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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936166/increased-age-but-not-parity-predisposes-to-higher-bacteriuria-burdens-due-to-streptococcus-urinary-tract-infection-and-influences-bladder-cytokine-responses-which-develop-independent-of-tissue-bacterial-loads
#1
Matthew J Sullivan, Alison J Carey, Sophie Y Leclercq, Chee K Tan, Glen C Ulett
Streptococcus agalactiae causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant adults, non-pregnant adults, immune-compromised individuals and the elderly. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI in distinct patient populations is poorly understood. In this study, we used murine models of UTI incorporating young mice, aged and dam mice to show that uropathogenic S. agalactiae causes bacteriuria at significantly higher levels in aged mice compared to young mice and this occurs coincident with equivalent levels of bladder tissue colonisation at 24 h post-infection (p...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935839/capsular-polysaccharide-expression-in-commensal-streptococcus-species-genetic-and-antigenic-similarities-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#2
Uffe B Skov Sørensen, Kaihu Yao, Yonghong Yang, Hervé Tettelin, Mogens Kilian
: Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule production distinguishes S. pneumoniae from closely related commensals of the mitis group streptococci. Based on antigenic and genetic analyses of 187 mitis group streptococci, including 90 recognized serotypes of S...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935662/antibacterial-activity-of-glass-ionomer-cement-modified-by-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#3
Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso Garcia, Mariana Florian Bell Cardia, Renata Serignoli Francisconi, Lívia Nordi Dovigo, Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidório, Alessandra Nara de Souza Rastelli, Ana Carolina Botta
This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporated into self-cured glass ionomer cement (GIC) and light-cured resin-reinforced GIC on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The GICs, Fuji II (GC America) and Fuji II LC (GC America), were incorporated with nanoparticles at concentrations of 0%, 1%, and 2% by weight, and the biofilm maturation time was one and seven days. Circular specimens of each GIC type were prepared. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the number of colony forming units of S...
December 9, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934941/oral-cnm-positive-streptococcus-mutans-expressing-collagen-binding-activity-is-a-risk-factor-for-cerebral-microbleeds-and-cognitive-impairment
#4
Isao Watanabe, Nagato Kuriyama, Fumitaro Miyatani, Ryota Nomura, Shuhei Naka, Kazuhiko Nakano, Masafumi Ihara, Komei Iwai, Daisuke Matsui, Etsuko Ozaki, Teruhide Koyama, Masaru Nishigaki, Toshiro Yamamoto, Aiko Tamura, Toshiki Mizuno, Kentaro Akazawa, Akihiro Takada, Kazuo Takeda, Kei Yamada, Masanori Nakagawa, Tokutaro Tanaka, Narisato Kanamura, Robert P Friedland, Yoshiyuki Watanabe
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are an important risk factor for stroke and dementia. We have shown that the collagen binding surface Cnm protein expressed on cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans is involved in the development of CMBs. However, whether the collagen binding activity of cnm-positive S. mutans is related to the nature of the CMBs or to cognitive impairment is unclear. Two-hundred seventy nine community residents (70.0 years) were examined for the presence or absence of cnm-positive S. mutans in the saliva by PCR and collagen binding activity, CMBs, and cognitive function were evaluated...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933318/global-analysis-and-comparison-of-the-transcriptomes-and-proteomes-of-group-a-streptococcus-biofilms
#5
Jeffrey A Freiberg, Yoann Le Breton, Bao Q Tran, Alison J Scott, Janette M Harro, Robert K Ernst, Young Ah Goo, Emmanuel F Mongodin, David R Goodlett, Kevin S McIver, Mark E Shirtliff
To gain a better understanding of the genes and proteins involved in group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) biofilm growth, we analyzed the transcriptome, cellular proteome, and cell wall proteome from biofilms at different stages and compared them to those of plankton-stage GAS. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) shotgun proteomics, we found distinct expression profiles in the transcriptome and proteome. A total of 46 genes and 41 proteins showed expression across the majority of biofilm time points that was consistently higher or consistently lower than that seen across the majority of planktonic time points...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933153/improving-pneumococcal-vaccination-rates-of-medical-inpatients-in-urban-nepal-using-quality-improvement-measures
#6
Allison Bock, Kathan Chintamaneni, Lisa Rein, Tifany Frazer, Gyan Kayastha, Theodore MacKinney
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is associated with high morbidity and mortality in low income countries. In Nepal, there is a high lung disease burden and incidence of pneumonia due to multiple factors including indoor air pollution, dust exposure, recurrent infections, and cigarette smoking. Despite the ready availability of effective pneumococcal vaccines (PNV), vaccine coverage rates remain suboptimal globally. Quality Improvement (QI) principles could be applied to improve compliance, but it is a virtually new technology in Nepal...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932683/survival-of-bacteria-of-laboratory-animal-origin-on-cage-bedding-and-inactivation-by-hydrogen-peroxide-vapour
#7
Laurentiu Benga, W Peter M Benten, Eva Engelhardt, Christina Gougoula, Roland Schulze-Röbbecke, Martin Sager
This study aims to determine the ability of laboratory animal bacteria to resist desiccation and inactivation by hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) on paper bedding pieces. Bedding pieces were saturated with bacterial suspensions in water or 2% (w/v) bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water, and held in a mouse facility. Viable counts showed variable survival rates over time for the bacterial species used ([Pasteurella] pneumotropica, Muribacter muris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter redioresistens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Enterococcus faecalis, β-haemolytic Streptococcus spp...
December 8, 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932617/reduced-trans-placental-transfer-of-group-b-streptococcus-surface-protein-antibodies-in-hiv-infected-mother-newborn-dyads
#8
Sonwabile Dzanibe, Peter V Adrian, Sheila Z Kimaro Mlacha, Ziyaad Dangor, Gaurav Kwatra, Shabir A Madhi
We evaluated the effect of maternal HIV infection on trans-placental antibody transfer specific to eight group B Streptococcus (GBS) surface protein among 81 HIV-uninfected and 83 HIV-infected mother-newborn pairs using a multiplex immunoassay. Significantly lower antibody titres were detected in HIV-infected mothers and HIV-exposed uninfected newborns compared to HIV-uninfected mother-newborn dyads. Maternal HIV infection was also associated with reduced trans-placental transfer of antibodies for Sip (25.8%), Foldase (30...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932242/elevated-salivary-iga-decreased-anxiety-and-an-altered-oral-microbiota-are-associated-with-active-participation-on-an-undergraduate-athletic-team
#9
Ashley L Lamb, Debra E Hess, Sherie Edenborn, Elizabeth Ubinger, Andres E Carrillo, Pierette M Appasamy
BACKGROUND: Previous reports indicate that regular, but not excessive, exercise can moderate the response to anxiety and alter the immune response, therefore we hypothesized that college student athletes who were actively participating on an NCAA Division III athletics team ("in-season") would have lower levels of anxiety and higher salivary IgA levels than similar college athletes who were in their "off-season".NCAA Division III athletes participate in athletics at a level of intensity that is more moderate compared to other NCAA divisions...
December 5, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931989/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-of-the-italian-population-towards-neisseria-meningitidis-streptococcus%C3%A2-pneumoniae-and-hpv-diseases-and-vaccinations-a%C3%A2-cross-sectional-multicentre-study
#10
C de Waure, G Quaranta, C Ianuale, D Panatto, D Amicizia, L Apprato, P Campanella, M Colotto, C De Meo, F Di Nardo, E M Frisicale, D I La Milia, E Rizzitelli, S Aquilani, M P Briata, V Frumento, L Marensi, A Spadea, V Turello, R Gasparini, W Ricciardi
OBJECTIVES: This study addressed knowledge of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and human papillomavirus (HPV), and attitudes and behaviours towards vaccines against them. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional, multicentre study. METHODS: Data were collected through a questionnaire administered to 530 adults who accessed four Departments of Prevention of the Italian National Health Service in 2013. RESULTS: Less than 50% of people gave the right answer to all the questions concerning the three diseases, but 96...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931924/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-pcr-analysis-and-bacteriological-culture-of-milk-samples-for-identification-of-intramammary-infections-in-dairy-cows-using-latent-class-analysis
#11
A-K Nyman, K Persson Waller, U Emanuelson, J Frössling
Real-time PCR analysis of milk samples is a fast method to identify intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows, and has the potential to be used for routine analysis of test milking composite milk samples. However, the results of the PCR analysis can be difficult to interpret. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of PCR analysis of composite milk samples, and conventional bacteriological culturing (BC) of quarter milk samples, when used to identify cows with IMI...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930727/airway-microbiota-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-from-clinically-well-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Theresa A Laguna, Brandie D Wagner, Cynthia B Williams, Mark J Stevens, Charles E Robertson, Cole W Welchlin, Catherine E Moen, Edith T Zemanick, Jonathan K Harris
BACKGROUND: Upper airway cultures guide the identification and treatment of lung pathogens in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, this may not fully reflect the spectrum of bacteria present in the lower airway. Our objectives were to characterize the airway microbiota using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asymptomatic CF infants during the first year of life and to investigate the relationship between BALF microbiota, standard culture and clinical characteristics. METHODS: BALF, nasopharyngeal (NP) culture and infant pulmonary function testing data were collected at 6 months and one year of age during periods of clinical stability from infants diagnosed with CF by newborn screening...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930540/invasive-bacterial-infections-in-gambians-with-sickle-cell-anemia-in-an-era-of-widespread-pneumococcal-and-hemophilus-influenzae-type-b-vaccination
#13
Germander Soothill, Saffiatou Darboe, Gibril Bah, Lawal Bolarinde, Aubrey Cunnington, Suzanne T Anderson
There is relatively little data on the etiology of bacterial infections in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in West Africa, and no data from countries that have implemented conjugate vaccines against both Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib).We conducted a retrospective analysis of SCA patients admitted to the Medical Research Council Unit, The Gambia, during a 5-year period when there was high coverage of Hib and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. We evaluated 161 admissions of 126 patients between April 2010 and April 2015...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928105/sio2-nanocomposite-film-coating-of-cad-cam-composite-resin-blocks-improves-surface-hardness-and-reduces-susceptibility-to-bacterial-adhesion
#14
Pranithida Kamonwanon, Nanako Hirose, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichi Sasaki, Haruaki Kitagawa, Ranna Kitagawa, Sroisiri Thaweboon, Toemsak Srikhirin, Satoshi Imazato
Composite resin blocks for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) applications have recently become available. However, CAD/CAM composite resins have lower wear resistance and accumulate more plaque than CAD/CAM ceramic materials. We assessed the effects of SiO2-nanocomposite film coating of four types of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks: Cerasmart, Katana Avencia block, Lava Ultimate, and Block HC on surface hardness and bacterial attachment. All composite blocks with coating demonstrated significantly greater Vickers hardness, reduced surface roughness, and greater hydrophobicity than those without coating...
December 6, 2016: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927890/massively-increased-caries-susceptibility-in-an-irf6-cleft-lip-palate-model
#15
B Tamasas, T C Cox
Patients with cleft lip/palate (CLP) have been reported, in some studies, to exhibit an increased prevalence of caries, although the underlying cause for this increase is unknown. In genetically defined mouse models, studies of postnatal sequelae associated with CLP have been hampered by neonatal lethality. Using a conditional targeting approach, we ablated the major CLP gene Irf6 only in the late embryonic oral epithelium (Irf6 cKO), bypassing the role of the gene in lip and palate morphogenesis and thus ensuring survival to adulthood...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927119/recognition-and-management-of-sepsis-in-early-infancy
#16
Joanna Barnden, Vanessa Diamond, Paul Anthony Heaton, Siba Prosad Paul
Serious bacterial and viral infections occurring in early infancy are important factors affecting morbidity and mortality. Recognition of sepsis by healthcare professionals is vital and allows initiation of appropriate early treatment which can be life-saving and improve outcomes for these infants greatly. This article outlines the leading causes of sepsis, for example, group B Streptococcus (GBS), Escherichia coli and herpes simplex virus. We discuss the non-specific ways in which an infant with a serious infection may present to health professionals and highlight crucial features to look for in the history and during examination of an unwell infant, and these include 'red-flag' signs and symptoms that should be carefully elicited...
December 8, 2016: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925869/endovascular-management-of-infected-iliofemoral-pseudoaneurysms-a-systematic-review
#17
Konstantinos G Moulakakis, Vangelis G Alexiou, George S Sfyroeras, John Kakisis, Andreas Lazaris, Spyridon N Vasdekis, Elias N Brountzos, George Geroulakos
We conducted a systematic review regarding the efficacy and outcome of endovascular treatment of infected iliofemoral arterial pseudoaneurysms with covered stents. 35 cases were identified, including 5 own. 22 pseudoaneurysms were located in the femoral area and 13 in the iliac vessels. The most commonly reported complaints were pulsatile groin mass (40 %), sepsis (37.1 %), active bleeding (31.4 %), and groin infection with purulent discharge (17.1 %). S. aureus (65.7 %) and Streptococcus species (22.9 %) were the most common microbes isolated...
December 7, 2016: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925848/hospitalizations-for-pneumococcal-diseases-in-tuscany-from-2002-to-2014-impact-of-universal-pediatric-vaccination-on-the-population
#18
Sara Boccalini, Ornella Varone, Martina Chellini, Luca Pieri, Antonino Sala, Cesare Berardi, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative organism of acute media otitis in children and meningitis and bacterial pneumonia in the community. Since 2008 in Tuscany, central Italy, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7-valent vaccine, switched in 13-valent vaccine in 2010) was actively offered free of charge to all newborns. Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of pneumococcal paediatric vaccination on the Tuscan population on hospitalizations potentially caused by S. pneumoniae, during pre-vaccination (PVP, 2002-2007) and vaccination period (VP, 2009-2014)...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924598/markerless-genome-editing-in-competent-streptococci
#19
Roger Junges, Rabia Khan, Yanina Tovpeko, Heidi A Åmdal, Fernanda C Petersen, Donald A Morrison
Selective markers employed in classical mutagenesis methods using natural genetic transformation can affect gene expression, risk phenotypic effects, and accumulate as unwanted genes during successive mutagenesis cycles. In this chapter, we present a protocol for markerless genome editing in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pneumoniae achieved with an efficient method for natural transformation. High yields of transformants are obtained by combining the unimodal state of competence developed after treatment of S...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924597/natural-transformation-of-oral-streptococci-by-use-of-synthetic-pheromones
#20
Gabriela Salvadori, Roger Junges, Rabia Khan, Heidi A Åmdal, Donald A Morrison, Fernanda C Petersen
The discovery that Streptococcus pneumoniae uses a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) to induce competence for natural transformation, and that other species of the mitis and the anginosus streptococcal groups use a similar system, has expanded the tools to explore gene function and regulatory pathways in streptococci. Two other classes of pheromones have been discovered since then, comprising the bacteriocin-inducing peptide class found in Streptococcus mutans (also named CSP, although different from the former) and the SigX-inducing peptides (XIP), in the mutans, salivarius, bovis, and pyogenes groups of streptococci...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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