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Saksham Gupta, Ivo S Muskens, Luis Bradley Fandino, Alexander F C Hulsbergen, Marike L D Broekman
BACKGROUND: Surgical innovation has advanced outcomes in the field, but carries inherent risk for surgeons and patients alike. Oversight mechanisms exist to support surgeon-innovators through difficulties associated with the innovation process. METHODS: A literature review of ethical risks and oversight mechanisms was conducted. RESULTS: Oversight mechanisms range from the historical concept of surgical exceptionalism to departmental, hospital, and centralized committees...
March 13, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Marianne Bracconi, Christian Hervé, Philippe Pirnay
In a world open to the movement of people, medical ethics is today associated with the area of loyal behavior of the practitioner and oriented in the patient's interest and accountability of each. The universal vision of respect for the dignity of the sick person progresses. Yet, many behaviours are sometimes illegitimate, but not in principle legally reprehensible. One of the main principles marking the observance of patient consent is based on the autonomy given to the patient to decide for himself what appears to be adapted to his or her care...
March 5, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Eva Jangland, Noeman Mirz, Tiffany Conroy, Clair Merriman, Emiko Suzui, Akiko Nishimura, Ann Ewens
AIM: To explore the accuracy with which nursing students can identify the fundamentals of care. BACKGROUND: A challenge facing nursing is ensuring the fundamentals of care are provided with compassion and in a timely manner. How students perceive the importance of the fundamentals of care may be influenced by the content and delivery of their nursing curriculum. Since the fundamentals of care play a vital role in ensuring patient safety and quality care, it is important to examine how nursing students identify these care needs...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Sebastian F Winter, Stefan F Winter
BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence that since the turn of the millennium German health policy made a considerable step towards prevention and health promotion, putting the strategies of 'personal empowerment' and 'settings based approach' high on the federal government's agenda. This phenomenon has challenged the role of ethics in health policy. Concurrently, increasing relevance of the Concept of Human Dignity for health and human rights has been discussed. However, a direct relationship between Human Dignity and Public Health Ethics (PHE) has surprisingly not yet been established...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Laura D Sobredo
Violence against women has gained public awareness in Argentina over the last few years. As any other social phenomena, gender violence is present in the work of psychiatrists, especially in the way they approach to clinical practice. International human rights' law enshrines the right of every women to live free from violence and to be treated with dignity and respect. This legal framework might nourish the practice of psychiatrists as a proposal for seeking cultural and social common grounds. The paper tries to get readers attention on the potentiality of this legal framework which ultimately, might in?uence not only everyday life but clinical practice as well...
July 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Yukihiko Washimi
In the Clinical Guidelines for Dementia 2017, the strategies to support persons with dementia and their families have increased significantly. This article provides a comprehensive and concise explanation of the importance of the newly launched systems and social resources. A new Five-Year Plan for promotion of Dementia Measures ("New Orange Plan") supports the realization of a society where persons with dementia are able to live with dignity as long as possible. New Medical Centers for Dementia provide specialized medical services and integrate community resources for building a comprehensive support network for persons with dementia...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Andrea Lavazza
There are many kinds of neural prostheses available or being researched today. In most cases they are intended to cure or improve the condition of patients affected by some cerebral deficiency. In other cases, their goal is to provide new means to maintain or improve an individual's normal performance. In all these circumstances, one of the possible risks is that of violating the privacy of brain contents (which partly coincide with mental contents) or of depriving individuals of full control over their thoughts (mental states), as the latter are at least partly detectable by new prosthetic technologies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sotiria Kostopoulou, Efi Parpa, Eleni Tsilika, Stylianos Katsaragakis, Irene Papazoglou, Anna Zygogianni, Antonis Galanos, Kyriaki Mystakidou
PURPOSE: The present study assesses the relationship between patient dignity in advanced cancer and the following variables: psychological distress, preparatory grief, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: The sample consisted of 120 patients with advanced cancer. The self-administered questionnaires were as follows: the Preparatory Grief in Advanced Cancer Patients (PGAC), the Patient Dignity Inventory-Greek (PDI-Gr), the Greek Schedule for Attitudes toward Hastened Death (G-SAHD), and the Greek version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (G-HADS)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Palliative Care
Mohamed Amine Mesrati, Nidhal Haj Salem, Marwa Boussaid, Yosra Mahjoub, Ali Chadly, Abir Aissaoui
The spread of the disease of HIV has been decreased since the promotion and protection of human rights. In Tunisian law, patient infected by HIV, as every citizen, enjoys of all his rights without any discrimination, including the right to life and dignity, the right to care access, the free choice of doctor, the right to be informed and consent before any health care and specially the right to medical confidentiality. The Code of patients rights and the law no° 2007-12 of 12 February 2007 supplementing the law no° 92-71 of 27 July 1992 related to transmitted diseases ensure the protection and the respect of these rights...
May 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
Reema Harrison, Merrilyn Walton, Patrick Kelly, Elizabeth Manias, Christine Jorm, Jennifer Smith-Merry, Rick Iedema, Karen Luxford, Amalie Dyda
Objective: Evidence of the patient experience of hospitalization is an essential component of health policy and service improvement but studies often lack a representative population sample or do not examine the influence of patient and hospital characteristics on experiences. We address these gaps by investigating the experiences of a large cohort of recently hospitalized patients aged 45 years and over in New South Wales (NSW), Australia who were identified using data linkage. Design: Cross-sectional survey...
March 1, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Chris Gilleard
Much of the literature on ageing is presaged upon a model of advocacy that seeks to combat what is seen as the negative stereotyping of old age and old people. One consequence is that ageing studies has difficulty in confronting the darker side of ageing except in so far as age associated disability and distress can be attributed to extrinsic disadvantage, such as low income, poor housing and inadequate services. The pain and suffering associated with age itself tend to be neglected as subject experiences. This paper seeks to shed some light on these topics, considered under the general heading of 'suffering'...
March 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
Tibor Mezei, Simona Mocan, Alina Ormenisan, Beáta Baróti, Alina Iacob
Salivary gland tumors are relatively rare neoplasms, mostly located in the parotid gland, and few are malignant. Preoperative evaluation of salivary gland tumors includes fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of FNAC in the evaluation of rare salivary gland neoplasms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four cases of rare salivary gland tumors were included, which were preoperatively assessed by clinical investigation, computed tomography, and FNAC...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
G Alevizopoulos, V Bozikas, C Touloumis
The use of physical and mechanical restraints in mental health services in Greece arise many ethical and practical issues. The justification of the use of such procedures is rather controversial and subjective to scientific debate. The practice of restraint puts both patients and staff at risk for injury and death. Moreover, restraints can be traumatic even when they do not result in any physical injury to the patient. The types of the physical adverse events include dehydration, suffocation, circulation disturbances, skin problems, loss of strength and mobility, incontinence, etc...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Pengbo Liu
This paper critically examines Barclay's conception of dignity proposed in her 'Dignitarian Medical Ethics'. According to Barclay, a subject S enjoys dignity if and only if S is reliably treated as having equal social status. I argue that Barclay's view faces a number of practical and theoretical problems. First, it is not obvious that failing to treat someone as a social equal is incompatible with respecting her dignity. Second, it is not always clear what treating someone as a social equal amounts to in practice...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Thilde Rheinländer, Margaret Gyapong, David Etsey Akpakli, Flemming Konradsen
Women and girls need proper sanitation and hygiene facilities to maintain health and dignity. In this study we show how schoolgirls from a peri-urban community of Ghana, experience severe multidimensional 'hygiene poverty' when attending schools. Hygiene poverty was characterized by poor water and sanitation infrastructures and serious social and emotional challenges, including shaming and disciplining of their sanitation and menstrual practices, which forces girls to apply secretive coping strategies. We discuss the importance of changing the negative MHM discourses at schools and fostering supportive teaching methods in adolescent female health...
February 27, 2018: Health Care for Women International
Atsushi Asai, Sakiko Masaki, Taketoshi Okita, Aya Enzo, Yasuhiro Kadooka
BACKGROUND: Destination therapy (DT) is the permanent implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in patients with end-stage, severe heart failure who are ineligible for heart transplantation. DT improves both the quality of life and prognosis of patients with end-stage heart failure. However, there are also downsides to DT such as life-threatening complications and the potential for the patient to live beyond their desired length of life following such major complications...
February 27, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Mary A Ott, Francis P Crawley, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Seth Owusu-Agyei, David Neubauer, Gary Dubin, Tatjana Poplazarova, Norman Begg, Susan L Rosenthal
Children of minor parents are under-represented in clinical trials. This is largely because of the ethical, legal, and regulatory complexities in the enrolment, consent, and appropriate access of children of minor parents to clinical research. Using a case-based approach, we examine appropriate access of children of minor parents in an international vaccine trial. We first consider the scientific justification for inclusion of children of minor parents in a vaccine trial. Laws and regulations governing consent generally do not address the issue of minor parents...
February 23, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Alistair Appleby, Philip Wilson, John Swinton
Guidance for medical staff reminds employees of the responsibility to deliver spiritual care in its broadest sense, respecting the dignity, humanity, individuality and diversity of the people whose cultures, faiths and beliefs coexist in society. This is no small or simple task, and although GPs (family practitioners) have been encouraged to deliver spiritual care, we suggest this is proving to be challenging and needs further careful debate. This literature review critiques and analyses existing studies and points to four categories of attitude to spiritual care, and two related but distinct concepts of spirituality in use by GPs...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Šárka Šaňáková, Juraj Čáp
INTRODUCTION: Dignity is one of the most important values sensitively perceived by patients in nursing care. Older patients have been identified as having a high risk of losing their dignity in institutional care. To promote optimum nursing care, a deeper insight into the problem of older patients' dignity is needed. AIM: The aim was to identify, analyse and synthesise the qualitative evidence of dignity views and factors affecting it from the nurses' and older patients' perspective in the context of nursing care and to compare synthesised finding from the both perspective...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Laurie Barkin
A nurse takes on a challenging new role at her ailing father's request.
March 2018: American Journal of Nursing
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