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Insect innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991164/differential-expression-profile-of-lncrnas-from-primary-human-hepatocytes-following-deet-and-fipronil-exposure
#1
Robert D Mitchell Iii, Andrew D Wallace, Ernest Hodgson, R Michael Roe
While the synthesis and use of new chemical compounds is at an all-time high, the study of their potential impact on human health is quickly falling behind, and new methods are needed to assess their impact. We chose to examine the effects of two common environmental chemicals, the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and the insecticide fluocyanobenpyrazole (fipronil), on transcript levels of long non-protein coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in primary human hepatocytes using a global RNA-Seq approach. While lncRNAs are believed to play a critical role in numerous important biological processes, many still remain uncharacterized, and their functions and modes of action remain largely unclear, especially in relation to environmental chemicals...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990217/identification-of-three-prophenoloxidase-activating-factors-ppafs-from-an-invasive-beetle-octodonta-nipae-maulik-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-and-their-roles-in-the-prophenoloxidase-activation
#2
HuaJian Zhang, BaoZhen Tang, YaPing Lin, ZhiMing Chen, XiaFang Zhang, TianLiang Ji, XiaoMei Zhang, YouMing Hou
A typical characteristic of the insect innate immune system is the activation of the serine protease cascade in the hemolymph. As being the terminal component of the extracellular serine protease cascade in the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system, proPO-activating factors (PPAFs) activated by the upstream cascade may generate active phenoloxidase, which then induces downstream melanization. In the present study, we reported three PPAFs from the nipa palm hispid beetle Octodonta nipae (Maulik) (designated as OnPPAF1, OnPPAF2, OnPPAF3)...
October 8, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972216/the-henipavirus-v-protein-is-a-prevalently-unfolded-protein-with-a-zinc-finger-domain-involved-in-binding-to-ddb1
#3
Edoardo Salladini, Vincent Delauzun, Sonia Longhi
Henipaviruses are severe human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. Beyond the P protein, the Henipavirus P gene also encodes the V protein which shares with P its N-terminal, intrinsically disordered region (PNT) and possesses a unique C-terminal domain predicted to be folded and to bind zinc (ZnFD). Henipavirus V proteins antagonize IFN signaling through PNT-mediated binding to STAT1, and several paramyxoviral V proteins promote STAT1 degradation through binding to DDB1. Structural and molecular information on Henipavirus V proteins is lacking, and their ability to interact with DDB1 has not been documented yet...
October 3, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970971/advances-in-the-study-of-nodavirus
#4
Chean Yeah Yong, Swee Keong Yeap, Abdul Rahman Omar, Wen Siang Tan
Nodaviruses are small bipartite RNA viruses which belong to the family of Nodaviridae. They are categorized into alpha-nodavirus, which infects insects, and beta-nodavirus, which infects fishes. Another distinct group of nodavirus infects shrimps and prawns, which has been proposed to be categorized as gamma-nodavirus. Our current review focuses mainly on recent studies performed on nodaviruses. Nodavirus can be transmitted vertically and horizontally. Recent outbreaks have been reported in China, Indonesia, Singapore and India, affecting the aquaculture industry...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877227/hemocyte-mediated-phagocytosis-differs-between-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-worker-castes
#5
Eva Marit Hystad, Heli Salmela, Gro Vang Amdam, Daniel Münch
Honey bees as other insects rely on the innate immune system for protection against diseases. The innate immune system includes the circulating hemocytes (immune cells) that clear pathogens from hemolymph (blood) by phagocytosis, nodulation or encapsulation. Honey bee hemocyte numbers have been linked to hemolymph levels of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin is a multifunctional protein with immune-supportive functions identified in a range of species, including the honey bee. Hemocyte numbers can increase via mitosis, and this recruitment process can be important for immune system function and maintenance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854240/the-activity-of-phenoloxidase-in-haemolymph-plasma-is-not-a-predictor-of-lymantria-dispar-resistance-to-its-baculovirus
#6
Nikita S Kasianov, Irina A Belousova, Sergey V Pavlushin, Ivan M Dubovskiy, John D Podgwaite, Vyacheslav V Martemyanov, Stanislav A Bakhvalov
Host innate immunity is one of the factors that determines the resistance of insects to their entomopathogens. In the research reported here we studied whether or not phenoloxidase (PO), a key enzyme in the melanogenesis component of humoral immunity of insects, plays a role in the protection of Lymantria dispar larvae from infection by L. dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. We studied two types of viral infection: overt and covert. The following lines of investigation were tested: i) the intravital individual estimation of baseline PO activity in haemolymph plasma followed by virus challenging; ii) the specific inhibition of PO activity in vivo by peroral treatment of infected larvae with phenylthiourea (PTU), a competitive inhibitor of PO; iii) the evaluation of PO activity in the haemolymph plasma after larval starvation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830681/cloning-and-characterization-of-an-insect-apolipoprotein-apolipophorin-ii-i-involved-in-the-host-immune-response-of-antheraea-pernyi
#7
Daihua Wen, Hao Luo, Tienan Li, Chunfu Wu, Jinghai Zhang, Xialu Wang, Rong Zhang
Apolipoproteins are protein components of lipoprotein particles, and are increasingly recognized to be functioning in the innate immune systems of both insects and mammals. Mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB) is associated with a diverse range of innate immune defenses including suppression of bacterial pathogenesis, virus toxicity neutralization, and inhibition of cytokine releases from immune cells. However, little is known about apoB homologous insect apolipophorin-II/I (apoLp-II/I) in controlling of specific pathogen-host encounters such as microbial infections...
August 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803980/humoral-immune-response-of-galleria-mellonella-after-repeated-infection-with-bacillus-thuringiensis
#8
Paulina Taszłow, Lidiia Vertyporokh, Iwona Wojda
The insect immune system relies on innate mechanisms only. However, there is an increasing number of data reporting that previous immune challenge with microbial elicitors or a low number of microorganisms can modulate susceptibility after subsequent lethal infection with the same or different pathogen. This phenomenon is called immune priming. Its biochemical and molecular mechanisms remain unravelled. Here we present that Galleria mellonella larvae that survived infection induced by intrahemocelic injection of a low dose of Bacillus thuringiensis were more resistant to re-injection of a lethal dose of the same bacteria but not other bacteria and fungi tested...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764795/participation-of-14-3-3%C3%AE%C2%B5-and-14-3-3%C3%AE-proteins-in-the-phagocytosis-component-of-cellular-immune-response-in-aedes-mosquito-cell-lines
#9
Abel Trujillo-Ocampo, Febe Elena Cázares-Raga, Rosa María Del Angel, Fernando Medina-Ramírez, Leopoldo Santos-Argumedo, Mario H Rodríguez, Fidel de la Cruz Hernández-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Better knowledge of the innate immune system of insects will improve our understanding of mosquitoes as potential vectors of diverse pathogens. The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3 protein family is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals, and at least two isoforms of 14-3-3, the ε and ζ, have been identified in insects. These proteins have been shown to participate in both humoral and cellular immune responses in Drosophila. As mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the primary vectors for arboviruses, causing several diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya fevers, cell lines derived from these mosquitoes, Aag-2 from Aedes aegypti and C6/36 HT from Aedes albopictus, are currently used to study the insect immune system...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752110/escherichia-coli-infection-of-drosophila
#10
Charles Tracy, Helmut Krämer
Following septic insults, healthy insects, just like vertebrates, mount a complex immune response to contain and destroy pathogens. The failure to efficiently clear bacterial infections in immuno-compromised fly mutants leads to higher mortality rates which provide a powerful indicator for genes with important roles in innate immunity. The following protocol is designed to reproducibly inject a known amount of non-pathogenic E. coli into otherwise sterile flies and to measure the survival of flies after infection...
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739824/epigenetic-mechanisms-regulate-innate-immunity-against-uropathogenic-and-commensal-like-escherichia-coli-in-the-surrogate-insect-model-galleria-mellonella
#11
Miriam Heitmueller, André Billion, Ulrich Dobrindt, Andreas Vilcinskas, Krishnendu Mukherjee
Innate-immunity-related genes in humans are activated during urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli but are suppressed by commensals. Epigenetic mechanisms play a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. To determine whether epigenetic mechanisms can explain the different behaviors of pathogenic and commensal bacteria, we infected larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, a widely used model insect host, with a uropathogenic E...
October 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725398/phenological-asynchrony-between-host-plant-and-gypsy-moth-reduces-insect-gut-microbiota-and-susceptibility-to-bacillus-thuringiensis
#12
Vyacheslav V Martemyanov, Irina A Belousova, Sergey V Pavlushin, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Nikita I Ershov, Tatyana Y Alikina, Marsel R Kabilov, Victor V Glupov
The phenological synchrony between the emergence of overwintering herbivorous insects and the budding of host plants is considered a crucial factor in the population dynamics of herbivores. However, the mechanisms driving the interactions between the host plant, herbivores, and their pathogens are often obscure. In the current study, an artificially induced phenological asynchrony was used to investigate how the asynchrony between silver birch Betula pendula and gypsy moth Lymantria dispar affects the immunity of the insect to bacteria, its susceptibility to the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, and the diversity in its midgut microbiota...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706521/evolution-and-function-of-thioester-containing-proteins-and-the-complement-system-in-the-innate-immune-response
#13
REVIEW
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The innate immune response is evolutionary conserved among organisms. The complement system forms an important and efficient immune defense mechanism. It consists of plasma proteins that participate in microbial detection, which ultimately results in the production of various molecules with antimicrobial activity. Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are a superfamily of secreted effector proteins. In vertebrates, certain TEPs act in the innate immune response by promoting recruitment of immune cells, phagocytosis, and direct lysis of microbial invaders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705899/a-novel-function-for-the-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor-cactus-in-promoting-dorsal-nuclear-localization-and-activity-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#14
Maira Arruda Cardoso, Marcio Fontenele, Bomyi Lim, Paulo Mascarello Bisch, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Helena Marcolla Araujo
The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo, Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor Cactus, resulting in a ventral-to-dorsal nuclear gradient of the NFκB effector Dorsal. Here, we investigate how cactus modulates Toll signals through its effects on the Dorsal gradient and on Dorsal target genes...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705811/proprotein-convertase-furin1-expression-in-the-drosophila-fat-body-is-essential-for-a-normal-antimicrobial-peptide-response-and-bacterial-host-defense
#15
Saara Aittomäki, Susanna Valanne, Tapio Lehtinen, Sampsa Matikainen, Tuula A Nyman, Mika Rämet, Marko Pesu
Invading pathogens provoke robust innate immune responses in Dipteran insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster In a systemic bacterial infection, a humoral response is induced in the fat body. Gram-positive bacteria trigger the Toll signaling pathway, whereas gram-negative bacterial infections are signaled via the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. We show here that the RNA interference-mediated silencing of Furin1-a member of the proprotein convertase enzyme family-specifically in the fat body, results in a reduction in the expression of antimicrobial peptides...
July 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703893/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-a-short-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#16
P-J Yang, M-Y Zhan, C Ye, X-Q Yu, X-J Rao
Peptidoglycan is the major bacterial component recognized by the insect immune system. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that recognize peptidoglycans and modulate innate immune responses. Some PGRPs retain N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Enzyme Commission number: 3.5.1.28) activity to hydrolyse bacterial peptidoglycans. Others have lost the enzymatic activity and work only as immune receptors. They are all important modulators for innate immunity. Here, we report the cloning and functional analysis of PGRP-S4, a short-form PGRP from the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori...
July 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695333/the-initial-analysis-of-a-serine-proteinase-gene-accsp10-from-apis-cerana-cerana-possible-involvement-in-pupal-development-innate-immunity-and-abiotic-stress-responses
#17
Lijun Gao, Hongfang Wang, Zhenguo Liu, Shuchang Liu, Guangdong Zhao, Baohua Xu, Xingqi Guo
Serine proteinases play important roles in innate immunity and insect development. We isolated a serine proteinase gene, designated AccSp10, from the Chinese honeybees (Apis cerana cerana). RT-qPCR and a Western blot analysis at different pupal development stages indicated that AccSp10 might be involved in melanin formation in pupae and promote pupal development. In adult workers, the expression of AccSp10 was upregulated by treatments mimicking harmful environments such as the presence of Bacillus bombysepticus, different temperatures (4, 24 and 42 °C), HgCl2, H2O2 and paraquat; the exception was treatment with VC (vitamin C), which did not upregulate AccSp10 expression...
July 11, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690026/antimicrobial-peptides-as-potential-anti-biofilm-agents-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#18
REVIEW
Pooi Yin Chung, Ramona Khanum
Bacterial resistance to commonly used drugs has become a global health problem, causing increased infection cases and mortality rate. One of the main virulence determinants in many bacterial infections is biofilm formation, which significantly increases bacterial resistance to antibiotics and innate host defence. In the search to address the chronic infections caused by biofilms, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been considered as potential alternative agents to conventional antibiotics. Although AMPs are commonly considered as the primitive mechanism of immunity and has been extensively studied in insects and non-vertebrate organisms, there is now increasing evidence that AMPs also play a crucial role in human immunity...
August 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689727/temperature-stress-and-insect-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Iwona Wojda
This mini-review summarizes the recent knowledge concerning the role of temperature in the immune response of insects. The heat-shock is described as a common phenomenon in both homotherms and poikilotherms, and the role of heat-shock proteins in innate immunity is recalled taking into account its evolutionary aspects. Similar to homothermic animals, which show a febrile reaction to infection, poikilothermic invertebrates such as insects develop behavioural fever as part of their immune response. It can be elicited not only by the presence of the pathogen itself but also by injection of immune stimulators i...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681272/comparative-rna-sequencing-analysis-of-er-based-hsp90-functions-and-signal-pathways-in-tribolium-castaneum
#20
Wenfeng Xiong, Mengfan Zhai, Xiaojuan Yu, Luting Wei, Jinjuan Mao, Juanjuan Liu, Jia Xie, Bin Li
Tribolium castaneum, the red flour beetle, is a major agriculture pest that damages stored grains and cereal products. Heat-shock protein 90 of T. castaneum (Tchsp90) has been reported to play pivotal roles in heat stress response, development, reproduction, and life span. However, the signaling pathway of Tchsp90 remains unclear. Thus, the global transcriptome profiles between RNA interference (RNAi)-treated insects (ds-Tchsp90) and control insects of T. castaneum were investigated and compared by RNA sequencing...
July 5, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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