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Stock and flow

Helen A Hamilton, Eva Brod, Ola Hanserud, Daniel B Müller, Helge Brattebø, Trond K Haraldsen
The plant-availability of phosphorus (P) plays a central role in the ability of secondary P resources to replace mineral fertilizer. This is because secondary P plant-availability varies, often with large fractions of residual P that has no immediate fertilization effect. Therefore, if low quality secondary P fertilizers are applied, they will accumulate in soils that, in the long run, may increase the risk of P runoff and eutrophication. Substance flow analyses (SFA), used to identify potentials for improved P management, have not considered this well-known quality barrier...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Robert Schoen
Hierarchical models are characterized by having N living states connected by N - 1 rates of transfer. Demographic measures for such models can be calculated directly from counts of the number of persons in each state at two nearby points in time. Exploiting the ability of population stocks to determine the flows in hierarchical models expands the range of demographic analysis. The value of such analyses is illustrated by an application to childbearing, where the states of interest reflect the number of children a woman has born...
2016: PeerJ
Thomas Monks, David Worthington, Michael Allen, Martin Pitt, Ken Stein, Martin A James
BACKGROUND: Mathematical capacity planning methods that can take account of variations in patient complexity, admission rates and delayed discharges have long been available, but their implementation in complex pathways such as stroke care remains limited. Instead simple average based estimates are commonplace. These methods often substantially underestimate capacity requirements. We analyse the capacity requirements for acute and community stroke services in a pathway with over 630 admissions per year...
September 29, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Lisa Macintyre, Hazel Stewart, Michelle Rae
BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis is a major global health issue, responsible for thousands of deaths each year. While thrombi can form under a variety of circumstances, lack of mobility significantly increases risk and therefore non-ambulant patients are frequently fitted with anti-embolism stockings on admission to hospital, to aid blood flow, prevent pooling and thus clotting. Anti-embolism stockings are the most widely used non-invasive medical device on the market and are believed to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis by 40%...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Yunqian Dai, Eric Formo, Haoxuan Li, Jiajia Xue, Younan Xia
Precious metals are widely used as catalysts in industry. It is of critical importance to keep the precious metal ions leached from catalysts at a level below one part per million (ppm) in the final products and to recycle the expensive precious metals. Here we demonstrate a simple and effective method for scavenging precious metal ions from an aqueous solution and thereby reduce their concentrations down to the parts per billion (ppb) level. The key component is a filtration membrane comprised of titania (TiO2 ) nanofibers whose surface has been functionalized with a silane bearing amino or thiol group...
September 23, 2016: ChemSusChem
Lukas Egarter Vigl, Daniel Depellegrin, Paulo Pereira, Rudolf de Groot, Ulrike Tappeiner
Accounting for the spatial connectivity between the provision of ecosystem services (ES) and their beneficiaries (supply-benefit chain) is fundamental to understanding ecosystem functioning and its management. However, the interrelationships of the specific chain links within ecosystems and the actual benefits that flow from natural landscapes to surrounding land have rarely been analyzed. We present a spatially explicit model for the analysis of one cultural ecosystem service (aesthetic experience), which integrates the complete ecosystem service delivery chain for Puez-Geisler Nature Park (Italy): (1) The potential service stock (ES capacity) relies on an expert-based land use ranking matrix, (2) the actual supply (ES flow) is based on visibility properties of observation points along recreational routes, (3) the beneficiaries of the service (ES demand) are derived from socioeconomic data as a measure of the visitation rate to the recreation location, and (4) the supply-demand relationship (ES budget) addresses the spatially explicit oversupply and undersupply of ES...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Andrew Busuttil, Chung Sim Lim, Alun H Davies
Venous insufficiency following deep venous thrombosis is known as the post thrombotic syndrome. Whilst its presentation and symptoms can vary slightly between individuals, it can have a profound effect on quality of life. Symptoms range from mild limb swelling to severe intractable ulceration. A number of scoring systems have been developed to help monitor the disease progression, response to treatment as well as to classify patients for research purposes.Treatment involves a combination of therapies, including compression stockings, venous stenting for out flow obstruction and in some instances deep venous bypass...
September 15, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
I Firmansyah, M Spiller, F J de Ruijter, G J Carsjens, G Zeeman
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two essential macronutrients required in agricultural production. The major share of this production relies on chemical fertilizer that requires energy and relies on limited resources (P). Since these nutrients are lost to the environment, there is a need to shift from this linear urban metabolism to a circular metabolism in which N and P from domestic waste and wastewater are reused in agriculture. A first step to facilitate a transition to more circular urban N and P management is to understand the flows of these resources in a coupled urban-agricultural system...
September 6, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Thijmen Breeschoten, Camiel Doorenweerd, Sergei Tarasov, Alfried P Vogler
Phylogenetic relationships of dung beetles in the tribe Onthophagini, including the species-rich, cosmopolitan genus Onthophagus, were inferred using whole mitochondrial genomes. Data were generated by shotgun sequencing of mixed genomic DNA from >100 individuals on 50% of an Illumina MiSeq flow cell. Genome assembly of the mixed reads produced contigs of 74 (nearly) complete mitogenomes. The final dataset included representatives of Onthophagus from all biogeographic regions, closely related genera of Onthophagini, and the related tribes Onitini and Oniticellini...
December 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Monal M Lal, Paul C Southgate, Dean R Jerry, Cyprien Bosserelle, Kyall R Zenger
Fishery management and conservation of marine species increasingly relies on genetic data to delineate biologically relevant stock boundaries. Unfortunately for high gene flow species which may display low, but statistically significant population structure, there is no clear consensus on the level of differentiation required to resolve distinct stocks. The use of fine-scale neutral and adaptive variation, considered together with environmental data can offer additional insights to this problem. Genome-wide genetic data (4,123 SNPs), together with an independent hydrodynamic particle dispersal model were used to inform farm and fishery management in the Fijian black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera, where comprehensive fishery management is lacking, and the sustainability of exploitation uncertain...
2016: PloS One
Emin Gundogar, Murat Sari, Abdullah H Kokcam
There is a tough competition in the furniture sector like other sectors. Along with the varying product range, production system should also be renewed on a regular basis and the production costs should be kept under control. In this study, spring mattress manufacturing line of a furniture manufacturing company is analyzed. The company wants to increase its production output with new investments. The objective is to find the bottlenecks in production line in order to balance the semi-finished material flow...
2016: SpringerPlus
Min Li, Ke Zhao, Xiao-Ming Dong, Yi-Qun Zhan, Rong-Hua Yin, Xiao-Ming Yang, Chang-Yan Li
OBJECTIVE: To construct the ovexpression lentivirus vector of PPP2Cβ, the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, so as to obtain high-titer packaged lentivirus particles, and to examine the effect of PPP2Cβ on the erythroid differentiation Methods: The CDS of PPP2Cβ was cloned into the second generation of lentivirus vector FUGW, which should be used to co-transfect HEK 293T cells with the lentiviral expression vector and packaging vectors including pMD2G and pSPAX2. Lentiviruses were harvested at 36 and 48 hours after transfection...
August 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Carlos Henrique Dos A Dos Santos, Carolina S de Sá Leitão, Maria de N Paula-Silva, Vera Maria F Almeida-Val
Red-bellied piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri) are widely caught with different intensities throughout the region of Solimões-Amazonas River by local fishermen. Thus, the management of this resource is performed in the absence of any information on its genetic stock. P. nattereri is a voracious predator and widely distributed in the Neotropical region, and it is found in other regions of American continent. However, information about genetic variability and structure of wild populations of red-bellied piranha is unavailable...
June 2016: Ecology and Evolution
L Cicchelero, S Denies, H Haers, K Vanderperren, E Stock, L Van Brantegem, H de Rooster, N N Sanders
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a powerful immunostimulatory cytokine with a strong antitumoural activity. In this work, the immunological, anti-angiogenic and clinical effects of three consecutive intratumoural IL-12 electrogene therapy (EGT) treatments were evaluated in nine dogs with spontaneous cancer. In all the dogs, tumour biopsies and blood samples were taken prior, during and after the intratumoural IL-12 EGT (on days 1, 8, 35 and 1, 3, 8, 15, 35, respectively). An initial decrease in immune cells was followed by an increase above baseline 1-3 weeks after treatment initiation...
August 9, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Maxim J McKibben, E Will Kirby, Joshua Langston, Mathew C Raynor, Matthew E Nielsen, Angela B Smith, Eric M Wallen, Michael E Woods, Raj S Pruthi
OBJECTIVES: To forecast the size and composition of the urologist and urology advanced care provider (ACP; nurse practitioner, physicians' assistant) workforce over the next 20 years. METHODS: Current urologist workforce was estimated from the American Board of Urology (ABU) certification data and the 2014 American Urological Association (AUA) Census. Incoming workforce was estimated from ABU and AUA residency match data. Estimates of the ACP workforce were extracted from the 2012 AUA Physician Survey...
August 1, 2016: Urology
Joshua Britton, Colin L Raston, Gregory A Weiss
A versatile enzyme immobilization strategy for thin film continuous flow processing is reported. Here, non-covalent and glutaraldehyde bioconjugation are used to immobilize enzymes on the surfaces of borosilicate reactors. This approach requires only ng of protein per reactor tube, with the stock protein solution readily recycled to sequentially coat >10 reactors. Confining reagents to thin films during immobilization reduced the amount of protein, piranha-cleaning solution, and other reagents by ∼96%...
August 9, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Sally Donovan, Joe Pickin
All available data on asbestos consumption in Australia were collated in order to determine the most common asbestos-containing materials remaining in the built environment. The proportion of asbestos contained within each material and the types of products these materials are most commonly found in was also determined. The lifetime of these asbestos containing products was estimated in order to develop a model that projects stocks and flows of asbestos products in Australia through to the year 2100. The model is based on a Weibull distribution and was built in an excel spreadsheet to make it user-friendly and accessible...
October 2016: Waste Management & Research
Ross Coomber, Matthew Porteous, Matthew J W Hubble, Martyn J Parker
When treating a hip fracture with a total hip replacement (THR) the surgical technique may differ in a number of aspects in comparison to elective arthroplasty. The hip fracture patient is more likely to have poor bone stock secondary to osteoporosis, be older, have a greater number of co-morbidities, and have had limited peri-operative work-up. These factors lead to a higher risk of complications, morbidity and perioperative mortality. Consideration should be made to performing the THR in a laminar flow theatre, by a surgeon experienced in total hip arthroplasty, using an anterolateral approach, cementing the implant in place, using a large head size and with repair of the joint capsule...
October 2016: Injury
Paolo Espa, Maria Laura Brignoli, Giuseppe Crosa, Gaetano Gentili, Silvia Quadroni
Sediment flushing may be effective to preserve reservoir storage, but concerns arise about sustainability for downstream freshwater ecosystems. We report on the controlled flushing of approximately 110,000 tons of silt from a 120 Mm(3) reservoir on the Adda River, the main tributary of Lake Como, Italy. Technical constraints prevented flushing during high flows, and the operation had to be spread out over three consecutive years (2010-2012) and, for each year, over a rather long time span (40-50 days). To mitigate the downstream impact, the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of the evacuated water was controlled by regulating the dislodging works inside the reservoir, increasing the streamflow in the regulated tributaries, and operating an instream settling basin...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Stephanie Tamschick, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Maria Ogielska, Andreas Lehmann, Petros Lymberakis, Frauke Hoffmann, Ilka Lutz, Rudolf J Schneider, Werner Kloas, Matthias Stöck
Amphibians are undergoing a global decline. One poorly investigated reason could be the pollution of aquatic habitats by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). We tested the susceptibility to the synthetically stabilized estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in three deeply diverged anuran species, differing in sex determination systems, types of gonadogenesis and larval ecologies. To understand whether data from the amphibian model Xenopus laevis (Pipidae) are analogous and applicable to only distantly related non-model amphibians, tadpoles of X...
August 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
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