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Insect innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241953/innate-immune-responses-in-the-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#1
Xialu Wang, Haoluo, Rong Zhang
Innate immunity, the evolutionarily conserved defense system, has been extensively analyzed in insect models over recent decades. The significant progress in this area has formed our dominant conceptual framework of the innate immune system, but critical advances in other insects have had a profound impact on our insights into the mystery of innate immunity. In recent years, we focused on the immune responses in Antheraea pernyi, an important commercial silkworm species reared in China. Here, we review the immune responses of A...
December 11, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229443/immune-functions-of-insect-%C3%AE-grps-and-their-potential-application
#2
Xiang-Jun Rao, Ming-Yue Zhan, Yue-Min Pan, Su Liu, Pei-Jin Yang, Li-Ling Yang, Xiao-Qiang Yu
Insects rely completely on the innate immune system to sense the foreign bodies and to mount the immune responses. Germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors play crucial roles in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Among them, β-1,3-glucan recognition proteins (βGRPs) and gram-negative bacteria-binding proteins (GNBPs) belong to the same pattern recognition receptor family, which can recognize β-1,3-glucans. Typical insect βGRPs are comprised of a tandem carbohydrate-binding module in the N-terminal and a glucanase-like domain in the C-terminal...
December 8, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198776/insect-c-type-lectins-in-innate-immunity
#3
Xiaofeng Xia, Minsheng You, Xiang-Jun Rao, Xiao-Qiang Yu
C-type lectins (CTLs) are a family of proteins that contain characteristic modules of carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and they possess the binding activity to ligands in a calcium-dependent manner. CTLs play important roles in animal immune responses, and in insects, they are involved in opsonization, nodule formation, agglutination, encapsulation, melanization, and prophenoloxidase activation, as well as in maintaining gut microbiome homeostasis. In this review, we will summarize insect CTLs, compare the properties of insect CTLs with vertebrate CTLs, and focus mainly on the domain organization and functions of insect CTLs in innate immunity...
November 30, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193237/cloning-and-analysis-of-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-lc-and-immune-deficiency-from-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella
#4
Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiang-Jun Rao
Peptidoglycan (PGN) exists in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as a component of the cell wall. PGN is an important target to be recognized by the innate immune system of animals. PGN recognition proteins (PGRP) are responsible for recognizing PGNs. In Drosophila melanogaster, PGRP-LC and IMD (immune deficiency) are critical for activating the Imd pathway. Here, we report the cloning and analysis of PGRP-LC and IMD (PxPGRP-LC and PxIMD) from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), the insect pest of cruciferous vegetables...
November 28, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186139/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-cecropins-from-the-oxysternon-conspicillatum-neotropic-dung-beetle
#5
Lily Johanna Toro Segovia, Germán Alberto Téllez Ramírez, Diana Carolina Henao Arias, Juan David Rivera Duran, Juan Pablo Bedoya, Jhon Carlos Castaño Osorio
Dung beetles are exposed to a complex microbiological ecosystem during their life cycle. Characterization of novel host-defense peptides (HDP) is essential to understanding the host innate immune response in insects. It constitutes a promising alternative to look for new therapeutic agents against pathogenic microbes. We identified four new HDP, Oxysterlins 1, 2, 3, and 4 from the transcriptome of the Oxysternon conspicillatum dung beetle. These HDP display a highly conserved signal peptide and a mature peptide, characterized by an overall positive charge (cationic) (pI: 10...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174605/insecticidal-activity-of-the-metalloprotease-apra-occurs-through-suppression-of-host-cellular-and-humoral-immunity
#6
Seung Ah Lee, Seong Han Jang, Byung Hyun Kim, Toshio Shibata, Jinwook Yoo, Yunjin Jung, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata, Bok Luel Lee
The biochemical characterization of virulence factors from entomopathogenic bacteria is important to understand entomopathogen-insect molecular interactions. Pseudomonas entomophila is a typical entomopathogenic bacterium that harbors virulence factors against several insects. However, the molecular actions of these factors against host innate immune responses are not clearly elucidated. In this study, we observed that bean bugs (Riptortus pedestris) that were injected with P. entomophila were highly susceptible to this bacterium...
November 23, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166834/the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii-communicates-with-the-insect-host-galleria-mellonella-during-infection
#7
Krishnendu Mukherjee, Andreas Vilcinskas
Parasitic fungi are the only pathogens that can infect insect hosts directly through their proteinaceous exoskeleton. Penetration of the cuticle requires the release of fungal enzymes, including proteinases, which act as virulence factors. Insects can sense fungal infections and activate innate immune responses, including the synthesis of antifungal peptides and proteinase inhibitors that neutralize the incoming proteinases. This well-studied host response is epigenetically regulated by histone acetylation/deacetylation...
November 23, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164671/characterization-of-two-groups-of-spodoptera-exigua-h%C3%A3-bner-lepidoptera-noctuidae-c-type-lectins-and-insights-into-their-role-in-defense-against-the-densovirus-jcdv
#8
Laila Gasmi, Agata K Jakubowska, Juan Ferré, Mylène Ogliastro, Salvador Herrero
Insect innate immunity relies on numerous soluble and membrane-bound receptors, named pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), which enable the insect to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. C-type lectins are among the best-studied PRPs and constitute the most diverse family of animal lectins. Here we have characterized two groups of Spodoptera exigua C-type lectins that differ in their phylogeny, domain architecture, and expression pattern. One group includes C-type lectins with similar characteristics to other lepidopteran lectins, and a second group includes bracoviral-related lectins (bracovirus-like lectins, Se-BLLs) recently acquired by horizontal gene transfer...
November 22, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141628/gene-expression-analyses-of-the-small-intestine-of-pigs-in-the-ex-evacuation-zone-of-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant
#9
Motoko Morimoto, Ayaka Kato, Jin Kobayashi, Kei Okuda, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Yasushi Kino, Yasuyuki Abe, Tsutomu Sekine, Tomokazu Fukuda, Emiko Isogai, Manabu Fukumoto
BACKGROUND: After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, radioactive contaminants were released over a widespread area. Monitoring the biological effects of radiation exposure in animals in the ex-evacuation zone should be continued to understand the health effects of radiation exposure in humans. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of radiation by investigating whether there is any alteration in the morphology and gene expressions of immune molecules in the intestine of pigs and inobuta (wild boar and domestic pig hybrid) in the ex-evacuation zone in 2012...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131435/transgenic-characterization-of-two-silkworm-tissue-specific-promoters-in-the-haemocyte-plasmatocyte-cells
#10
K Zhang, C Li, X Weng, J Su, L Shen, G Pan, D Long, A Zhao, H Cui
Haemocytes play crucial roles in insect metabolism, metamorphosis, and innate immunity. As a model of lepidopteran insects, the silkworm is a useful model to study the functions of both haematopoiesis and haemocytes. Tissue-specific promoters are excellent tools for genetic manipulation and are widely used in fundamental biological research. Herein, two haemocyte-specific genes, Integrin β2 and Integrin β3, were confirmed. Promoter activities of Integrin β2 and Integrin β3 were evaluated by genetic manipulation...
November 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130376/the-cuticle-mutant-eca2-modifies-the-plant-defense-responses-to-biotrophic-and-necrotrophic-pathogens-and-herbivory-insects
#11
Catherine Blanc, Fania Coluccia, Floriane L'Haridon, Martha Torres, Marlene Ortiz-Berrocal, Elia Stahl, Philippe Reymond, Lukas Schreiber, Christiane Nawrath, Jean-Pierre Metraux, Mario Serrano
We isolated previously several Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with constitutive expression of the early MAMP-induced gene ATL2, named eca (expresión constitutiva de ATL2). Here we further explored the interaction of eca mutants with pest and pathogens. Of all eca mutants, eca2 was more resistant to a fungal (Botrytis cinerea) and a bacterial (Pseudomonas syringae) pathogen, as well as to a generalist herbivorous insect (Spodoptera littoralis). Permeability of the cuticle is increased in eca2; chemical characterization shows that eca2 has a significant reduction of both cuticular wax and cutin...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130369/from-moths-to-caterpillars-ideal-conditions-for-galleria-mellonella-rearing-for-in-vivo-microbiological-studies
#12
Adeline L Jorjão, Luciane D Oliveira, Liliana Scorzoni, Lívia Mara A Figueiredo-Godoi, Marcia Cristina A Prata, Antonio Olavo C Jorge, Juliana C Junqueira
Galleria mellonella is a well-accepted insect model for the study of pathogen-host interactions and antimicrobial compounds. The main advantages of this model include the low cost of maintenance, the fast life cycle, the possibility of using a large number of caterpillars and the innate immune system, which is evolutionarily conserved relative to mammals. Because of these advantages, different research groups have been working to implement the rearing of G. mellonella in laboratory conditions. This protocol describes our experience in the rearing of G...
November 13, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128494/the-shrimp-hormone-receptor-acts-as-an-anti-apoptosis-and-anti-inflammatory-factor-in-innate-immunity
#13
Zhi Wang, Baozhen Sun, Fei Zhu
Previously, we found that the expression of several genes, including HR, varied in Drosophila melanogaster after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this present study, we further investigated the role of HR in Kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus and determined its anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation role in the innate immune system. We successfully identified a partial sequence (866 bp in length) of the M. japonicus hormone receptor ligand binding domain (mjHR_LBD/mjHR). The 5' end of mjHR was successfully obtained; the open reading frame (ORF) ran from 33 to 701 bp, and encoded a protein containing 222 amino acids...
November 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122853/genome-wide-screen-for-saccharomyces-cerevisiae%C3%A2-genes-contributing-to-opportunistic-pathogenicity-in-an-invertebrate-model-host
#14
Sujal S Phadke, Calum J Maclean, Serena Y Zhao, Emmi A Mueller, Lucas A Michelotti, Kaitlyn L Norman, Anuj Kumar, Timothy Y James
Environmental opportunistic pathogens can exploit vulnerable hosts through expression of traits selected for in their natural environments. Pathogenicity is a complicated trait underpinned by multiple complex traits, such as thermotolerance, morphology, and stress response. The baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a species with broad environmental tolerance which has been increasingly reported as an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we leveraged the genetic resources available in yeast and a model insect species, the greater waxmoth Galleria mellonella, to provide a genome-wide analysis of pathogenicity factors...
November 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121087/the-gram-negative-sensing-receptor-pgrp-lc-contributes-to-grooming-induction-in-drosophila
#15
Aya Yanagawa, Claudine Neyen, Bruno Lemaitre, Frédéric Marion-Poll
Behavioral resistance protects insects from microbial infection. However, signals inducing insect hygiene behavior are still relatively unexplored. Our previous study demonstrated that olfactory signals from microbes enhance insect hygiene behavior, and gustatory signals even induce the behavior. In this paper, we postulated a cross-talk between behavioral resistance and innate immunity. To examine this hypothesis, we employed a previously validated behavioral test to examine the function of taste signals in inducing a grooming reflex in decapitated flies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109290/sea-anemone-model-has-a-single-toll-like-receptor-that-can-function-in-pathogen-detection-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-transduction-and-development
#16
Joseph J Brennan, Jonathan L Messerschmidt, Leah M Williams, Bryan J Matthews, Marinaliz Reynoso, Thomas D Gilmore
In organisms from insects to vertebrates, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are primary pathogen detectors that activate downstream pathways, specifically those that direct expression of innate immune effector genes. TLRs also have roles in development in many species. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a useful cnidarian model to study the origins of TLR signaling because its genome encodes a single TLR and homologs of many downstream signaling components, including the NF-κB pathway. We have characterized the single N...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093445/blood-meal-acquisition-enhances-arbovirus-replication-in-mosquitoes-through-activation-of-the-gabaergic-system
#17
Yibin Zhu, Rudian Zhang, Bei Zhang, Tongyan Zhao, Penghua Wang, Guodong Liang, Gong Cheng
Mosquitoes are hematophagous insects that carry-on and transmit many human viruses. However, little information is available regarding the common mechanisms underlying the infection of mosquitoes by these viruses. In this study, we reveal that the hematophagous nature of mosquitoes contributes to arboviral infection after a blood meal, which suppresses antiviral innate immunity by activating the GABAergic pathway. dsRNA-mediated interruption of the GABA signaling and blockage of the GABAA receptor by the specific inhibitors both significantly impaired arbovirus replication...
November 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071358/tracing-the-evolutionary-history-of-the-cap-superfamily-of-proteins-using-amino-acid-sequence-homology-and-conservation-of-splice-sites
#18
Anup Abraham, Douglas E Chandler
Proteins of the CAP superfamily play numerous roles in reproduction, innate immune responses, cancer biology, and venom toxicology. Here we document the breadth of the CAP (Cysteine-RIch Secretory Protein (CRISP), Antigen 5, and Pathogenesis-Related) protein superfamily and trace the major events in its evolution using amino acid sequence homology and the positions of exon/intron borders within their genes. Seldom acknowledged in the literature, we find that many of the CAP subfamilies present in mammals, where they were originally characterized, have distinct homologues in the invertebrate phyla...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066397/molecular-cloning-and-analysis-of-pgrp-l1-and-imd-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#19
Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiang-Jun Rao
Peptidoglycan is one of the major components of bacterial cell wall. The innate immune system of insects utilizes a group of peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) for the recognition of specific peptidoglycans and activating immune signaling pathways. In Drosophila melanogaster, PGRP-LC and IMD (immune deficiency) are two important signaling molecules of the IMD pathway. Here we cloned and characterized PGRP-L1 and IMD from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (BmPGRP-L1 and BmIMD). BmPGRP-L1 gene consists of five exons that encodes a polypeptide of 304 amino acids with a transmembrane region and an extracellular PGRP domain...
October 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048160/destruxin-a-induces-and-binds-hsps-in-bombyx-mori-bm12-cells
#20
Huanhuan Zhang, Weina Hu, Miaomiao Xiao, Shiyi Ou, Qiongbo Hu
Destruxin A (DA) is a cyclodepsipeptidic mycotoxin isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. It has insecticidal activity against host insect's innate immunity system, but the molecular mechanism is not yet elucidated. In our previous experiment, four HSPs (heat shock proteins, BmHSP70-3, BmHSP75, BmHSP83, and BmHSCP) were characterized from the specific protein electrophoretic bands of Bombyx mori Bm12 cell line treated with DA in the test of drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS), which implied that these HSPs might be kinds of DA-affinity proteins, or DA induces them up-regulated expression...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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