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Insect innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725398/phenological-asynchrony-between-host-plant-and-gypsy-moth-reduces-insect-gut-microbiota-and-susceptibility-to-bacillus-thuringiensis
#1
Vyacheslav V Martemyanov, Irina A Belousova, Sergey V Pavlushin, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Nikita I Ershov, Tatyana Y Alikina, Marsel R Kabilov, Victor V Glupov
The phenological synchrony between the emergence of overwintering herbivorous insects and the budding of host plants is considered a crucial factor in the population dynamics of herbivores. However, the mechanisms driving the interactions between the host plant, herbivores, and their pathogens are often obscure. In the current study, an artificially induced phenological asynchrony was used to investigate how the asynchrony between silver birch Betula pendula and gypsy moth Lymantria dispar affects the immunity of the insect to bacteria, its susceptibility to the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, and the diversity in its midgut microbiota...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706521/evolution-and-function-of-thioester-containing-proteins-and-the-complement-system-in-the-innate-immune-response
#2
REVIEW
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The innate immune response is evolutionary conserved among organisms. The complement system forms an important and efficient immune defense mechanism. It consists of plasma proteins that participate in microbial detection, which ultimately results in the production of various molecules with antimicrobial activity. Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are a superfamily of secreted effector proteins. In vertebrates, certain TEPs act in the innate immune response by promoting recruitment of immune cells, phagocytosis, and direct lysis of microbial invaders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705899/a-novel-function-for-cactus-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor-to-promote-dl-nuclear-localization-and-activity-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#3
Maira Arruda Cardoso, Marcio Fontenele, Bomyi Lim, Paulo Mascarello Bisch, Stanislav Shvartsman, Helena Marcolla Araujo
The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor Cactus, resulting in a ventral-to-dorsal nuclear gradient of the NFκB effector Dorsal. Here we investigate how cactus modulates Toll signals through its effects on the Dorsal gradient and Dorsal target genes. Quantitative analysis using a series of loss and gain-of-function conditions shows that the ventral and lateral aspects of the Dorsal gradient can behave differently respective to Cactus fluctuations...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705811/proprotein-convertase-furin1-expression-in-the-drosophila-fat-body-is-essential-for-a-normal-antimicrobial-peptide-response-and-bacterial-host-defense
#4
Saara Aittomäki, Susanna Valanne, Tapio Lehtinen, Sampsa Matikainen, Tuula A Nyman, Mika Rämet, Marko Pesu
Invading pathogens provoke robust innate immune responses in Dipteran insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster In a systemic bacterial infection, a humoral response is induced in the fat body. Gram-positive bacteria trigger the Toll signaling pathway, whereas gram-negative bacterial infections are signaled via the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. We show here that the RNA interference-mediated silencing of Furin1-a member of the proprotein convertase enzyme family-specifically in the fat body, results in a reduction in the expression of antimicrobial peptides...
July 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703893/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-a-short-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#5
P-J Yang, M-Y Zhan, C Ye, X-Q Yu, X-J Rao
Peptidoglycan is the major bacterial component recognized by the insect immune system. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that recognize peptidoglycans and modulate innate immune responses. Some PGRPs retain N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Enzyme Commission number: 3.5.1.28) activity to hydrolyse bacterial peptidoglycans. Others have lost the enzymatic activity and work only as immune receptors. They are all important modulators for innate immunity. Here, we report the cloning and functional analysis of PGRP-S4, a short-form PGRP from the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori...
July 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695333/the-initial-analysis-of-a-serine-proteinase-gene-accsp10-from-apis-cerana-cerana-possible-involvement-in-pupal-development-innate-immunity-and-abiotic-stress-responses
#6
Lijun Gao, Hongfang Wang, Zhenguo Liu, Shuchang Liu, Guangdong Zhao, Baohua Xu, Xingqi Guo
Serine proteinases play important roles in innate immunity and insect development. We isolated a serine proteinase gene, designated AccSp10, from the Chinese honeybees (Apis cerana cerana). RT-qPCR and a Western blot analysis at different pupal development stages indicated that AccSp10 might be involved in melanin formation in pupae and promote pupal development. In adult workers, the expression of AccSp10 was upregulated by treatments mimicking harmful environments such as the presence of Bacillus bombysepticus, different temperatures (4, 24 and 42 °C), HgCl2, H2O2 and paraquat; the exception was treatment with VC (vitamin C), which did not upregulate AccSp10 expression...
July 11, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690026/antimicrobial-peptides-as-potential-anti-biofilm-agents-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#7
REVIEW
Pooi Yin Chung, Ramona Khanum
Bacterial resistance to commonly used drugs has become a global health problem, causing increased infection cases and mortality rate. One of the main virulence determinants in many bacterial infections is biofilm formation, which significantly increases bacterial resistance to antibiotics and innate host defence. In the search to address the chronic infections caused by biofilms, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been considered as potential alternative agents to conventional antibiotics. Although AMPs are commonly considered as the primitive mechanism of immunity and has been extensively studied in insects and non-vertebrate organisms, there is now increasing evidence that AMPs also play a crucial role in human immunity...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689727/temperature-stress-and-insect-immunity
#8
REVIEW
Iwona Wojda
This mini-review summarizes the recent knowledge concerning the role of temperature in the immune response of insects. The heat-shock is described as a common phenomenon in both homotherms and poikilotherms, and the role of heat-shock proteins in innate immunity is recalled taking into account its evolutionary aspects. Similar to homothermic animals, which show a febrile reaction to infection, poikilothermic invertebrates such as insects develop behavioural fever as part of their immune response. It can be elicited not only by the presence of the pathogen itself but also by injection of immune stimulators i...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681272/comparative-rna-sequencing-analysis-of-er-based-hsp90-functions-and-signal-pathways-in-tribolium-castaneum
#9
Wenfeng Xiong, Mengfan Zhai, Xiaojuan Yu, Luting Wei, Jinjuan Mao, Juanjuan Liu, Jia Xie, Bin Li
Tribolium castaneum, the red flour beetle, is a major agriculture pest that damages stored grains and cereal products. Heat-shock protein 90 of T. castaneum (Tchsp90) has been reported to play pivotal roles in heat stress response, development, reproduction, and life span. However, the signaling pathway of Tchsp90 remains unclear. Thus, the global transcriptome profiles between RNA interference (RNAi)-treated insects (ds-Tchsp90) and control insects of T. castaneum were investigated and compared by RNA sequencing...
July 5, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680374/the-role-of-lipids-in-development-of-allergic-responses
#10
REVIEW
Manuel Gómez Del Moral, Eduardo Martínez-Naves
Most allergic diseases are caused by activation of Th2 type immune responses resulting in the production of specific IgE against proteins found in normally harmless substances such as pollen, mites, epithelia or food. Allergenic substances are composed, in addition to proteins, of other compounds such as carbohydrates and lipids. Those lipids are able to promote the development of Th2-type responses associated with allergy. There are lipids found in pollen, milk or insect venom that are specifically recognized by CD1 restricted unconventional T lymphocytes, which can promote allergic reactions...
June 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656506/comparing-naturally-occurring-glycosylated-forms-of-proline-rich-antibacterial-peptide-drosocin
#11
Deepti S Lele, Gagandeep Kaur, Menithalaxmi Thiruvikraman, Kanwal J Kaur
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key players of innate immunity. Amongst various classes of AMPs, proline rich AMPs from insects enjoy special attention with few members of this class bearing O-glycosylation as post-translational modification. Drosocin, a 19 amino acid glycosylated AMP is a member of proline rich class, synthesized in the haemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster upon bacterial challenge. We report herein the chemical synthesis of drosocin carrying disaccharide (β-Gal(1 → 3)α-GalNAc) and comparison of its structural and functional properties with another naturally occurring monoglycosylated form of drosocin i...
June 27, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652511/properties-of-induced-antimicrobial-activity-in-musca-domestica-larvae
#12
Kiyoshi Kawasaki, Minako Andoh
Insects produce antimicrobial molecules that contribute to their innate immune responses to eliminate invading microorganisms. To explore the potential utility of these antimicrobial molecules, we focused on larvae of the house fly Musca domestica, which is an efficient processor of organic waste and a good resource of protein and oil for animal feeding. The induction of hemagglutinating activity, which is usually accompanied by activation of innate immune responses in fly larvae, was observed in the hemolymph following needle injury...
June 25, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647560/transcript-expression-bias-of-phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein-gene-in-bumblebee-bombus-lantschouensis-hymenoptera-apidae
#13
Jie Dong, Lei Han, Ye Wang, Jiaxing Huang, Jie Wu
The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family is a highly conserved group of proteins found in a wide range of organism. It plays an important role in innate immunity of insects. Little is known on the expression characteristic and function of PEBP in bees. In the current study, we cloned the pebp gene and investigated its expression profiles at different developmental stages and reproductive status from bumblebee, Bombus lantschouensis (Vogt), which is one of the most abundant pollinators for wild plants and crops in Northern China...
June 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621439/cloning-and-functional-identification-of-moricins-from-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#14
X-F Xia, Y Li, X-Q Yu, J-H Lin, S-Y Li, Q Li, M-S You
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small-molecule peptides that play crucial roles in insect innate immune responses. To better understand the function of AMPs in Plutella xylostella, one of the main pests of cruciferous vegetables, three full-length cDNAs encoding moricins were cloned from Pl. xylostella. Two variants of the moricin named PxMor2 and PxMor3 were heterologously expressed and purified. A secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism demonstrated that the two peptides adopted an α-helical structure in the membrane-like environment, but in aqueous solution, they were present in random coiled conformation...
June 16, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608866/a-small-wolbachia-protein-directly-represses-phage-lytic-cycle-genes-in-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-within-psyllids
#15
Mukesh Jain, Laura A Fleites, Dean W Gabriel
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe disease of citrus caused by an uncultured alphaproteobacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri). Two prophage genomes, SC1 and SC2, integrated in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" strain UF506 were described previously, and very similar prophages are found resident in the majority of "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" strains described worldwide. The SC1 lytic cycle is marked by upregulation of prophage late genes, including a functional holin (SC1_gp110); these late genes are activated when "Ca...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597953/a-clip-domain-serine-protease-involved-in-moulting-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-cloning-characterization-expression-patterns-and-functional-analysis
#16
H-W Liu, L-L Wang, Z Meng, X Tang, Y-S Li, Q-Y Xia, P Zhao
Clip domain serine proteases (CLIPs), characterized by one or more conserved clip domains, are essential components of extracellular signalling cascades in various biological processes, especially in innate immunity and the embryonic development of insects. Additionally, CLIPs may have additional non-immune functions in insect development. In the present study, the clip domain serine protease gene Bombyx mori serine protease 95 (BmSP95), which encodes a 527-residue protein, was cloned from the integument of B...
June 9, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556276/activation-of-aedes-aegypti-prophenoloxidase-3-and-its-role-in-the-immune-response-against-entomopathogenic-fungi
#17
Y Wang, H Jiang, Y Cheng, C An, Y Chu, A S Raikhel, Z Zou
Serine protease cascade-mediated melanization is an important innate immune response in insects and crustaceans, which involves the proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO). In this study, we investigated the role of Aedes aegypti PPO3 in antifungal immune defence. We expressed and purified recombinant PPO3 (rPPO3) in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that rPPO3 was activated by ethanol and, to a lesser extent, by cetylpyridinium chloride. In the presence of Cu(2+) , rPPO3 exhibited enzyme activity...
May 27, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545959/serpin-14-negatively-regulates-prophenoloxidase-activation-and-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#18
Saima Kausar, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Cen Qian, Baojian Zhu, Yu Sun, Yuxuan Sun, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Iram Maqsood, Chao-Liang Liu
Genes encoding proteins of serpins superfamily are widely distributed in invertebrates. In insects, serpins play important roles in regulating immune responses and other physiological processes. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of cDNA of Apserpin-14 from Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi). The Apserpin-14 gene contains 1206 bp open reading frame, encoding a predicted 401 amino acid residue protein. We expressed the recombinant Apserpin-14 protein in Escherichia coli and then purified protein was used to prepare rabbit anti-Apserpin-14 polyclonal antibodies...
May 22, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537612/proline-rich-antimicrobial-peptides-targeting-protein-synthesis
#19
Michael Graf, Mario Mardirossian, Fabian Nguyen, A Carolin Seefeldt, Gilles Guichard, Marco Scocchi, C Axel Innis, Daniel N Wilson
Covering: up to 2017The innate immune system employs a broad array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to attack invading microorganisms. While most AMPs act by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane, specific subclasses of AMPs have been identified that pass through membranes and inhibit bacterial growth by targeting fundamental intracellular processes. One such subclass is the proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) that bind to the ribosome and interfere with the process of protein synthesis. A diverse range of PrAMPs have been identified in insects, such as bees, wasps and beetles, and crustaceans, such as crabs, as well as in mammals, such as cows, sheep, goats and pigs...
May 24, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536580/memory-and-specificity-in-the-insect-immune-system-current-perspectives-and-future-challenges
#20
REVIEW
Dustin Cooper, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The immune response of a host to a pathogen is typically described as either innate or adaptive. The innate form of the immune response is conserved across all organisms, including insects. Previous and recent research has focused on the nature of the insect immune system and the results imply that the innate immune response of insects is more robust and specific than previously thought. Priming of the insect innate immune system involves the exposure of insects to dead or a sublethal dose of microbes in order to elicit an initial response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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