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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156091/multifarious-anchovy-and-sardine-regimes-in-the-humboldt-current-system-during-the-last-150-years
#1
Renato Salvatteci, David Field, Dimitri Gutierrez, Tim Baumgartner, Vicente Ferreira, Luc Ortlieb, Abdel Sifeddine, Daniel Grados, Arnaud Bertrand
The Humboldt Current System (HCS) has the highest production of forage fish in the world, though it is highly variable and the future of the primary component, anchovy, is uncertain in the context of global warming. Paradigms based on late 20(th) century observations suggest that large-scale forcing controls decadal-scale fluctuations of anchovy and sardine across different boundary currents of the Pacific. We develop records of anchovy and sardine fluctuations since 1860 AD using fish scales from multiple sites containing laminated sediments and compare them with Pacific basin-scale and regional indices of ocean-climate variability...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156088/climate-mediated-changes-in-marine-ecosystem-regulation-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#2
Martin Lindegren, David M Checkley, J Anthony Koslow, Ralf Goericke, Mark D Ohman
The degree to which ecosystems are regulated through bottom-up, top-down or direct physical processes represents a long-standing issue in ecology, with important consequences for resource management and conservation. In marine ecosystems, the role of bottom-up and top-down forcing has been shown to vary over spatio-temporal scales, often linked to highly variable and heterogeneously distributed environmental conditions. Ecosystem dynamics in the Northeast Pacific have been suggested to be predominately bottom-up regulated...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155453/large-scale-bleaching-of-corals-on-the-great-barrier-reef
#3
T P Hughes, J T Kerry, T Simpson
In 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching. In the southern hemisphere summer of March-April 2016, we used aerial surveys to measure the level of bleaching on 1,156 individual reefs throughout the 2,300 km length of the Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef system. The accuracy of the aerial scores was ground-truthed with detailed underwater surveys of bleaching at 260 sites (104 reefs), allowing us to compare aerial and underwater bleaching data with satellite-derived temperatures and with associated model predictions of bleaching...
November 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151859/population-genetic-structure-and-connectivity-of-deep-sea-stony-corals-order-scleractinia-in-the-new-zealand-region-implications-for-the-conservation-and-management-of-vulnerable-marine-ecosystems
#4
Cong Zeng, Ashley A Rowden, Malcolm R Clark, Jonathan P A Gardner
Deep-sea stony corals, which can be fragile, long-lived, late to mature and habitat-forming, are defined as vulnerable marine ecosystem indicator taxa. Under United Nations resolutions, these corals require protection from human disturbance such as fishing. To better understand the vulnerability of stony corals (Goniocorella dumosa, Madrepora oculata, Solenosmilia variabilis) to disturbance within the New Zealand region and to guide marine protected area design, genetic structure and connectivity were determined using microsatellite loci and DNA sequencing...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151854/strong-population-structure-deduced-from-genetics-otolith-chemistry-and-parasite-abundances-explains-vulnerability-to-localized-fishery-collapse-in-a-large-sciaenid-fish-protonibea%C3%A2-diacanthus
#5
Laura Taillebois, Diane P Barton, David A Crook, Thor Saunders, Jonathan Taylor, Mark Hearnden, Richard J Saunders, Stephen J Newman, Michael J Travers, David J Welch, Alan Greig, Christine Dudgeon, Safia Maher, Jennifer R Ovenden
As pressure on coastal marine resources is increasing globally, the need to quantitatively assess vulnerable fish stocks is crucial in order to avoid the ecological consequences of stock depletions. Species of Sciaenidae (croakers, drums) are important components of tropical and temperate fisheries and are especially vulnerable to exploitation. The black-spotted croaker, Protonibea diacanthus, is the only large sciaenid in coastal waters of northern Australia where it is targeted by commercial, recreational and indigenous fishers due to its food value and predictable aggregating behaviour...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146927/preparation-and-functional-evaluation-of-collagen-oligopeptide-rich-hydrolysate-from-fish-skin-with-the-serine-collagenolytic-protease-from-pseudoalteromonas-sp-sm9913
#6
Xiu-Lan Chen, Ming Peng, Jing Li, Bai-Lu Tang, Xuan Shao, Fang Zhao, Chang Liu, Xi-Ying Zhang, Ping-Yi Li, Mei Shi, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Xiao-Yan Song
Although several serine collagenolytic proteases from bacteria were reported, none has been used to prepare bioactive collagen peptides. MCP-01 is the most abundant extracellular protease of deep-sea Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 and is a serine collagenolytic protease with high efficiency on fish collagen hydrolysis. Here, we set up a pilot scale process to ferment SM9913 for extracellular protease production. With SM9913 extracellular protease as a tool, a process to prepare collagen oligopeptide-rich hydrolysate from codfish skin was set up, which was further scaled up to pilot (100 L) and plant (2000 L) levels with yields >66%...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146204/mercury-exposure-and-short-term-consequences-on-physiology-and-reproduction-in-antarctic-petrels
#7
Alice Carravieri, Jérôme Fort, Arnaud Tarroux, Yves Cherel, Oliver P Love, Solène Prieur, Maud Brault-Favrou, Paco Bustamante, Sébastien Descamps
Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive contaminant reaching Antarctic environments through atmospheric transport and deposition. Seabirds as meso to top predators can accumulate high quantities of Hg through diet. Reproduction is one of the most sensitive endpoints of Hg toxicity in marine birds. Yet, few studies have explored Hg exposure and effects in Antarctic seabirds, where increasing environmental perturbations challenge animal populations. This study focuses on the Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica from Svarthamaren, Antarctica, where the world's largest breeding population is thought to be in decline...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145446/large-scale-climatic-effects-on-traditional-hawaiian-fishpond-aquaculture
#8
Daniel McCoy, Margaret A McManus, Keliʻiahonui Kotubetey, Angela Hiʻilei Kawelo, Charles Young, Brandon D'Andrea, Kathleen C Ruttenberg, Rosanna ʻAnolani Alegado
Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144443/a-genomic-survey-of-scpp-family-genes-in-fishes-provides-novel-insights-into-the-evolution-of-fish-scales
#9
Yunyun Lv, Kazuhiko Kawasaki, Jia Li, Yanping Li, Chao Bian, Yu Huang, Xinxin You, Qiong Shi
The family of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins (SCPPs) have been considered vital to skeletal tissue mineralization. However, most previous SCPP studies focused on phylogenetically distant animals but not on those closely related species. Here we provide novel insights into the coevolution of SCPP genes and fish scales in 10 species from Otophysi. According to their scale phenotypes, these fishes can be divided into three groups, i.e., scaled, sparsely scaled, and scaleless. We identified homologous SCPP genes in the genomes of these species and revealed an absence of some SCPP members in some genomes, suggesting an uneven evolutionary history of SCPP genes in fishes...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142110/global-reef-fish-richness-gradients-emerge-from-divergent-and-scale-dependent-component-changes
#10
Shane A Blowes, Jonathan Belmaker, Jonathan M Chase
Biodiversity varies from place to place due to environmental and historical factors. To improve our understanding of how history and the environment influence observed patterns, we need to address the limitations of the most commonly used biodiversity metric, species richness. Here, we show that scale-dependent dissections of species richness into components of total abundance, species relative abundances and spatial aggregations of species reveal that two well-known biogeographic reef fish species richness gradients emerge from very different underlying component patterns...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139216/patterns-and-drivers-of-fish-extirpations-in-rivers-of-the-american-southwest-and-southeast
#11
John S Kominoski, Albert Ruhí, Megan M Hagler, Kelly Petersen, John L Sabo, Tushar Sinha, Arumugam Sankarasubramanian, Julian D Olden
Effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity requires spatially explicit investigations of how dams and hydroclimatic alterations among climate regions may interact to drive species to extinction. We investigated how dams and hydroclimatic alterations interact with species ecological and life history traits to influence past extirpation probabilities of native freshwater fishes in the Upper and Lower Colorado River (CR), Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT), and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) basins...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136658/community-ecology-in-3d-tensor-decomposition-reveals-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-large-ecological-communities
#12
Romain Frelat, Martin Lindegren, Tim Spaanheden Denker, Jens Floeter, Heino O Fock, Camilla Sguotti, Moritz Stäbler, Saskia A Otto, Christian Möllmann
Understanding spatio-temporal dynamics of biotic communities containing large numbers of species is crucial to guide ecosystem management and conservation efforts. However, traditional approaches usually focus on studying community dynamics either in space or in time, often failing to fully account for interlinked spatio-temporal changes. In this study, we demonstrate and promote the use of tensor decomposition for disentangling spatio-temporal community dynamics in long-term monitoring data. Tensor decomposition builds on traditional multivariate statistics (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132669/epidemiology-of-food-allergy
#13
REVIEW
Joan H Dunlop, Corinne A Keet
Understanding the epidemiology of food allergy is complicated by the difficulty of identifying it on a large scale. The prevalence of food allergy is higher in younger age groups and decreases with age. Allergy to peanut and egg seems to be more common in Northern Europe, the United States, Canada and Australia compared with Southern Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia, whereas shellfish and fish allergies may be more common in Asia. The rate of transient unrecognized food allergy may be high and variable recognition of food allergy may explain some of the differences seen in food allergy prevalence...
February 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132101/contributions-of-the-layer-topology-and-mineral-content-to-the-elastic-modulus-and-strength-of-fish-scales
#14
Sandra Murcia, Yuri Miyamoto, Megha Pratap Varma, Alexander Ossa, Dwayne Arola
Fish scales are an interesting natural structural material and their functionality requires both flexibility and toughness. Our previous studies identified that there are spatial variations in the elastic properties of fish scales corresponding to the anatomical regions, and that they appear to be attributed to changes in the microstructure. In the present study, a model is proposed that describes the elastic behavior of elasmoid fish scales in terms of the relative contributions of the limiting layer and both the internal and external elasmodine...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131999/hydropower-impacts-on-reservoir-fish-populations-are-modified-by-environmental-variation
#15
Antti P Eloranta, Anders G Finstad, Ingeborg P Helland, Ola Ugedal, Michael Power
Global transition towards renewable energy production has increased the demand for new and more flexible hydropower operations. Before management and stakeholders can make informed choices on potential mitigations, it is essential to understand how the hydropower reservoir ecosystems respond to water level regulation (WLR) impacts that are likely modified by the reservoirs' abiotic and biotic characteristics. Yet, most reservoir studies have been case-specific, which hampers large-scale planning, evaluation and mitigation actions across various reservoir ecosystems...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131163/profiling-the-transcriptome-with-rna-spots
#16
Chee-Huat Linus Eng, Sheel Shah, Julian Thomassie, Long Cai
Single-molecule FISH (smFISH) has been the gold standard for quantifying individual transcript abundances. Here, we scale up multiplexed smFISH to the transcriptome level and profile 10,212 different mRNAs from mouse fibroblast and embryonic stem cells. This method, called RNA sequential probing of targets (SPOTs), provides an accurate, flexible, and low-cost alternative to sequencing for profiling transcriptomes.
November 13, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128774/the-effect-of-hydraulic-retention-time-in-onsite-wastewater-treatment-and-removal-of-pharmaceuticals-hormones-and-phenolic-utility-substances
#17
H Ejhed, J Fång, K Hansen, L Graae, M Rahmberg, J Magnér, E Dorgeloh, G Plaza
Micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, hormones and phenolic utility chemicals in sewage water are considered to be an emerging problem because of increased use and observed adverse effects in the environment. The study provides knowledge on the removal efficiency of micropollutants with a range of physical and chemical properties in three commercially available onsite wastewater treatment facilities (OWTFs), tested on influent wastewater collected from 2500 person equivalents in Bildchen, Germany. A longer hydraulic retention time would in theory be expected to have a positive effect, and this study presents results for three different OWTFs in full-scale comparable tests under natural conditions...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128701/quality-evaluation-of-sperm-from-livebearing-fishes-standardized-assessment-of-sperm-bundles-spermatozeugmata-from-xenotoca-eiseni-goodeidae
#18
Yue Liu, Leticia Torres, Terrence R Tiersch
Standardized evaluation of sperm quality is essential for research, commercial-scale cryopreservation, and induced spawning. However, standardized methods for evaluation of sperm bundles (spermatozeugmata or spermatophores) have not been established. The purpose of the present study was to use Redtail Splitfin (Xenotoca eiseni) as a model for freshwater livebearing fishes to establish initial standardized methods to collect sperm bundles, and quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate quality-related attributes...
October 28, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127789/configuration-of-multiple-human-stressors-and-their-impacts-on-fish-assemblages-in-alpine-river-basins-of-austria
#19
Rafaela Schinegger, Matthias Pucher, Christiane Aschauer, Stefan Schmutz
This work addresses multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages of the Drava and Mura rivers in southern Austria. The impacts of single and multiple human stressors on riverine fish assemblages in these basins were disentangled, based on an extensive dataset. Stressor configuration, i.e. various metrics of multiple stressors belonging to stressor groups hydrology, morphology, connectivity and water quality were investigated for the first time at river basin scale in Austria. As biological response variables, the Fish Index Austria (FIA) and its related single as well as the WFD biological- and total state were investigated...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126030/evaluating-the-effect-of-adding-fish-oil-to-fingolimod-on-tnf-%C3%AE-il1%C3%AE-il6-and-ifn-%C3%AE-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Sasan Zandi-Esfahan, Mehdi Fazeli, Vahid Shaygannejad, Javad Hasheminia, Shervin Badihian, Maryam Aghayerashti, Helia Maghzi
OBJECTIVES: Fish oil is claimed to improve outcome in multiple sclerosis (MS) through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects by reducing cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL6, and IL-1β. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adding fish oil to Fingolimod on these serum cytokines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This double-blind randomized trial was conducted during April 2015 to September 2016 in Isfahan, Iran. Patients with diagnosis of relapsing remitting MS, aged 18-45years old and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) ≤5 were enrolled in the study...
December 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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