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Insect innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453998/ctl14-a-recognition-receptor-induced-in-late-stage-larvae-modulates-anti-fungal-immunity-in-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#1
Yang Cheng, Zhe Lin, Ju-Mei Wang, Long-Sheng Xing, Guang-Hua Xiong, Zhen Zou
C-type lectin (CTL) is usually considered as pattern recognition receptors in insect innate immunity. Here we found that CTL14 of Helicoverpa armigera was only activated in the fifth instar larvae not in the second instar by entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana infection. Recombinant CTL14 protein was found to form aggregates with zymosan and B. bassiana in vitro. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that CTL14 interacted with serine proteinases (SP), serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin), prophenoloxidases (PPO) and vitellogenin (Vg) in the larval hemolymph...
February 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453967/discovery-of-anti-viral-molecules-and-their-vital-functions-in-bombyx-mori
#2
REVIEW
Peng Lü, Ye Pan, Yanhua Yang, Feifei Zhu, Chengjun Li, Qin Yao, Keping Chen
The silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori), a lepidopteran model organism, has become an important model for molecular biology researches with its genome completely sequenced. Silkworms confront different types of virus diseases, mainly including those caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), Bombyx mori densovirus type 1 (BmDNV-1), Bombyx mori bidesovirus (BmBDV) which was termed as Bombyx mori densovirus type 2 (BmDNV-2) or Bombyx mori parvo-like virus (BmPLV) before in sericulture. B. mori offers excellent models to study the molecular mechanisms of insect innate immune responses to viruses...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449856/efficient-detection-of-long-dsrna-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-using-the-dsrna-binding-domain-from-fhv-b2-protein
#3
Baptiste Monsion, Marco Incarbone, Kamal Hleibieh, Vianney Poignavent, Ahmed Ghannam, Patrice Dunoyer, Laurent Daeffler, Jens Tilsner, Christophe Ritzenthaler
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) plays essential functions in many biological processes, including the activation of innate immune responses and RNA interference. dsRNA also represents the genetic entity of some viruses and is a hallmark of infections by positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Methods for detecting dsRNA rely essentially on immunological approaches and their use is often limited to in vitro applications, although recent developments have allowed the visualization of dsRNA in vivo . Here, we report the sensitive and rapid detection of long dsRNA both in vitro and in vivo using the dsRNA binding domain of the B2 protein from Flock house virus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444943/vaccinia-virus-c9-ankyrin-repeat-f-box-protein-is-a-newly-identified-antagonist-of-the-type-i-interferon-induced-antiviral-state
#4
Ruikang Liu, Bernard Moss
Type I interferons (IFNs) induce expression of more than 300 cellular genes that provide protection against viruses and other pathogens. For survival, viruses evolved defenses to prevent the IFN response or counteract the IFN-induced antiviral state. However, because viruses and cells co-evolved, the dynamic relationship between virus and host is difficult to discern. In the present study, we demonstrated that vaccinia virus with a large deletion near the left end of the genome had a diminished ability to replicate in cells that had been pre-treated with IFNβ, suggesting that one or more of the missing 17 open reading frames (ORFs) encodes an antagonist of the IFN-induced antiviral state...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435708/intrinsic-antimicrobial-properties-of-silk-spun-by-genetically-modified-silkworm-strains
#5
Alessio Saviane, Ottavia Romoli, Andrea Bozzato, Giuliano Freddi, Chiara Cappelletti, Elena Rosini, Silvia Cappellozza, Gianluca Tettamanti, Federica Sandrelli
The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a fundamental insect for silk industry. Silk is obtained from cocoons, protective envelopes produced during pupation and composed of single raw silk filaments secreted by the insect silk glands. Currently, silk is used as a textile fibre and to produce new materials for technical and biomedical applications. To enhance the use of both fabrics and silk-based materials, great efforts to obtain silk with antimicrobial properties have been made. In particular, a convincing approach is represented by the enrichment of the textile fibre with antimicrobial peptides, the main effectors of the innate immunity...
February 12, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432955/the-evolution-function-and-mechanisms-of-action-for-plant-defensins
#6
REVIEW
Kathy Parisi, Thomas M A Shafee, Pedro Quimbar, Nicole L van der Weerden, Mark R Bleackley, Marilyn A Anderson
Plant defensins are an extensive family of small cysteine rich proteins characterised by a conserved cysteine stabilised alpha beta protein fold which resembles the structure of insect and vertebrate defensins. However, secondary structure and disulphide topology indicates two independent superfamilies of defensins with similar structures that have arisen via an extreme case of convergent evolution. Defensins from plants and insects belong to the cis-defensin superfamily whereas mammalian defensins belong to the trans-defensin superfamily...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419764/differential-regulation-of-immune-signaling-and-survival-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae-upon-steinernema-carpocapsae-nematode-infection
#7
Shruti Yadav, Sonali Gupta, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to dissect the molecular components and pathways of the innate anti-pathogen immune response. The nematode parasite Steinernema carpocapsae and its mutualistic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila form a complex that is highly pathogenic to insects, including D. melanogaster. We have used symbiotic (carrying X. nematophila) and axenic (lacking X. nematophila) nematodes to probe the regulation of genes belonging to different immune signaling pathways in D. melanogaster larvae and assess the survival response of certain mutants to these pathogens...
February 8, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396863/crystal-structure-of-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-sa-in-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae
#8
Yanjie Liu, Xiaomeng Zhao, Muhammad Naeem, Jiandong An
Peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA) is a key pattern recognition receptor in the insect innate immune system. PGRP-SA can bind to bacterial PGN and activate the Toll pathway, which triggers the expression and release of antimicrobial peptides to prevent bacterial infection. Here, we report the first structure of Apis mellifera PGRP-SA from Hymenoptera at 1.86 Å resolution. The overall architecture of Am-PGRP-SA was similar to the Drosophila PGRP-SA; however, the residues involved in PGN binding groove were not conserved, and the binding pocket was narrower...
February 2, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393944/role-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-controlling-symbiotic-bacterial-populations
#9
REVIEW
P Mergaert
Covering: up to 2018Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been known for well over three decades as crucial mediators of the innate immune response in animals and plants, where they are involved in the killing of infecting microbes. However, AMPs have now also been found to be produced by eukaryotic hosts during symbiotic interactions with bacteria. These symbiotic AMPs target the symbionts and therefore have a more subtle biological role: not eliminating the microbial symbiont population but rather keeping it in check...
February 2, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391174/dna-extracellular-traps-are-part-of-the-immune-repertoire-of-periplaneta-americana
#10
M T C Nascimento, K P Silva, M C F Garcia, M N Medeiros, E A Machado, S B Nascimento, E M Saraiva
Extracellular traps (ETs), web-like structures composed of DNA and histones, are released by innate immune cells in a wide range of organisms. ETs capture microorganisms, thereby avoiding their spread, and also concentrate antimicrobial molecules, which helps to kill microbes. Although vertebrate innate immune systems share homology with the insect immune system, ETosis have yet to be characterized in insects. Here, we report that the hemocytes of the hemimetabolous insect Periplaneta americana release ETs upon in vitro stimulation...
January 29, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378202/de-novo-assembly-of-honey-bee-rna-viral-genomes-by-tapping-into-the-innate-insect-antiviral-response-pathway
#11
Elisabeth Fung, Kelly Hill, Katja Hogendoorn, Richard V Glatz, Kathryn R Napier, Matthew I Bellgard, Roberto A Barrero
Bee pollination is critical for improving productivity of one third of all plants or plant products consumed by humans. The health of honey bees is in decline in many countries worldwide, and RNA viruses together with other biological, environmental and anthropogenic factors have been identified as the main causes. The rapid genetic variation of viruses represents a challenge for diagnosis. Thus, application of deep sequencing methods for detection and analysis of viruses has increased over the last years. In this study, we leverage from the innate Dicer-2 mediated antiviral response against viruses to reconstruct complete viral genomes using virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs)...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371147/a-small-heat-shock-protein-21-shsp21-mediates-immune-responses-in-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#12
Qiu-Ning Liu, Yu Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Xiao-Yu Zhu, Bao-Ming Ge, Chao-Feng Li, Dong Wang, Xun-Guang Bian, Li Yang, Li Chen, Ji-Wu Tian, Chun-Lin Zhou, Bo-Ping Tang
Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are conserved among insects and play an important role in the regulation of many biological processes, including temperature stress, abiotic stress, immune responses, metamorphosis, and embryo development. Antheraea pernyi is an economically valuable silk-producing moth and source of insect food containing high-quality protein. The aim of this study was to quantify expression of the ApsHSP21 gene in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) challenge...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357911/comparative-genomics-analysis-of-triatomines-reveals-common-first-line-and-inducible-immunity-related-genes-and-the-absence-of-imd-canonical-components-among-hemimetabolous-arthropods
#13
Federico Alonso Zumaya-Estrada, Jesús Martínez-Barnetche, Andrés Lavore, Rolando Rivera-Pomar, Mario Henry Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Insects operate complex humoral and cellular immune strategies to fend against invading microorganisms. The majority of these have been characterized in Drosophila and other dipterans. Information on hemipterans, including Triatominae vectors of Chagas disease remains incomplete and fractionated. RESULTS: We identified putative immune-related homologs of three Triatominae vectors of Chagas disease, Triatoma pallidipennis, T. dimidiata and T. infestans (TTTs), using comparative transcriptomics based on established immune response gene references, in conjunction with the predicted proteomes of Rhodnius prolixus, Cimex lecticularis and Acyrthosiphon pisum hemimetabolous...
January 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355579/interaction-of-entomopathogenic-fungi-with-the-host-immune-system
#14
Shuang Qu, Sibao Wang
Entomopathogenic fungi can invade wide range of insect hosts in the natural world and have been used as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides for pest control. Studies of host-pathogen interactions provide valuable insights into the coevolutionay arms race between fungal pathogens and their hosts. Entomopathogenic fungi have evolved a series of sophisticated strategies to counter insect immune defenses. In response to fungal infection, insect hosts rely on behavior avoidance and innate defenses in the fight against invading pathogens, including the use of physical barriers and innate immune responses...
January 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325093/a-comprehensive-caenorhabditis-elegans-n-glycan-shotgun-array
#15
Ewa Jankowska, Lisa M Parsons, Xuezheng Song, Dave F Smith, Richard D Cummings, John F Cipollo
Here we present a Caenorhabditis elegans N-glycan shotgun array. This nematode serves as a model organism for many areas of biology including but not limited to tissue development, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, and genetics. C. elegans N-glycans contain structural motifs that are also found in other nematodes as well as trematodes and lepidopteran species. Glycan binding toxins that interact with C. elegans glycoconjugates also do so with some agriculturally relevant species, such as Haemonchus contortus, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichoplusia ni...
January 9, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324042/mosquito-immunobiology-the-intersection-of-vector-health-and-vector-competence
#16
Lyric C Bartholomay, Kristin Michel
As holometabolous insects that occupy distinct aquatic and terrestrial environments in larval and adult stages and utilize hematophagy for nutrient acquisition, mosquitoes are subjected to a wide variety of symbiotic interactions. Indeed, mosquitoes play host to endosymbiotic, entomopathogenic, and mosquito-borne organisms, including protozoa, viruses, bacteria, fungi, fungal-like organisms, and metazoans, all of which trigger and shape innate infection-response capacity. Depending on the infection or interaction, the mosquito may employ, for example, cellular and humoral immune effectors for septic infections in the hemocoel, humoral infection responses in the midgut lumen, and RNA interference and programmed cell death for intracellular pathogens...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316276/crispr-disruption-of-tctp-gene-impaired-normal-development-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#17
Zu-Lian Liu, Jun Xu, Lin Ling, Ru Zhang, Peng Shang, Yong-Ping Huang
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved and multifunctional protein with activities ranging from cytoskeletal regulation to transcription regulation in numerous organisms. In insects, TCTP is essential for cell growth and proliferation. Recently, TCTP has been reported to affect the innate intestinal immune pathway in the Bombyx mori silkworm, a lepidopteran model insect. However, the comprehensive physiological roles of TCTP in the silkworm remain poorly understood. Here, we performed functional analysis of BmTCTP by using a binary transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromin repeats/RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases) system...
January 9, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289612/immune-responses-to-bacterial-and-fungal-infections-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#18
Kangkang Chen, Zhiqiang Lu
The silkworm Bombyx mori, an economically important insect that is usually reared indoors, is susceptible to various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and microsporidia. As with other insects, the silkworm lacks an adaptive immune system and relies solely on innate immunity to defend itself against infection. Compared to other intensively studied insects, such as the fruit fly and tobacco hornworm, the principal immune pathways in the silkworm remain unclear. In this article, we review the literature concerning silkworm immune responses to bacteria and fungi and present our perspectives on future research into silkworm immunity...
December 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286449/the-madagascar-hissing-cockroach-as-an-alternative-non-mammalian-animal-model-to-investigate-virulence-pathogenesis-and-drug-efficacy
#19
Jennifer Chua, Nathan A Fisher, Shane D Falcinelli, David DeShazer, Arthur M Friedlander
Many aspects of innate immunity are conserved between mammals and insects. An insect, the Madagascar hissing cockroach from the genus Gromphadorhina, can be utilized as an alternative animal model for the study of virulence, host-pathogen interaction, innate immune response, and drug efficacy. Details for the rearing, care and breeding of the hissing cockroach are provided. We also illustrate how it can be infected with bacteria such as the intracellular pathogens Burkholderia mallei, B. pseudomallei, and B...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283327/genetically-modified-aedes-aegypti-to-control-dengue-a-review
#20
Muhammad Qsim, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Zubair Yousaf, Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Ijaz Rasul, Namrah Noor, Azfar Hussain
Dengue is an acute infectious disease of viral etiology characterized by lymphadenopathy, leucopenia, headache, biphasic fever, pain in various parts of the body, rashes, and extreme physical weakness. It is a vector-borne disease caused by a positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Dengue inflicts a significant health, economic, and social burden on populations of endemic areas. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Vaccines against dengue viruses have been claimed to be developed, but as yet no effective treatment is available...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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