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Insect innate immunity

Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo, Tatiane Marcuso Orsini, Ana Paula Fortes Dos Santos Thomazelli, Gabriela Alcântara Dalevedo, Admilton Gonçalves de Oliveira, Luciano Aparecido Panagio, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ricardo Sergio Almeida
Galleria mellonella is an excellent invertebrate model for the study of diseases that involve interactions with cells from the innate immune system, since they have an innate immune system capable of recognizing the pathogens. Here we present for the first time, an alternative model for an in vitro phagocytic assay using hemocytes of G. mellonella larvae to study infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. We showed that the insect phagocytic cells were able to engulf promastigotes. Furthermore, this infective form differentiated into the amastigote form inside those cells...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Tao Geng, Ding-Ding Lv, Yu-Xia Huang, Cheng-Xiang Hou, Guang-Xing Qin, Xi-Jie Guo
Innate immunity was critical in insects defensive system and able to be induced by Janus kinase / signal transducer and activator of transcription cascade transduction (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. Currently, it had been identified many JAK/STAT signaling pathway-related genes in silkworm, but little function was known on insect innate immunity. To explore the roles of JAK/STAT pathway in antifungal immune response in silkworm (Bombyx mori) against Beauveria bassiana infection, the expression patterns of B...
September 28, 2016: Gene
Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodríguez, Benjamin J Blumberg, Yuemei Dong, Simone L Sandiford, Andrew Pike, April M Clayton, George Dimopoulos
Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect mosquito survival, it renders the mosquito significantly more susceptible to Plasmodium infection through a secreted heat-stable factor...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dustin Cooper, Ioannis Eleftherianos
More than half of the described species of the phylum Nematoda are considered parasitic, making them one of the most successful groups of parasites. Nematodes are capable of inhabiting a wide variety of niches. A vast array of vertebrate animals, insects, and plants are all identified as potential hosts for nematode parasitization. To invade these hosts successfully, parasitic nematodes must be able to protect themselves from the efficiency and potency of the host immune system. Innate immunity comprises the first wave of the host immune response, and in vertebrate animals it leads to the induction of the adaptive immune response...
September 14, 2016: Pathogens
Zhenyu Cheng
Recently, we found that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type II secreted protease IV functions as a unique Arabidopsis innate immunity elicitor. The protease IV-activated pathway involves G protein signaling and raises the question of how protease elicitation leads to the activation of G protein-mediated signaling, because plants do not appear to have metazoan-like G protein-coupled receptors. Importantly, our data suggest that Arabidopsis has evolved a mechanism to detect the proteolytic activity of a pathogen-encoded protease, supporting the host-pathogen arms race model...
September 16, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
David A Meekins, Michael R Kanost, Kristin Michel
Serpins are the largest known family of serine proteinase inhibitors and perform a variety of physiological functions in arthropods. Herein, we review the field of serpins in arthropod biology, providing an overview of current knowledge and topics of interest. Serpins regulate insect innate immunity via inhibition of serine proteinase cascades that initiate immune responses such as melanization and antimicrobial peptide production. In addition, several serpins with anti-pathogen activity are expressed as acute-phase serpins in insects upon infection...
September 4, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Andrey Yu Yakovlev, Alexander P Nesin, Nina P Simonenko, Natalia A Gordya, Dmitriy V Tulin, Anastasia A Kruglikova, Sergey I Chernysh
Antimicrobial peptides accumulated in the hemolymph in response to infection are a key element of insect innate immunity. The involvement of the fat body and hemocytes in the antimicrobial peptide synthesis is widely acknowledged, although release of the peptides present in the hemolymph from the immune cells was not directly verified so far. Here, we studied the presence of antimicrobial peptides in the culture medium of fat body cells and hemocytes isolated from the blue blowfly Calliphora vicina using complex of liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and antimicrobial activity assays...
September 1, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Baojian Zhu, Hao Yu, Sen Tian, Li-Shang Dai, Yu Sun, Chao-Liang Liu
The receptor for activated C kinase (RACK) is an important scaffold protein with regulatory functions in cells. However, its role in the immune response of Antheraea pernyi to pathogen challenge remains unclear. To investigate the biological functions of RACK in the wild silkworm A. pernyi, cloning was performed and the expression patterns of the RACK gene were analyzed. Sequence analysis revealed that the RACK gene was 1120 bp containing a 960-bp open reading frame. The deduced RACK protein sequence reveals the higher identity with its homologs from other insects...
August 31, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
Marcelo L Campos, Yuki Yoshida, Ian T Major, Dalton de Oliveira Ferreira, Sarathi M Weraduwage, John E Froehlich, Brendan F Johnson, David M Kramer, Georg Jander, Thomas D Sharkey, Gregg A Howe
Plants resist infection and herbivory with innate immune responses that are often associated with reduced growth. Despite the importance of growth-defense tradeoffs in shaping plant productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems, the molecular mechanisms that link growth and immunity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that growth-defense tradeoffs mediated by the hormone jasmonate are uncoupled in an Arabidopsis mutant (jazQ phyB) lacking a quintet of Jasmonate ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors and the photoreceptor phyB...
2016: Nature Communications
Mingyue Lv, Amr Ahmed Mohamed, Liwei Zhang, Pengfei Zhang, Long Zhang
Insect defensins are effector components of the innate defense system. During infection, these peptides may play a role in the control of pathogens by providing protective antimicrobial barriers between epithelial cells and the hemocoel. The cDNAs encoding four defensins of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, designated LmDEF 1, 3-5, were identified for the first time by transcriptome-targeted analysis. Three of the members of this CSαβ defensin family, LmDEF 1, 3, and 5, were detected in locust tissues...
2016: PloS One
Ali Reza Khosravi, David J Erle
Chitin is produced in large amounts by fungi, insects, and other organisms and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Airway epithelial cells are in direct contact with environmental particles and serve as the first line of defense against inhaled allergens and pathogens. The potential contributions of airway epithelial cells to chitin-induced asthma remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that chitin directly stimulates airway epithelial cells to release cytokines that promote type 2 immune responses and to induce expression of molecules which are important in innate immune responses...
2016: PloS One
Marcio Hedil, Richard Kormelink
The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects...
2016: Viruses
Maya O Tree, Dexter R McKellar, Kristopher J Kieft, Alan M Watson, Kate D Ryman, Michael J Conway
Arboviruses are a large group of viruses that are transmitted by arthropods including ticks and mosquitoes. The global diversity of arboviruses is unknown; however, theoretical studies have estimated that over 2,000 mosquito-borne flaviviruses may exist. An increasing number of flaviviruses can only infect insect cells. We hypothesize that insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs) represent model genetic precursors to pathogenic flaviviruses, although the genetic mechanisms required for adaptation to vertebrate hosts are unclear...
October 2016: Virology
Miray Tonk, Andreas Vilcinskas
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are peptide-based effector molecules produced by the innate immune system to combat microbes. Insects produce the broadest repertoire of AMPs, and their potent antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo has promoted their development as alternatives to conventional antibiotics, in an attempt to address the threat of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Here we discuss current obstacles that hinder the therapeutic development of novel insect-derived AMPs, including potential cytotoxic, immunogenic and allergenic side effects, and the high costs of large-scale production...
July 13, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Tina Goldbach, Daniel Knappe, Christoph Reinsdorf, Thorsten Berg, Ralf Hoffmann
Recent surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance predict the beginning of the post-antibiotic era with pan-resistant bacteria even overcoming polymyxin as the last available treatment option. Thus, new substances using novel modes of antimicrobial action are urgently needed to reduce this health threat. Antimicrobial peptides are part of the innate immune system of most vertebrates and invertebrates and accepted as valid substances for antibiotic drug development efforts. Especially, short proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMP) of insect origin have been optimized for activity against Gram-negative strains...
September 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Daihua Wen, Xialu Wang, Lei Shang, Yu Huang, Tienan Li, Chunfu Wu, Rong Zhang, Jinghai Zhang
Apolipophorin-III (apoLp-III) is an exchangeable apolipoprotein found in many insect species and functions as a lipid transport vehicle. Recent studies have shown that apoLp-III is a multifunctional molecule involved in not only lipid transportation but also innate immune responses. In the present study, the pattern recognition properties of Antheraea pernyi apoLp-III were investigated. Recombinant Ap-apoLp-III was bound to different species of microbes and further study showed the rAp-apoLp-III is capable of interacting with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on the microbial cell surface...
December 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Shuang Yu, Jingjing Su, Man Xu, Kui Zhang, Hongjuan Cui
Bm04862 is a novel hemocyte-specific gene, which has been identified and cloned through the microarray data in silkworm, Bombyx mori. Initially, we successfully obtained the full-length cDNA sequence of Bm04862 via the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The sequence consists of an open reading frame (ORF) with 819 bp, which could encode 273 amino acid residues. The bioinformatics analysis predicted that Bm04862 was a transmembrane protein. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of Bm04862 was specifically detected in hemocyte and reached a peak at L4M and PP2 stage...
February 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Fan Yang, Yang Wang, Yan He, Haobo Jiang
Extracellular serine protease cascades mediate immune signaling and responses in insects. In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, nearly 30 serine proteases (SPs) and their homologs (SPHs) are cloned from hemocytes and fat body. Some of them participate in prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation and proSpätzle processing. Here we report the cDNA cloning of hemolymph protease-1b (HP1b), which is 90% identical and 95% similar to HP1a (formerly HP1). The HP1a and HP1b mRNA levels in hemocytes was down- and up-regulated after an immune challenge, respectively...
September 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
David Samuel Schneider
Effective pathogens are successful, by definition, because they can defeat our immune response. Pingen et al. (2016) in this issue of Immunity demonstrate that some mosquito-transmitted viruses depend upon a strong host immune response triggered by the innate immune response to the bite to promote dissemination through the body.
June 21, 2016: Immunity
William H Palmer, Darren J Obbard
RNA interference pathways mediate biological processes through Argonaute-family proteins, which bind small RNAs as guides to silence complementary target nucleic acids . In insects and crustaceans Argonaute-2 silences viral nucleic acids, and therefore acts as a primary effector of innate antiviral immunity. Although the function of the major Argonaute-2 domains, which are conserved across most Argonaute-family proteins, are known, many invertebrate Argonaute-2 homologs contain a glutamine-rich repeat (GRR) region of unknown function at the N-terminus ...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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