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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614377/spatial-distribution-of-child-pedestrian-injuries-along-census-tract-boundaries-implications-for-identifying-area-based-correlates
#1
Jacqueline W Curtis
Census tracts are often used to investigate area-based correlates of a variety of health outcomes. This approach has been shown to be valuable in understanding the ways that health is shaped by place and to design appropriate interventions that account for community-level processes. Following this line of inquiry, it is common in the study of pedestrian injuries to aggregate the point level locations of these injuries to the census tracts in which they occur. Such aggregation enables investigation of the relationships between a range of socioeconomic variables and areas of notably high or low incidence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608035/mapping-meaningful-places-on-washington-s-olympic-peninsula-toward-a-deeper-understanding-of-landscape-values
#2
Lee Karol Cerveny, Kelly Biedenweg, Rebecca McLain
Landscape values mapping has been widely employed as a form of public participation GIS (PPGIS) in natural resource planning and decision-making to capture the complex array of values, uses, and interactions between people and landscapes. A landscape values typology has been commonly employed in the mapping of social and environmental values in a variety of management settings and scales. We explore how people attribute meanings and assign values to special places on the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, USA) using both a landscape values typology and qualitative responses about residents' place-relationships...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555475/geographic-clustering-of-elderly-people-with-above-norm-anthropometric-measurements-and-blood-chemistry
#3
Carlos Mena, Eduardo Fuentes, Yony Ormazábal, Iván Palomo
The global percentage of people over 60 is strongly increasing and estimated to exceed 20% by 20,150, which means that there will be an increase in many pathological conditions related to aging. Mapping of the location of aging people and identification of their needs can be extremely valuable from a social-economic point of view. Participants in this study were 148 randomly selected adults from Talca City, Chile aged 60-74 at baseline. Geographic information systems (GIS) analyses were performed using ArcGIS software through its module Spatial Autocorrelation...
May 11, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510584/identification-of-novel-risk-factors-for-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-spatial-statistics-and-geographic-information-system-analyses
#4
Deverick J Anderson, Leoncio Flavio Rojas, Shera Watson, Lauren P Knelson, Sohayla Pruitt, Sarah S Lewis, Rebekah W Moehring, Emily E Sickbert Bennett, David J Weber, Luke F Chen, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: The rate of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) is increasing. While receipt of antibiotics remains an important risk factor for CDI, studies related to acquisition of C. difficile outside of hospitals are lacking. As a result, risk factors for exposure to C. difficile in community settings have been inadequately studied. MAIN OBJECTIVE: To identify novel environmental risk factors for CA-CDI. METHODS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients with CA-CDI from 1/1/2007 through 12/31/2014 in a 10-county area in central North Carolina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481962/the-association-between-urban-tree-cover-and-gun-assault-a-case-control-and-casecrossover-study
#5
Michelle C Kondo, Eugenia C South, Charles C Branas, Therese S Richmond, Douglas J Wiebe
Green space and vegetation may play a protective role for urban violence. We investigated whether being near urban tree cover during outdoor activities related to being assaulted with a gun. We conducted GIS-assisted interviews with 10- to 24-year old males in Philadelphia, PA including 135 patients who had been shot with a firearm and 274 community controls, between 2008-2011. Each subject reported a step-by-step mapped account of where and with whom they travelled over a full day from waking until being assaulted or going to bed...
May 6, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330517/genetic-characterization-of-spotted-fever-group-rickettsiae-in-questing-ixodid-ticks-collected-in-israel-and-environmental-risk-factors-for-their-infection
#6
Jessica Rose, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Moh A Alkhamis, Adi Ben-Nun, Itamar Lensky, Eyal Klement, Abedelmajeed Nasereddin, Ziad A Abdeen, Shimon Harrus
This study aimed to genetically characterize spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in questing ixodid ticks from Israel and to identify risk factors associated with SFGR-positive ticks using molecular techniques and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis. 1039 ticks from the genus Rhipicephalus were collected during 2014. 109/1039 (10·49%) carried SFGR-DNA of either Rickettsia massiliae (95), 'Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae' (8) or Rickettsia conorii (6). Higher prevalence of SFGR was found in Rhipicephalus turanicus (18·00%) compared with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (3·22%)...
March 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325736/geospatial-approaches-to-cancer-control-and-population-sciences
#7
EDITORIAL
Mario Schootman, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Kevin A Henry, Electra D Paskett, Gary L Ellison, April Oh, Stephen H Taplin, Zaria Tatalovich, David A Berrigan
Cancer incidence and mortality display strong geographic patterns worldwide and in the United States (1, 2). The environment where individuals live, work, and play is increasingly being recognized as important across the cancer control continuum, including the risk of cancer development, detection, diagnosis, treatment, mortality, and survivorship (3-5). At the same time, emergent technological capacity in geographic information systems (GIS) and mapping, along with increasing sophistication in applied spatial methods, has resulted in a growing research community developing and applying geospatial approaches in health research (5)...
April 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291805/socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-jamaica
#8
Debbie S Thompson, Novie Younger-Coleman, Parris Lyew-Ayee, Lisa-Gaye Greene, Michael S Boyne, Terrence E Forrester
OBJECTIVES: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is an important risk factor for illness and death globally, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. We hypothesized that SAM is positively correlated to poverty, low educational attainment, major crime and higher mean soil concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic. METHODS: We reviewed admission records of infants admitted with a diagnosis of SAM over 14 years (2000-2013) in Jamaica. Poverty index, educational attainment, major crime and environmental heavy metal exposure were represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219378/from-urban-planning-and-emergency-training-to-pok%C3%A3-mon-go-applications-of-virtual-reality-gis-vrgis-and-augmented-reality-gis-argis-in-personal-public-and-environmental-health
#9
EDITORIAL
Maged N Kamel Boulos, Zhihan Lu, Paul Guerrero, Charlene Jennett, Anthony Steed
The latest generation of virtual and mixed reality hardware has rekindled interest in virtual reality GIS (VRGIS) and augmented reality GIS (ARGIS) applications in health, and opened up new and exciting opportunities and possibilities for using these technologies in the personal and public health arenas. From smart urban planning and emergency training to Pokémon Go, this article offers a snapshot of some of the most remarkable VRGIS and ARGIS solutions for tackling public and environmental health problems, and bringing about safer and healthier living options to individuals and communities...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209283/community-audit-of-social-civil-and-activity-domains-in-diverse-environments-cascadde
#10
Emily A Knapp, Claudia Nau, Sy Brandau, Joseph DeWalle, Annemarie G Hirsch, Lisa Bailey-Davis, Brian S Schwartz, Thomas A Glass
There are currently no direct observation environmental audit tools that measure diverse aspects of the obesity-related environment efficiently and reliably in a variety of geographic settings. The goal was to develop a new instrument to reliably characterize the overall properties and features of rural, suburban, and urban settings along multiple dimensions. The Community Audit of Social, Civil, and Activity Domains in Diverse Environments (CASCADDE) is an iPad-based instrument that incorporates GPS coordinates and photography and comprises 214 items yielding seven summary indices...
April 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117164/modelling-of-hydrogen-sulfide-dispersion-from-the-geothermal-power-plants-of-tuscany-italy
#11
Renato Somma, Domenico Granieri, Claudia Troise, Carlo Terranova, Giuseppe De Natale, Maria Pedone
We applied the Eulerian code DISGAS (DISpersion of GAS) to investigate the dispersion of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from 32 geothermal power plants (out of 35 active) belonging to the geothermal districts of Larderello, Travale-Radicondoli and Monte Amiata, in Tuscany (Italy). An updated geographic database, for use in a GIS environment, was realized in order to process input data required by the code and to handle the outputs. The results suggest that H2S plumes emitted from geothermal power plants are mainly concentrated around the stacks of emission (H2S concentration up to 1100μg/m(3)) and rapidly dilute along the dominant local wind direction...
January 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109661/mapping-sites-of-high-tb-transmission-risk-integrating-the-shared-air-and-social-behaviour-of-tb-cases-and-adolescents-in-a-south-african-township
#12
Benjamin Patterson, Carl D Morrow, Daniel Kohls, Caroline Deignan, Samuel Ginsburg, Robin Wood
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in poverty-stricken areas of the world. Communal gathering places account for the majority of TB transmission in high burden settings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the social behaviour patterns of individuals who have developed TB disease and adolescents at risk of infection. To develop a cheap and effective method to locate transmission hot spots in high burden communities. DESIGN: Portable, combined CO2/GIS monitors and location diaries were given to individuals from a South African township...
April 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109629/the-pharmacist-s-role-in-overdose-using-mapping-technologies-to-analyze-naloxone-and-pharmacy-distribution
#13
Allison Burrell, Laken Ethun, Jaime Allen Fawcett, Sherry Rickard-Aasen, Karl Williams, Shannon M Kearney, Janice L Pringle
OBJECTIVES: To present preliminary research using geographic information system (GIS) mapping as a tool that can be integrated into pharmacy practice to increase access to and utilization of pharmacy-based interventions, including the distribution of naloxone. METHODS: Overdose death data was collected from medical examiner reports in an online database, and pharmacies carrying and distributing naloxone were determined by ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) in Allegheny County, PA...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105701/climate-change-and-alpine-stream-biology-progress-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#14
Scott Hotaling, Debra S Finn, J Joseph Giersch, David W Weisrock, Dean Jacobsen
In alpine regions worldwide, climate change is dramatically altering ecosystems and affecting biodiversity in many ways. For streams, receding alpine glaciers and snowfields, paired with altered precipitation regimes, are driving shifts in hydrology, species distributions, basal resources, and threatening the very existence of some habitats and biota. Alpine streams harbour substantial species and genetic diversity due to significant habitat insularity and environmental heterogeneity. Climate change is expected to affect alpine stream biodiversity across many levels of biological resolution from micro- to macroscopic organisms and genes to communities...
January 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086893/seasonal-variation-in-geographical-access-to-maternal-health-services-in-regions-of-southern-mozambique
#15
Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Nadine Schuurman, Charfudin Sacoor, Helena Edith Boene, Faustino Vilanculo, Marianne Vidler, Laura Magee, Peter von Dadelszen, Esperança Sevene, Khátia Munguambe, Tabassum Firoz
BACKGROUND: Geographic proximity to health facilities is a known determinant of access to maternal care. Methods of quantifying geographical access to care have largely ignored the impact of precipitation and flooding. Further, travel has largely been imagined as unimodal where one transport mode is used for entire journeys to seek care. This study proposes a new approach for modeling potential spatio-temporal access by evaluating the impact of precipitation and floods on access to maternal health services using multiple transport modes, in southern Mozambique...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077095/geographic-information-system-for-improving-maternal-and-newborn-health-recommendations-for-policy-and-programs
#16
Yordanos B Molla, Barbara Rawlins, Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Marc Cunningham, Juan Eugenio Hernández Ávila, Corrine Warren Ruktanonchai, Kavita Singh, Sylvia Alford, Mira Thompson, Vikas Dwivedi, Allisyn C Moran, Zoe Matthews
This correspondence argues and offers recommendations for how Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to maternal and newborn health data could potentially be used as part of the broader efforts for ending preventable maternal and newborn mortality. These recommendations were generated from a technical consultation on reporting and mapping maternal deaths that was held in Washington, DC from January 12 to 13, 2015 and hosted by the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) global Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP)...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056726/community-mapping-of-sex-work-criminalization-and-violence-impacts-on-hiv-treatment-interruptions-among-marginalized-women-living-with-hiv-in-vancouver-canada
#17
Shira M Goldenberg, Kathleen Deering, Ofer Amram, Silvia Guillemi, Paul Nguyen, Julio Montaner, Kate Shannon
Despite the high HIV burden faced by sex workers, data on access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. Using an innovative spatial epidemiological approach, we explored how the social geography of sex work criminalization and violence impacts HIV treatment interruptions among sex workers living with HIV in Vancouver over a 3.5-year period. Drawing upon data from a community-based cohort (AESHA, 2010-2013) and linked external administrative data on ART dispensation, GIS mapping and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to prospectively examine the effects of spatial criminalization and violence near women's places of residence on 2-day ART interruptions...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033588/neighborhood-social-and-physical-environments-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-african-americans-the-jackson-heart-study
#18
Samson Y Gebreab, DeMarc A Hickson, Mario Sims, Sharon B Wyatt, Sharon K Davis, Adolfo Correa, Ana V Diez-Roux
Using data from Jackson Heart Study, we investigated the associations of neighborhood social and physical environments with prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in African Americans (AA). Among non-diabetic participants at baseline (n=3670), 521 (14.2%) developed T2DM during a median follow-up of 7.3 years. Measures of neighborhood social environments, and food and physical activity resources were derived using survey-and GIS-based methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) and Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards models...
December 26, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005258/pancreatic-cancer-management-and-treatment-landscape-awareness-of-gastroenterologists-results-from-us-physician-surveys-conducted-in-2013-and-2015
#19
Gregory D Salinas, Lee Whitworth, Patti Merwin, Joan Emarine
INTRODUCTION: In the US, gastroenterologists (GIs) often inform patients of the initial diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Thus, GIs are frequently the first physicians to provide vital information regarding treatment strategies and options to patients which can have significant impact on subsequent clinical decision-making. Since treatments for pancreatic cancer are rapidly evolving, it may be challenging for GIs to maintain an adequate knowledge base required to provide accurate cursory information or avoid providing inaccurate data to patients at a very sensitive point in time in their care...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992252/exploring-the-objective-and-perceived-environmental-attributes-of-older-adults-neighborhood-walking-routes-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#20
Mika R Moran, Perla Werner, Israel Doron, Neta HaGani, Yael Benvenisti, Abby C King, Sandra J Winter, Jylana L Sheats, Randi Garber, Hadas Motro, Shlomit Egron
Walking is a central form of physical activity among older adults that is associated with the physical environment at various scales. This mixed-methods study employs a concurrent nested design to explore objective and perceived environmental characteristics of older adults' local walking routes. This was achieved by integrating quantitative Geographic Information System (GIS) data with qualitative data obtained using the Stanford Discovery Tool (DT). Fifty-nine community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults (14 men and 45 women aged 50+) were recruited in a snowball approach through community centers in the city of Haifa (Israel)...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
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