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Stock and flow

Claire Evans, Joost Brandsma, David W Pond, Hugh J Venables, Michael P Meredith, Harry J Witte, Sharon Stammerjohn, William H Wilson, Andrew Clarke, Corina P D Brussaard
An eight year time-series in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) with an approximately weekly sampling frequency was used to elucidate changes in virioplankton abundance and their drivers in this climatically-sensitive region. Virioplankton abundances at the coastal WAP show a pronounced seasonal cycle with interannual variability in the timing and magnitude of the summer maxima. Bacterioplankton abundance is the most influential driving factor of the virioplankton, and exhibit closely coupled dynamics. Sea ice cover and duration predetermine levels of phytoplankton stock and thus, influence virioplankton by dictating the substrates available to the bacterioplankton...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Adam J Daigneault, Florian V Eppink, William G Lee
National scale initiatives are being attempted in New Zealand (NZ) to meet important environmental goals following land-use intensification over recent decades. Riparian restoration to filter agricultural spillover effects is currently the most widely practised mitigation measure but few studies have investigated the cumulative value of these practices at a national level. We use an applied economic land use model the benefits (GHG emissions, N leaching, P loss, sedimentation and biodiversity gain) and relevant costs (fencing, alternative stock water supplies, restoration planting and opportunity costs) of restoring riparian margins (5-50 m) on all streams in NZ flowing through current primary sector land...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Richard T Conant, Carlos E P Cerri, Brooke B Osborne, Keith Paustian
Grassland ecosystems cover a large portion of the Earths' surface and contain substantial amounts of soil organic carbon. Previous work has established that these soil carbon stocks are sensitive to management and land use changes - grazing, species composition, and mineral nutrient availability can lead to losses or gains of soil carbon. Because of the large annual carbon fluxes into and out of grassland systems, there has been growing interest in how changes in management might shift the net balance of these flows - stemming losses from degrading grasslands or managing systems to increase soil carbon stocks (i...
November 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Catherine Gérikas Ribeiro, Adriana Lopes Dos Santos, Dominique Marie, Vivian Helena Pellizari, Frederico Pereira Brandini, Daniel Vaulot
Pico and nanoplankton communities from the Southwest Atlantic Ocean along the Brazilian Bight are poorly described. The hydrography in this region is dominated by a complex system of layered water masses, which includes the warm and oligotrophic Tropical Water (TW), the cold and nutrient rich South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) and the Coastal Water (CW), which have highly variable properties. In order to assess how pico- and nanoplankton communities are distributed in these different water masses, we determined by flow cytometry the abundance of heterotrophic bacteria, Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and autotrophic pico and nanoeukaryotes along three transects, extending from 23°S to 31°S and 39°W to 49°W...
2016: PeerJ
Romina Henriques, Sophie von der Heyden, Marek R Lipinski, Nina du Toit, Paulus Kainge, Paulette Bloomer, Conrad A Matthee
Environmental gradients have been shown to disrupt gene flow in marine species, yet their influence in structuring populations at depth remains poorly understood. The Cape hakes (Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis) are demersal species co-occurring in the Benguela Current system, where decades of intense fishing resulted in severely depleted stocks in the past. Previous studies identified conflicting mtDNA genetic substructuring patterns and thus contrasting evolutionary trajectories for both species. Using 10 microsatellite loci, the control region of mtDNA and employing a seascape genetics approach, we investigated genetic connectivity and the impact of prolonged exploitation in the two species, which are characterized by different patterns of fishing pressure...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
N C Ferreira, R M Guereschi, C Machado, C A Lopes, A P O Nuñer
This study examined the fish communities of Peri Lagoon in southern Brazil to aid in the development of an effective management plan because the area is under threat from human activities. Sampling of fish fauna, ichthyoplankton and limnological data were compared between sites, differing by habitat type and characteristics such as depth, substratum composition and vegetation type. Results were significantly related to site, with the highest diversity and abundance recorded at shallow vegetated sites. A total of 14 fish species were recorded throughout the lagoon, with the most abundant being Hyphessobrycon luetkenii...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Laura Vila, Laura Rubio, Balasubramanyam Annangi, Alba García-Rodríguez, Ricard Marcos, Alba Hernández
The variability observed in nanoparticle (NP) dispersions can affect the reliability of the results obtained in short-term tests, and mainly in long-term experiments. In addition, obtaining a good dispersion is time-consuming and acts as a bottleneck in the development of high-throughput screening methodologies. The freezing of different aliquots from a stock dispersion would overcome such limitations, but no studies have explored the impact of freezing thawing the samples on the physico-chemical and biological properties of the nanomaterial (NM)...
December 1, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Emilia Ionela Cojoc, Carmen Postolache, Bogdan Olariu, Carl Beierkuhnlein
Habitat fragmentation is one of the most severe anthropogenic pressures exerted on ecosystem's biodiversity. Empirical studies to date focused with an overriding interest on the effects of habitat loss or habitat fragmentation per se on species richness patterns detrimental to biogeochemical processes. To account for changes in ecosystem fluxes, we investigated how anthropogenic fragmentation affects primary productivity and carbon storage in temperate mountain grasslands. A field study was conducted to assess the influence of grassland isolation on soil carbon stocks, N availability, species biomass, and plant functional groups distribution...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Leticia Sarmento Dos Muchangos, Akihiro Tokai, Atsuko Hanashima
Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014...
November 7, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Erika Magallón-Gayón, Pindaro Diaz-Jaimes, Manuel Uribe-Alcocer
The genetic homogeneity of the Monterey Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus concolor population in the Gulf of California was confirmed using nine nuclear microsatellite loci in combination with mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. Samples were collected from the upper and central Gulf areas, representing the two main biogeographical regions of the Gulf. The analyses support the existence of a single panmictic population of S. concolor inhabiting the Gulf of California which in terms of fishery management represents a single genetic stock...
2016: PeerJ
Alina Nescerecka, Frederik Hammes, Talis Juhna
The increasing use of flow cytometry (FCM) for analyses of environmental samples has resulted in a large variety of staining protocols with varying results and limited comparability. Viability assessment with FCM is in this context of particular interest because incorrect staining could severely affect the outcome/interpretation of the results. Here we propose a pipeline for the development and optimization of staining protocols for environmental samples, demonstrated with the common viability dye combination of SYBR Green I (SG) and propidium iodide (PI)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Azam Kaseb-Yazdanparast, Adel Spotin, Abbas Shahbazi, Mohammad Adibpour, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Nader Ghabouli-Mehrabani
In genetic diversity and population structure of Echinococcus granulosus, the gene flow can illustrate how the Echinococcus isolates have epidemiologically drifted among endemic neighboring countries. 51 isolates of hydatid cysts were collected from human, dog, cattle and sheep in northwest Iran, where placed co-border with Turkey. DNA samples were extracted, amplified and subjected to sequence analysis of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. As well, sequences of Echinococcus at east to the southeast regions of Turkey were retrieved from GenBank database for the cox1 gene...
October 31, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Pei-Han Liu, Pawel L Urban
Dilution is one of the common chemical procedures, which are carried out in all chemistry laboratories - to prepare standard solutions with different concentrations for assay calibration, and to reduce matrix effects while handling complex samples. Yet dilution is mostly performed manually using large-volume manual liquid-handling tools (volumetric flasks, graduated cylinders, and pipettes). Here we describe a simple continuous and automated method of diluting complex samples and stock solutions using an Arduino-based control unit...
November 1, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Kaori Toya, Tetsuya Takahashi, Yuta Fujimoto, Teppei Nishimoto, Tomomi Takasoh, Ken Sasano, Satomi Kusaka
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify how to effectively use elastic stockings. [Subjects and Methods] Ten young healthy men participated in this study. Time-averaged maximum flow velocity in the common femoral vein was measured for 20 seconds using a pulse Doppler method with a diagnostic ultrasound system under six conditions (three different positions and with and without stockings). Changes of blood flow velocity were compared. [Results] Elastic stockings did not affect the blood flow velocity in the common femoral vein...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Thomas Roth, Stella Fiedler, Sidonia Mihai, Hans Parsch
Meropenem is a β-lactam broad-spectrum antibiotic and belongs to the subgroup of carbapenems. It is primarily used in intensive care units for intravenous treatment of severe infections. To avoid bacterial resistance or toxic side effects, the determination of serum meropenem concentration is highly advisable. A simple and fast method for the quantitative determination of meropenem in human serum using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV) was developed and validated. Meropenem was determined by an isocratic HPLC using a tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer (pH 8...
October 31, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Ikuo Tsushima
The radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster in 2011 has flowed into and accumulated in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via sewer systems; this has had a negative impact on WWTPs in eastern Japan. The behavior of radioactive materials was analyzed at four WWTPs in the Tohoku and Kanto regions to elucidate the mechanism by which radioactive materials are concentrated during the sludge treatment process from July 2011 to March 2013. Furthermore, numerical simulations were conducted to study the safe handling of contaminated sewage sludge stocked temporally in WWTPs...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Helen A Hamilton, Eva Brod, Ola Hanserud, Daniel B Müller, Helge Brattebø, Trond K Haraldsen
The plant-availability of phosphorus (P) plays a central role in the ability of secondary P resources to replace mineral fertilizer. This is because secondary P plant-availability varies, often with large fractions of residual P that has no immediate fertilization effect. Therefore, if low quality secondary P fertilizers are applied, they will accumulate in soils that, in the long run, may increase the risk of P runoff and eutrophication. Substance flow analyses (SFA), used to identify potentials for improved P management, have not considered this well-known quality barrier...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Robert Schoen
Hierarchical models are characterized by having N living states connected by N - 1 rates of transfer. Demographic measures for such models can be calculated directly from counts of the number of persons in each state at two nearby points in time. Exploiting the ability of population stocks to determine the flows in hierarchical models expands the range of demographic analysis. The value of such analyses is illustrated by an application to childbearing, where the states of interest reflect the number of children a woman has born...
2016: PeerJ
Thomas Monks, David Worthington, Michael Allen, Martin Pitt, Ken Stein, Martin A James
BACKGROUND: Mathematical capacity planning methods that can take account of variations in patient complexity, admission rates and delayed discharges have long been available, but their implementation in complex pathways such as stroke care remains limited. Instead simple average based estimates are commonplace. These methods often substantially underestimate capacity requirements. We analyse the capacity requirements for acute and community stroke services in a pathway with over 630 admissions per year...
September 29, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Lisa Macintyre, Hazel Stewart, Michelle Rae
BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis is a major global health issue, responsible for thousands of deaths each year. While thrombi can form under a variety of circumstances, lack of mobility significantly increases risk and therefore non-ambulant patients are frequently fitted with anti-embolism stockings on admission to hospital, to aid blood flow, prevent pooling and thus clotting. Anti-embolism stockings are the most widely used non-invasive medical device on the market and are believed to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis by 40%...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
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