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Insect innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621439/cloning-and-functional-identification-of-moricins-from-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#1
X-F Xia, Y Li, X-Q Yu, J-H Lin, S-Y Li, Q Li, M-S You
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small-molecule peptides that play crucial roles in insect innate immune responses. To better understand the function of AMPs in Plutella xylostella, one of the main pests of cruciferous vegetables, three full-length cDNAs encoding moricins were cloned from Pl. xylostella. Two variants of the moricin named PxMor2 and PxMor3 were heterologously expressed and purified. A secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism demonstrated that the two peptides adopted an α-helical structure in the membrane-like environment, but in aqueous solution, they were present in random coiled conformation...
June 16, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608866/a-small-wolbachia-protein-directly-represses-phage-lytic-cycle-genes-in-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-within-psyllids
#2
Mukesh Jain, Laura A Fleites, Dean W Gabriel
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe disease of citrus caused by an uncultured alphaproteobacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri). Two prophage genomes, SC1 and SC2, integrated in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" strain UF506 were described previously, and very similar prophages are found resident in the majority of "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" strains described worldwide. The SC1 lytic cycle is marked by upregulation of prophage late genes, including a functional holin (SC1_gp110); these late genes are activated when "Ca...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597953/a-clip-domain-serine-protease-involved-in-moulting-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-cloning-characterization-expression-patterns-and-functional-analysis
#3
H-W Liu, L-L Wang, Z Meng, X Tang, Y-S Li, Q-Y Xia, P Zhao
Clip domain serine proteases (CLIPs), characterized by one or more conserved clip domains, are essential components of extracellular signalling cascades in various biological processes, especially in innate immunity and the embryonic development of insects. Additionally, CLIPs may have additional non-immune functions in insect development. In the present study, the clip domain serine protease gene Bombyx mori serine protease 95 (BmSP95), which encodes a 527-residue protein, was cloned from the integument of B...
June 9, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556276/activation-of-aedes-aegypti-prophenoloxidase-3-and-its-role-in-the-immune-response-against-entomopathogenic-fungi
#4
Y Wang, H Jiang, Y Cheng, C An, Y Chu, A S Raikhel, Z Zou
Serine protease cascade-mediated melanization is an important innate immune response in insects and crustaceans, which involves the proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO). In this study, we investigated the role of Aedes aegypti PPO3 in antifungal immune defence. We expressed and purified recombinant PPO3 (rPPO3) in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that rPPO3 was activated by ethanol and, to a lesser extent, by cetylpyridinium chloride. In the presence of Cu(2+) , rPPO3 exhibited enzyme activity...
May 27, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545959/serpin-14-negatively-regulates-prophenoloxidase-activation-and-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#5
Saima Kausar, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Cen Qian, Baojian Zhu, Yu Sun, Yuxuan Sun, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Iram Maqsood, Chao-Liang Liu
Genes encoding proteins of serpins superfamily are widely distributed in invertebrates. In insects, serpins play important roles in regulating immune responses and other physiological processes. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of cDNA of Apserpin-14 from Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi). The Apserpin-14 gene contains 1206 bp open reading frame, encoding a predicted 401 amino acid residue protein. We expressed the recombinant Apserpin-14 protein in Escherichia coli and then purified protein was used to prepare rabbit anti-Apserpin-14 polyclonal antibodies...
May 22, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537612/proline-rich-antimicrobial-peptides-targeting-protein-synthesis
#6
Michael Graf, Mario Mardirossian, Fabian Nguyen, A Carolin Seefeldt, Gilles Guichard, Marco Scocchi, C Axel Innis, Daniel N Wilson
Covering: up to 2017The innate immune system employs a broad array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to attack invading microorganisms. While most AMPs act by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane, specific subclasses of AMPs have been identified that pass through membranes and inhibit bacterial growth by targeting fundamental intracellular processes. One such subclass is the proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) that bind to the ribosome and interfere with the process of protein synthesis. A diverse range of PrAMPs have been identified in insects, such as bees, wasps and beetles, and crustaceans, such as crabs, as well as in mammals, such as cows, sheep, goats and pigs...
May 24, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536580/memory-and-specificity-in-the-insect-immune-system-current-perspectives-and-future-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Dustin Cooper, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The immune response of a host to a pathogen is typically described as either innate or adaptive. The innate form of the immune response is conserved across all organisms, including insects. Previous and recent research has focused on the nature of the insect immune system and the results imply that the innate immune response of insects is more robust and specific than previously thought. Priming of the insect innate immune system involves the exposure of insects to dead or a sublethal dose of microbes in order to elicit an initial response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528214/nmr-structure-conformational-dynamics-and-biological-activity-of-psdef1-defensin-from-pinus-sylvestris
#8
Bulat I Khairutdinov, Elena A Ermakova, Yuri M Yusypovych, Elena K Bessolicina, Nadezhda B Tarasova, Yana Y Toporkova, Valentina Kovaleva, Yuriy F Zuev, Irina V Nesmelova
Plants have developed a complex defense response system against pests and pathogens. Defensins, produced by plants as part of their innate immune response, form the family of small, basic, cysteine-rich proteins with activity primarily directed against fungal pathogens. In addition, plant defensins can show antibacterial activity and protease and insect amylase inhibitory activities. However, in gymnosperms, only antifungal activity of defensins has been described thus far. Here, we report antibacterial and insect α-amylase inhibition activities for defensin PsDef1 from P...
August 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497117/rna-interference-restricts-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-multiple-insect-systems
#9
Isabelle Dietrich, Stephanie Jansen, Gamou Fall, Stephan Lorenzen, Martin Rudolf, Katrin Huber, Anna Heitmann, Sabine Schicht, El Hadji Ndiaye, Mick Watson, Ilaria Castelli, Benjamin Brennan, Richard M Elliott, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Anna-Bella Failloux, Esther Schnettler, Alain Kohl, Stefanie C Becker
The emerging bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted to humans and livestock by a large number of mosquito species. RNA interference (RNAi) has been characterized as an important innate immune defense mechanism used by mosquitoes to limit replication of positive-sense RNA flaviviruses and togaviruses; however, little is known about its role against negative-strand RNA viruses such as RVFV. We show that virus-specific small RNAs are produced in infected mosquito cells, in Drosophila melanogaster cells, and, most importantly, also in RVFV vector mosquitoes...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476910/the-immune-phenotype-of-three-drosophila-leukemia-models
#10
Badrul Arefin, Martin Kunc, Robert Krautz, Ulrich Theopold
Many leukemia patients suffer from dysregulation of their immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and leading to general weakening (cachexia). Both adaptive and innate immunity are affected. The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster has an innate immune system including cells of the myeloid lineage (hemocytes). To study Drosophila immunity and physiology during leukemia we established three models by driving expression of a dominant-active version of the Ras oncogene (Ras(V12) ) alone or combined with knockdowns of tumor suppressors in Drosophila hemocytes...
May 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444590/transcripts-of-pectin-degrading-enzymes-and-isolation-of-complete-cdna-sequence-of-a-pectate-lyase-gene-induced-by-coffee-white-stem-borer-xylotrechus-quadripes-in-the-bark-tissue-of-coffea-canephora-robusta-coffee
#11
Kosaraju Bharathi, P Santosh, H L Sreenath
Of the two commercially cultivated coffee (Coffea) species, C. arabica (arabica) is highly susceptible and C. canephora (robusta) is highly resistant to the insect pest Xylotrechus quadripes (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), commonly known as coffee white stem borer (CWSB). We constructed a forward-subtracted cDNA library by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) from robusta bark tissue for profiling genes induced by CWSB infestation. Among the 265 unigenes of the SSH EST library, 7 unigenes (5 contigs and 2 singletons) matching different pectin-degrading enzymes were discovered...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433718/three-new-piscidins-from-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-phylogeny-expression-and-functional-characterization
#12
Ze-Rui Zhuang, Xiao-Dong Yang, Xia-Zi Huang, Hui-Xian Gu, Han-Yin Wei, Yi-Jun He, Li Deng
The present study reports the identification, and characterization of three new putative piscidin paralogues, ecPis-2, ecPis-3 and ecPis-4, from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNA of the three piscidins with the 207, 216, and 231 nt open reading frame encoded respectively a 68-, 71-, and 76-amino acid preprotein consisting of the predicted signal peptide, and putative mature peptide and prodomain. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that multiple piscidin paralogues in one fish species are highly diversified, the analysis suggested that the piscidins should be a family belonging to the superfamily of ancient cationic, linear, and amphipathic host defence peptides widespread across invertebrate and vertebrate taxa comprising insect cecropins and ceratotoxins, and the amphibian dermaseptins...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418029/tmcactin-plays-an-important-role-in-gram-negative-and-positive-bacterial-infection-by-regulating-expression-of-7-amp-genes-in-tenebrio-molitor
#13
Yong Hun Jo, Yu Jung Kim, Ki Beom Park, Jeong Hwan Seong, Soo Gon Kim, Soyi Park, Mi Young Noh, Yong Seok Lee, Yeon Soo Han
Cactin was originally identified as an interactor of the Drosophila IκB factor Cactus and shown to play a role in controlling embryonic polarity and regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. While subsequent studies have identified the roles for Cactin in the mammalian immune response, the immune function of Cactin in insects has not been described yet. Here, we identified a Cactin gene from the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmCactin) and characterized its functional role in innate immunity. TmCactin was highly expressed in prepupa to last instar stages, and its expression was high in the integument and Malpighian tubules of last instar larvae and adults...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410430/caste-sex-and-age-dependent-expression-of-immune-related-genes-in-a-japanese-subterranean-termite-reticulitermes-speratus
#14
Yuki Mitaka, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura
Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393684/generation-of-the-fluorescent-hmgb1-gfp-fusion-protein-in-insect-cells-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-two-mice-models
#15
Ali Anvar, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Iman Salahshourifar, Azam Bolhassani
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved protein present in the nuclei and cytoplasm of cells which has an important role as a mediator of inflammation in the extracellular environment. HMGB1 was identified as an innate adjuvant that induces immune responses against soluble antigens in vivo. In the current study, we used a baculovirus expression system for insect cells that was based on expression of HMGB1 with target gene (GFP), and purified the recombinant HMGB1-GFP fusion protein. We then demonstrated whether immunogenicity of GFP changes in the presence or absence of recombinant HMGB1 acting as an adjuvant in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice...
April 4, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386455/immune-system-stimulation-by-the-native-gut-microbiota-of-honey-bees
#16
Waldan K Kwong, Amanda L Mancenido, Nancy A Moran
Gut microbial communities can greatly affect host health by modulating the host's immune system. For many important insects, however, the relationship between the gut microbiota and immune function remains poorly understood. Here, we test whether the gut microbial symbionts of the honey bee can induce expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a crucial component of insect innate immunity. We find that bees up-regulate gene expression of the AMPs apidaecin and hymenoptaecin in gut tissue when the microbiota is present...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378380/re-evaluation-of-insect-melanogenesis-research-views-from-the-dark-side
#17
REVIEW
Miranda M A Whitten, Christopher J Coates
Melanins (eumelanin and pheomelanin) are synthesized in insects for several purposes including cuticle sclerotization and color patterning, clot formation, organogenesis, and innate immunity. Traditional views of insect immunity detail the storage of pro-phenoloxidases inside specialized blood cells (hemocytes) and their release upon recognition of foreign bodies. Activated phenoloxidases convert monophenols into reactive quinones in a two-step enzymatic reaction, and until recently, the mechanism of tyrosine hydroxylation remained a mystery...
July 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376914/suppression-of-laccase-2-severely-impairs-cuticle-tanning-and-pathogen-resistance-during-the-pupal-metamorphosis-of-anopheles-sinensis-diptera-culicidae
#18
Ming-Hui Du, Zheng-Wen Yan, You-Jin Hao, Zhen-Tian Yan, Feng-Ling Si, Bin Chen, Liang Qiao
BACKGROUND: Phenol oxidases (POs) catalyze the oxidation of dopa and dopamine to melanin, which is crucial for cuticle formation and innate immune maintenance in insects. Although, Laccase 2, a member of the PO family, has been reported to be a requirement for melanin-mediated cuticle tanning in the development stages of some insects, whether it participates in cuticle construction and other physiological processes during the metamorphosis of mosquito pupae is unclear. METHODS: The association between the phenotype and the expression profile of Anopheles sinensis Laccase 2 (AsLac2) was assessed from pupation to adult eclosion...
April 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376142/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-attacins-antimicrobial-peptide-encoding-genes-from-the-desert-beetle-microdera-punctipennis-in-response-to-low-temperatures
#19
J Q Li, X Y Lu, J Ma
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute the insect innate immune defense system. AMP production is usually induced by microbes. However, mounting evidence links insect immune reaction to cold hardiness. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at characterizing two attacins, MpAtt1 and MpAtt2, from the desert beetle Microdera punctipennis in Coleoptera and investigating the expression profiles of the two genes in response to cold stress. RESULTS: Full lengths MpAtt1 and MpAtt2 cDNAs were obtained from low temperature transcriptomic data...
January 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375427/plant-immunity-unravelling-the-complexity-of-plant-responses-to-biotic-stresses
#20
Robert Neil Gerard Miller, Gabriel Sergio Costa Alves, Marie-Anne Van Sluys
Background: Plants are constantly exposed to evolving pathogens and pests, with crop losses representing a considerable threat to global food security. As pathogen evolution can overcome disease resistance that is conferred by individual plant resistance genes, an enhanced understanding of the plant immune system is necessary for the long-term development of effective disease management strategies. Current research is rapidly advancing our understanding of the plant innate immune system, with this multidisciplinary subject area reflected in the content of the 18 papers in this Special Issue...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
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