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Insect innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433718/three-new-piscidins-from-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-phylogeny-expression-and-functional-characterization
#1
Ze-Rui Zhuang, Xiao-Dong Yang, Xia-Zi Huang, Hui-Xian Gu, Han-Yin Wei, Yi-Jun He, Li Deng
The present study reports the identification, and characterization of three new putative piscidin paralogues, ecPis-2, ecPis-3 and ecPis-4, from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNA of the three piscidins with the 207, 216, and 231 nt open reading frame encoded respectively a 68-, 71-, and 76-amino acid preprotein consisting of the predicted signal peptide, and putative mature peptide and prodomain. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that multiple piscidin paralogues in one fish species are highly diversified, the analysis suggested that the piscidins should be a family belonging to the superfamily of ancient cationic, linear, and amphipathic host defence peptides widespread across invertebrate and vertebrate taxa comprising insect cecropins and ceratotoxins, and the amphibian dermaseptins...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418029/tmcactin-plays-an-important-role-in-gram-negative-and-positive-bacterial-infection-by-regulating-expression-of-7-amp-genes-in-tenebrio-molitor
#2
Yong Hun Jo, Yu Jung Kim, Ki Beom Park, Jeong Hwan Seong, Soo Gon Kim, Soyi Park, Mi Young Noh, Yong Seok Lee, Yeon Soo Han
Cactin was originally identified as an interactor of the Drosophila IκB factor Cactus and shown to play a role in controlling embryonic polarity and regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. While subsequent studies have identified the roles for Cactin in the mammalian immune response, the immune function of Cactin in insects has not been described yet. Here, we identified a Cactin gene from the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmCactin) and characterized its functional role in innate immunity. TmCactin was highly expressed in prepupa to last instar stages, and its expression was high in the integument and Malpighian tubules of last instar larvae and adults...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410430/caste-sex-and-age-dependent-expression-of-immune-related-genes-in-a-japanese-subterranean-termite-reticulitermes-speratus
#3
Yuki Mitaka, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura
Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393684/generation-of-the-fluorescent-hmgb1-gfp-fusion-protein-in-insect-cells-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-two-mice-models
#4
Ali Anvar, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Iman Salahshourifar, Azam Bolhassani
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved protein present in the nuclei and cytoplasm of cells which has an important role as a mediator of inflammation in the extracellular environment. HMGB1 was identified as an innate adjuvant that induces immune responses against soluble antigens in vivo. In the current study, we used a baculovirus expression system for insect cells that was based on expression of HMGB1 with target gene (GFP), and purified the recombinant HMGB1-GFP fusion protein. We then demonstrated whether immunogenicity of GFP changes in the presence or absence of recombinant HMGB1 acting as an adjuvant in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice...
April 4, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386455/immune-system-stimulation-by-the-native-gut-microbiota-of-honey-bees
#5
Waldan K Kwong, Amanda L Mancenido, Nancy A Moran
Gut microbial communities can greatly affect host health by modulating the host's immune system. For many important insects, however, the relationship between the gut microbiota and immune function remains poorly understood. Here, we test whether the gut microbial symbionts of the honey bee can induce expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a crucial component of insect innate immunity. We find that bees up-regulate gene expression of the AMPs apidaecin and hymenoptaecin in gut tissue when the microbiota is present...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378380/re-evaluation-of-insect-melanogenesis-research-views-from-the-dark-side
#6
REVIEW
Miranda M A Whitten, Christopher J Coates
Melanins (eumelanin and pheomelanin) are synthesised in insects for several purposes including cuticle sclerotisation and color patterning, clot formation, organogenesis and innate immunity. Traditional views of insect immunity detail the storage of pro-phenoloxidases inside specialized blood cells (hemocytes) and their release upon recognition of foreign bodies. Activated phenoloxidases convert monophenols into reactive quinones in a two-step enzymatic reaction, and until recently, the mechanism of tyrosine hydroxylation remained a mystery...
April 4, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376914/suppression-of-laccase-2-severely-impairs-cuticle-tanning-and-pathogen-resistance-during-the-pupal-metamorphosis-of-anopheles-sinensis-diptera-culicidae
#7
Ming-Hui Du, Zheng-Wen Yan, You-Jin Hao, Zhen-Tian Yan, Feng-Ling Si, Bin Chen, Liang Qiao
BACKGROUND: Phenol oxidases (POs) catalyze the oxidation of dopa and dopamine to melanin, which is crucial for cuticle formation and innate immune maintenance in insects. Although, Laccase 2, a member of the PO family, has been reported to be a requirement for melanin-mediated cuticle tanning in the development stages of some insects, whether it participates in cuticle construction and other physiological processes during the metamorphosis of mosquito pupae is unclear. METHODS: The association between the phenotype and the expression profile of Anopheles sinensis Laccase 2 (AsLac2) was assessed from pupation to adult eclosion...
April 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376142/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-attacins-antimicrobial-peptide-encoding-genes-from-the-desert-beetle-microdera-punctipennis-in-response-to-low-temperatures
#8
J Q Li, X Y Lu, J Ma
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute the insect innate immune defense system. AMP production is usually induced by microbes. However, mounting evidence links insect immune reaction to cold hardiness. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at characterizing two attacins, MpAtt1 and MpAtt2, from the desert beetle Microdera punctipennis in Coleoptera and investigating the expression profiles of the two genes in response to cold stress. RESULTS: Full lengths MpAtt1 and MpAtt2 cDNAs were obtained from low temperature transcriptomic data...
January 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375427/plant-immunity-unravelling-the-complexity-of-plant-responses-to-biotic-stresses
#9
Robert Neil Gerard Miller, Gabriel Sergio Costa Alves, Marie-Anne Van Sluys
Background: Plants are constantly exposed to evolving pathogens and pests, with crop losses representing a considerable threat to global food security. As pathogen evolution can overcome disease resistance that is conferred by individual plant resistance genes, an enhanced understanding of the plant immune system is necessary for the long-term development of effective disease management strategies. Current research is rapidly advancing our understanding of the plant innate immune system, with this multidisciplinary subject area reflected in the content of the 18 papers in this Special Issue...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373863/lactobacillus-paraplantarum-11-1-isolated-from-rice-bran-pickles-activated-innate-immunity-and-improved-survival-in-a-silkworm-bacterial-infection-model
#10
Satoshi Nishida, Masaki Ishii, Yayoi Nishiyama, Shigeru Abe, Yasuo Ono, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have high immune system-stimulating activity and are considered beneficial for human health as probiotics in the gut. The innate immune system is highly conserved between mammals and insects. Microbe-associated molecular patterns (e.g., peptidoglycan and β-glucan) induce cytokine maturation, which, in silkworm larvae, leads to muscle contraction. The purpose of this study is to find a novel probiotic by using silkworm muscle contraction assay. In the present study, we isolated LAB derived from rice bran pickles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366787/manduca-sexta-hemolymph-protease-1-activated-by%C3%A2-an%C3%A2-unconventional-non-proteolytic-mechanism-mediates%C3%A2-immune%C3%A2-responses
#11
Yan He, Yang Wang, Fan Yang, Haobo Jiang
Tissue damage or pathogen invasion triggers the auto-proteolysis of an initiating serine protease (SP), rapidly leading to sequential cleavage activation of other cascade members to set off innate immune responses in insects. Recently, we presented evidence that Manduca sexta hemolymph protease-1 zymogen (proHP1) is a member of the SP system in this species, and may activate proHP6. HP6 stimulates melanization and induces antimicrobial peptide synthesis. Here we report that proHP1 adopts an active conformation (*) to carry out its function, without a requirement for proteolytic activation...
March 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344121/brevibacillus-laterosporus-pathogenesis-and-local-immune-response-regulation-in-the-house-fly-midgut
#12
Maria Elena Mura, Luca Ruiu
The insect midgut represents the primary site of action of the entompathogenic bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus. While most studies on this microorganism focus on the identification and characterization of possible virulence factors and toxins, little is known about the insect immune defense mechanisms that are activated against this pathogen. In this study we have investigated the local immune response of different house fly stages to B. laterosporus at the transcriptional level, and we tested the hypothesis that an improvement in entomopathogenicity can be achieved by impairing host innate immunity...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340427/identification-and-characterization-of-a-%C3%AE-defensin-gene-involved-in-the-immune-defense-response-of-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus
#13
Jieyao Zhu, Hong Wang, Jun Wang, Xingli Wang, Shuang Peng, Yi Geng, Kaiyu Wang, Pin Ouyang, Zhiqiong Li, Xiaoli Huang, Defang Chen
Antimicrobial peptides are small peptides that play important roles in a host's innate immune response. As an important antimicrobial peptide, β-defensin widely distribute in mammals, insects and plants with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, the β-defensin gene of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, was cloned, sequenced, and subjected to a bioinformatic analysis. The β-defensin gene of the channel catfish contains three exons and two introns, and encodes a precursor peptide consisting of two domains: a signal peptide of 24 amino acid residues and a mature peptide of 43 amino acid residues...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325765/caenorhabditis-elegans-rig-i-homolog-mediates-antiviral-rna-interference-downstream-of-dicer-dependent-biogenesis-of-viral-small-interfering-rnas
#14
Stephanie R Coffman, Jinfeng Lu, Xunyang Guo, Jing Zhong, Hongshan Jiang, Gina Broitman-Maduro, Wan-Xiang Li, Rui Lu, Morris Maduro, Shou-Wei Ding
Dicer enzymes process virus-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to initiate specific antiviral defense by related RNA interference (RNAi) pathways in plants, insects, nematodes, and mammals. Antiviral RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans requires Dicer-related helicase 1 (DRH-1), not found in plants and insects but highly homologous to mammalian retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), intracellular viral RNA sensors that trigger innate immunity against RNA virus infection...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300181/damage-induced-cell-regeneration-in-the-midgut-of-aedes-albopictus-mosquitoes
#15
Maria Janeh, Dani Osman, Zakaria Kambris
Mosquito-transmitted diseases cause over one million deaths every year. A better characterization of the vector's physiology and immunity should provide valuable knowledge for the elaboration of control strategies. Mosquitoes depend on their innate immunity to defend themselves against pathogens. These pathogens are acquired mainly through the oral route, which places the insects' gut at the front line of the battle. Indeed, the epithelium of the mosquito gut plays important roles against invading pathogens acting as a physical barrier, activating local defenses and triggering the systemic immune response...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283430/identification-of-a-small-pacifastin-protease-inhibitor-from-nasonia-vitripennis-venom-that-inhibits-humoral-immunity-of-host-musca-domestica
#16
Cen Qian, Dan Liang, Ya Liu, Pei Wang, Saima Kausar, Guoqing Wei, Baojian Zhu, Lei Wang, Chaoliang Liu
Nasonia vitripennis is an important natural enemy of many flies. Pacifastin protease inhibitors (PPIs) play an important role in development and innate immunity of insects. In this study, cDNA sequences of a small pacifastin protease inhibitor in N. vitripennis (NvSPPI) was characterized and its open reading frame (ORF) contains 243bp. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results revealed that NvSPPI mRNA were detected specifically in the venom apparatus, while they were expressed at low levels in other tissues tested...
March 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277944/the-galleria-mellonella-larvae-as-an-in-vivo-model-for-evaluation-of-shigella-virulence
#17
Shoshana Barnoy, Hanan Gancz, Yuewei Zhu, Cary L Honnold, Daniel V Zurawski, Malabi M Venkatesan
Shigella spp. causing bacterial diarrhea and dysentery are human enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens that are orally transmitted through contaminated food and water and cause bacillary dysentery. Although natural Shigella infections are restricted to humans and primates, several smaller animal models are used to analyze individual steps in pathogenesis. No animal model fully duplicates the human response and sustaining the models requires expensive animals, costly maintenance of animal facilities, veterinary services and approved animal protocols...
February 13, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262718/the-rnai-pathway-plays-a-small-part-in-wolbachia-mediated-blocking-of-dengue-virus-in-mosquito-cells
#18
Gerard Terradas, D Albert Joubert, Elizabeth A McGraw
Wolbachia pipientis is an insect endosymbiont known to limit the replication of viruses including dengue and Zika in their primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Wolbachia is being released into mosquito populations globally in a bid to control the diseases caused by these viruses. It is theorized that Wolbachia's priming of the insect immune system may confer protection against subsequent viral infection. Other hypotheses posit a role for competition between Wolbachia and viruses for host cellular resources...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247970/comparative-analysis-of-the-monochamus-alternatus-immune-system
#19
Jiao Zhou, Li-Lin Zhao, Hai-Ying Yu, Wei Zhang, Faheem Ahmad, Song-Nian Hu, Zhen Zou, Jiang-Hua Sun
The pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus, is regarded as a notorious forest pest in Asia, vectoring an invasive pathogenic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is known to cause pine wilt disease. However, little sequence information is available for this vector beetle. This hampered the research on its immune system. Based on transcriptome of M. alternatus, we have identified and characterized 194 immunity-related genes in M. alternatus, and compared them with homologues molecules from other species known to exhibit immune responses against invading microbes...
March 1, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216187/recombinant-proteins-of-zaire-ebolavirus-induce-potent-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-and-protect-against-live-virus-infection-in-mice
#20
Axel T Lehrer, Teri-Ann S Wong, Michael M Lieberman, Tom Humphreys, David E Clements, Russell R Bakken, Mary Kate Hart, William D Pratt, John M Dye
Infections with filoviruses in humans are highly virulent, causing hemorrhagic fevers which result in up to 90% mortality. In addition to natural infections, the ability to use these viruses as bioterrorist weapons is of significant concern. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available to combat these infections. The pathogenesis of disease involves the dysregulation of the host's immune system, which results in impairment of the innate and adaptive immune responses, with subsequent development of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, and death...
February 16, 2017: Vaccine
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