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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785835/predicting-the-ecological-impacts-of-large-dam-removals-on-a-river-network-based-on-habitat-network-structure-and-flow-regimes
#1
Nobuo Ishiyama, Masahiro Ryo, Taiga Kataoka, Shigeya Nagayama, Masanao Sueyoshi, Akira Terui, Terutaka Mori, Takumi Akasaka, Futoshi Nakamura
Large dams have provided vital protection and services to human life and the economy. However, an increasing number of large dams worldwide have aged considerably and have thus become hazardous due to impaired functions. The removal of large dams has excellent potential to restore habitat connectivity and flow regimes; therefore, projecting the related ecological consequences is a key emerging need for water resource and ecosystem management. However, no modeling methods are currently available for such projections at the basin scale...
May 22, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785219/assessing-methanogenic-archaeal-community-in-full-scale-anaerobic-sludge-digester-systems-in-dubai-united-arab-emirates
#2
Munawwar A Khan, Poojabahen G Patel, Arpitha G Ganesh, Naushad Rais, Sultan M Faheem, Shams T Khan
Introduction: Anaerobic digestion for methane production comprises of an exceptionally diverse microbial consortium, a profound understanding about which is still constrained. In this study, the methanogenic archaeal communities in three full-scale anaerobic digesters of a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant were analyzed by Fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) technique. Methods & Materials: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect and quantify the methanogenic Archaea in the sludge samples whereas qPCR was carried out to support the FISH analysis...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784774/physiology-underlies-the-assembly-of-ecological-communities
#3
Denon Start, Shannon McCauley, Benjamin Gilbert
Trait-based community ecology promises an understanding of the factors that determine species abundances and distributions across habitats. However, ecologists are often faced with large suites of potentially important traits, making generalizations across ecosystems and species difficult or even impossible. Here, we hypothesize that key traits structuring ecological communities may be causally dependent on common physiological mechanisms and that elucidating these mechanisms can help us understand the distributions of traits and species across habitats...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782501/disentangling-the-complexity-of-tropical-small-scale-fisheries-dynamics-using-supervised-self-organizing-maps
#4
Manuel Mendoza-Carranza, Elisabet Ejarque, Leopold A J Nagelkerke
Tropical small-scale fisheries are typical for providing complex multivariate data, due to their diversity in fishing techniques and highly diverse species composition. In this paper we used for the first time a supervised Self-Organizing Map (xyf-SOM), to recognize and understand the internal heterogeneity of a tropical marine small-scale fishery, using as model the fishery fleet of San Pedro port, Tabasco, Mexico. We used multivariate data from commercial logbooks, including the following four factors: fish species (47), gear types (bottom longline, vertical line+shark longline and vertical line), season (cold, warm), and inter-annual variation (2007-2012)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781092/assimilation-of-nitrogen-and-carbon-isotopes-from-fish-diets-to-otoliths-as-measured-by-nanoscale-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#5
Jen-Chieh Shiao, Kotaro Shirai, Kentaro Tanaka, Naoto Takahata, Yuji Sano, Sung-Yun Hsiao, Der-Chuen Lee, Yung-Che Tseng
RATIONALE: Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ15 N and δ13 C values) of carbonate-bound organic materials in otoliths can provide information to address the biological and ecological functions of fish. Correct interpretation of otolith δ15 N and δ13 C profiles requires knowledge of the metabolic routes of nitrogen and carbon isotopes. However, the isotopic assimilation of δ15 N and δ13 C compositions from diets to otoliths has rarely been investigated. METHODS: This study traced the daily nitrogen and carbon isotopic assimilation between diets and otoliths using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS)...
May 21, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778682/temperature-and-hydrologic-alteration-predict-the-spread-of-invasive-largemouth-bass-micropterus-salmoides
#6
Mi-Jung Bae, Christina A Murphy, Emili García-Berthou
The successful establishment of an aquatic invasive alien species can be mediated by a suite of environmental factors, including climate and anthropogenic disturbance. Dams and reservoirs are thought to promote freshwater fish invasion success through hydrological alterations but the evidence for their role in the global invasion of Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) on a landscape scale is limited. Here, we examine the distribution of Largemouth Bass, one of the most widely introduced fish in the world, from the Iberian Peninsula using species distribution models (SDMs), including an ensemble forecast...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777392/determining-representative-ranges-of-point-sensors-in-distributed-networks
#7
John K Horne, Dale A Jacques
Distributed networks of stationary instruments provide high temporal scope (i.e., range/resolution) observations but are spatially limited as a set of point measurements. Measurement similarity between points typically decays with distance, which is used to set interpolation distances. The importance of analyzing spatiotemporal data at equivalent spatial and temporal scales has been identified but no standard procedure is used to interpolate space using temporally-indexed observations. Using concurrent mobile and stationary active acoustic, fish density data from a tidal energy site in Puget Sound, WA, USA, six methods are compared to estimate the range at which stationary measurements can be spatially interpolated...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772808/mercury-levels-in-women-and-children-from-interior-villages-in-suriname-south-america
#8
Paul E Ouboter, Gwendolyn Landburg, Gaitrie U Satnarain, Sheryl Y Starke, Indra Nanden, Bridget Simon-Friedt, William B Hawkins, Robert Taylor, Maureen Y Lichtveld, Emily Harville, Jeffrey K Wickliffe
Natural sources of mercury, historical gold mining, and contemporary artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) activities have led to mercury contamination in Suriname. Our primary objective was to evaluate mercury levels in hair of women and children from interior villages in Suriname where mercury levels in fish are elevated. We also estimated blood levels of mercury using an established mathematical conversion to facilitate comparison with other biomonitoring programs in the United States. Estimated levels of mercury in the blood of participants from Suriname were significantly higher than those in women from a heavy marine fish-consuming population in southeast Louisiana and estimates of the US national average...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768738/unlocking-biodiversity-and-conservation-studies-in-high-diversity-environments-using-environmental-dna-edna-a-test-with-guianese-freshwater-fishes
#9
Kévin Cilleros, Alice Valentini, Luc Allard, Tony Dejean, Roselyne Etienne, Gaël Grenouillet, Amaia Iribar, Pierre Taberlet, Régis Vigouroux, Sébastien Brosse
Determining the species compositions of local assemblages is a prerequisite to understanding how anthropogenic disturbances affect biodiversity. However, biodiversity measurements often remain incomplete due to the limited efficiency of sampling methods. This is particularly true in freshwater tropical environments that host rich fish assemblages, for which assessments are uncertain and often rely on destructive methods. Developing an efficient and non-destructive method to assess biodiversity in tropical freshwaters is highly important...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765085/submarine-canyons-represent-an-essential-habitat-network-for-krill-hotspots-in-a-large-marine-ecosystem
#10
Jarrod A Santora, Ramona Zeno, Jeffrey G Dorman, William J Sydeman
Submarine canyon systems are ubiquitous features of marine ecosystems, known to support high levels of biodiversity. Canyons may be important to benthic-pelagic ecosystem coupling, but their role in concentrating plankton and structuring pelagic communities is not well known. We hypothesize that at the scale of a large marine ecosystem, canyons provide a critical habitat network, which maintain energy flow and trophic interactions. We evaluate canyon characteristics relative to the distribution and abundance of krill, critically important prey in the California Current Ecosystem...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761589/prevalence-and-effect-factors-of-dementia-among-the-community-elderly-in-chongqing-china
#11
Jing Deng, Cheng Cao, Yi Jiang, Bin Peng, Tingting Wang, Ke Yan, Jingxi Lian, Zengzi Wang
BACKGROUND: China is an ageing society, with around 150 million people aged 60 years or older. The prevalence of dementia will increase by more than 100% in the coming 20 years. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and effects of dementia among the community elderly in Chongqing, China. METHODS: Cluster sampling was adopted. A sample of elderly individuals aged 60 years and older was extracted as research subjects from three counties within Chongqing, China...
May 14, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760103/comprehensive-phylogeny-of-ray-finned-fishes-actinopterygii-based-on-transcriptomic-and-genomic-data
#12
Lily C Hughes, Guillermo Ortí, Yu Huang, Ying Sun, Carole C Baldwin, Andrew W Thompson, Dahiana Arcila, Ricardo Betancur-R, Chenhong Li, Leandro Becker, Nicolás Bellora, Xiaomeng Zhao, Xiaofeng Li, Min Wang, Chao Fang, Bing Xie, Zhuocheng Zhou, Hai Huang, Songlin Chen, Byrappa Venkatesh, Qiong Shi
Our understanding of phylogenetic relationships among bony fishes has been transformed by analysis of a small number of genes, but uncertainty remains around critical nodes. Genome-scale inferences so far have sampled a limited number of taxa and genes. Here we leveraged 144 genomes and 159 transcriptomes to investigate fish evolution with an unparalleled scale of data: >0.5 Mb from 1,105 orthologous exon sequences from 303 species, representing 66 out of 72 ray-finned fish orders. We apply phylogenetic tests designed to trace the effect of whole-genome duplication events on gene trees and find paralogy-free loci using a bioinformatics approach...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760056/effects-of-the-hippopotamus-on-the-chemistry-and-ecology-of-a-changing-watershed
#13
Keenan Stears, Douglas J McCauley, Jacques C Finlay, James Mpemba, Ian T Warrington, Benezeth M Mutayoba, Mary E Power, Todd E Dawson, Justin S Brashares
Cross-boundary transfers of nutrients can profoundly shape the ecology of recipient systems. The common hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius , is a significant vector of such subsidies from terrestrial to river ecosystems. We compared river pools with high and low densities of H. amphibius to determine how H. amphibius subsidies shape the chemistry and ecology of aquatic communities. Our study watershed, like many in sub-Saharan Africa, has been severely impacted by anthropogenic water abstraction reducing dry-season flow to zero...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754086/a-comparison-of-methane-and-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-inland-mixed-fish-and-crab-aquaculture-ponds
#14
Yuchun Ma, Liying Sun, Cuiying Liu, Xiaoya Yang, Wei Zhou, Bo Yang, Graeme Schwenke, De Li Liu
Inland aquaculture ponds in China collectively cover 2.57 million ha, so emissions of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) from these ponds may constitute a significant contribution to global warming. During 2016 and 2017, CH4 and N2 O fluxes and a range of pond-water and sediment properties were measured in replicated (n = 4) "mixed-fish" and "crab" aquaculture ponds in southeast China. Annual CH4 and N2 O emissions were 64.4 kg C ha-1 and 2.99 kg N ha-1 , respectively, from the "mixed-fish" ponds, and 51...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753913/tough-and-deformable-glasses-with-bioinspired-cross-ply-architectures
#15
Zhen Yin, Ahmad Dastjerdi, Francois Barthelat
Glasses are optically transparent, hard materials that have been in sustained demand and usage in architectural windows, optical devices, electronics and solar panels. Despite their outstanding optical qualities and durability, their brittleness and low resistance to impact still limits wider applications. Here we present new laminated glass designs that contain toughening cross-ply architectures inspired from fish scales and arthropod cuticles. This seemingly minor enrichment completely transforms the way laminated glass deforms and fractures, and it turns a traditionally brittle material into a stretchy and tough material with little impact on surface hardness and optical quality...
May 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751424/prenatal-mercury-exposure-fish-intake-and-neurocognitive-development-during-first-three-years-of-life-prospective-cohort-mothers-and-children-s-environmental-health-moceh-study
#16
Yeni Kim, Eun-Hee Ha, Hyesook Park, Mina Ha, Yangho Kim, Yun-Chul Hong, Eun Jung Lee, Hyesook Kim, Namsoo Chang, Bung-Nyun Kim
OBJECTIVES: In this prospective cohort study, the effects of prenatal Hg exposure on neurocognitive development during the first 3years of life were investigated. METHODS: The maternal blood levels of Hg were assessed during pregnancy and in cord blood. Maternal fish intake was assessed by interviewing the weekly frequency of fish intake during pregnancy. Maternal n-3 and n-6 fatty acid intake was estimated based on 24h recall food intake interview. The mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development index scores were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 6, 12, 24, 36months of age...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751158/tritiated-water-exposure-disrupts-myofibril-structure-and-induces-mis-regulation-of-eye-opacity-and-dna-repair-genes-in-zebrafish-early-life-stages
#17
Caroline Arcanjo, Olivier Armant, Magali Floriani, Isabelle Cavalie, Virginie Camilleri, Olivier Simon, Daniel Orjollet, Christelle Adam-Guillermin, Béatrice Gagnaire
Tritium (3 H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. In the environment, the most common form of tritium is tritiated water (HTO). The present study aimed to identify early biomarkers of HTO contamination through the use of an aquatic model, the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We used the zebrafish embryo-larvae model to investigate the modes of action of HTO exposure at dose rates of 0.4 and 4 mGy/h, dose rates expected to induce deleterious effects on fish. Zebrafish were exposed to HTO from 3 hpf (hours post fertilization) to 96 hpf...
April 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748709/mercury-concentrations-in-double-crested-cormorant-chicks-across-canada
#18
Raphael A Lavoie, Linda M Campbell
Mercury (Hg) biomagnifies in aquatic food chains and can reach high concentrations in fish-eating birds. Spatial patterns of Hg have been found in freshwater ecosystems across Canada for many taxa, including fish and birds. However, it often is challenging to sample a representative population size of adult birds to monitor concentrations of contaminants over a large spatial scale. Moreover, adult birds can migrate and can show a contaminant profile that may not be representative of local resources. The goals of this study were (1) to determine if there was a spatial pattern of Hg concentrations in piscivorous birds, (2) to develop a model to estimate Hg concentrations in breeding adults using chicks as proxy, and (3) to develop predictive equations among non-lethal tissues that are representative of local resources in adults (blood and growing feathers)...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748282/fish-reproductive-energy-output-increases-disproportionately-with-body-size
#19
Diego R Barneche, D Ross Robertson, Craig R White, Dustin J Marshall
Body size determines total reproductive-energy output. Most theories assume reproductive output is a fixed proportion of size, with respect to mass, but formal macroecological tests are lacking. Management based on that assumption risks underestimating the contribution of larger mothers to replenishment, hindering sustainable harvesting. We test this assumption in marine fishes with a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis of the intraspecific mass scaling of reproductive-energy output. We show that larger mothers reproduce disproportionately more than smaller mothers in not only fecundity but also total reproductive energy...
May 11, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743010/an-automatic-method-to-calculate-heart-rate-from-zebrafish-larval-cardiac-videos
#20
Chia-Pin Kang, Hung-Chi Tu, Tzu-Fun Fu, Jhe-Ming Wu, Po-Hsun Chu, Darby Tien-Hao Chang
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish is a widely used model organism for studying heart development and cardiac-related pathogenesis. With the ability of surviving without a functional circulation at larval stages, strong genetic similarity between zebrafish and mammals, prolific reproduction and optically transparent embryos, zebrafish is powerful in modeling mammalian cardiac physiology and pathology as well as in large-scale high throughput screening. However, an economical and convenient tool for rapid evaluation of fish cardiac function is still in need...
May 9, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
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