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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510584/identification-of-novel-risk-factors-for-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-spatial-statistics-and-geographic-information-system-analyses
#1
Deverick J Anderson, Leoncio Flavio Rojas, Shera Watson, Lauren P Knelson, Sohayla Pruitt, Sarah S Lewis, Rebekah W Moehring, Emily E Sickbert Bennett, David J Weber, Luke F Chen, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: The rate of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) is increasing. While receipt of antibiotics remains an important risk factor for CDI, studies related to acquisition of C. difficile outside of hospitals are lacking. As a result, risk factors for exposure to C. difficile in community settings have been inadequately studied. MAIN OBJECTIVE: To identify novel environmental risk factors for CA-CDI. METHODS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients with CA-CDI from 1/1/2007 through 12/31/2014 in a 10-county area in central North Carolina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491101/geospatial-assessment-of-cholera-in-a-rapidly-urbanizing-environment
#2
Olajumoke Esther Olanrewaju, Kayode Adewale Adepoju
This study mapped out and investigated the spatial relationship between cholera incidences and environmental risk factors in the study area. The study area was stratified into eight zones. Water samples from each zone were collected and analyzed to determine the colony forming units. GIS layers including housing density, digitized roads, rivers, buildings, and cholera incidence data from hospital archives were also collected and analyzed using ArcGIS 10.1. It was observed that there was an association between the ERFs (p < 0...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478980/use-of-geospatial-modeling-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-telestroke-on-access-to-stroke-thrombolysis-in-ontario
#3
Lauren Jewett, Ario Mirian, Ben Connolly, Frank L Silver, Demetrios J Sahlas
BACKGROUND: The treatment of acute ischemic stroke in Ontario is coordinated through a network of stroke centers, supplemented by emergency telemedicine consultations to nonstroke centers through the Ontario Telemedicine Network's province-wide Telestroke program. Using geoinformatics, we sought to evaluate the overall impact of Telestroke on access to stroke thrombolysis in Ontario. METHODS: Ontario population data (census) were used to overlay polygons created by Service Area Analysis using ArcGIS 10...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471933/a-spatial-analysis-of-physician-assistant-programs
#4
J Glenn Forister, Curt Stilp
PURPOSE: The Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant projects a total of 273 accredited programs by the summer of 2020. Over the past 10 years, the number of Central Application Service for Physician Assistants (CASPA) applicants per seat has increased by 53%. However, no studies have addressed the current geographic relationship of applicants to programs and program growth. The purpose of this study was to describe the geospatial patterns and relationships of physician assistant (PA) programs and CASPA applicants...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464595/-analysis-of-spatial-clustering-of-hiv-infected-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-chongqing-of-2004-2015
#5
Y X Hao, Q Q Qin, G H Wu, W Zhang, W Guo, Y Cui, H Liu, Y Y Hu, J P Sun
Objective: To analyze the spatial clustering characteristics of HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chongqing from January 2004 to December 2015 and understand the HIV/AIDS related behaviors among MSM by interview. Methods: Data related to MSM who were infected with HIV and whose present address were in Chongqing, were collected from Information System on the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control. Information included the age when the information was inputted, address, occupation, education level, and marital status...
May 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464212/population-based-geographic-access-to-parent-and-satellite-national-cancer-institute-cancer-center-facilities
#6
Tracy Onega, Jennifer Alford-Teaster, Fahui Wang
BACKGROUND: Satellite facilities of National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer centers have expanded their regional footprints. This study characterized geographic access to parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities nationally overall and by sociodemographics. METHODS: Parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities, which were geocoded in ArcGIS, were ascertained. Travel times from every census tract in the continental United States and Hawaii to the nearest parent and satellite facilities were calculated...
May 2, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455122/kids-cam-an-objective-methodology-to-study-the-world-in-which-children-live
#7
Louise N Signal, Moira B Smith, Michelle Barr, James Stanley, Tim J Chambers, Jiang Zhou, Aaron Duane, Gabrielle L S Jenkin, Amber L Pearson, Cathal Gurrin, Alan F Smeaton, Janet Hoek, Cliona Ni Mhurchu
INTRODUCTION: This paper reports on a new methodology to objectively study the world in which children live. The primary research study (Kids'Cam Food Marketing) illustrates the method; numerous ancillary studies include exploration of children's exposure to alcohol, smoking, "blue" space and gambling, and their use of "green" space, transport, and sun protection. METHODS: One hundred sixty-eight randomly selected children (aged 11-13 years) recruited from 16 randomly selected schools in Wellington, New Zealand used wearable cameras and GPS units for 4 days, recording imagery every 7 seconds and longitude/latitude locations every 5 seconds...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429250/exploring-geospatial-techniques-for-spatiotemporal-change-detection-in-land-cover-dynamics-along-soan-river-pakistan
#8
Hafsa Bashir, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad
Classification of land cover dynamics via satellite imagery has played indispensible services in developing effective management strategies for evaluation and management of water resources. The present study employed geospatial techniques, i.e., integrated GIS and remote sensing for effectual land change study. Hybrid classification approach was applied using ERDAS Imagine 11 to detect changes in land cover dynamics using satellite imagery of Landsat 4, 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM, and Landsat 8 OLI for the years of 1992, 2002, and 2015, respectively...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423108/-potential-health-risks-from-consumption-of-water-with-arsenic-in-colima-mexico
#9
Oliver Mendoza-Cano, Ramón Alberto Sánchez-Piña, Julián Barrón-Quintana, Herguin Benjamin Cuevas-Arellano, Pilar Escalante-Minakata, Ramón Solano-Barajas
Objective: To estimate potential health risks due to chronic ingestion of arsenic from groundwater in Colima, Mexico. Materials and methods: Samples were randomly taken in 36 wells from 10 local aquifers. Analysis was performed by ICP-OES following international standards. Geostatistical interpolation was performed with ArcGIS, implementing a model weighting inverse distance to estimate arsenic routes of exposure and consumption on each locality. The Hazard Quotient Ratio (HQ) and carcinogenic risk (R) for As were estimated...
January 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422709/preterm-birth-among-women-living-within-600-meters-of-high-voltage-overhead-power-lines-a-case-control-study
#10
Taktom Sadeghi, Amirmasoud Ahmadi, Maryam Javadian, Sayyed Asghar Gholamian, Mouloud Agajani Delavar, Sedigheh Esmailzadeh, Bahare Ahmadi, Mozhgan Sadat Hassanpour Hadighi
AIM: The issue of preterm birth due to exposure to magnetic fields from power lines is unclear. Exposure to electromagnetic field in uterus has been hypothesized as possible preterm birth. The aim of the present study was to determine whether living closer to high voltage power lines increased the risk of preterm labor. METHODS: In a nested case-control study, 135 cases of singleton live spontaneous preterm birth in Rohani hospital, Babol, Iran, during the period between 2013 and 2014 were studied...
April 18, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405753/relationships-between-land-use-and-stream-nutrient-concentrations-in-a-highly-urbanized-tropical-region-of-brazil-thresholds-and-riparian-zones
#11
F Tromboni, W K Dodds
Nutrient enrichment in streams due to land use is increasing globally, reducing water quality and causing eutrophication of downstream fresh and coastal waters. In temperate developed countries, the intensive use of fertilizers in agriculture is a main driver of increasing nutrient concentrations, but high levels and fast rates of urbanization can be a predominant issue in some areas of the developing world. We investigated land use in the highly urbanized tropical State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We collected total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and inorganic nutrient data from 35 independent watersheds distributed across the State and characterized land use at a riparian and entire watershed scales upstream from each sample station, using ArcGIS...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371747/nitrogen-source-inventory-and-loading-tool-an-integrated-approach-toward-restoration-of-water-quality-impaired-karst-springs
#12
Kirstin T Eller, Brian G Katz
Nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources has contaminated groundwater used as drinking water in addition to impairing water quality and ecosystem health of karst springs. The Nitrogen Source Inventory and Loading Tool (NSILT) was developed as an ArcGIS and spreadsheet-based approach that provides spatial estimates of current nitrogen (N) inputs to the land surface and loads to groundwater from nonpoint and point sources within the groundwater contributing area. The NSILT involves a three-step approach where local and regional land use practices and N sources are evaluated to: (1) estimate N input to the land surface, (2) quantify subsurface environmental attenuation, and (3) assess regional recharge to the aquifer...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301877/using-landscape-habitat-associations-to-prioritize-areas-of-conservation-action-for-terrestrial-birds
#13
Tyler M Harms, Kevin T Murphy, Xiaodan Lyu, Shane S Patterson, Karen E Kinkead, Stephen J Dinsmore, Paul W Frese
Predicting species distributions has long been a valuable tool to plan and focus efforts for biodiversity conservation, particularly because such an approach allows researchers and managers to evaluate species distribution changes in response to various threats. Utilizing data from a long-term monitoring program and land cover data sets, we modeled the probability of occupancy and colonization for 38 bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the robust design occupancy modeling framework, and used results from the best models to predict occupancy and colonization on the Iowa landscape...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271670/nest-survival-rate-of-reeves-s-pheasant-syrmaticus-reevesii-based-on-artificial-nest-experiments
#14
Xu Luo, Yu-Ze Zhao, Jing Ma, Jian-Qiang Li, Ji-Liang Xu
To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant(Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve(DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites by ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Program MARK for data analysis...
January 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258753/spatial-and-temporal-evolution-of-climatic-factors-and-its-impacts-on-potential-evapotranspiration-in-loess-plateau-of-northern-shaanxi-china
#15
C Li, P T Wu, X L Li, T W Zhou, S K Sun, Y B Wang, X B Luan, X Yu
Agriculture is very sensitive to climate change, and correct forecasting of climate change is a great help to accurate allocation of irrigation water. The use of irrigation water is influenced by crop water demand and precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration (ET0) is a measure of the ability of the atmosphere to remove water from the surface through the processes of evaporation and transpiration, assuming no control on water supply. It plays an important role in assessing crop water requirements, regional dry-wet conditions, and other factors of water resource management...
March 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257402/poorly-controlled-diabetes-in-new-york-city-mapping-high-density-neighborhoods
#16
Winfred Y Wu, Qun Jiang, Steve S Di Lonardo
OBJECTIVE: To identify geographic areas in New York City (NYC) for implementing programming focused on reducing the burden attributed to poor glycemic control and improving the health of New Yorkers. DESIGN: We geocoded addresses of NYC residents in the NYC Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C) Registry with high (>9%) HbA1c test values from 2011 to 2013 on an NYC base map. The ArcGIS point density spatial analysis tool was applied to create a map of NYC residents with diabetes in poor glycemic control...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221822/clinical-characteristics-and-spatial-distribution-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-children-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-an-emerging-focus-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazil
#17
Patricia Rodrigues Naufal Spir, Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro, Elivelton Silva Fonseca, Aline Dayse, Rogério Giuffrida, Lourdes Aparecida Zampieri D'Andrea
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonosis, and Brazil harbors about 90% of those infected in Latin America. Since 1998, the disease has been spreading quickly in São Paulo state, and the western region is considered an emerging focus of VL in Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and spatial distribution of VL in children referred to a public tertiary hospital located in the western region of São Paulo state, Brazil. METHODS: Medical records of children up to 18 years of age who were diagnosed with VL between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed...
March 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169978/analysis-of-patient-visits-and-collections-after-opening-a-satellite-pediatric-emergency-department
#18
Katherine M Nichols, Kerry Caperell, Keith Cross, Scott Duncan, Ben Foster, Gil Liu, Hank Pritchard, Gary Southard, Ben Shinabery, Brad Sutton, In K Kim
OBJECTIVE: Satellite pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) have emerged as a strategy to increase patient capacity. We sought to determine the impact on patient visits, physician fee collections, and value of emergency department (ED) time at the primary PED after opening a nearby satellite PED. We also illustrate the spatial distribution of patient demographics and overlapping catchment areas for the primary and satellite PEDs using geographical information system. METHODS: A structured, financial retrospective review was conducted...
February 4, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146171/urban-transmission-of-schistosomiasis-new-epidemiological-situation-in-the-forest-area-of-pernambuco
#19
Elainne Christine de Souza Gomes, Millena Carla da Silva Mesquita, Vitorina Nerivânia Covello Rehn, Wheverton Ricardo Correia do Nascimento, Rodrigo Loyo, Constança Simões Barbosa
Introduction: Schistosomiasis is considered an endemic disease in Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, a district which has presented both high incidence and prevalence of it for decades. Poor environmental conditions lead to contamination of water sources in rural areas, which are used by the population during daily activities, resulting in typical transmission. Recently, there has been evidence of vector snails in urban areas, which could set a new model for schistosomiasis transmission in this district...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103294/community-based-entomological-surveillance-reveals-urban-foci-of-chagas-disease-vectors-in-sobral-state-of-cear%C3%A3-northeastern-brazil
#20
Cynara Carvalho Parente, Fernando S M Bezerra, Plutarco I Parente, Raimundo V Dias-Neto, Samanta C C Xavier, Alberto N Ramos, Filipe A Carvalho-Costa, Marli M Lima
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to explore the potential risk of vector-borne Chagas disease in urban districts in northeastern Brazil, by analyzing the spatiotemporal distributions and natural infection rates with Trypanosoma cruzi of triatomine species captured in recent years. The main motivation of this work was an acute human case of Chagas disease reported in 2008 in the municipality of Sobral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from community-based entomological surveillance carried out from 2010 to 2014...
2017: PloS One
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