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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922870/male-mutation-bias-is-the-main-force-shaping-chromosomal-substitution-rates-in-monotreme-mammals
#1
Vivian Link, Diana Aguilar-Gómez, Ciro Ramírez-Suástegui, Laurence D Hurst, Diego Cortez
In many species, spermatogenesis involves more cell divisions than oogenesis, and the male germline, therefore, accumulates more DNA replication errors, a phenomenon known as male mutation bias. The extent of male mutation bias (α) is estimated by comparing substitution rates of the X, Y, and autosomal chromosomes, as these chromosomes spend different proportions of their time in the germlines of the two sexes. Male mutation bias has been characterized in placental and marsupial mammals as well as birds, but analyses in monotremes failed to detect any such bias...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922793/diurnal-cycling-transcription-factors-of-pineapple-revealed-by-genome-wide-annotation-and-global-transcriptomic-analysis
#2
Anupma Sharma, Ching Man Wai, Ray Ming, Qingyi Yu
Circadian clock provides fitness advantage by coordinating internal metabolic and physiological processes to external cyclic environments. Core clock components exhibit daily rhythmic changes in gene expression, and the majority of them are transcription factors (TFs) and transcription coregulators (TCs). We annotated 1,398 TFs from 67 TF families and 80 TCs from 20 TC families in pineapple, and analyzed their tissue-specific and diurnal expression patterns. Approximately 42% of TFs and 45% of TCs displayed diel rhythmic expression, including 177 TF/TCs cycling only in the nonphotosynthetic leaf tissue, 247 cycling only in the photosynthetic leaf tissue, and 201 cycling in both...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922779/targeting-the-myofibroblastic-cancer-associated-fibroblast-phenotype-through-inhibition-of-nox4
#3
Christopher J Hanley, Massimiliano Mellone, Kirsty Ford, Steve M Thirdborough, Toby Mellows, Steven J Frampton, David M Smith, Elena Harden, Cedric Szyndralewiez, Marc Bullock, Fergus Noble, Karwan A Moutasim, Emma V King, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Alex H Mirnezami, Timothy J Underwood, Christian H Ottensmeier, Gareth J Thomas
Background: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are tumor-promoting and correlate with poor survival in many cancers, which has led to their emergence as potential therapeutic targets. However, effective methods to manipulate these cells clinically have yet to be developed. Methods: CAF accumulation and prognostic significance in head and neck cancer (oral, n = 260; oropharyngeal, n = 271), and colorectal cancer (n = 56) was analyzed using immunohistochemistry...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922768/accerbatin-a-small-molecule-at-the-intersection-of-auxin-and-reactive-oxygen-species-homeostasis-with-herbicidal-properties
#4
Yuming Hu, Thomas Depaepe, Dajo Smet, Klara Hoyerova, Petr Klíma, Ann Cuypers, Sean Cutler, Dieter Buyst, Kris Morreel, Wout Boerjan, José Martins, Jan Petrášek, Filip Vandenbussche, Dominique Van Der Straeten
The volatile two-carbon hormone ethylene acts in concert with an array of signals to affect etiolated seedling development. From a chemical screen, we isolated a quinoline carboxamide designated ACCERBATIN (AEX) that exacerbates the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-induced triple response, typical for ethylene-treated seedlings in darkness. Phenotypic analyses revealed distinct AEX effects including inhibition of root hair development and shortening of the root meristem. Mutant analysis and reporter studies further suggested that AEX most probably acts in parallel to ethylene signaling...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922766/altered-accumulation-of-osa-mir171b-contributes-to-rice-stripe-virus-infection-by-regulating-disease-symptoms
#5
Aizi Tong, Quan Yuan, Shu Wang, Jiejun Peng, Yuwen Lu, Hongying Zheng, Lin Lin, Hairu Chen, Yifu Gong, Jianping Chen, Fei Yan
Viral infection affects the pattern of plant miRNA expression. It has been presumed that reduction of miR171 and several other miRNAs influences viral symptoms in plants. We here experimentally demonstrate the association of osa-miR171b with rice stripe virus (RSV) symptoms in rice. Inhibition of osa-miR171b caused stunting with reduced chlorophyll content in leaves similar to viral symptoms. Overexpression of osa-miR171b by an artificial miRNA extended vegetative growth and enhanced chlorophyll accumulation in leaves...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922763/chicory-r2r3-myb-transcription-factors-cimyb5-and-cimyb3-regulate-fructan-1-exohydrolase-expression-in-response-to-abiotic-stress-and-hormonal-cues
#6
Hongbin Wei, Hongbo Zhao, Tao Su, Anja Bausewein, Steffen Greiner, Karsten Harms, Thomas Rausch
In the biennial Cichorium intybus, inulin-type fructans accumulate in the taproot during the first year. Upon cold or drought exposure, fructans are degraded by fructan exohydrolases, affecting inulin yield and degree of polymerization. While stress-induced expression of 1-FEH genes has been thoroughly explored, the transcriptional network mediating these responses has remained unknown. In this study, several R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulators were analysed for their possible involvement in 1-FEH regulation via transient transactivation of 1-FEH target promoters and for in vivo co-expression with target genes under different stress and hormone treatments...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922762/three-myb-genes-co-regulate-the-phloem-based-defence-against-english-grain-aphid-in-wheat
#7
Yan Zhai, Ping Li, Yu Mei, Mingye Chen, Xiaochen Chen, Heng Xu, Xuan Zhou, Hansong Dong, Chunling Zhang, Weihua Jiang
Plant phloem-based defence (PBD) against phloem-feeding insects is characteristic of the sieve occlusion by phloem lectins and β-1,3-glucan callose, both of which are produced under regulation by ethylene and MYB transcription factors. Wheat PBD requires β-1,3-glucan synthase-like proteins GSL2, GSL10, and GSL12, and may also require insect-resistant mannose-binding lectins Hfr-1 and Wci-1, which can accumulate in the phloem upon aphid feeding. This study elucidates whether any of the 73 MYB genes identified previously in the common wheat Triticum aestivum genome plays a role in wheat PBD activation with regard to the GSLs and lectins...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922758/the-role-of-arabidopsis-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-genes-in-response-to-high-temperature-and-stress-combinations
#8
Junyi Zhao, Tagnon D Missihoun, Dorothea Bartels
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a family of enzymes that are involved in plant metabolism and contribute to aldehyde homeostasis to eliminate toxic aldehydes. The ALDH enzymes produce NADPH and NADH in their enzymatic reactions and thus contribute to balancing redox equivalents. Previous studies showed that Arabidopsis ALDH genes are expressed in response to high salinity, dehydration, oxidative stress, or heavy metals, suggesting important roles in environmental adaptation. However, the role of ALDH genes in high temperature and stress combinations (heat stress combined with dehydration, wounding, or salt stress) is unclear...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922757/regulation-of-ethylene-related-gene-expression-by-indole-3-acetic-acid-and-4-chloroindole-3-acetic-acid-in-relation-to-pea-fruit-and-seed-development
#9
Charitha P A Jayasinghege, Jocelyn A Ozga, Kosala D Waduthanthri, Dennis M Reinecke
In pea, the auxins 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) occur naturally; however, only 4-Cl-IAA stimulates pericarp growth and gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis, and inhibits the ethylene response in deseeded ovaries (pericarps), mimicking the presence of seeds. Expression of ovary ethylene biosynthesis genes was regulated similarly in most cases by the presence of 4-Cl-IAA or seeds. PsACS1 [which encodes an enzyme that synthesizes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)] transcript abundance was high in pericarp tissue adjacent to developing seeds following pollination...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922751/inositol-hexakis-phosphate-is-the-seasonal-phosphorus-reservoir-in-the-deciduous-woody-plant-populus-alba-l
#10
Yuko Kurita, Kei'ichi Baba, Miwa Ohnishi, Ryosuke Matsubara, Keiko Kosuge, Aya Anegawa, Chizuko Shichijo, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Yasuko Kaneko, Masahiko Hayashi, Toshinobu Suzaki, Hidehiro Fukaki, Tetsuro Mimura
Seasonal recycling of nutrients is an important strategy for deciduous perennials. Deciduous perennials maintain and expand their nutrient pools by the autumn nutrient remobilization and the subsequent winter storage throughout their long life. Phosphorus (P), one of the most important elements in living organisms, is remobilized from senescing leaves during autumn in deciduous trees. However, it remains unknown how phosphate is stored over winter. Here we show that in poplar trees (Populus alba L.), organic phosphates are accumulated in twigs from late summer to winter, and that IP6 (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis phosphate: phytic acid) is the primary storage form...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922747/allelic-variation-of-ntnramp5-associated-with-cultivar-variation-in-cadmium-accumulation-in-tobacco
#11
Zhong Tang, Hailin Cai, Jie Li, Yanling Lv, Wenwen Zhang, Fang-Jie Zhao
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a cadmium (Cd) accumulator, and smoking is a major source of Cd exposure. In the present study, we identified two tobacco cultivars with contrasting phenotypes of Cd and manganese (Mn) accumulation in both hydroponic and soil pot experiments. Physiological experiments showed that the two cultivars differed in Cd uptake, but not in Cd translocation from roots to shoots. A homolog of OsNramp5 (natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 5), NtNramp5, was isolated from both cultivars...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922628/high-frequency-electroporation-efficiency-is-under-control-of-membrane-capacitive-charging-and-voltage-potential-relaxation
#12
Vitalij Novickij, Paulius Ruzgys, Audrius Grainys, Saulius Šatkauskas
The study presents the proof of concept for a possibility to achieve a better electroporation in the MHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) region compared to the conventional low frequency protocols. The 200ns×10 pulses bursts of 10-14kV/cm have been used to permeabilize Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in a wide range (1Hz-1MHz) of PRF. The permeabilization efficiency was evaluated using fluorescent dye assay (propidium iodide) and flow cytometry. It was determined that a threshold PRF exists when the relaxation of the cell transmembrane potential is longer than the delay between the consequent pulses, which results in accumulation of the charge on the membrane...
September 14, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922487/pcr-based-detection-of-a-fumigatus-and-absence-of-azole-resistance-due-to-tr34-l98h-in-a-french-multicenter-cohort-of-137-patients-with-fungal-rhinosinusitis
#13
Florent Morio, Eric Dannaoui, Taieb Chouaki, Estelle Cateau, Olivier Malard, Pierre Bonfils, Cyril Page, Xavier Dufour, Claire Cottrel, Tamic Erwan, Rose-Anne Lavergne, Patrice Le Pape
BACKGROUND: Fungal rhinosinusitis has a worldwide distribution, comprises distinct clinical entities but is mostly due to Aspergillus among which A. fumigatus plays a major role in European countries. Although, there is accumulating evidence for the emergence of environmentally acquired-azole resistance in A. fumigatus (such as TR34 /L98H) in various clinical settings, there is few data for patients with fungal rhinosinusitis. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of A...
September 18, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922384/effects-of-salinity-and-drought-on-growth-ionic-relations-compatible-solutes-and-activation-of-antioxidant-systems-in-oleander-nerium-oleander-l
#14
Dinesh Kumar, Mohamad Al Hassan, Miguel A Naranjo, Veena Agrawal, Monica Boscaiu, Oscar Vicente
Nerium oleander is an ornamental species of high aesthetic value, grown in arid and semi-arid regions because of its drought tolerance, which is also considered as relatively resistant to salt; yet the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying oleander's stress tolerance remain largely unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, one-year-old oleander seedlings were exposed to 15 and 30 days of treatment with increasing salt concentrations, up to 800 mM NaCl, and to complete withholding of irrigation; growth parameters and biochemical markers characteristic of conserved stress-response pathways were then determined in stressed and control plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922372/reduction-of-organelle-motility-by-removal-of-potassium-and-other-solutes
#15
John W Murray, David Yin, Allan W Wolkoff
There are surprisingly few studies that describe how the composition of cell culture medium may affect the trafficking of organelles. Here we utilize time lapse multi-channel fluorescent imaging to show that short term exposure of Huh-7 cells to medium lacking potassium, sodium, or chloride strongly reduces but does not eliminate the characteristic back and forth and cell-traversing movement of fluorescent EGF (FL-EGF) containing organelles. We focused on potassium because of its relatively low abundance in media and serum and its energy requiring accumulation into cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922368/a-tree-of-life-based-on-ninety-eight-expressed-genes-conserved-across-diverse-eukaryotic-species
#16
Pawan Kumar Jayaswal, Vivek Dogra, Asheesh Shanker, Tilak Raj Sharma, Nagendra Kumar Singh
Rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies have resulted in the accumulation of large data sets in the public domain, facilitating comparative studies to provide novel insights into the evolution of life. Phylogenetic studies across the eukaryotic taxa have been reported but on the basis of a limited number of genes. Here we present a genome-wide analysis across different plant, fungal, protist, and animal species, with reference to the 36,002 expressed genes of the rice genome. Our analysis revealed 9831 genes unique to rice and 98 genes conserved across all 49 eukaryotic species analysed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922364/association-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-with-serum-level-of-cystatin-c-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Tomomi Murai, Noriko Takebe, Kan Nagasawa, Yusuke Todate, Riyuki Nakagawa, Rieko Nakano, Mari Hangai, Yutaka Hasegawa, Yoshihiko Takahashi, Kunihiro Yoshioka, Yasushi Ishigaki
OBJECTIVE: Accumulation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is considered to be a cardiovascular risk factor independent from visceral adiposity, obesity, hypertension and diabetes. We explored the parameters related to EAT accumulation, aiming to clarify the novel pathophysiological roles of EAT in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: We examined the laboratory values, including cystatinC, and surrogate markers used for evaluating atherosclerosis. EAT was measured as the sum of the adipose tissue area, obtained by plain computed tomography scans in 208 subjects with T2DM but no history of coronary artery disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922156/soluble-oligomers-require-a-ganglioside-to-trigger-neuronal-calcium-overload
#18
Roberta Cascella, Elisa Evangelisti, Alessandra Bigi, Matteo Becatti, Claudia Fiorillo, Massimo Stefani, Fabrizio Chiti, Cristina Cecchi
An altered distribution of membrane gangliosides (GM), including GM1, has recently been reported in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Moreover, amyloid-positive synaptosomes obtained from AD brains were found to contain high-density GM1 clusters, suggesting a pathological significance of GM1 increase at presynaptic neuritic terminals in AD. Here, we show that membrane GM1 specifically recruits small soluble oligomers of the 42-residue form of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42), with intracellular flux of Ca2+ ions in primary rat hippocampal neurons and in human neuroblastoma cells...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922155/phospho-tau-accumulation-and-structural-alterations-of-the-golgi-apparatus-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-p301s%C3%A2-tauopathy-mouse-model
#19
Alejandro Antón-Fernández, Jesús Merchán-Rubira, Jesús Avila, Félix Hernández, Javier DeFelipe, Alberto Muñoz
The Golgi apparatus (GA) is a highly dynamic organelle involved in the processing and sorting of cellular proteins. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), it has been shown to decrease in size and become fragmented in neocortical and hippocampal neuronal subpopulations. This fragmentation and decrease in size of the GA in AD has been related to the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. However, the involvement of other pathological factors associated with the course of the disease, such as the extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates, cannot be ruled out, since both pathologies are present in AD patients...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922151/dickkopf-3-dkk3-improves-amyloid-%C3%AE-pathology-cognitive-dysfunction-and-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Li Zhang, Caixian Sun, Yaxi Jin, Kai Gao, Xudong Shi, Wenying Qiu, Chao Ma, Lianfeng Zhang
Dysfunctional Wnt signaling is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and activation of the Wnt signaling pathway inhibits AD development. Dickkopf 3 (Dkk3) is a modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway and is physiologically expressed in the brain. The role of Dkk3 in the pathogenesis of AD has not been evaluated. In the present study, we determined that Dkk3 expression was significantly decreased in brain tissue from AD patients and the AD transgenic mouse model APPswe/PS1dE9 (AD mice). Transgenic mice with brain tissue-specific Dkk3 expression were generated or crossed with AD mice to study the effects of Dkk3 on AD...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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