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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665862/environmental-and-social-demographic-predictors-of-the-southern-house-mosquito-culex-quinquefasciatus-in-new-orleans-louisiana
#1
Imelda K Moise, Claudia Riegel, Ephantus J Muturi
BACKGROUND: Understanding the major predictors of disease vectors such as mosquitoes can guide the development of effective and timely strategies for mitigating vector-borne disease outbreaks. This study examined the influence of selected environmental, weather and sociodemographic factors on the spatial and temporal distribution of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected over a 4-year period (2006, 2008, 2009 and 2010) using CDC gravid traps...
April 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625598/community-readiness-and-momentum-identifying-and-including-community-driven-variables-in-a-mixed-method-rural-palliative-care-service-siting-model
#2
V A Crooks, M Giesbrecht, H Castleden, N Schuurman, M Skinner, A Williams
BACKGROUND: Health service administrators make decisions regarding how to best use limited resources to have the most significant impact. Service siting models are tools that can help in this capacity. Here we build on our own mixed-method service siting model focused on identifying rural Canadian communities most in need of and ready for palliative care service enhancement through incorporating new community-driven insights. METHODS: We conducted 40 semi-structured interviews with formal and informal palliative care providers from four purposefully selected rural communities across Canada...
April 6, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603244/the-role-of-neighborhood-context-and-school-climate-in-school-level-academic-achievement
#3
Linda D Ruiz, Susan D McMahon, Leonard A Jason
In recent years, the quality of education available to children has become increasingly dependent on the social and economic demographics of neighborhoods in which the children live. This study assesses the role of community violence in explaining the relation between socio-economic status (SES) and academic outcomes and the potential of positive school climate to promote academic achievement. With a sample of 297 Chicago public elementary schools, we examine community-level and school-level data and use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping to illustrate how school academic achievement coincides with neighborhood economics and crime statistics...
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602872/palm-oil-in-myanmar-a-spatiotemporal-analysis-of-the-effects-of-industrial-farming-on-biodiversity-loss
#4
Khristopher Nicholas, Jessica Fanzo, Kytt MacManus
BACKGROUND: Palm oil consumption is potentially deleterious to human health, and its production has resulted in 11 million hectares of deforestation globally. Importing roughly 394,000 metric tons of palm oil in 2012 alone, the Burmese government has recently pushed for intensive oil palm development to sate domestic demand for consumption and become international market players. Given well-studied linkages between biodiversity loss and ecosystem instability, this study aims to characterize the nature of deforestation for oil palm production in Myanmar, its relationship to increased biodiversity loss, and contextualize the potential impacts of this loss on diets and human health in rural Myanmar...
March 21, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557180/evaluation-of-a-community-s-risk-for-canine-parvovirus-and-distemper-using-antibody-testing-and-gis-mapping-of-animal-shelter-intakes
#5
Miranda E Spindel, Matthew R Krecic, Margaret R Slater, Nicole Vigil
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify where dogs with negative antibody tests to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) originated when entering a community shelter, using a commercially available ELISA antibody test and Geographic Information Systems mapping. Of 2745 canines entering during a three-month period, 1056 test results were obtained. Dogs or puppies weighing over 2 lb were eligible if they could be humanely, nonchemically restrained for phlebotomy. Age and minor health issues weren't exclusions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554118/barriers-for-pregnant-women-living-in-rural-agricultural-villages-to-accessing-antenatal-care-in-cambodia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study-combined-with-a-geographic-information-system
#6
Junko Yasuoka, Keiko Nanishi, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Sumihiro Suzuki, Po Ly, Boukheng Thavrin, Tsutomu Omatsu, Tetsuya Mizutani
BACKGROUND: Maternal morbidity and mortality is still a major public health issue in low- and middle-income countries such as Cambodia. Improving access to antenatal care (ANC) services for pregnant women has been widely recognized as one of the most effective means of reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. As such, this study examined the barriers for pregnant women living in rural, agricultural villages to accessing ANC based on data collected in the Ratanakiri province, one of the least developed provinces in Cambodia, using a combination of a community-based cross-sectional survey and a geographic information system (GIS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509947/medical-management-of-acute-radiation-syndrome-and-associated-infections-in-a-high-casualty-incident
#7
Nicholas Dainiak
A high-casualty incident may result in a significant human toll due to the inability of a community to meet the health care demands of the population. A successful medical response requires health care facilities to not only communicate and integrate medical services, meet surge capacity, protect health care workers and implement triage and treatment protocols, but also to provide the venue for clinical management of acute radiation injuries and their associated infections. Today, clinical management is primarily guided by the recommendations of a Consultancy that were made at the World Health Organization (WHO)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499545/vulnerability-assessment-including-tangible-and-intangible-components-in-the-index-composition-an-amazon-case-study-of-flooding-and-flash-flooding
#8
Milena Marília Nogueira de Andrade, Claudio Fabian Szlafsztein
The vulnerability of cities and communities in the Amazon to flooding and flash flooding is increasing. The effects of extreme events on populations vary across landscapes, causing vulnerability to differ spatially. Traditional vulnerability studies in Brazil and across the world have used the vulnerability index for the country and, more recently, municipality scales. The vulnerability dimensions are exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. For each of these dimensions, there is a group of indicators that constitutes a vulnerability index using quantitative data...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423934/zoonotic-disease-transmission-associated-with-feral-cats-in-a-metropolitan-area-a-geospatial-analysis
#9
S J Taetzsch, A S Bertke, K R Gruszynski
Feral cats raise public health concerns due to their large population numbers and ability to harbour pathogens that cause disease in people, pets, and wildlife. Information regarding the potential for feral cats to intersect with areas frequented by humans is lacking. This study examined the potential for feral cats and human territories to overlap in the Richmond metropolitan area of Central Virginia. Feral cats (n = 275) were trapped for monthly trap-neuter-release (TNR) clinics from July to November 2016...
February 8, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406286/using-gis-to-visualize-relationships-between-perinatal-outcomes-and-neighborhood-characteristics-when-planning-community-interventions
#10
Patricia D Suplee, Joan Rosen Bloch, Amy Hillier, Tasha Herbert
OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal morbidity, birth outcomes, and neighborhood characteristics of urban women from a racially segregated city with the use of a geographic information system. DESIGN: Exploratory neighborhood-level study. Existing birth certificate data were linked and aggregated to neighborhood-level data for spatial analyses. SETTING: Southern city in New Jersey. SAMPLE: Women and their 7,858 live births that occurred between 2009 and 2013...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405236/combining-geospatial-analysis-with-dementia-risk-utilising-general-practice-data-a-systematic-review
#11
N Bagheri, K Wangdi, N Cherbuin, K J Anstey
Geographical information systems (GIS) and geospatial analysis techniques will help to identify significant dementia risk clusters (hotspots) across communities and will enable policy makers to target prevention interventions to the right place. This review synthesises the published literature on geospatial analysis techniques for quantifying and mapping dementia risk, and reviews available dementia risk assessment tools. A systematic literature review was undertaken in four medical and life sciences databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central, Embase, and Web of Sciences) from their inception to March 2017 for all articles relating to dementia...
2018: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361922/access-to-public-drinking-water-fountains-in-berkeley-california-a-geospatial-analysis
#12
Dylan C Avery, Charlotte D Smith
BACKGROUND: In January 2015, Berkeley, California became the first city in the Unites States to impose a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. The tax is intended to discourage purchase of sugary beverages and promote consumption of healthier alternatives such as tap water. The goal of the study was to assess the condition of public drinking water fountains and determine if there is a difference in access to clean, functioning fountains based on race or socio-economic status. METHODS: A mobile-GIS App was created to locate and collect data on existing drinking water fountains in Berkeley, CA...
January 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338012/using-geospatial-techniques-to-develop-an-emergency-referral-transport-system-for-suspected-sepsis-patients-in-bangladesh
#13
Atique Iqbal Chowdhury, Rafiqul Haider, Abu Yousuf Md Abdullah, Aliki Christou, Nabeel Ashraf Ali, Ahmed Ehsnaur Rahman, Afrin Iqbal, Sanwarul Bari, D M Emdadul Hoque, Shams El Arifeen, Niranjan Kissoon, Charles P Larson
BACKGROUND: A geographic information system (GIS)-based transport network within an emergency referral system can be the key to reducing health system delays and increasing the chances of survival, especially during an emergency. We employed a GIS to design an emergency transport system for the rapid transfer of pregnant or early post-partum women, newborns, and children under 5 years of age with suspected sepsis under the Interrupting Pathways to Sepsis Initiative (IPSI) project. METHODS: A GIS database was developed by mapping the villages, roads, and relevant physical features of the study area...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298314/improving-mapping-for-ebola-response-through-mobilising-a-local-community-with-self-owned-smartphones-tonkolili-district-sierra-leone-january-2015
#14
Laura M Nic Lochlainn, Ivan Gayton, Georgios Theocharopoulos, Robin Edwards, Kostas Danis, Ronald Kremer, Karline Kleijer, Sumaila M Tejan, Mohamed Sankoh, Augustin Jimissa, Jane Greig, Grazia Caleo
BACKGROUND: During the 2014-16 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, the Magburaka Ebola Management Centre (EMC) operated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, identified that available district maps lacked up-to-date village information to facilitate timely implementation of EVD control strategies. In January 2015, we undertook a survey in chiefdoms within the MSF EMC catchment area to collect mapping and village data. We explore the feasibility and cost to mobilise a local community for this survey, describe validation against existing mapping sources and use of the data to prioritise areas for interventions, and lessons learned...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273243/mapping-coastal-marine-debris-using-aerial-imagery-and-spatial-analysis
#15
Kirsten Moy, Brian Neilson, Anne Chung, Amber Meadows, Miguel Castrence, Stephen Ambagis, Kristine Davidson
This study is the first to systematically quantify, categorize, and map marine macro-debris across the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), including remote areas (e.g., Niihau, Kahoolawe, and northern Molokai). Aerial surveys were conducted over each island to collect high resolution photos, which were processed into orthorectified imagery and visually analyzed in GIS. The technique provided precise measurements of the quantity, location, type, and size of macro-debris (>0.05m2 ), identifying 20,658 total debris items...
December 19, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147982/opportunity-mapping-of-natural-flood-management-measures-a-case-study-from-the-headwaters-of-the-warwickshire-avon
#16
Tom Lavers, Susanne Charlesworth
The use of natural flood management (NFM) measures to address severe flooding received considerable public attention during December 2015-January 2016 storms. Within the Warwickshire-Avon Catchment, UK, high arable and improved grassland land cover with small, isolated communities at risk, lead to the exploration of novel techniques that use farmland high up in flood-prone catchments to hold water and reduce outflow discharge. This paper will discuss the methodology used to identify areas in the Warwickshire-Avon, which could be used to install NFM measures to attenuate the storm peak and provide wider ecosystem services, principally addressing total phosphate and sediment entering the receiving watercourse...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075453/a-modeling-framework-for-the-establishment-and-spread-of-invasive-species-in-heterogeneous-environments
#17
Audrey Lustig, Susan P Worner, Joel P W Pitt, Crile Doscher, Daniel B Stouffer, Senait D Senay
Natural and human-induced events are continuously altering the structure of our landscapes and as a result impacting the spatial relationships between individual landscape elements and the species living in the area. Yet, only recently has the influence of the surrounding landscape on invasive species spread started to be considered. The scientific community increasingly recognizes the need for broader modeling framework that focuses on cross-study comparisons at different spatiotemporal scales. Using two illustrative examples, we introduce a general modeling framework that allows for a systematic investigation of the effect of habitat change on invasive species establishment and spread...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043763/status-report-geographic-retail-food-environment-measures-for-use-in-public-health
#18
Ahalya Mahendra, Jane Y Polsky, Éric Robitaille, Marc Lefebvre, Tina McBrien, Leia M Minaker
The Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario (APHEO) Core Indicators Work Group standardizes definitions and calculation methods for over 120 public health indicators to enhance accurate and standardized community health status reporting across public health units in Ontario. The Built Environment Subgroup is a multi-disciplinary group made up of planners, researchers, policy analysts, registered dietitians, geographic information systems (GIS) analysts and epidemiologists. The Subgroup selected and operationalized a suite of objective, standardized indicators intended to help public health units and regional health authorities assess their community retail food environments...
October 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040200/geospatial-mapping-can-be-used-to-identify-geographic-areas-and-social-factors-associated-with-intentional-injury-as-targets-for-prevention-efforts-distinct-to-a-given-community
#19
C H Lasecki, F C Mujica, S Stutsman, A Y Williams, L Ding, J D Simmons, S B Brevard
BACKGROUND: Geographic information systems (GIS) have proven effective in studying intentional injury in various communities; however, GIS is not implemented widely for use by Level I trauma centers in understanding patient populations. Our study of intentional injury combines the capabilities of GIS with a Level I trauma center registry to determine the spatial distribution of victims and correlated socioeconomic factors. METHODS: One thousand ninety-nine of 3,109 total incidents of intentional trauma in the trauma registry from 2005 to 2015 had sufficient street address information to be mapped in GIS...
January 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986822/global-spread-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses-predicting-pandemics
#20
Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Marc Souris, Willy Valdivia-Granda
As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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