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Insect innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661123/pathological-and-microbiological-study-of-mortality-in-a-captive-breeding-colony-of-the-endangered-lord-howe-island-stick-insect-dryococelus-australis
#1
Christine Bayley, Christina Cheng, Michael Lynch
The authors describe pathological and microbiological features of mortalities in a captive breeding colony of Lord Howe Island stick insects ( Dryococelus australis) over a period of 18 months. There were 2 peaks of mortality in this period. In the first, insects presented dead with minimal premonitory signs of illness. In the second, affected insects were ataxic with contracted limbs and inability to climb or right themselves. Gross lesions were uncommon but included pigmented plaques on the gut and cloacal prolapse...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622318/editorial-introduction-to-the-special-issue-insect-innate-immunity-in-china
#2
EDITORIAL
Erjun Ling, Zhen Zou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621531/honeybee-apis-cerana-vitellogenin-acts-as-an-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-agent-in-the-body-and-venom
#3
Hee Geun Park, Kwang Sik Lee, Bo Yeon Kim, Hyung Joo Yoon, Yong Soo Choi, Kyung Yong Lee, Hu Wan, Jianhong Li, Byung Rae Jin
Honeybee (Apis mellifera) egg-yolk protein vitellogenin (Vg) plays roles in immunity, antioxidation, and life span beyond reproduction, but it also acts as an allergen Api m 12 in venom. Here we established antimicrobial and antioxidant roles of honeybee Vg in the body and venom. Using the cDNA encoding Vg identified from Asiatic honeybee (A. cerana) workers, recombinant A. cerana Vg (AcVg) protein of approximately 180 kDa was produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells. In A. cerana worker bees, AcVg was expressed in the fat body and venom gland and was present in the secreted venom...
April 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603552/plant-and-animal-pr1-family-members-inhibit-programmed-cell-death-and-suppress-bacterial-pathogens-in-plant-tissues
#4
James E Lincoln, Juan P Sanchez, Kristina Zumstein, David G Gilchrist
A role for programmed cell death (PCD) has been established as the basis for plant-microbe interactions. A functional plant-based cDNA library screen identified possible anti-PCD genes including one member of the PR1 family, designated P14a from tomato. Members of the PR1 family have been subject to extensive research in view of their possible role in resistance against pathogens. The PR1 family is represented in every plant species studied to date and homologs have been found in animals, fungi and insects...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590394/evolutionary-origins-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling
#5
Joseph J Brennan, Thomas D Gilmore
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane pattern recognition receptors that are best known for their roles in innate immunity for the detection of and defense against microbial pathogens. However, TLRs also have roles in many non-immune processes, most notably development. TLRs direct both immune and developmental programs by activation of downstream signaling pathways, often by activation of the NF-κB pathway. There are two primary TLR subtypes: 1) TLRs with multiple cysteine clusters in their ectodomain (mccTLRs) and 2) TLRs with a single cysteine cluster in their ectodomain (sccTLRs)...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551139/antiviral-immune-response-and-the-route-of-infection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Juan A Mondotte, Maria-Carla Saleh
The use of Drosophila as a model organism has made an important contribution to our understanding of the function and regulation of innate immunity in insects. Indeed, insects can discriminate between different types of pathogens and mount specific and effective responses. Strikingly, the same pathogen can trigger a different immune response in the same organism, depending solely on the route of infection by which the pathogen is delivered. In this review, we recapitulate what is known about antiviral responses in Drosophila, and how they are triggered depending on the route and the mode used for the virus to infect its host...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524486/in-silico-prediction-of-active-site-and-in-vitro-dnase-and-rnase-activities-of-helicoverpa-inducible-pathogenesis-related-4-protein-from-cicer-arietinum
#7
Archana Singh, Deepti Jain, Chetna Tyagi, Sujata Singh, Sumit Kumar, Indrakant K Singh
Plants are endowed with an innate immune system, which enables them to protect themselves from pest and pathogen. The participation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins is one of the most crucial events of inducible plant defense response. Herein, we report the characterization of CaHaPR-4, a Helicoverpa-inducible class II PR-4 protein from chickpea. Bioinformatic analysis of CaHaPR-4 protein indicated the presence of a signal peptide, barwin domain but it lacks the chitin-binding site/hevein domain. The recombinant CaHaPR-4 is bestowed with RNase and bivalent ion-dependent DNase activity...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453998/ctl14-a-recognition-receptor-induced-in-late-stage-larvae-modulates-anti-fungal-immunity-in-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#8
Yang Cheng, Zhe Lin, Ju-Mei Wang, Long-Sheng Xing, Guang-Hua Xiong, Zhen Zou
C-type lectin (CTL) is usually considered as pattern recognition receptors in insect innate immunity. Here we found that CTL14 of Helicoverpa armigera was only activated in the fifth instar larvae not in the second instar by entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana infection. Recombinant CTL14 protein was found to form aggregates with zymosan and B. bassiana in vitro. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that CTL14 interacted with serine proteinases (SP), serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin), prophenoloxidases (PPO) and vitellogenin (Vg) in the larval hemolymph...
February 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453967/discovery-of-anti-viral-molecules-and-their-vital-functions-in-bombyx-mori
#9
REVIEW
Peng Lü, Ye Pan, Yanhua Yang, Feifei Zhu, Chengjun Li, Qin Yao, Keping Chen
The silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori), a lepidopteran model organism, has become an important model for molecular biology researches with its genome completely sequenced. Silkworms confront different types of virus diseases, mainly including those caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), Bombyx mori densovirus type 1 (BmDNV-1), Bombyx mori bidesovirus (BmBDV) which was termed as Bombyx mori densovirus type 2 (BmDNV-2) or Bombyx mori parvo-like virus (BmPLV) before in sericulture. B. mori offers excellent models to study the molecular mechanisms of insect innate immune responses to viruses...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449856/efficient-detection-of-long-dsrna-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-using-the-dsrna-binding-domain-from-fhv-b2-protein
#10
Baptiste Monsion, Marco Incarbone, Kamal Hleibieh, Vianney Poignavent, Ahmed Ghannam, Patrice Dunoyer, Laurent Daeffler, Jens Tilsner, Christophe Ritzenthaler
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) plays essential functions in many biological processes, including the activation of innate immune responses and RNA interference. dsRNA also represents the genetic entity of some viruses and is a hallmark of infections by positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Methods for detecting dsRNA rely essentially on immunological approaches and their use is often limited to in vitro applications, although recent developments have allowed the visualization of dsRNA in vivo . Here, we report the sensitive and rapid detection of long dsRNA both in vitro and in vivo using the dsRNA binding domain of the B2 protein from Flock house virus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444943/vaccinia-virus-c9-ankyrin-repeat-f-box-protein-is-a-newly-identified-antagonist-of-the-type-i-interferon-induced-antiviral-state
#11
Ruikang Liu, Bernard Moss
Type I interferons (IFNs) induce expression of more than 300 cellular genes that provide protection against viruses and other pathogens. For survival, viruses evolved defenses to prevent the IFN response or counteract the IFN-induced antiviral state. However, because viruses and cells co-evolved, the dynamic relationship between virus and host is difficult to discern. In the present study, we demonstrated that vaccinia virus with a large deletion near the left end of the genome had a diminished ability to replicate in cells that had been pre-treated with IFNβ, suggesting that one or more of the missing 17 open reading frames (ORFs) encodes an antagonist of the IFN-induced antiviral state...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435708/intrinsic-antimicrobial-properties-of-silk-spun-by-genetically-modified-silkworm-strains
#12
Alessio Saviane, Ottavia Romoli, Andrea Bozzato, Giuliano Freddi, Chiara Cappelletti, Elena Rosini, Silvia Cappellozza, Gianluca Tettamanti, Federica Sandrelli
The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a fundamental insect for silk industry. Silk is obtained from cocoons, protective envelopes produced during pupation and composed of single raw silk filaments secreted by the insect silk glands. Currently, silk is used as a textile fibre and to produce new materials for technical and biomedical applications. To enhance the use of both fabrics and silk-based materials, great efforts to obtain silk with antimicrobial properties have been made. In particular, a convincing approach is represented by the enrichment of the textile fibre with antimicrobial peptides, the main effectors of the innate immunity...
February 12, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432955/the-evolution-function-and-mechanisms-of-action-for-plant-defensins
#13
REVIEW
Kathy Parisi, Thomas M A Shafee, Pedro Quimbar, Nicole L van der Weerden, Mark R Bleackley, Marilyn A Anderson
Plant defensins are an extensive family of small cysteine rich proteins characterised by a conserved cysteine stabilised alpha beta protein fold which resembles the structure of insect and vertebrate defensins. However, secondary structure and disulphide topology indicates two independent superfamilies of defensins with similar structures that have arisen via an extreme case of convergent evolution. Defensins from plants and insects belong to the cis-defensin superfamily whereas mammalian defensins belong to the trans-defensin superfamily...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419764/differential-regulation-of-immune-signaling-and-survival-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae-upon-steinernema-carpocapsae-nematode-infection
#14
Shruti Yadav, Sonali Gupta, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to dissect the molecular components and pathways of the innate anti-pathogen immune response. The nematode parasite Steinernema carpocapsae and its mutualistic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila form a complex that is highly pathogenic to insects, including D. melanogaster. We have used symbiotic (carrying X. nematophila) and axenic (lacking X. nematophila) nematodes to probe the regulation of genes belonging to different immune signaling pathways in D. melanogaster larvae and assess the survival response of certain mutants to these pathogens...
February 8, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396863/crystal-structure-of-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-sa-in-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae
#15
Yanjie Liu, Xiaomeng Zhao, Muhammad Naeem, Jiandong An
Peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA) is a key pattern recognition receptor in the insect innate immune system. PGRP-SA can bind to bacterial PGN and activate the Toll pathway, which triggers the expression and release of antimicrobial peptides to prevent bacterial infection. Here, we report the first structure of Apis mellifera PGRP-SA from Hymenoptera at 1.86 Å resolution. The overall architecture of Am-PGRP-SA was similar to the Drosophila PGRP-SA; however, the residues involved in PGN binding groove were not conserved, and the binding pocket was narrower...
February 2, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393944/role-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-controlling-symbiotic-bacterial-populations
#16
REVIEW
P Mergaert
Covering: up to 2018Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been known for well over three decades as crucial mediators of the innate immune response in animals and plants, where they are involved in the killing of infecting microbes. However, AMPs have now also been found to be produced by eukaryotic hosts during symbiotic interactions with bacteria. These symbiotic AMPs target the symbionts and therefore have a more subtle biological role: not eliminating the microbial symbiont population but rather keeping it in check...
February 2, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391174/dna-extracellular-traps-are-part-of-the-immune-repertoire-of-periplaneta-americana
#17
M T C Nascimento, K P Silva, M C F Garcia, M N Medeiros, E A Machado, S B Nascimento, E M Saraiva
Extracellular traps (ETs), web-like structures composed of DNA and histones, are released by innate immune cells in a wide range of organisms. ETs capture microorganisms, thereby avoiding their spread, and also concentrate antimicrobial molecules, which helps to kill microbes. Although vertebrate innate immune systems share homology with the insect immune system, ETosis have yet to be characterized in insects. Here, we report that the hemocytes of the hemimetabolous insect Periplaneta americana release ETs upon in vitro stimulation...
January 29, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378202/de-novo-assembly-of-honey-bee-rna-viral-genomes-by-tapping-into-the-innate-insect-antiviral-response-pathway
#18
Elisabeth Fung, Kelly Hill, Katja Hogendoorn, Richard V Glatz, Kathryn R Napier, Matthew I Bellgard, Roberto A Barrero
Bee pollination is critical for improving productivity of one third of all plants or plant products consumed by humans. The health of honey bees is in decline in many countries worldwide, and RNA viruses together with other biological, environmental and anthropogenic factors have been identified as the main causes. The rapid genetic variation of viruses represents a challenge for diagnosis. Thus, application of deep sequencing methods for detection and analysis of viruses has increased over the last years. In this study, we leverage from the innate Dicer-2 mediated antiviral response against viruses to reconstruct complete viral genomes using virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs)...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371147/a-small-heat-shock-protein-21-shsp21-mediates-immune-responses-in-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#19
Qiu-Ning Liu, Yu Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Xiao-Yu Zhu, Bao-Ming Ge, Chao-Feng Li, Dong Wang, Xun-Guang Bian, Li Yang, Li Chen, Ji-Wu Tian, Chun-Lin Zhou, Bo-Ping Tang
Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are conserved among insects and play an important role in the regulation of many biological processes, including temperature stress, abiotic stress, immune responses, metamorphosis, and embryo development. Antheraea pernyi is an economically valuable silk-producing moth and source of insect food containing high-quality protein. The aim of this study was to quantify expression of the ApsHSP21 gene in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) challenge...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357911/comparative-genomics-analysis-of-triatomines-reveals-common-first-line-and-inducible-immunity-related-genes-and-the-absence-of-imd-canonical-components-among-hemimetabolous-arthropods
#20
Federico Alonso Zumaya-Estrada, Jesús Martínez-Barnetche, Andrés Lavore, Rolando Rivera-Pomar, Mario Henry Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Insects operate complex humoral and cellular immune strategies to fend against invading microorganisms. The majority of these have been characterized in Drosophila and other dipterans. Information on hemipterans, including Triatominae vectors of Chagas disease remains incomplete and fractionated. RESULTS: We identified putative immune-related homologs of three Triatominae vectors of Chagas disease, Triatoma pallidipennis, T. dimidiata and T. infestans (TTTs), using comparative transcriptomics based on established immune response gene references, in conjunction with the predicted proteomes of Rhodnius prolixus, Cimex lecticularis and Acyrthosiphon pisum hemimetabolous...
January 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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