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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088177/a-novel-quantitative-pcr-detects-babesia-infection-in-patients-not-identified-by-currently-available-non-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests
#1
Lavoisier Akoolo, Samantha Schlachter, Rasel Khan, Laura Alter, Albert D Rojtman, Kristine Gedroic, Purnima Bhanot, Nikhat Parveen
BACKGROUND: Ticks transmit Babesia microti, the causative agents of babesiosis in North America and Europe. Babesiosis is now endemic in Northeastern USA and affects people of all ages. Babesia species infect erythrocytes and can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Whole blood and blood products, which are not tested for Babesia, can cause transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) resulting in severe consequences in the immuno-compromised patients. The purpose of this study was epidemiological evaluation of babesiosis in a tick-infested state...
January 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075338/maternal-exposure-to-pyrethroid-insecticides-during-pregnancy-and-infant-development-at-18-months-of-age
#2
Aya Hisada, Jun Yoshinaga, Jie Zhang, Takahiko Kato, Hiroaki Shiraishi, Kazuhisa Shimodaira, Takashi Okai, Nagako Ariki, Yoko Komine, Miyako Shirakawa, Yumiko Noda, Nobumasa Kato
The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073546/killing-potential-protist-predators-as-a-survival-strategy-of-the-newly-described-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-pohangense
#3
Ji Hye Kim, Hae Jin Jeong, An Suk Lim, Jung Rae Rho, Sang Bum Lee
Blooms caused by some species belonging to the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium are known to cause large-scale mortality of fish. Thus, the dynamics of these species is important and of concern to scientists, officials, and people in the aquaculture industry. To understand the dynamics of such species, their growth and mortality due to predation need to be assessed. The newly described dinoflagellate Alexandrium pohangense is known to grow slowly, with a maximum autotrophic growth rate of 0.1d(-1). Thus, it may not form bloom patches if its mortality due to predation is high...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073022/ocean-depths-the-mesopelagic-and-implications-for%C3%A2-global-warming
#4
Mark J Costello, Sean Breyer
The mesopelagic or 'twilight zone' of the oceans occurs too deep for photosynthesis, but is a major part of the world's carbon cycle. Depth boundaries for the mesopelagic have now been shown on a global scale using the distribution of pelagic animals detected by compiling echo-soundings from ships around the world, and been used to predict the effect of global warming on regional fish production.
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070307/global-ecological-success-of-thalassoma-fishes-in-extreme-coral-reef-habitats
#5
Christopher J Fulton, Peter C Wainwright, Andrew S Hoey, David R Bellwood
Phenotypic adaptations can allow organisms to relax abiotic selection and facilitate their ecological success in challenging habitats, yet we have relatively little data for the prevalence of this phenomenon at macroecological scales. Using data on the relative abundance of coral reef wrasses and parrotfishes (f. Labridae) spread across three ocean basins and the Red Sea, we reveal the consistent global dominance of extreme wave-swept habitats by fishes in the genus Thalassoma, with abundances up to 15 times higher than any other labrid...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069513/structure-and-mechanical-implications-of-the-pectoral-fin-skeleton-in-the-longnose-skate-chondrichthyes-batoidea
#6
Wei Huang, Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp, Jae-Young Jung, Philip A Hastings, Vlado A Lubarda, Joanna McKittrick
Animal propulsion systems are believed to show high energy and mechanical efficiency in assisting movement compared to artificial designs. As an example, batoid fishes have very light cartilaginous skeletons that facilitate their elegant swimming via enlarged wing-like pectoral fins. The aim of this work is to illustrate the hierarchical structure of the pectoral fin of a representative batoid, the Longnose Skate (Raja rhina), and explain the mechanical implications of its structural design. At the macro level, the pectoral fins are comprised of radially oriented fin rays, formed by staggered mineralized skeletal elements stacked end-to-end...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068391/a-biologically-inspired-symmetric-bidirectional-switch
#7
Kahye Song, Shyr-Shea Chang, Marcus Roper, Hyejeong Kim, Sang Joon Lee
Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels have been intensively studied because of their potential applications in drug delivery, cell culture, and actuator design. Although hydrogels with directed unidirectional response, i.e. capable of bending actuated by different chemical components reaction in response to several stimuli including water and electric fields, these hydrogels are capable of being actuated in one direction only by the stimulus. By contrast the challenge of building a device that is capable of responding to the same cue (in this case a temperature gradient) to bend in either direction remains unmet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068372/perception-of-fish-sentience-welfare-and-humane-slaughter-by-highly-educated-citizens-of-bogot%C3%A3-colombia-and-curitiba-brazil
#8
Daniel Santiago Rucinque, Ana Paula Oliveira Souza, Carla Forte Maiolino Molento
Discussions on farm animal welfare have become frequent, especially in developed countries. The aim of this research was to study the perception of fish sentience, welfare and slaughter by highly educated citizens from Bogotá, Colombia, and Curitiba, Brazil. An online survey with 12 questions presented as open-ended, multiple choice and 5-point Likert-type scale formats was available to respondents. Answers from 395 participants in Bogotá and 387 in Curitiba were analyzed, and results are presented in the order Bogotá followed by Curitiba...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064479/scaling-up-endocrine-disruption-effects-from-individuals-to-populations-outcomes-depend-on-how-many-males-a-population-needs
#9
J Wilson White, Bryan J Cole, Gary N Cherr, Richard Edward Connon, Susanne M Brander
Assessing how endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) affect population dynamics requires tracking males and females (and sex-reversed individuals) separately. A key component in any sex-specific model is the 'mating function' (the relationship between sex ratio and reproductive success) but this relationship is not known for any fish species. Using a model, we found that EDC effects on fish populations strongly depend upon the shape of the mating function. Additionally, masculinization is generally more detrimental to populations than feminization...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057826/the-neurogenetics-of-group-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
REVIEW
Pavan Ramdya, Jonathan Schneider, Joel D Levine
Organisms rarely act in isolation. Their decisions and movements are often heavily influenced by direct and indirect interactions with conspecifics. For example, we each represent a single node within a social network of family and friends, and an even larger network of strangers. This group membership can affect our opinions and actions. Similarly, when in a crowd, we often coordinate our movements with others like fish in a school, or birds in a flock. Contributions of the group to individual behaviors are observed across a wide variety of taxa but their biological mechanisms remain largely unknown...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056071/species-specific-responses-of-juvenile-rockfish-to-elevated-pco2-from-behavior-to-genomics
#11
Scott L Hamilton, Cheryl A Logan, Hamilton W Fennie, Susan M Sogard, James P Barry, April D Makukhov, Lauren R Tobosa, Kirsten Boyer, Christopher F Lovera, Giacomo Bernardi
In the California Current ecosystem, global climate change is predicted to trigger large-scale changes in ocean chemistry within this century. Ocean acidification-which occurs when increased levels of atmospheric CO2 dissolve into the ocean-is one of the biggest potential threats to marine life. In a coastal upwelling system, we compared the effects of chronic exposure to low pH (elevated pCO2) at four treatment levels (i.e., pCO2 = ambient [500], moderate [750], high [1900], and extreme [2800 μatm]) on behavior, physiology, and patterns of gene expression in white muscle tissue of juvenile rockfish (genus Sebastes), integrating responses from the transcriptome to the whole organism level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054105/comparative-developmental-toxicity-of-desalination-brine-and-sulfate-dominated-saltwater-in-a-euryhaline-fish
#12
Allison Kupsco, Rafid Sikder, Daniel Schlenk
Desalination is a promising sustainable solution to meet growing water needs of cities across the United States. However, the environmental impacts of the resulting filtrate (brine) discharged to surface water need to be evaluated before large-scale desalination can be successful in the United States. Developing fish are especially sensitive to changes in salinity and varying ionic composition. Limited research is available on the impacts of hypersalinity on chronic vertebrate embryonic development, particularly on sublethal effects...
January 4, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039630/sublethal-effect-assessment-of-a-low-power-and-dual-frequency-anti-cyanobacterial-ultrasound-device-on-the-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-a-field-study
#13
Didier Techer, Sylvain Milla, Damien Banas
The use of ultrasonication for cyanobacterial control in freshwater bodies has become increasingly popular during the last decades despite controversial efficiency on large scale application. Apart from that, little information is currently available regarding ultrasound toxicity potential towards non-target species. This work was designed to address this issue in the common carp using a low-power (7-9 W output) and dual-frequency (23 and 46 kHz) anti-cyanobacterial ultrasound device. Results showed that carps were unaffected by ultrasound exposure when exposed in floating cages in fish ponds over a 30-day period...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035893/resist-globally-infect-locally-a-transcontinental-test-of-adaptation-by-stickleback-and-their-tapeworm-parasite
#14
Jesse N Weber, Martin Kalbe, Kum Chuan Shim, Noémie I Erin, Natalie C Steinel, Lei Ma, Daniel I Bolnick
Parasite infections are a product of both ecological processes affecting host-parasite encounter rates and evolutionary dynamics affecting host susceptibility. However, few studies examine natural infection variation from both ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Here, we describe the ecological and evolutionary factors generating variation in infection rates by a tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) in a vertebrate host, the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). To explore ecological aspects of infection, we measured tapeworm prevalence in Canadian stickleback inhabiting two distinct environments: marine and freshwater...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033279/the-effect-of-fenestration-of-the-lamina-terminalis-on-the-incidence-of-shunt-dependent-hydrocephalus-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-fish-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Chuanyuan Tao, Chaofeng Fan, Xin Hu, Junpeng Ma, Lu Ma, Hao Li, Yi Liu, Hong Sun, Min He, Chao You
BACKGROUND: Shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDH) is a well-known sequela following aneurysmal hemorrhage, adversely affecting the outcome after securing ruptured aneurysm. Fenestration of lamina terminalis (FLT) creates an anterior ventriculostomy, facilitates cerebrospinal fluid circulation and clot clearance in the basal cistern. However, controversy exists over whether microsurgical FLT during aneurysm repair can decrease the incidence of SDH. AIMS: The study is designed to determine the efficacy of lamina terminalis fenestration on the reduction of SDH after aneurysm clipping...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030606/body-condition-peaks-at-intermediate-parasite-loads-in-the-common-bully-gobiomorphus-cotidianus
#16
Alberto Maceda-Veiga, Andy J Green, Robert Poulin, Clément Lagrue
Most ecologists and conservationists perceive parasitic infections as deleterious for the hosts. Their effects, however, depend on many factors including host body condition, parasite load and the life cycle of the parasite. More research into how multiple parasite taxa affect host body condition is required and will help us to better understand host-parasite coevolution. We used body condition indices, based on mass-length relationships, to test the effects that abundances and biomasses of six parasite taxa (five trematodes, Apatemon sp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027704/local-impacts-global-sources-the-governance-of-boundary-crossing-chemicals
#17
Hugh S Gorman, Valoree S Gagnon, Emma S Norman
Over the last half century, a multijurisdictional, multiscale system of governance has emerged to address concerns associated with toxic chemicals that have the capacity to bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify in food chains, leading to fish consumption advisories. Components of this system of governance include international conventions (such as the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants and the Minamata Convention on Mercury), laws enacted by nation states and their subjurisdictions, and efforts to adaptively manage regional ecosystems (such as the U...
December 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024691/detection-of-alk-rearrangements-in-4002-russian-patients-the-utility-of-different-diagnostic-approaches
#18
Irina Demidova, Viacheslav Grinevich, Ashot Avdalian, Evgeny Imyanitov, Marina Gikalo, Nikita Savelov, Inna Novikova, Olga Samuilenkova, Vladislav Tiurin, Elena Ulianova, Ilya Tsimafeyeu, Sergey Tjulandin
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines highly recommended the detection of potentially targetable genetic aberrations such as anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Few methods, such as the ALK break apart FISH assay and IHC for ALK protein, are approved for routine diagnostics. However, some challenges exist in selecting the most reliable, robust and cost-effective algorithm, especially for large-scale screening of NSCLC patients...
January 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018609/depth-and-substratum-differentiations-among-coexisting-herbivorous-cichlids-in-lake-tanganyika
#19
Hiroki Hata, Haruki Ochi
Cichlid fish in Lake Tanganyika represent a system of adaptive radiation in which eight ancestral lineages have diversified into hundreds of species through adaptation to various niches. However, Tanganyikan cichlids have been thought to be oversaturated, that is, the species number exceeds the number of niches and ecologically equivalent and competitively even species coexist. However, recent studies have shed light on niche segregation on a finer scale among apparently equivalent species. We observed depth and substratum preferences of 15 herbivorous cichlids from four ecomorphs (i...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017608/biogeography-of-the-global-ocean-s-mesopelagic-zone
#20
Roland Proud, Martin J Cox, Andrew S Brierley
The global ocean's near surface can be partitioned into distinct provinces on the basis of regional primary productivity and oceanography [1]. This ecological geography provides a valuable framework for understanding spatial variability in ecosystem function but has relevance only partway into the epipelagic zone (the top 200 m). The mesopelagic (200-1,000 m) makes up approximately 20% of the global ocean volume, plays important roles in biogeochemical cycling [2], and holds potentially huge fish resources [3-5]...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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