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Cancer treatment

Richard J Cassidy, Yuan Liu, Kirtesh Patel, Jim Zhong, Conor E Steuer, David A Kooby, Maria C Russell, Theresa W Gillespie, Jerome C Landry
BACKGROUND: Stage II and III rectal cancers have been effectively treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by definitive resection. Advancements in surgical technique and systemic therapy have prompted investigation of neoadjuvant multiagent chemotherapy (NMAC) regimens with the elimination of radiation (RT). The objective of the current study was to investigate factors that predict for the use of NCRT versus NMAC and compare outcomes using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) for select stage II and III rectal cancers...
October 25, 2016: Cancer
Hui Zhao, Nainan Hei, Yiling Wu, Winston Chan, Xiudong Lei, Carrie Cameron, Shine Chang, Mariana Chavez-MacGregor, Sharon H Giordano
BACKGROUND: The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B35 and International Breast Cancer Intervention Studies II Ductal Carcinoma In Situ trials showed similar treatment effects of anastrozole and tamoxifen in reducing cancer recurrence risk among ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients. Studies have shown low levels of hormone therapy drug initiation for DCIS patients, but the current body of literature lacks information on the 5-year adherence rates for these drugs from population-based studies...
October 25, 2016: Cancer
Meijun Song, Hongcheng Wu, Shibo Wu, Ting Ge, Guoan Wang, Yingyan Zhou, Shimo Sheng, Jingbo Jiang
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and its clinical management remains challenge. Here, we repurposed antibiotic levofloxacin for lung cancer treatment. We show that levofloxacin is effectively against a panel of lung cancer cell lines via inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis, regardless of cellular origin and genetic pattern, in in vitro cell culture system and in vivo xenograft lung tumor model. Mechanistically, levofloxacin inhibits activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I and III, leading to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and reduction of ATP production...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Li Chen, Liang Luo, Wei Chen, Hong-Xu Xu, Fan Chen, Lian-Zhou Chen, Wen-Tao Zeng, Jing-Song Chen, Xiao-Hui Huang
MicroRNA-24 (miR-24), a member of the miRNA family, functions as an oncogene in various types of human cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-24 involvement in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poorly understood. The present study revealed that miRNA-24 down-regulates p53 through binding to the 3'-UTR of p53 mRNA based on a luciferase reporter assay, and that the expression level of miR-24 could affect the invasion of HCC lines via p53. Down-regulation of p53 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of miR-24 knockdown on the invasion of HCC cells, suggesting that miR-24 could be a potential target for HCC treatment...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Juan Yang, Guiyuan Li, Keqiang Zhang
Apoptotic signaling provoked by death receptors, DR4 and DR5, are generally considered to promote cell death and chemosensitivity in multiple cancers, but this view is being thrown into doubt with recent findings that up-regulated DR4 and DR5 in advanced stages of ovarian cancer are associated with the poor prognosis. For this conflict, two reasonable explanations have been proposed: one is that DR4 and DR5 not exclusively mediate apoptotic pathway, but also favor survival signal; another is that apoptotic signals by DR4 and DR5 are disrupted by some regulators...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Joby Jose, A T Dhanya, Karickal R Haridas, T M Sumesh Kumar, Sony Jayaraman, E Jayadevi Variyar, Sudheesh Sudhakaran
The study was initiated to determine the anticancer activity of a novel compound isolated from the plant Mimosa pudica. The structure of the compound was identified as a derivative of myricetin having alkyl, hydroxy alkyl and methyl substitutions on the basis of spectral evidences (UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and Mass spectra). The isolated compound was interpreted as 2-(2',6'-dimethyl-3',4',5'-alkyl or hydroxy alkyl substituted phenyl)-3-oxy-(alkyl or hydoxy alkyl)- 5,7-dihydroxy-chromen-4-one. In vitro evaluation of anticancer activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and human erythroleukemic cell line (K562) were conducted using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Saranya Satitmanwiwat, Chinarat Changsangfa, Anuson Khanuengthong, Kornkanok Promthep, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Teerakul Arpornsuwan, Kulnasan Saikhun, Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the induction of apoptosis of human oral cancer cells by the scorpion venom peptide BmKn2. METHODS: Human oral squamous carcinoma cells (HSC4), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB), human normal gingival cells (HGC) and dental pulp cells (DPC) were treated with BmKn-2 peptide for 24h. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using phase contrast microscopy, by propidium iodide (PI) staining to assess nuclear morphology and by Annexin V staining...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
David Santos, Yi-Ju Chiang, Brian Badgwell
Appendectomy is standard of care for uncomplicated appendicitis, but cancer patients may not be optimal surgical candidates. Interval appendectomy is controversial, and appendiceal malignancy is rare. Study objectives were to review the role of surgery, observation, and interventional radiology (IR)-guided drainage in patients with appendicitis and advanced malignancy. Retrospective review was performed on cancer patients presenting to a tertiary academic cancer center from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2014...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Jason Ostenson, Akshat C Pujara, Artem Mikheev, Linda Moy, Sungheon G Kim, Amy N Melsaether, Komal Jhaveri, Sylvia Adams, David Faul, Christopher Glielmi, Christian Geppert, Thorsten Feiweier, Kimberly Jackson, Gene Y Cho, Fernando E Boada, Eric E Sigmund
PURPOSE: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18) F-FDG-PET) independently correlate with malignancy in breast cancer, but the relationship between their structural and metabolic metrics is not completely understood. This study spatially correlates diffusion, perfusion, and glucose avidity in breast cancer with simultaneous PET/MR imaging and compares correlations with clinical prognostics. METHODS: In this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant prospective study, with written informed consent and approval of the institutional review board and using simultaneously acquired FDG-PET and DWI, tissue diffusion (Dt ), and perfusion fraction (fp ) from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) analysis were registered to FDG-PET within 14 locally advanced breast cancers...
October 25, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Xiao-Feng Tian, Guo-Min Huang, Hong-Liang Zang, Hong Cao
Previous studies have demonstrated the overexpression of paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4) mRNA in prostate cancer tissues. This overexpression is correlated with higher circulating protein levels in certain patients, however, the role of PACE4 in apoptosis and the potential molecular mechanisms of pancreatic cancer remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and potential molecular mechanisms of PACE4 on apoptosis in the Panc‑1 pancreatic cancer cell line...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Qiang Fu, Jing Cheng, Jindai Zhang, Yonglei Zhang, Xiaobing Chen, Jianguo Xie, Suxia Luo
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been reported to participate in CRC progression. In the present study, we observed downregulation of miR-218 and upregulation of YEATS domain containing 4 (YEATS4) in CRC tissues and in multidrug-resistant HCT-116/L-OHP cells compared with these levels in normal tissues and parental HCT-116 cells, respectively. The results indicated that miR-218 overexpression significantly decreased the IC50 value of oxaliplatin (L-OHP) in the HCT-116/L-OHP cells, and suppression of miR-218 significantly enhanced the IC50 of L-OHP in the HCT-116 cells...
October 21, 2016: Oncology Reports
Wei Zhao, Xiaohui Zhang, Jia Liu, Bei Sun, Hua Tang, Hong Zhang
Metformin was demonstrated to have effects on breast cancer, and microRNA-27a (miR-27a) is a prognostic marker for breast cancer progression and patient survival. AMPKα2 was found to be a suppressor in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Therefore, the present study aimed to explain this phenomenon in regards to the relationship between microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes and to predict how AMPKα2 may be a downstream target gene of miR-27a, thus exploring the new mechanism of metformin in the treatment of breast cancer regarding miRNAs...
October 24, 2016: Oncology Reports
Xinmin Zhao, Xianghua Wu, Wen Yu, Xuwei Cai, Qi Liu, Xiaolong Fu, Zhebin Liu, Dali Hu, Shiyun Pan, Qiling Huang
The present study examined the potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-mannose sensitive hemagglutinin (PA-MSHA) to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in non‑small‑cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. It also investigated its mechanisms of action in different genotypes of human NSCLC. A total of three NSCLC cell lines, PC‑9, A549, and NCI‑H1975, were treated with PA‑MSHA at different concentrations. The anti‑proliferative effect of PA‑MSHA was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Hong-Xia Cui, Honglan Wang, Yuchun Wang, Juan Song, Hua Tian, Chunhui Xia, Yetong Shen
Changes in the carbohydrate structure on the surface of tumor cells is an important feature of cancer metastasis. The specific role of sialic acids in the glycoconjugate terminal has not yet been clearly elucidated in these processes. Previously, we reported that α2,3-sialic acid residues in breast cancer are associated with metastatic potential. The α2,3-sialyltransferase ST3Gal III, which adds α2,3-sialic acids to glycoproteins, is overexpressed in various tumors, and enzyme activity is correlated with tumor metastasis, yet its mechanistic role has not been fully evaluated...
October 18, 2016: Oncology Reports
Mingjiang Liu, He Xiusheng, Xiangjun Xiao, Yichun Wang
Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignant tumor that is mesenchymal in origin with a very low 5-year survival rate, particularly in the patients with locally advanced or metastatic tumors and recurrent disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in essential biological processes as cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in normal or cancer cells, including OS cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-422a in OS. We demonstrated that miR-422a expression was significantly downregulated in OS tissues and cell lines compared with the normal controls...
October 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Xi Chen, Qi Li, Xiao-Xi Kan, Ya-Jie Wang, Yu-Jie Li, Qing Yang, Hong-Bin Xiao, Ying Chen, Xiao-Gang Weng, Wei-Yan Cai, Xiao-Xin Zhu
Metastasis of breast cancer is the vital step for malignant progression. During such a process, hematogenous metastasis is an indispensable approach for the dissemination of cancer cells. A platelet, contributes to hypercoagulable state, and is also identified the crucial factor in the coagulation system for supporting metastasis. Therefore, the relationship of a platelet and a tumor cell plays a critical role in tumor cell metastasis. Consequently, inhibiting tumor cell‑induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) is recongnized as a crucial target on suppression of tumor metastasis such as aspirin (ASA)...
October 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Chun-Hao Li, Sa-Hoe Lim, Hyang-Hwa Ryu, Kyung-Sub Moon, Tae-Young Jung, Shin Jung
Stereotactic radiosurgery has been recognized as an effective treatment approach for metastatic brain tumors. By increasing the sensitivity of the tumor to radiation and decreasing the marginal dose, it is possible to improve therapeutic efficacy and decrease side-effects. In radiation-induced cells, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling mediates the phosphorylation of H2AX, which indicates DNA damage sensitivity and modulates the effect of radiation. Lewis lung cancer (LLC) and breast cancer (4T1) cells were irradiated with a Gamma Knife in cell culture tubes...
October 25, 2016: Oncology Reports
Jiaqi Yao, Chi Ma, Wei Gao, Jinxiao Liang, Chang Liu, Hongfang Yang, Qiu Yan, Qingping Wen
Cancer pain is the most common complication of lung carcinoma. Opioid agonist fentanyl is widely used for relieving pain in cancer patients, and cisplatin (DDP)‑based chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of advanced lung cancer; these two drugs are always used together in lung carcinoma patients. However, the mechanisms and related biological pathways by which fentanyl influences cisplatin sensitivity are relatively poorly reported. Here, we found that fentanyl reduces the sensitivity of cisplatin in human lung cancer cells and induces autophagy...
October 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Hua-Qiang Zhu, Jin-Ben Ma, Xie Song, Heng-Jun Gao, Chao-Qun Ma, Hong Chang, Hong-Guang Li, Fang-Feng Liu, Jun Lu, Xu Zhou
Metformin, an oral biguanide drug used to treat type 2 diabetes, has displayed anticancer activities in several types of cancer cells. The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin is the standard chemotherapy regimen for cholangiocarcinoma, but its benefit is limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether metformin could enhance the activities of gemcitabine and cisplatin against cholangiocarcinoma, and the underlying mechanisms. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of human cholangiocarcinoma RBE and HCCC-9810 cells and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase by increasing the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways...
October 20, 2016: Oncology Reports
Hiroko Kitahara, Mariko Hirai, Koroku Kato, George Bou-Gharios, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Shuichi Kawashiri
Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling has emerged as a new treatment strategy for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Previously, we found that loss of EGFR expression in OSCC was associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and may have functional implications with regard to resistance to cetuximab, a monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. Eribulin (a microtubule inhibitor) reportedly renders breast cancer less aggressive, and less likely to metastasise, by triggering mesenchymal‑to‑epithelial (MET) transition...
October 21, 2016: Oncology Reports
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