture escapes, provide a unique setting to contrast these two pathways. Using a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms, we found contrasting genetic metrics and patterns among naturalized trout in Lake Llanquihue, Chile's largest producer of salmonid smolts for nearly 50 years, and Lake Todos Los Santos (TLS), a reference lake where aquaculture has been prohibited by law...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Tim T Werner, Luca Ciacci, Gavin Mark Mudd, Barbara K Reck, Stephen Alan Northey
Indium is a specialty metal crucial for modern technology, yet potentially critical due to its by-product status in mining. Measures to reduce its criticality typically focus on improving its recycling efficiency at end-of-life. This study quantifies primary and secondary indium resources ("stocks") for Australia through a dynamic material flow analysis. It is based on detailed assessments of indium mineral resources hosted in lead-zinc and copper deposits, respective mining activities from 1844-2013, and the trade of indium-containing products from 1988-2015...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Benjamin W Abbott, Florentina Moatar, Olivier Gauthier, Ophélie Fovet, Virginie Antoine, Olivier Ragueneau
Agriculture and urbanization have disturbed three-quarters of global ice-free land surface, delivering huge amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater ecosystems. These excess nutrients degrade habitat and threaten human food and water security at a global scale. Because most catchments are either currently subjected to, or recovering from anthropogenic nutrient loading, understanding the short- and long-term responses of river nutrients to changes in land use is essential for effective management. We analyzed a never-published, 18-year time series of anthropogenic (NO3- and PO43-) and naturally derived (dissolved silica) riverine nutrients in 13 catchments recovering from agricultural pollution in western France...
December 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
S É Voskanian, M V Shabalin, A V Volkov, I Iu Kolyshev
Increased incidence of locally disseminated malignant neoplasms with invasion of major veins compels modern surgery to search for an optimal material for reconstruction of major veins. Presented herein are the results of an experimental study aimed at exploring patency and peculiarities of vitalization of grafts made of porous polytetrafluoroethylene (7th generation, 2010) manufactured by the Closed Joint Stock Company 'Research and Production Complex 'Ecoflon' (St. Petersburg, Russia) with an internal diameter measuring 4...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
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