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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801549/great-cormorants-phalacrocorax-carbo-as-potential-vectors-for-the-dispersal-of-vibrio-cholerae
#1
Sivan Laviad-Shitrit, Tidhar Lev-Ari, Gadi Katzir, Yehonatan Sharaby, Ido Izhaki, Malka Halpern
Vibrio cholerae is the cause of cholera, a devastating epidemic and pandemic disease. Despite its importance, the way of its global dissemination is unknown. V. cholerae is abundant in aquatic habitats and is known to be borne by copepods, chironomids and fishes. Our aim was to determine if fish-eating birds act as vectors in the spread of V. cholerae by consuming infected fish. We determined the existence of V. cholerae in the microbiome of 5/7 wild cormorants' intestine. In three of these V. cholerae-positive wild cormorants, the presence of a gene for cholera toxin (ctxA) was detected...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801096/a-comparative-study-of-the-properties-and-self-aggregation-behavior-of-collagens-from-the-scales-and-skin-of-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#2
Yaowen Liu, Donghui Ma, Yihao Wang, Wen Qin
Collagens were extracted from the scales and skin of Ctenopharyngodon idella (C. idella) as raw materials using an acid-enzyme hybrid method. The structural properties of the extracted collagens were compared using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Additionally, the in vitro self-aggregation behaviors of the two types of collagens (fish skin- and scale-derived collagens) were compared using turbidimetric assays, aggregation assays, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800358/global-change-in-the-trophic-functioning-of-marine-food-webs
#3
Aurore Maureaud, Didier Gascuel, Mathieu Colléter, Maria L D Palomares, Hubert Du Pontavice, Daniel Pauly, William W L Cheung
The development of fisheries in the oceans, and other human drivers such as climate warming, have led to changes in species abundance, assemblages, trophic interactions, and ultimately in the functioning of marine food webs. Here, using a trophodynamic approach and global databases of catches and life history traits of marine species, we tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic ecological impacts may have led to changes in the global parameters defining the transfers of biomass within the food web. First, we developed two indicators to assess such changes: the Time Cumulated Indicator (TCI) measuring the residence time of biomass within the food web, and the Efficiency Cumulated Indicator (ECI) quantifying the fraction of secondary production reaching the top of the trophic chain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792491/genetic-legacy-of-tertiary-climatic-change-a-case-study-of-two-freshwater-loaches-schistura-fasciolata-and-pseudogastromyzon-myersi-in-hong-kong
#4
W Y Wong, K Y Ma, L M Tsang, K H Chu
The high biodiversity and strong population structure of freshwater fauna has often been attributed to historical geological and climatic alterations. The impact of these historical changes on obligate freshwater species on a small geographical scale has not been well understood due to the lack of fine-scale comparative phylogeographic studies. Strong population structure has been reported in a goby and a caridean shrimp in Hong Kong, a small but highly developed city in South China, but the common drivers of population differentiation in freshwater fauna in this region remain unclear...
August 9, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791040/rocking-the-boat-damage-to-eelgrass-by-swinging-boat-moorings
#5
Richard K F Unsworth, Beth Williams, Benjamin L Jones, Leanne C Cullen-Unsworth
Seagrass meadows commonly reside in shallow sheltered embayments typical of the locations that provide an attractive option for mooring boats. Given the potential for boat moorings to result in disturbance to the seabed due to repeated physical impact, these moorings may present a significant threat to seagrass meadows. The seagrass Zostera marina (known as eelgrass) is extensive across the northern hemisphere, forming critical fisheries habitat and creating efficient long-term stores of carbon in sediments...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790429/cross-scale-habitat-structure-driven-by-coral-species-composition-on-tropical-reefs
#6
Laura E Richardson, Nicholas A J Graham, Andrew S Hoey
The availability of habitat structure across spatial scales can determine ecological organization and resilience. However, anthropogenic disturbances are altering the abundance and composition of habitat-forming organisms. How such shifts in the composition of these organisms alter the physical structure of habitats across ecologically important scales remains unclear. At a time of unprecedented coral loss and homogenization of coral assemblages globally, we investigate the inherent structural complexity of taxonomically distinct reefs, across five ecologically relevant scales of measurement (4-64 cm)...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789885/ultra-thin-hydro-films-based-on-lactose-crosslinked-fish-gelatin-for-wound-healing-applications
#7
Alaitz Etxabide, Claudia Vairo, Edorta Santos-Vizcaino, Pedro Guerrero, Jose Luis Pedraz, Manoli Igartua, Koro de la Caba, Rosa MariaHernandez
This study focuses on the development and characterization of an ultra thin hydro-film based on lactose-mediated crosslinking of fish gelatin by Maillard reaction. Lactose results in the only efficient crosslinker able to produce resistant to handling hydro-films when compared to conventional crosslinkers such as glutaraldehyde or genipin (tested at 25 and 37°C in phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS)).The disappearance of the peak related to the N-containing groups (XPS) and the images obtained by SEM and AFM demonstrate the highly ordered nano-scaled structure of lactose-crosslinked gelatin, confirming the crosslinking efficiency...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783740/seasonal-variability-shapes-resilience-of-small-scale-fisheries-in-baja-california-sur-mexico
#8
Kara E Pellowe, Heather M Leslie
Small-scale fisheries are an important source of food and livelihoods to coastal communities around the world. Understanding the seasonality of fisheries catch and composition is crucial to fisheries management, particularly in the context of changing environmental and socioeconomic conditions. While seasonal variability directly impacts the lives of fishers, most fisheries studies focus on longer-term change. Here we examine seasonal variability in the small-scale fisheries of Baja California Sur, Mexico based on 13 years of government fisheries data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777809/popular-media-records-reveal-multi-decadal-trends-in-recreational-fishing-catch-rates
#9
Ruth H Thurstan, Edward Game, John M Pandolfi
Despite threats to human wellbeing from ecological degradation, public engagement with this issue remains at low levels. However, studies have shown that crafting messages to resonate with people's personal experiences can enhance engagement. Recreational fishing is one of the principal ways in which people interact with aquatic environments, but long-term data from this perspective are considered rare. We uncovered 852 popular media records of recreational fishing for an Australian estuary across a 140-year period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777319/identification-and-biological-evaluation-of-secondary-metabolites-from-marine-derived-fungi-aspergillus-sp-scsiow3-cultivated-in-the-presence-of-epigenetic-modifying-agents
#10
Xiaofan Li, Zhenyao Xia, Jianqiang Tang, Jiahui Wu, Jing Tong, Mengjie Li, Jianhua Ju, Huirong Chen, Liyan Wang
Chemical epigenetic manipulation was applied to a deep marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW3, resulting in significant changes of the secondary metabolites. One new diphenylether-O-glycoside (diorcinol 3-O-α-D-ribofuranoside), along with seven known compounds, were isolated from the culture treated with a combination of histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (5-azacytidine). Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited significant biomembrane protective effect of erythrocytes...
August 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776676/consistency-of-elemental-and-isotope-ratio-patterns-across-multiple-scales-from-individual-fish
#11
M E Seeley, W K Logan, B D Walther
Assays of elemental and stable-isotope ratios across growth increments of scales have the potential to provide a non-lethal alternative to otolith chemistry for identifying migration and ontogenetic trophic shifts. A central assumption when employing scales as otolith analogues is that any scale from an individual will provide equivalent information about the chemical history of that fish. This assumption was investigated with multiple scales from wild and captive euryhaline Atlantic tarpon Megalops atlanticus from the north-west Gulf of Mexico...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771508/follow-that-fish-uncovering-the-hidden-blue-economy-in-coral-reef-fisheries
#12
Shanna Grafeld, Kirsten L L Oleson, Lida Teneva, John N Kittinger
Despite their importance for human well-being, nearshore fisheries are often data poor, undervalued, and underappreciated in policy and development programs. We assess the value chain for nearshore Hawaiian coral reef fisheries, mapping post-catch distribution and disposition, and quantifying associated monetary, food security, and cultural values. We estimate that the total annual value of the nearshore fishery in Hawai'i is $10.3-$16.4 million, composed of non-commercial ($7.2-$12.9 million) and commercial ($2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770681/laterality-is-universal-among-fishes-but-increasingly-cryptic-among-derived-groups
#13
Michio Hori, Mifuyu Nakajima, Hiroki Hata, Masaki Yasugi, Satoshi Takahashi, Masanori Nakae, Kosaku Yamaoka, Masanori Kohda, Jyun-Ichi Kitamura, Masayoshi Maehata, Hirokazu Tanaka, Norihiro Okada, Yuichi Takeuchi
Laterality has been studied in several vertebrates, mainly in terms of brain lateralization and behavioral laterality, but morphological asymmetry has not been extensively investigated. Asymmetry in fishes was first described in scale-eating cichlids from Lake Tanganyika, in the form of bilateral dimorphism in which some individuals, when opening their mouths, twist them to the right and others to the left. This asymmetry has a genetic basis, and is correlated with lateralized attack behaviors. This has subsequently been found in fishes from numerous taxa with various feeding habits...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770087/cryptic-lineage-divergence-in-marine-environments-genetic-differentiation-at-multiple-spatial-and-temporal-scales-in-the-widespread-intertidal-goby-gobiosoma%C3%A2-bosc
#14
Borja Milá, James L Van Tassell, Jatziri A Calderón, Lukas Rüber, Rafael Zardoya
The adaptive radiation of the seven-spined gobies (Gobiidae: Gobiosomatini) represents a classic example of how ecological specialization and larval retention can drive speciation through local adaptation. However, geographically widespread and phenotypically uniform species also do occur within Gobiosomatini. This lack of phenotypic variation across large geographic areas could be due to recent colonization, widespread gene flow, or stabilizing selection acting across environmental gradients. We use a phylogeographic approach to test these alternative hypotheses in the naked goby Gobiosoma bosc, a widespread and phenotypically invariable intertidal fish found along the Atlantic Coast of North America...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765720/a-global-map-of-saltmarshes
#15
Chris J Mcowen, Lauren V Weatherdon, Jan-Willem Van Bochove, Emma Sullivan, Simon Blyth, Christoph Zockler, Damon Stanwell-Smith, Naomi Kingston, Corinne S Martin, Mark Spalding, Steven Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Saltmarshes are extremely valuable but often overlooked ecosystems, contributing to livelihoods locally and globally through the associated ecosystem services they provide, including fish production, carbon storage and coastal protection. Despite their importance, knowledge of the current spatial distribution (occurrence and extent) of saltmarshes is incomplete. In light of increasing anthropogenic and environmental pressures on coastal ecosystems, global data on the occurrence and extent of saltmarshes are needed to draw attention to these critical ecosystems and to the benefits they generate for people...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763674/high-spatiotemporal-resolution-ship-emission-inventory-of-china-based-on-ais-data-in-2014
#16
Dongsheng Chen, Xiaotong Wang, Yue Li, Jianlei Lang, Ying Zhou, Xiurui Guo, Yuehua Zhao
Ship exhaust emissions have been considered a significant source of air pollution, with adverse impacts on the global climate and human health. China, as one of the largest shipping countries, has long been in great need of in-depth analysis of ship emissions. This study for the first time developed a comprehensive national-scale ship emission inventory with 0.005°×0.005° resolution in China for 2014, using the bottom-up method based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) data of the full year of 2014...
July 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760747/significant-synteny-and-co-localization-of-ecologically-relevant-quantitative-trait-loci-within-and-across-species-of-salmonid-fishes
#17
Arne Jacobs, Robyn Womack, Mel Chen, Karim Gharbi, Kathryn Elmer
The organization of functional regions within genomes has important implications for evolutionary potential. Considerable research effort has gone toward identifying the genomic basis of phenotypic traits of interest through quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. Less research has assessed the arrangement of QTL in the genome within and across species. To investigate the distribution, extent of co-localization, and the synteny of QTL for ecologically relevant traits, we used a comparative genomic mapping approach within and across a range of salmonid species...
July 31, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759763/trends-in-biomarkers-biotic-indices-and-fish-population-size-revealed-contrasting-long-term-effects-of-recycled-water-on-the-ecological-status-of-a-mediterranean-river
#18
Nicole Colin, Alberto Maceda-Veiga, Mario Monroy, Martí Ortega-Ribera, Mireia Llorente, Adolfo de Sostoa
Recycled water is important for maintaining river flow in semi-arid regions. However, it has ecological risk, as suggested by comparison of habitat and white and red blood cell count in two wild fish species (Barbus meridionalis and Squalius laietanus) before and after an input of recycled water in Ripoll River (NE Spain) in 2009. Due to the lack of normal ranges for blood variables in wild fish, we surveyed seasonally the same river reaches in 2013 to test if blood alterations from 2009 compromised the viability of the fish populations...
July 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755261/acinetobacter-pittii-an-emerging-new-multi-drug-resistant-fish-pathogen-isolated-from-diseased-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala-yih-in-china
#19
Jie Li, Jinglong Cao, Xu Wang, Ning Liu, Weimin Wang, Yi Luo
Despite the reason that genus Acinetobacter works as a grave human pathogen, very few numbers of researches have been done so that term it as a pathogen in respect to fish. As per the current study, isolation of three pathogenic bacterial strains was carried out from infected blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih), from a farm in Yixing city, Jiangsu province, China, which displayed symptoms like tail-rot, shedding scales and ascites in addition to gentle ulceration on the entire body regardless of size and sex of fish...
July 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754500/maternal-prenatal-blood-mercury-is-not-adversely-associated-with-offspring-iq-at-8-years-provided-the-mother-eats-fish-a-british-prebirth-cohort-study
#20
Jean Golding, Joseph R Hibbeln, Steven M Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Alan Emond, Caroline M Taylor
BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence concerning possible harm from mercury (Hg) in regard to offspring cognition if the woman eats fish has prompted this study to examine evidence from a British pre-birth cohort to investigate the relationship between the two. METHODS: Pregnant women (median prenatal blood mercury 1.86μg/L) resident in the study area with delivery between April 1991 and December 1992 were followed up and verbal, performance and total intelligence quotient (IQ) of 2062 offspring were measured at age 8...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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