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Nutrition , sepsis , ards ,mechanical ventilation, hemodynamics

A Dushianthan, M P W Grocott, A D Postle, R Cusack
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life threatening respiratory failure due to lung injury from a variety of precipitants. Pathologically ARDS is characterised by diffuse alveolar damage, alveolar capillary leakage, and protein rich pulmonary oedema leading to the clinical manifestation of poor lung compliance, severe hypoxaemia, and bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph. Several aetiological factors associated with the development of ARDS are identified with sepsis, pneumonia, and trauma with multiple transfusions accounting for most cases...
September 2011: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Stephanie Eaton, Greg Martin
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is characterised by capillary permeability and pulmonary oedema formation and may complicate a variety of medical and surgical illnesses. As a self-perpetuating state of inflammatory derangement, acute lung injury (ALI)/ARDS is manifest clinically as rapid development of radiographic infiltrates, severe hypoxaemia and reduced lung compliance. Over the years, researchers have made significant progress in elucidating the pathophysiology of this complex syndrome. Therapies targeting specific pathophysiologic steps in the development or persistence of this syndrome are in various stages of laboratory and clinical testing...
January 2002: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
W C Shoemaker
Physiologic changes that lead to the development of ARDS begin with the precipitating shock syndrome. Hypovolemia, pulmonary vasoconstriction, reduced myocardial performance, and diminished O2 transport typically precede the development of clinical ARDS after hemorrhage, trauma, postoperative conditions, and sepsis. Since shock lung is a complication of shock, it is not surprising that the antecedent clinical and physiologic events that characterize the shock state may be determinants of both the genesis and the outcome of ARDS...
August 1985: Surgical Clinics of North America
H M Hollingsworth, R S Irwin
Acute respiratory failure in pregnancy is an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Causes include: ARDS, venous air embolism, beta-adrenergic tocolytic therapy, asthma, thromboembolic disease, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. The most common predisposing diseases for ARDS complicating pregnancy are sepsis, pneumonia, aspiration of gastric contents, and amniotic fluid embolism. Knowledge of normal maternal-fetal physiology and determinants of fetal oxygen delivery (uterine blood flow, placental transfer, fetal circulation) can help sustain normal fetal development, usually without compromising maternal care...
December 1992: Clinics in Chest Medicine
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