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Insect innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199361/bombyx-mori-and-aedes-aegypti-form-multi-functional-immune-complexes-that-integrate-pattern-recognition-melanization-coagulants-and-hemocyte-recruitment
#1
Dennis R Phillips, Kevin D Clark
The innate immune system of insects responds to wounding and pathogens by mobilizing multiple pathways that provide both systemic and localized protection. Key localized responses in hemolymph include melanization, coagulation, and hemocyte encapsulation, which synergistically seal wounds and envelop and destroy pathogens. To be effective, these pathways require a targeted deposition of their components to provide protection without compromising the host. Extensive research has identified a large number of the effectors that comprise these responses, but questions remain regarding their post-translational processing, function, and targeting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196471/characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-serine-protease-inhibitors-in-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-lepidoptera-plutellidae
#2
Hailan Lin, Xijian Lin, Jiwei Zhu, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiaofeng Xia, Fengluan Yao, Guang Yang, Minsheng You
BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in all living organisms and play significant roles in digestion, development and innate immunity. In this study, we present a genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SPI genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a major pest of cruciferous crops with global distribution and broad resistance to different types of insecticides. RESULTS: A total of 61 potential SPI genes were identified in the P...
February 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188867/bombyx-mori-serpin6-regulates-prophenoloxidase-activity-and-the-expression-of-antimicrobial-proteins
#3
Bing Li, Hai-Zhong Yu, Chong-Jun Ye, Yan Ma, Xing Li, Tao Fan, Fu-Sheng Chen, Jia-Ping Xu
Serpins are a family of serine protease inhibitors that are found widely in insects. They play an important role in insect physiological responses, such as innate immunity and development. In this study, we obtained the Bombyx mori serpin6 (BmSerpin6) sequence from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the silkworm genome database (SilkDB). Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) results showed that BmSerpin6 was expressed highly in hemocytes, the midgut, and the fat body. After challenging with Micrococcus luteus (Mi) and Serratia marcescens (Sm), the BmSerpin6 expression level was induced significantly...
February 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182745/prosystemin-overexpression-induces-transcriptional-modifications-of-defense-related-and-receptor-like-kinase-genes-and-reduces-the-susceptibility-to-cucumber-mosaic-virus-and-its-satellite-rnas-in-transgenic-tomato-plants
#4
Giovanni Bubici, Anna Vittoria Carluccio, Livia Stavolone, Fabrizio Cillo
Systemin is a plant signal peptide hormone involved in the responses to wounding and insect damage in the Solanaceae family. It works in the same signaling pathway of jasmonic acid (JA) and enhances the expression of proteinase inhibitors. With the aim of studying a role for systemin in plant antiviral responses, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) transgenic line overexpressing the prosystemin cDNA, i.e. the systemin precursor, was inoculated with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain Fny supporting either a necrogenic or a non-necrogenic satellite RNA (satRNA) variant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179567/serpin1-and-wscp-differentially-regulate-the-activity-of-the-cysteine-protease-rd21-during-plant-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#5
Sachin Rustgi, Edouard Boex-Fontvieille, Christiane Reinbothe, Diter von Wettstein, Steffen Reinbothe
Proteolytic enzymes (proteases) participate in a vast range of physiological processes, ranging from nutrient digestion to blood coagulation, thrombosis, and beyond. In plants, proteases are implicated in host recognition and pathogen infection, induced defense (immunity), and the deterrence of insect pests. Because proteases irreversibly cleave peptide bonds of protein substrates, their activity must be tightly controlled in time and space. Here, we report an example of how nature evolved alternative mechanisms to fine-tune the activity of a cysteine protease dubbed RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21)...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163013/lepidopteran-species-have-a-variety-of-defence-strategies-against-bacterial-infections
#6
Lauri Mikonranta, Franziska Dickel, Johanna Mappes, Dalial Freitak
The insect immune system has versatile ways of coping with microbial insults. Currently, innate immune priming has been described in several invertebrates, and the first insights into its mechanistic basis have been described. Here we studied infections with two different strains of Serratia marcescens bacteria in two different Lepidopteran hosts. The results reveal fundamental differences between the two hosts, a well-known model organism Galleria mellonella and a non-model species Arctia plantaginis. They differ in their strategies for resisting oral infections; priming their defences against a recurring sepsis; and upregulating immunity related genes as a response to the specific pathogen strains...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125726/a-receptor-s-tale-an-eon-in-the-life-of-a-trypanosome-receptor
#7
REVIEW
Matthew K Higgins, Harriet Lane-Serff, Paula MacGregor, Mark Carrington
African trypanosomes have complex life cycles comprising at least ten developmental forms, variously adapted to different niches in their tsetse fly vector and their mammalian hosts. Unlike many other protozoan pathogens, they are always extracellular and have evolved intricate surface coats that allow them to obtain nutrients while also protecting them from the immune defenses of either insects or mammals. The acquisition of macromolecular nutrients requires receptors that function within the context of these surface coats...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102430/innate-and-intrinsic-antiviral-immunity-in-drosophila
#8
REVIEW
Assel Mussabekova, Laurent Daeffler, Jean-Luc Imler
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been a valuable model to investigate the genetic mechanisms of innate immunity. Initially focused on the resistance to bacteria and fungi, these studies have been extended to include antiviral immunity over the last decade. Like all living organisms, insects are continually exposed to viruses and have developed efficient defense mechanisms. We review here our current understanding on antiviral host defense in fruit flies. A major antiviral defense in Drosophila is RNA interference, in particular the small interfering (si) RNA pathway...
January 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069434/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-a-tep-gene-from-a-crustacean-reveals-its-transcriptional-regulation-mediated-by-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jnk-pathways-and-its-broad-protective-roles-against-multiple-pathogens
#9
Chaozheng Li, Haoyang Li, Bang Xiao, Yonggui Chen, Sheng Wang, Kai Lǚ, Bin Yin, Sedong Li, Jianguo He
Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are present in a wide range of species from deuterostomes to protostomes and are thought to be involved in innate immunity. In the current study, a TEP gene homologous to insect TEPs (iTEP) from the crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei, named LvTEP1, is cloned and functionally characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of LvTEP1 is 4383 bp in length, encoding a polypeptide of 1460 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 161.1 kDa LvTEP1, which is most similar to other TEPs from insects, contains some conserved sequence features, including a N-terminal signal peptide, a canonical thioester (TE) motif, and a C-terminal distinctive cysteine signature...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049427/identification-of-candidate-infection-genes-from-the-model-entomopathogenic-nematode-heterorhabditis-bacteriophora
#10
Jonathan Vadnal, Ramesh Ratnappan, Melissa Keaney, Eric Kenney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M Hawdon
BACKGROUND: Despite important progress in the field of innate immunity, our understanding of host immune responses to parasitic nematode infections lags behind that of responses to microbes. A limiting factor has been the obligate requirement for a vertebrate host which has hindered investigation of the parasitic nematode infective process. The nematode parasite Heterorhabditis bacteriophora offers great potential as a model to genetically dissect the process of infection. With its mutualistic Photorhabdus luminescens bacteria, H...
January 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045942/knock-down-of-whitefly-gut-gene-expression-and-mortality-by-orally-delivered-gut-gene-specific-dsrnas
#11
Meenal Vyas, Amir Raza, Muhammad Yousaf Ali, Muhammad Aleem Ashraf, Shahid Mansoor, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Judith K Brown
Control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) agricultural pest and plant virus vector relies on the use of chemical insecticides. RNA-interference (RNAi) is a homology-dependent innate immune response in eukaryotes, including insects, which results in degradation of the corresponding transcript following its recognition by a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that shares 100% sequence homology. In this study, six whitefly 'gut' genes were selected from an in silico-annotated transcriptome library constructed from the whitefly alimentary canal or 'gut' of the B biotype of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036076/the-effects-of-destruxin-a-on-relish-and-rel-gene-regulation-to-the-suspected-immune-related-genes-of-silkworm
#12
Weina Hu, Guangwei He, Jingjing Wang, Qiongbo Hu
Destruxin A (DA), a cyclodepsipeptidic mycotoxin of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, has anti-immunity activity against insects, but the mechanism of immune regulation is not clear yet. In our previous experiment, the significant expression changes of Bm_nscaf2838_045, Bm_nscaf2674_066, and Bm_nscaf2767_133 genes in a silkworm's hemocytes were found, which suggested that these genes might be involved in insect's innate immunity. In the current experiment, the silkworm cell line Bm12 was used to survey the expression levels of these genes after the cells were treated with DA and the transcription factors BmRel, BmRelish1 and BmRelish2 were silenced by specific siRNA...
December 29, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965582/annotation-of-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-genome-reveals-a-reduced-innate-immune-system
#13
Alex P Arp, Wayne B Hunter, Kirsten S Pelz-Stelinski
Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Hemipterans characterized to date lack a number of insect immune genes, including those associated with the Imd pathway targeting Gram-negative bacteria. The D. citri draft genome was used to characterize the immune defense genes present in D...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932997/characterization-of-reproductive-dormancy-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Sören Nylin, Dick R Nässel
Insects are known to respond to seasonal and adverse environmental changes by entering dormancy, also known as diapause. In some insect species, including Drosophila melanogaster, dormancy occurs in the adult organism and postpones reproduction. This adult dormancy has been studied in female flies where it is characterized by arrested development of ovaries, altered nutrient stores, lowered metabolism, increased stress and immune resistance and drastically extended lifespan. Male dormancy, however, has not been investigated in D...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914061/probing-oligomerized-conformations-of-defensin-in-the-membrane
#15
Wenxun Gan, Dina Schneidman, Ning Zhang, Buyong Ma, Ruth Nussinov
Computational prediction and design of membrane protein-protein interactions facilitate biomedical engineering and biotechnological applications. Due to their antimicrobial activity, human defensins play an important role in the innate immune system. Human defensins are attractive pharmaceutical targets due to their small size, broad activity spectrum, reduced immunogenicity, and resistance to proteolysis. Protein engineering based modification of defensins can improve their pharmaceutical properties. Here we present an approach to computationally probe defensins' oligomerization states in the membrane...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905879/transcriptome-profiling-in-the-damselfly-ischnura-elegans-identifies-genes-with-sex-biased-expression
#16
Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Bengt Hansson
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism occurs widely across the animal kingdom and has profound effects on evolutionary trajectories. Here, we investigate sex-specific gene expression in Ischnura elegans (Odonata: dragonflies and damselflies), a species with pronounced sexual differences including a female-limited colour polymorphism with two female-like gynochrome morphs and one male-mimicking, androchrome morph. Whole-organism transcriptome profiling and sex-biased gene expression analysis was conducted on adults of both sexes (pooling all females as well as separating the three morphs) to gain insights into genes and pathways potentially associated with sexual development and sexual conflict...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897110/identification-of-tyrosine-kinase-src-responsible-for-antimicrobial-peptides-production-in-bombyx-mori
#17
Xianyang Li, Xiaoting Hua, Liang Song, Qingyou Xia, Fei Wang
Src is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase ubiquitously expressed in animals. It is involved in various cellular processes, including the innate immune response in mammals. However, less is known about the function of insect Src. Here we presented a homologue of Src in silkworm (Bombyx mori), named as BmSrc by phylogenetic analysis, homologous comparison and domain prediction. BmSrc contains the conserved phosphorylation residues and possesses tyrosine kinase activity. The expression pattern of BmSrc mRNA was specific in stages and tissues...
November 29, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889557/identification-of-a-hemolin-protein-from-actias-selene-mediates-immune-response-to-pathogens
#18
Cen Qian, Fang Wang, Baojian Zhu, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Yu Sun, Sheng Li, Chaoliang Liu
Hemolins play an important role in development and innate immunity in insects. In this study, a hemolin cDNA of 1412bp in Actias selene (As-HEM) was isolated and its open reading frames (ORFs) were 420 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis indicated As-HEM was homologous to those hemolins from other insects species. The recombinant protein of As-HEM was expressed in Escherichia coli, and anti-As-HEM antibodies were prepared. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot results revealed that mRNA and protein levels of As-HEM were mostly detected in hemocytes and hemolymph...
January 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866813/rhodnius-prolixus-from-physiology-by-wigglesworth-to-recent-studies-of-immune-system-modulation-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-trypanosoma-rangeli
#19
REVIEW
P Azambuja, E S Garcia, P J Waniek, C S Vieira, M B Figueiredo, M S Gonzalez, C B Mello, D P Castro, N A Ratcliffe
This review is dedicated to the memory of Professor Sir Vincent B. Wigglesworth (VW) in recognition of his many pioneering contributions to insect physiology which, even today, form the basis of modern-day research in this field. Insects not only make vital contributions to our everyday lives by their roles in pollination, balancing eco-systems and provision of honey and silk products, but they are also outstanding models for studying the pathogenicity of microorganisms and the functioning of innate immunity in humans...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824940/invertebrate-iridescent-virus-6-a-dna-virus-stimulates-a-mammalian-innate-immune-response-through-rig-i-like-receptors
#20
Laura R H Ahlers, Reginaldo G Bastos, Aoi Hiroyasu, Alan G Goodman
Insects are not only major vectors of mammalian viruses, but are also host to insect-restricted viruses that can potentially be transmitted to mammals. While mammalian innate immune responses to arboviruses are well studied, less is known about how mammalian cells respond to viruses that are restricted to infect only invertebrates. Here we demonstrate that IIV-6, a DNA virus of the family Iridoviridae, is able to induce a type I interferon-dependent antiviral immune response in mammalian cells. Although IIV-6 is a DNA virus, we demonstrate that the immune response activated during IIV-6 infection is mediated by the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway, and not the canonical DNA sensing pathway via cGAS/STING...
2016: PloS One
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