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Gis community

Benjamin W Chrisinger, Anne V Grossestreuer, Meredith C Laguna, Heather M Griffis, Charles C Branas, Douglas J Wiebe, Raina M Merchant
AIM: Approximately 424,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occur in the US annually. As automated external defibrillators (AED) are an important part of the community response to OHCA, we investigated how well the spatial demand (likelihood of OHCA) was met by the spatial supply (AEDs) in a dense urban environment. METHODS: Using geographic information system (GIS) software, we applied kernel density and optimized hot spot procedures with two differently-sized radii to model OHCA incidence rates from existing studies, providing an estimate of OHCA likelihood at a given location...
October 1, 2016: Resuscitation
Medhi Alizadeh, Leila Ghasemi Hashtroodi, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Nima Rezaei
Asthma is one of the most common diseases in childhood, which has been increased during last decade because of epidemiological pattern changes with climate and industrialization of the communities. There are some controversies on the relationship between air pollution and asthma. Tehran, as the capital of Iran, is one of the densest populations and is one of the most polluted cities in the world. This study was performed to search effects of various air pollutants using GIS-based modeling on the rate of hospitalizations due to asthma in children in Tehran...
August 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
Hua Wang, Mary E Northridge, Carol Kunzel, Qiuyi Zhang, Susan S Kum, Jessica L Gilbert, Zhu Jin, Sara S Metcalf
Social capital, as comprised of human connections in social networks and their associated benefits, is closely related to the health of individuals, communities, and societies at large. For disadvantaged population groups such as older adults and racial/ethnic minorities, social capital may play a particularly critical role in mitigating the negative effects and reinforcing the positive effects on health. In this project, we model social capital as both cause and effect by simulating dynamic networks. Informed in part by a community-based health promotion program, an agent-based model is contextualized in a GIS environment to explore the complexity of social disparities in oral and general health as experienced at the individual, interpersonal, and community scales...
June 2016: Soc Cult Behav Model (2016)
Alma Heckenroth, Jacques Rabier, Thierry Dutoit, Franck Torre, Pascale Prudent, Isabelle Laffont-Schwob
The aim of this study was to develop an effective and non-destructive method for the selection of native Mediterranean plants with phytoremediation potential based on their spontaneous recovery capacities. The study site consisted in a mixed contaminated soils (As, Cu, Pb, Sb, Zn) in the vicinity of a former lead smelting factory abandoned since 1925 in the Calanques National Park (Marseille, southeastern France). We developed an integrated characterization approach that takes into account topsoil metal(loid)s (MM) contamination, plant community composition and structure and mesologic parameters without using destructive methods...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Tiago França Melo de Lima, Raquel Martins Lana, Tiago Garcia de Senna Carneiro, Cláudia Torres Codeço, Gabriel Souza Machado, Lucas Saraiva Ferreira, Líliam César de Castro Medeiros, Clodoveu Augusto Davis Junior
The prevention and control of dengue are great public health challenges for many countries, particularly since 2015, as other arboviruses have been observed to interact significantly with dengue virus. Different approaches and methodologies have been proposed and discussed by the research community. An important tool widely used is modeling and simulation, which help us to understand epidemic dynamics and create scenarios to support planning and decision making processes. With this aim, we proposed and developed DengueME, a collaborative open source platform to simulate dengue disease and its vector's dynamics...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lori Kowaleski-Jones, Jessie X Fan, Ming Wen, Heidi Hanson
PURPOSE: The goal of this research is to examine the extent to which facets of neighborhood sociodemographic contexts influence individual-level physical activity (PA) among youth. DESIGN: Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), geographic information systems (GIS), and census data sources, we explicitly test whether built environment factors have differential associations depending on the age and gender of the youth living in urban census tracts...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Paulita Bennett-Martin, Christy C Visaggi, Timothy L Hawthorne
Monitoring of marine debris (also known as marine litter) is an essential step in the process to eradicate ecological dangers in marine ecosystems caused by humans. This study examines marine debris in the Caribbean country of Belize using geographic information systems (GIS) to develop (1) a detailed data library for use on handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) units and tablets with mobile mapping applications for deployment in the field and (2) a freely available, online mapping portal to share data with Belizeans to encourage future citizen science efforts...
October 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Thanh Quang Bui, Hai Minh Pham
INTRODUCTION: There is a great concern on how to build up an interoperable health information system of public health and health information technology within the development of public information and health surveillance programme. Technically, some major issues remain regarding to health data visualization, spatial processing of health data, health information dissemination, data sharing and the access of local communities to health information. In combination with GIS, we propose a technical framework for web-based health data visualization and spatial analysis...
2016: SpringerPlus
Gwynne Mhuireach, Bart R Johnson, Adam E Altrichter, Joshua Ladau, James F Meadow, Katherine S Pollard, Jessica L Green
Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Wilkinson L Lázaro, Sergi Díez, Carolina J da Silva, Áurea R A Ignácio, Jean R D Guimarães
The periphyton associated with freshwater macrophyte roots is the main site of Hg methylation in different wetland environments in the world. The aim of this study was to test the use of connectivity metrics of water bodies, in the context of patches, in a tropical waterscape wetland (Guapore River, Amazonia, Brazil) as a predictor of potential net methylmercury (MeHg) production by periphyton communities. We sampled 15 lakes with different patterns of lateral connectivity with the main river channel, performing net mercury methylation potential tests in incubations with local water and Eichhornia crassipes root-periphyton samples, using (203)HgCl2 as a tracer...
October 2016: Environmental Research
Casey P Durand, Abiodun O Oluyomi, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Deborah Salvo, Ipek N Sener, Deanna M Hoelscher, Gregory Knell, Xiaohui Tang, Anna K Porter, Michael C Robertson, Harold W Kohl
BACKGROUND: Use of mass transit has been proposed as a way to incorporate regular physical activity into daily life because transit use typically requires additional travel to access and depart the stop or station. If this additional travel is active, a small but potentially important amount of physical activity can be achieved daily. Although prior research has shown that transit use is associated with physical activity, important questions remain unanswered. Utilizing a major expansion of the Houston, TX, USA light-rail system as a natural experiment, the Houston Travel-Related Activity in Neighborhoods (TRAIN) Study was developed to address these unanswered questions...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
May O Lwin, Santosh Vijaykumar, Vajira Sampath Rathnayake, Gentatsu Lim, Chitra Panchapakesan, Schubert Foo, Ruwan Wijayamuni, Prasad Wimalaratne, Owen Noel Newton Fernando
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has witnessed a series of dengue epidemics over the past five years, with the western province, home to the political capital of Colombo, bearing more than half of the dengue burden. Existing dengue monitoring prevention programs are exhausted as public health inspectors (PHIs) cope with increasing workloads and paper-based modes of surveillance and education, characterizing a reactive system unable to cope with the enormity of the problem. On the other hand, the unprecedented proliferation and affordability of mobile phones since 2009 and a supportive political climate have thus far remained unexploited for the use of mobile-based interventions for dengue management...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Elizabeth Ackley-Holbrook, Jessica Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jonathon M Vivoda, Steven G Heeringa, Amy J Schulz, Joe Grengs, Cathleen M Connell
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Driving is by far the most common mode of transportation in the United States, but driving ability is known to decline as people experience age-related functional declines. Some older adults respond to such declines by self-limiting their driving to situations with a low perceived risk of crashing, and many people eventually stop driving completely. Previous research has largely focused on individual and interpersonal predictors of driving reduction and cessation (DRC)...
June 23, 2016: Gerontologist
Courtney Coughenour, Mackenzie S Burns
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this exploratory study were to: (1) characterize selected community design features; and (2) determine the relationship between select features and physical activity (PA) levels and nutrition habits for a small sample of low-income southern Nevadans. METHODS: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from selected participants of the Nevada Healthy Homes Partnership program; self-report data on PA and diet habits were compared to national guidelines...
July 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Richard Casey Sadler
BACKGROUND: The availability of healthy foods in a neighborhood remains a key determinant of diet and diet-related disease in disadvantaged communities. Innovative solutions to the 'food desert' problem include the deployment of mobile markets and healthy corner store initiatives. Such initiatives, however, do not always capitalize on the principles guiding retail development and the possibilities of GIS-based data. Simultaneously, community partners are not always engaged effectively in the planning for such interventions, which limits acceptability and suitability of such work...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Kun Ming Kenneth Lim, Chenhao Li, Kern Rei Chng, Niranjan Nagarajan
MOTIVATION: Microbial consortia are frequently defined by numerous interactions within the community that are key to understanding their function. While microbial interactions have been extensively studied experimentally, information regarding them is dispersed in the scientific literature. As manual collation is an infeasible option, automated data processing tools are needed to make this information easily accessible. RESULTS: We present @MInter, an automated information extraction system based on Support Vector Machines to analyze paper abstracts and infer microbial interactions...
October 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Shannon N Zenk, Graciela Mentz, Amy J Schulz, Vicki Johnson-Lawrence, Causandra R Gaines
INTRODUCTION: Blacks, Hispanics, and women of lower socioeconomic status tend to have a higher risk of obesity. Numerous studies over the past decade examined the role of the neighborhood food environment in body weight. However, few were longitudinal. PURPOSE: This longitudinal study examined whether multiple measures of neighborhood food availability were associated with body mass index (BMI) in a predominately Black and Hispanic adult sample living in low- to moderate-income urban neighborhoods...
May 25, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Greg Townley, L Pearson, Josephine M Lehrwyn, Nicole T Prophet, Mareike Trauernicht
Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being...
June 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
Sutyajeet Soneja, Chengsheng Jiang, Crystal Romeo Upperman, Raghu Murtugudde, Clifford S Mitchell, David Blythe, Amy R Sapkota, Amir Sapkota
Consumption of contaminated poultry, raw milk and water are significant risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Previous studies also have investigated the association between weather (temperature and precipitation) and increased risk of campylobacteriosis, but limited information exists regarding the impacts of extreme heat and precipitation events on campylobacteriosis risk, and how such risk may differentially impact coastal communities. We obtained Campylobacter case data 2002-2012; n=4804) from the Maryland Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet)...
August 2016: Environmental Research
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