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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772472/postintroduction-study-of-cost-effectiveness-of-pneumococcal-vaccine-pcv10-from-public-sector-payer-s-perspective-in-the-state-of-santa-catarina-brazil
#1
Emil Kupek, Ilse Viertel
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cost effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the routine immunization program for children younger than 5 years in Brazil by a postintroduction study. METHODS: Ecological study of prevaccine (2006-2009) versus postvaccine (2011-2014) period related the changes in mortality rate and hospitalization rate to direct cost of pneumonia treatment from the payer's perspective to estimate the cost effectiveness regarding lives saved, life-years gained, and disability-adjusted life-year for children younger than 5 years in the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina...
May 14, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771465/universal-pneumococcal-vaccination-provides-marked-indirect-beneficial-effects-through-herd-immunity
#2
EDITORIAL
Matti Korppi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770078/evaluating-the-timeliness-of-reporting-in-a-first-nations-communicable-diseases-program
#3
A Lam, S Woods, N Ndubuka
Background: Timely reporting of communicable diseases is necessary to enable a prompt response to mitigate and control outbreaks. This is especially true among First Nations communities due to a number of factors, including unique social determinants of health, which can contribute to rapid disease transmission. Objective: To assess the timeliness of reporting for 12 notifiable communicable diseases in the Northern Inter-Tribal Health Authority, which includes 33 First Nations on-reserve communities in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, and to assess whether there were differences in reporting times depending on degree of remoteness of community, season or year...
June 1, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769380/pneumococcal-metabolic-adaptation-and-colonization-are-regulated-by-the-two-component-regulatory-system-08
#4
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Stephanie Hirschmann, Viktor Kluger, Hermann Rath, Sebastian Böhm, Franziska Voss, Niamatullah Kakar, Lothar Petruschka, Uwe Völker, Reinhold Brückner, Ulrike Mäder, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae two-component regulatory systems (TCS) enable adaptation and ensure its maintenance in host environments. This study deciphers the impact of TCS08 on pneumococcal gene expression and its role in metabolic and pathophysiological processes. Transcriptome analysis and real-time PCR demonstrated a regulatory effect of TCS08 on genes involved mainly in environmental information processing, intermediary metabolism, and colonization by S. pneumoniae D39 and TIGR4. Striking examples are genes for fatty acid biosynthesis, genes of the arginine deiminase system, and the psa operon encoding the manganese ABC transport system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769253/effectiveness-of-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-on-elderly-long-term-cancer-survivors-a-population-based-propensity-score-matched-cohort-study
#5
Wen-Yen Chiou, Moon-Sing Lee, Shih-Kai Hung, Hon-Yi Lin, Yuan-Chen Lo, Feng-Chun Hsu, Shiang-Jiun Tsai, Chung-Yi Li
OBJECTIVE: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in 2012 recommended the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for adults with high risk of pneumonia. However, its effectiveness in cancer survivors has not been investigated. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of PPSV23 in these patients. DESIGN: Population-based matched cohort study. SETTING: Claim data were obtained from 1 million people registered with the National Health Insurance Research Database in 1996, and followed to 2010...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769176/using-feeding-to-reduce-pain-during-vaccination-of-formula-fed-infants-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Netty G P Bos-Veneman, Marrit Otter, Sijmen A Reijneveld
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and potential side effects of formula feeding to reduce pain during vaccination among infants. STUDY DESIGN: In the setting of well-baby clinics we recruited a community-based sample of full-term born infants who were already formula fed by the choice of the parents (n=48, aged 4-10 weeks) and received their first DTaP-IPV-HepB-Hib and pneumococcal vaccinations and randomised them into two groups. To evaluate pain experienced during vaccination we compared infants who drank formula feeding before, during and after vaccination with infants who did not...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768458/burden-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-india-preliminary-data-from-a-hospital-based-sentinel-surveillance-network
#7
Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Girish Kumar Chethrapilly Purushothaman, Bharathy Sukumar, Boopathi Kangusamy, Ambujam Nair Kapoor, Nivedita Gupta, Sanjay Madhav Mehendale
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, acute bacterial meningitis is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality among under five children, particularly in settings where vaccination for H. influenzae type b, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis is yet to be introduced in the national immunization programs. Estimation of disease burden of bacterial meningitis associated with these pathogens can guide the policy makers to consider inclusion of these newer vaccines in the immunization programs. A network of hospital based sentinel surveillance was established to generate baseline data on the burden of bacterial meningitis among children aged less than 5 years in India and to provide a platform for impact assessment following introduction of the Pentavalent and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765775/potential-impact-of-introducing-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-into-national-immunisation-programmes-an-economic-epidemiological-analysis-using-data-from-india
#8
Itamar Megiddo, Eili Klein, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Pneumococcal pneumonia causes an estimated 105 000 child deaths in India annually. The planned introduction of the serotype-based pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is expected to avert child deaths, but the high cost of PCV relative to current vaccines provided under the Universal Immunization Programme has been a concern. Cost-effectiveness studies from high-income countries are not readily comparable because of differences in the distribution of prevalent serotypes, population and health systems. We extended IndiaSim, our agent-based simulation model representative of the Indian population and health system, to model the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765237/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates
#9
Fen Pan, Hong Zhang, Xiaoyan Dong, Weixing Ye, Ping He, Shulin Zhang, Jeff Xianchao Zhu, Nanbert Zhong
Introduction: Multidrug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has emerged as a serious problem to public health. A further understanding of the genetic diversity in antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates is needed. Methods: We conducted whole-genome resequencing for 25 pneumococcal strains isolated from children with different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Comparative analysis focus on detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (indels) was conducted...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764945/a-mechanism-of-unidirectional-transformation-leading-to-antibiotic-resistance-occurs-within-nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-biofilm-consortia
#10
Santiago M Lattar, Xueqing Wu, Jennifer Brophy, Fuminori Sakai, Keith P Klugman, Jorge E Vidal
Streptococcus pneumoniae acquires genes for resistance to antibiotics such as streptomycin (Str) or trimethoprim (Tmp) by recombination via transformation of DNA released by other pneumococci and closely related species. Using naturally transformable pneumococci, including strain D39 serotype 2 (S2) and TIGR4 (S4), we studied whether pneumococcal nasopharyngeal transformation was symmetrical, asymmetrical, or unidirectional. Incubation of S2Tet and S4Str in a bioreactor simulating the human nasopharynx led to the generation of SpnTet/Str recombinants...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764936/attachment-of-phosphorylcholine-residues-to-pneumococcal-teichoic-acids-and-modification-of-substitution-patterns-by-the-phosphorylcholine-esterase
#11
Franziska Waldow, Thomas P Kohler, Nathalie Heß, Dominik Schwudke, Sven Hammerschmidt, Nicolas Gisch
The bacterial lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has a unique nutritional requirement for exogenous choline and attaches phosphorylcholine ( P -Cho) residues to the Gal pN Ac moieties of its teichoic acids (TAs) in its cell wall. Two phosphorylcholine transferases, LicD1 and LicD2, mediate the attachment of P -Cho to the O -6 positions of the two Gal pN Ac residues present in each repeating unit of pneumococcal TAs (pnTAs), of which only LicD1 has been determined to be essential. At the molecular level, the specificity of the P -Cho attachment to pnTAs by LicD1 and LicD2 remains still elusive...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763263/effectiveness-of-pneumococcal-vaccines
#12
Marvin Sineath, Kristin McPhillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762678/using-statistical-anomaly-detection-models-to-find-clinical-decision-support-malfunctions
#13
Soumi Ray, Dustin S McEvoy, Skye Aaron, Thu-Trang Hickman, Adam Wright
Objective: Malfunctions in Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems occur due to a multitude of reasons, and often go unnoticed, leading to potentially poor outcomes. Our goal was to identify malfunctions within CDS systems. Methods: We evaluated 6 anomaly detection models: (1) Poisson Changepoint Model, (2) Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Model, (3) Hierarchical Divisive Changepoint (HDC) Model, (4) Bayesian Changepoint Model, (5) Seasonal Hybrid Extreme Studentized Deviate (SHESD) Model, and (6) E-Divisive with Median (EDM) Model and characterized their ability to find known anomalies...
May 11, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762363/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-in-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-germany-and-the-czech-republic
#14
Roman Prymula, Dorothee Kieninger, Emmanuel Feroldi, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Xavier DaCosta
BACKGROUND: To support a fully liquid, diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae b (PRP-T) vaccine in Europe using a 2, 3, 4 month primary series and a booster at 11 to 15 months of age. METHODS: Phase III, randomized, observer-blind studies in Germany and the Czech Republic. Participants who had not received HB vaccine were randomized to a 2, 3, 4 month primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (Group 1; N=266) or a reconstituted DTaPHB-IPV//PRP-T comparator (Group 2; N=263) and a booster of the same vaccine...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758059/divergent-humoral-responses-to-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-in-critically-ill-burn-and-neurosurgical-patients
#15
Scott W Mueller, Laura J Baumgartner, Rob MacLaren, Robert Neumann, Arek J Wiktor, Tyree H Kiser, Gordon Lindberg, Luis Cava, Douglas N Fish, Edward N Janoff
INTRODUCTION: Critically ill hospitalized patients are at increased risk of infection so we assessed the immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) administered within six days of injury. METHODS: This prospective observational study compared the immunogenicity of PPSV23 among critically ill burn and neurosurgical patients at a tertiary, academic medical center. Patients received PPSV23 vaccination within six days of ICU admission per standard of care...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757699/current-status-and-future-directions-of-invasive-pneumococcal-diseases-and-prophylactic-approaches-to-control-them
#16
Paeton L Wantuch, Fikri Y Avci
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human bacterial pathogen responsible for millions of deaths each year and significantly more illnesses worldwide. With over 90 different serotypes, providing effective vaccine programs has been a continuing challenge. Since 1983, the world has been introduced to four different pneumococcal vaccines (PPSV23, PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13) each with their own complications and successes. Since vaccination programs began, a decrease in the overall rate of pneumococcal pneumonia and associated diseases has been observed, notably in higher risk populations...
May 14, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757414/vaccination-coverage-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-german-long-term-study-lula-cohort
#17
Gamal Chehab, Jutta G Richter, Ralph Brinks, Rebecca Fischer-Betz, Borgi Winkler-Rohlfing, Matthias Schneider
Objectives: Vaccinations are an important measure to prevent infections in immunocompromised patients. The knowledge of vaccination coverage and reasons for non-vaccination in patients with SLE is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess coverage rates of selected vaccinations in a representative sample of SLE patients and to identify predictors for non-vaccination. Methods: In 2013, information on selected vaccinations (coverage, application and reservations) and on demographics, clinical parameters and health beliefs was assessed by means of a self-reported questionnaire among a representative sample of SLE patients in Germany (LuLa cohort)...
May 10, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757386/impact-of-vaccine-stock-outs-on-infant-vaccination-coverage-a-hospital-based-survey-from-south-africa
#18
Rosemary J Burnett, Gloria Mmoledi, Ntombenhle J Ngcobo, Carine Dochez, L Mapaseka Seheri, M Jeffrey Mphahlele
Introduction: National population-based immunization coverage surveys provide data for validating official administrative coverage figures. However, these costly and logistically challenging surveys are conducted infrequently. This hospital-based records review determined coverage of birth-dose vaccines, fully immunized under 1-y-old coverage (FIC) of 12- to 59-mo-old children; and the reasons for missed vaccinations. Methods: Rotavirus surveillance in South Africa is based on under-5-y-old children being treated for diarrhoea, and includes photocopying the official vaccination document and collecting data on reasons for missed vaccinations...
May 11, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755958/gut-microbiota-contributes-to-resistance-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-immunodeficient-rag-mice
#19
Krysta M Felix, Ivan A Jaimez, Thuy-Vi V Nguyen, Heqing Ma, Walid A Raslan, Christina N Klinger, Kristian P Doyle, Hsin-Jung J Wu
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes infection-related mortality worldwide. Immunocompromised individuals, including young children, the elderly, and those with immunodeficiency, are especially vulnerable, yet little is known regarding S. pneumoniae- related pathogenesis and protection in immunocompromised hosts. Recently, strong interest has emerged in the gut microbiota's impact on lung diseases, or the "gut-lung axis." However, the mechanisms of gut microbiota protection against gut-distal lung diseases like pneumonia remain unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755948/two-cases-of-acute-pneumococcal-purulent-arthritis
#20
Masafumi Seki, Bin Chang, Kengo Ohshima, Yuji Watanabe
We present two adult cases of pneumococcal severe arthritis one case with, and other case without pericarditis those occurred in one season. Both cases eventually recovered, and the isolated S. pneumoniae strains were serotype 12F and penicillin susceptible. The patients were not elderly and had no medical history including pneumonia and vaccination. Although S. pneumoniae is a relatively rare causative pathogen of arthritis and/or pericarditis recently, a greater number of cases may be expected as a result of serotype conversion due to the increased use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Japan...
2018: IDCases
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